Science.gov

Sample records for advanced placement biology

  1. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    Four hundred sixty students in four public high schools were used as subjects to determine which of eleven academic and demographic factors studied were significant predictors of success for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination. Factors studied were attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the examination, grade point average, level of prerequisite biology course, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, proposed major in college, race, and SAT mathematics, verbal, and combined score. Significant relationships were found to exist between the Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, grade point average, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, race, and SAT scores. Significant relationships were not found to exist between Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and level prerequisite biology course and Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and proposed major in college. A multiple regression showed the best combination of predictors to be attendance, SAT verbal score, and SAT mathematics score. Discriminant analysis showed the variables in this study to be good predictors of whether the student would pass the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 3, 4, or 5) or fail the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 1 or 2). These results demonstrated that significant predictors for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination do exist and can be used to assist in the prediction of scores, prediction of passing or failing, the identification of

  2. A Study of the Advanced Placement Program in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckey, James H., Jr.

    Principals, teachers and students of 12 Memphis city high schools provided attitudinal data concerning the Advanced Placement Biology Program. Test score data were obtained from the students and compared to national norms for the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Tests and the Cooperative Test Battery in English and Biology. The program was strongly…

  3. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  4. Action Biology. Advanced Placement for the Second Year. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary Pitt

    This document provides biology experiments designed for students who have completed a first year biology course. This self contained laboratory booklet contains four sections. In section 1, "Instrumentation in the Study of Cells," discussion sections and suggestions for teacher demonstrations are provided. It also includes some basic materials…

  5. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD, ORGAN SYSTEMS, HEALTH, CONTINUANCE OF LIFE,…

  6. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  7. An analysis of the impact of three high school schedules on student achievement in advanced placement biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons-Polan, Bonnie

    This study examined the effect of three schedule types on student achievement in Advanced Placement Biology classes. AP Biology test scores from students on three types of full-year schedules were analyzed to assess the impact schedule type had on student achievement. The three schedules included the block and traditional schedules, and the rotating/hybrid, a blend of the former two schedules. The results indicated the variable most closely associated with success on the AP Biology exam was the length of experience the teachers had teaching the course, regardless of schedule type. Although significant differences were seen in mean AP Biology test scores among the three schedule types, this could be explained by the relationship between instructors' experience and schedule type. Regression analysis determined the two strongest predictors of successful performance on the AP Biology exam were instructors' experience and perceived teaching style, regardless of schedule type. It appears that the economically developed suburbs, had teachers with the largest amount of experience teaching AP Biology, and these teachers reported using a direct approach to teaching, using lecture greater than 50% of the time. The results of this study also suggest when restructuring to improve student achievement, educators should examine other variables in addition to the high school schedule. Restructuring the day to allow for longer classes must be accompanied by professional staff development to allow teachers to develop new teaching methods. Most of the teachers in the survey reported using lecture a great deal of the time, regardless of schedule type. Comments from the teachers from the various schedules revealed that the ability to add student centered, inquiry based activities and labs were dependent on adequate class time. No information on whether or not the teachers were given professional development to expand their repertoire of teaching methods when the school adopted a block

  8. Advanced Placement: Access Not Exclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne; Dorans, Neil J.; Morgan, Rick; Myford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the assertion by W. Lichten (2000) that increased access to advanced placement (AP) courses in high school has led to a decline in AP quality. Suggests that increased access exposes students to college-level course material, encourages teachers to expand their knowledge domains, increases curriculum rigor, and give students new challenges.…

  9. Advanced Placement Course Description. Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is a cooperative educational effort of secondary schools, colleges, and the College Board that consists of 30 college-level courses and examinations in 17 academic disciplines for highly motivated students in secondary schools. AP courses are offered in more than 11,000 high schools and are recognized by nearly…

  10. Advanced Placement: More than a Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Encourages music teachers to work with students interested in advanced placement (AP) music courses. Discusses the logistics and advantages of placing students in these courses. Describes the Advanced Placement Listening and Literature and the Advanced Placement Theory courses and examinations. Outlines the examination scoring method and looks at…

  11. Advanced Placement Courses and American Indian Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and performance on Advanced Placement examinations for American Indians in the U.S. for 2007 was analyzed. Scores on AP examinations, overall and then for five AP courses, were compared to the AP examination scores of White students. In every case, American Indians had AP examination scores that were…

  12. Advanced fiber placement of composite fuselage structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Grant, Carroll G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hercules/NASA Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program will demonstrate the low cost potential of the automated fiber placement process. The Hercules fiber placement machine was developed for cost effective production of composite aircraft structures. The process uses a low cost prepreg tow material form and achieves equivalent laminate properties to structures fabricated with prepreg tape layup. Fiber placement demonstrations planned for the Hercules/NASA program include fabrication of stiffened test panels which represent crown, keel, and window belt segments of a typical transport aircraft fuselage.

  13. Advanced Placement: Do Minorities Have Equal Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfenstein, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Black and Hispanic high school students enroll in Advanced Placement (AP) courses at approximately half the rate of white students. This paper develops a microeconomic model of the AP participation decision and finds that low income is the single most important factor behind the minority AP participation gap. In addition, minority students enroll…

  14. Literary Archetypes. Advanced Placement English Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Providing students with the opportunity to earn college credit while still in high school, the Advanced Placement English course described in this guide is designed to help students (1) want to choose from a wide range of literature for independent reading; (2) develop a critical awareness about literature; (3) recognize connections among works of…

  15. Advanced Placement Economics. Macroeconomics: Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book is designed to help advanced placement students better understand macroeconomic concepts through various activities. The book contains 6 units with 64 activities, sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units are entitled: (1) "Basic Economic Concepts"; (2) "Measuring Economic…

  16. Advanced Placement Economics. Microeconomics: Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book is designed to help advanced placement students better understand microeconomic concepts through various activities. The book contains 5 units with 73 activities, sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units are entitled: (1) "The Basic Economic Problem"; (2) "The Nature and…

  17. Advanced Placement Economics. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book, in conjunction with the student activities books for macroeconomics and microeconomics, is designed for teaching the Advanced Placement Economics course. The book contains five units for the microeconomic portion and six units for the macroeconomic portion of the text. Along with the many activities are sample multiple-choice questions,…

  18. Introduction. Teaching Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Alexander B.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of "Journal of Geography" focusing on the teaching of Advanced Placement (AP) human geography. States that essays were developed by members of the AP Human Geography Development Committee focusing on areas in the human geography course outline which are included in the appendix. (CMK)

  19. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  20. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  1. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  2. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  3. Advanced tow placement of composite fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Grant, Carroll G.

    1992-01-01

    The Hercules NASA ACT program was established to demonstrate and validate the low cost potential of the automated tow placement process for fabrication of aircraft primary structures. The program is currently being conducted as a cooperative program in collaboration with the Boeing ATCAS Program. The Hercules advanced tow placement process has been in development since 1982 and was developed specifically for composite aircraft structures. The second generation machine, now in operation at Hercules, is a production-ready machine that uses a low cost prepreg tow material form to produce structures with laminate properties equivalent to prepreg tape layup. Current program activities are focused on demonstration of the automated tow placement process for fabrication of subsonic transport aircraft fuselage crown quadrants. We are working with Boeing Commercial Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft during this phase of the program. The Douglas demonstration panels has co-cured skin/stringers, and the Boeing demonstration panel is an intricately bonded part with co-cured skin/stringers and co-bonded frames. Other aircraft structures that were evaluated for the automated tow placement process include engine nacelle components, fuselage pressure bulkheads, and fuselage tail cones. Because of the cylindrical shape of these structures, multiple parts can be fabricated on one two placement tool, thus reducing the cost per pound of the finished part.

  4. Payment of Advanced Placement Exam Fees by Virginia Public School Divisions and Its Impact on Advanced Placement Enrollment and Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Mary Grupe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Virginia school divisions' policy of paying the fee for students to take Advanced Placement exams on Advanced Placement course enrollment, the number of Advanced Placement exams taken by students, the average scores earned and the percent of students earning qualifying scores of 3, 4, or 5…

  5. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  6. Vista School District Digital Intranet: The Delivery of Advanced Placement Courses to Young Adult Learners in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, David; Stevens, Ken; Boone, Wilbert; Barry, Maurice

    In partnership with the Memorial University of Newfoundland, the Vista School District, 1 of 10 districts in Newfoundland, Canada, established the Vista School District Digital Intranet (VSDDI) to deliver Web-based advanced placement courses to rural students. Advanced placement mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry courses are delivered…

  7. A Closer Look at an Advanced Placement Calculus Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1985-01-01

    Answers and justifications for an interesting problem on the Advanced Placement Calculus AB Examination are discussed. The problem provides diverse ways in which students can gain appreciation and understanding for the subject. (MNS)

  8. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  9. African American Educators' Perspectives on the Advanced Placement Opportunity Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Jocelyn DeVance; DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines perspectives of educators on the advanced placement opportunity gap for African American students. Using interviews with 11 educators from 10 high schools, we explored their perceptions regarding the impact of a local academic achievement program on the enrollment of African American students in honors and advanced placement…

  10. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  11. Advanced Placement Economics Improves Both Merit and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Sally; Morton, John

    2009-01-01

    In 1989, microeconomics and macroeconomics examinations debuted on the Advanced Placement (AP) scene. At that time, many professors of economics were skeptical that college freshmen had the skills and maturity to understand the concepts in principles of economics courses. They thought teaching these concepts to high school students was even more…

  12. Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Adrian J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

  13. Advanced Placement Course Enrollment and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; McGaha-Garnett, Valerie; Burley, Hansel

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as a function of these school characteristics (e.g., percentage of ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic status) and then examined AP course enrollment as a function of both access to AP courses and these school characteristics. Using structural equation modeling techniques,…

  14. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  15. Advanced Placement Human Geography: The First Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Paul T., Jr.; Hidlebrant, Barbara S.; Strauss, Tim R.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Placement Human Geography (APHG) has grown steadily from 3,272 tests at the first test administration in 2001 to 14,139 tests in 2005. This paper examines the dynamics of growth throughout the United States through numbers of students and numbers of high schools involved in the program. APHG is discussed relative to the establishment of…

  16. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...: On September 1, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 53681) a notice inviting... in the September 1, 2010 notice (75 FR 53682-53683). We encourage eligible applicants to submit their... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education...

  17. Advanced Placement Computer Science with Pascal. Volume 2. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide presents 100 lessons for an advanced placement course on programming in Pascal. Some of the topics covered include arrays, sorting, strings, sets, records, computers in society, files, stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees, searching, hashing, and chaining. Performance objectives, vocabulary, motivation, aim,…

  18. Surviving a Midlife Crisis: Advanced Placement Turns Fifty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In 1956, 1,220 college-bound juniors and seniors in 104 American high schools took the first Advanced Placement (AP) exams conducted by the Educational Testing Service for the College Board. The AP program was unabashedly elitist and designed to fortify the education of the nation's future leaders in anticipation of Cold War national security…

  19. Gifted Spanish Speaking English Learners' Participation in Advanced Placement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Luz Adriana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…

  20. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  1. Beginning an Advanced Placement Music Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, William; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board has prepared this publication to help secondary school teachers develop Advanced Placement (AP) courses in music. The discussion of strategy recommendations, reading materials, and record collections should be adapted to suit local preferences and individual skills. An opening section of general remarks…

  2. Amityville Memorial High School History Journal Advance Placement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F., Ed.

    The history of Amityville, New York, compiled by 11th and 12th grade advance placement history students, is presented in journal form. Six papers focus on: (1) South Oaks: The Long Island Home; (2) A History of Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Amityville; (3) Amityville: A Vacationland; (4) Amityville School System from 1904 to Present;…

  3. Teaching Melodic Dictation in Advanced Placement Music Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paney, Andrew S.; Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study approaches to teaching melodic dictation skills used by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers were examined. Twelve high school teachers from four states were interviewed. Four themes emerged from the interview transcripts: cognitive frameworks, processing strategies, rhythm, and course design. Participants generally…

  4. An Examination of Perceptions Associated with Enrollment Procedures and Students Placement in Advanced Placement Courses in Northeast Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidrine, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate participation rates of minorities and economically disadvantaged students in Advanced Placement programs in selected high schools in Northeast Louisiana. Advanced Placement programs in high schools generally promote higher level education courses. The focus of the investigation was perceptions held by…

  5. Advanced Placement Report to the Nation, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2007

    2007-01-01

    American educators are achieving much success in their efforts to enable a wider and more diverse group of U.S. students than ever before to succeed in college-level studies in high school. Yet individuals must also gaze clear-eyed at the inequities that remain and the challenges that accompany success in expanding access to the Advanced Placement…

  6. Advanced Placement Programs and Economics. Including a Case Study: Formulating an Advanced Placement Program in Economics in Orange County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, James Walter

    In Spring 1967, the "Leadership Group of High School Teachers of Economics" in Orange County, California, expressed interest in developing an Advanced Placement Program (APP) in Economics. They were concerned that students from the stronger secondary school economics programs would find introductory college economics repetitive. This concern…

  7. The Effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on Increasing Enrollment and Performance on Advanced Placement Science Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The…

  8. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  9. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

    Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

  10. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  11. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  12. Advancing Excellence in Urban Schools: A Report on Advanced Placement Examinations in the Great City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Caroline, Ed.

    This is the first comprehensive study to examine Advanced Placement (AP) course-taking patterns and subject test results in the nation's urban schools. This study investigates both Great City Schools' (GCS) AP scores and scores for a national sample of test takers. The GCS data set includes 58 large urban public school districts. The primary…

  13. Block Scheduling and Advanced Placement Mathematics: When Tradition and Reform Collide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    This case study reflects block scheduling's effects on advanced-placement mathematics courses of one veteran teacher tracking personal progress since 1989. Block scheduling began in 1994, creating problems for the teacher, whose resistance to the reform was based on declining advanced-placement scores. Teacher attitude and insufficient…

  14. Gender Differences in Classroom Participation and Achievement: An Experiment Involving Advanced Placement Calculus Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite scoring lower on the mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT-M) prior to taking an advanced placement calculus course, female students (n=85) scored as well as males (n=51) on the Advanced Placement BC level calculus test. Predictors of AP scores were: first, scores on the Calculus Readiness Test; second, scores on the SAT-M; and…

  15. Policy to Practice: A Case Study of Advanced Placement Open Enrollment Programs in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlroy, Ann Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored Advanced Placement open enrollment programs in New Mexico in an attempt to identify mechanisms embedded within the implementation practices which possibly prevent the equitable enrollment of students of color. Advanced Placement (AP) courses have become a gate-keeper in competitive college admissions. Therefore, a study of…

  16. 77 FR 8848 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Advanced Placement Test.... Full Text of Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test...

  17. 78 FR 19691 - Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Advanced Placement Test... Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test Fee program awards grants...

  18. Progress in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate in SREB States. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Rebecca Daugherty

    2006-01-01

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states lead the nation in student participation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. SREB states know that getting students engaged in a challenging high school curriculum is the most important step they can take to promote college readiness. Advanced Placement (AP) courses and…

  19. Hispanic Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: A Multiyear, National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Teresa Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the Advanced Placement exams that Hispanic students complete and to compare their overall performance with the performance of White students from 2000 to 2012. A second purpose was to determine which Advanced Placement exams were the most difficult exams for Hispanic students and which Advanced…

  20. Exemplary Advanced Placement Programs: Comparing AP Test Scores by Subject and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, John

    This study compared performance of seniors at 21 Montgomery County (Maryland) high schools on the Advanced Placement (AP) Tests. The schools were ranked by the percentage of college-educated adults within the school boundaries, and the ranking was compared to Advanced Placement test results (the average number of students, per 100 seniors, who…

  1. Advanced Placement Academy: Case Study of a Program within a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Julie Dingle; Nagy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the first year of implementation of the Advanced Placement Academy (APA), a program within a high school providing honors and Advanced Placement coursework for high-ability African American students with previously limited access to rigorous courses. The qualitative investigation explores practical solutions from…

  2. Reported Usage and Perceived Value of Advanced Placement English Language and Composition Curricular Requirements by High School and College Assessors of the Essay Portion of the English Language and Composition Advanced Placement Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holifield-Scott, April

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which high school and college/university Advanced Placement English Language and Composition readers value and implement the curricular requirements of Advanced Placement English Language and Composition. The participants were 158 readers of the 2010 Advanced Placement English Language and…

  3. The Under-Utilization and Problems Associated with the Advanced Placement Program of Adult High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the low participation rate among high school students 18 years of age or older in Advanced Placement courses. The subjects in this study were 129 Advanced Placement Students and 129 non-Advanced Placement high school students 18 years of age or older in five high schools in two Louisiana parishes.…

  4. Advancing Prediction of Foster Placement Disruption Using Brief Behavioral Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Michael S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; DeGarmo, David; Zhang, Jinjin; Price, Joe M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral difficulties increase the risk that children will experience negative placement disruptions while in foster care. Chamberlain et al. (2006) found that the Parent Daily Report (PDR), a brief measure of parent-reported child behaviors, was a strong predictor of negative placement changes over 1 year among children receiving…

  5. A Mixed Methods Approach to Examining an Advanced Placement Program in One Connecticut Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docimo, Chelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this eleventh grade Advanced Placement (AP) program study was to determine factors associated with AP placement and subsequent student performance. This research was considered to be a mixed methods case study with elements of arrested action research. One hundred and twenty-four students, four guidance counselors, three AP…

  6. Advanced in In Situ Inspection of Automated Fiber Placement Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue. Keywords: Automated Fiber Placement, Manufacturing defects, Thermography

  7. What Do You Mean You Don't Do Advanced Placement?: Confessions of an Educational Heretic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2000-01-01

    Explains why Advanced Placement courses are not offered at Sandia Preparatory School, a college preparatory school located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Focuses on the school mission, overall philosophy, and how this relates to the history classroom in particular. (CMK)

  8. Using Data Mining to Explore Which Students Use Advanced Placement to Reduce Time to Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eykamp, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores how multiple approaches including data mining can help examine how the lengths of student enrollment are associated with varying numbers of advanced placement units. (Contains 3 tables and 5 figures.)

  9. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

    This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

  10. Advances in in situ inspection of automated fiber placement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-05-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue.

  11. Advances in Genome Biology & Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Albert, Jon R. Armstrong, Raymond K. Auerback, W. Brad Barbazuk, et al.

    2007-12-01

    This year's meeting focused on the latest advances in new DNA sequencing technologies and the applications of genomics to disease areas in biology and biomedicine. Daytime plenary sessions highlighted cutting-edge research in areas such as complex genetic diseases, comparative genomics, medical sequencing, massively parallel DNA sequencing, and synthetic biology. Technical approaches being developed and utilized in contemporary genomics research were presented during evening concurrent sessions. Also, as in previous years, poster sessions bridged the morning and afternoon plenary sessions. In addition, for the third year in a row, the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting was preceded by a pre-meeting workshop that aimed to provide an introductory overview for trainees and other meeting attendees. This year, speakers at the workshop focused on next-generation sequencing technologies, including their experiences, findings, and helpful advise for others contemplating using these platforms in their research. Speakers from genome centers and core sequencing facilities were featured and the workshop ended with a roundtable discussion, during which speakers fielded questions from the audience.

  12. Examining the Relationship of Content to Gender-Based Performance Differences in Advanced Placement Exams. Research Report No. 2002-12. ETS RR-02-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gary; Kostin, Irene; Morgan, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the content of the questions in a number of Advanced Placement Examinations and to attempt to identify content that is related to gender-based performance differences. Free-response questions for ten forms of the AP® Exams in U.S. History, European History, Biology, Microeconomics, and Macroeconomics were…

  13. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate: Do They Deserve Gold Star Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    For many people committed to strong academic standards, the "advanced" high school courses offered through the College Board's Advanced Placement program and, increasingly, the Diploma Programme of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) represent the curricular gold standard for secondary education. Admissions directors and professors…

  14. High Achievement on Advanced Placement Exams: The Relationship of School-Level Contextual Factors to Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify school- and district-level variables that relate to advanced academic achievement, as defined by the ratio of number of scores of 3, 4, or 5 on Advanced Placement exams to school enrollment. The study initially included 46 variables for 339 public high schools in one Midwestern state. Hierarchical linear…

  15. Predicting Advanced Placement Examination Success from FCAT Scores. Research Brief. Volume 0709

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Tirado, Arleti

    2008-01-01

    Advanced Placement courses are offered at M-DCPS for students to acquire college credit or advanced college academic standing. A system has been developed in the past by the College Board to use the PSAT for 10th grade students to estimate their potential for AP Examination success. The same test has recently been applied in this district to 9th…

  16. A Mixed Methods Study: African American Students' Performance Trends and Perceptions Towards Advanced Placement Literature Courses and Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buford, Brandie J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the perceptions of African American students pertaining to their engagement in Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition course and Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition examination. A purposive sampling design was employed to select 12 participants from one urban…

  17. The Influence of Advanced Placement Enrollment on High School GPA and Class Rank: Implications for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehde-Roddiger, Christina, Trevino, Rolando; Anderson, Pamela; Arrambide, Teresa; O'Conor, Juana; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    As high schools offer more pre-Advanced Placement (pre-AP) and Advanced Placement (AP) courses to prepare students for college academics, students often are given quality grade point average (GPA) points to help compensate for the rigorous curriculum. In states where class ranking determines automatic university admission, fluctuations of class…

  18. Participation of Minority Students Rises 32 Pct. in Advanced-Placement Tests; Many Score High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program has become a "program of academic opportunity" for students in high schools that enroll large numbers of minority groups. These schools are raising the expectations of minority students and helping them achieve higher goals, and they are bringing them into professional and graduate schools. (MLW)

  19. Barriers to Advanced Placement for Latino Students at the High-School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan A.; Pearsall, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding about Latino student underrepresentation in advanced placement (AP) coursework, this investigation explored the factors that inhibit and/or encourage Latino student enrollment in AP coursework at one suburban public high school in the Western United States. Latino high-school students and their parents…

  20. A Multi-Year Analysis of Asian Gender Differences on Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Asian boys and girls on Advanced Placement (AP) exam overall scores across the United States for the past 14 years was analyzed. For each of the 14 years of data analyzed, Asian boys had statistically significant higher percentages of overall AP exam scores of 5 than did Asian girls. In addition, the gap between the mean…

  1. Chandler High School College Prep Honors Program: Restoring a Challenge to Secondary Education. Advanced Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler Unified Schools, AZ.

    The honors program at Chandler High School (Arizona) which combines the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Advanced Placement (AP) programs is described in this brochure. Following a general overview of IB and AP programs, several benefits of this combined program are listed: (1) small classes with superior students; (2) the opportunity to earn…

  2. Preparing Students for Advanced Placement Spanish Literature: Content Sequencing of the Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Roger D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)

  3. Exploring the Utility of Advanced Placement Participation and Performance in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica P.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relationship between various operationalizations of the Advanced Placement[R] (AP) exam and course information with first-year grade point average (FYGPA) in college to better understand the role of AP in college admission decisions. In particular, the incremental validity of the different AP variables, above…

  4. Class of 2013 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, Maryland has led the nation as the state with the highest percentage of graduates who earned one or more Advanced Placement (AP) exam scores of 3 or higher. Students in the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2013 continued to outperform students in the state of Maryland and the nation on AP examinations, based on…

  5. Advanced Placement European History: An Anatomy of the Essay Examination, 1956-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The College Board's Advanced Placement European History examination has evolved over the course of its first half-century of existence in virtually all respects: the types and subject matter of questions asked (and not asked); the nature of the history those questions reflect; the number of questions both offered and to be answered, as well as how…

  6. Excellence, Equity, and Access: Educators' Perceptions of Students in Open Access Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Justyna Plichta

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines educators' perceptions regarding open access Advanced Placement (AP) program courses and their impact on non-traditional AP students in one suburban school district. The data were collected during the 2009-2010 school year through a 15-item Likert scale (and one open-ended item) survey which was disseminated during…

  7. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  8. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  9. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Advanced Placement Exam Performance: A Multiyear National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maria Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze ethnic and gender differences in Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance of U.S. high school students. Specifically, the extent to which differences exist in overall AP exam performance scores within and between four ethnic groups (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) was investigated. Within…

  10. The Effect of Advanced Placement and Concurrent Enrollment on Post Secondary Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Angela L.

    2010-01-01

    Unprepared postsecondary students and poor high school retention rates emphasize a significant issue with education in the U.S. Although there have been increases in the number of programs to address retention and matriculation to degree attainment, little research has been completed to examine outcomes of these programs. Advanced placement and…

  11. The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation. 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn; Jian, Shuling

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between college graduation rates and student participation and success in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and exams. We reviewed three approaches to examining this relationship: 1) comparing the college graduation rates of AP and non-AP students; 2) comparing the college graduation rate of AP and non-AP…

  12. The Challenge of Advanced Placement Partnerships in the South Texas Border Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Deborah L.; Pisani, Jana S.; Pisani, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2000, the Texas Education Agency and the Texas A&M University System teamed up to create an initiative called the University Faculty Fellows Program. Spearheaded by Texas A&M International University in Laredo, the program paired up faculty from the university with area Advanced Placement (AP) teachers in a variety of disciplines.…

  13. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  14. The Advanced Placement Arms Race and the Reproduction of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses is stratified by class and race. Researchers have identified how schools serving disadvantaged students suffer from various kinds of resource deprivations, concluding that interventions are needed to equalize access to AP courses. On the other hand, the theory of Effectively Maintained…

  15. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  16. Melodic Dictation Instruction: A Survey of Advanced Placement Music Theory Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…

  17. Teacher Scaffolding of Academic Language in an Advanced Placement U.S. History Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine; Beers, Scott; Knaus, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines teacher scaffolding of academic language in an Advanced Placement United States History (APUSH) course throughout a school year for one student who received a perfect score on the end of year APUSH exam. Data includes four months of observation of teacher instructional strategies to scaffold student writing and vignettes of…

  18. Class of 2012 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2012 continued to outperform Maryland and the nation on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations based on the "AP Report to the Nation" released by the College Board on February 20, 2013. In 2012, 67.3 percent of MCPS graduates took one or more AP exams. A striking…

  19. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Results for 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith; Powell, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Goal 1 of the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Strategic Plan, "Our Call to Action: Pursuit of Excellence" (MCPS, 2004), is to "Ensure Success for Every Student." One measure of success for students who plan to attend college is their preparation for college-level course work. The Advanced Placement (AP) program offers MCPS students an…

  20. SREB States Lead the Nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal; Lenard, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses continue to receive national recognition for their rigorous curricula, and many colleges and universities award credit to students who score well on end-of-course exams in AP classes. Research suggests that students are better prepared for college if they take these courses and…

  1. Credit Policies for Courses in Minnesota Colleges & Universities: Advanced Placement, 2004-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This guide is intended to aid high school students in their educational planning. Colleges and universities state their policies in granting college credit for successful completion of Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in high school. The guide also represents certification of these policies to the Department of Education and to the Minnesota…

  2. Class of 2014 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, Maryland has led the nation as the state with the highest percentage of graduates who earned one or more Advanced Placement (AP) exam scores of 3 or higher. Students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2014 continued to outperform students in the state of Maryland on AP examinations based on AP…

  3. How Colleges and Universities Employ Credit and Placement for Advanced Academic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alder, Henry L.

    The University of California's grading/credit policy for advanced placement (AP) courses taken by high school students is discussed. The university traditionally has encouraged high school students to take AP courses if they are prepared and mature enough to benefit from them. The university grants credit for scores of 3, 4, or 5 earned on AP…

  4. The Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratopoulos, Irene Chachas

    The main purposes in examining and evaluating the Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts were to identify the essential curriculum features of the program, to make suggestions for curriculum improvement, and to determine whether or not the quality of the AP English Program surpassed that of the conventional…

  5. The Lowest Quartile African Americans Taking Advanced Placement Language and Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, David P.

    2007-01-01

    As the lead Advanced Placement (AP) English teacher at Suncoast High School, a magnet school, the author started a pilot program teaching the lowest quartile group of African American students the AP English Literature and Composition course their senior year. Their educational background was limited, and several were not able to write a complete…

  6. The Impact of the Calculator on the Content Validity of Advanced Placement Calculus Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimmestad, Beverly J.

    Nineteen Calculus II students were randomly sampled and divided into calculator (n=9) and noncalculator (n=10) groups. These students were asked to "think aloud" while solving 24 Advanced Placement calculus problems. Each student interview was videotaped, coded and analyzed for reasoning process as well as outcome. The results indicated that the…

  7. Advanced Placement English in a Solipsistic Era: How Structuralism Can Renew Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) courses within secondary English education can fail to meet the needs of gifted students in the postmodern era. Because AP courses often are standardized, despite the College Board's efforts to allow freedom in course design, gifted students, as especially attuned to discrepancies between practice and theory, are being…

  8. WCPSS Advanced Placement (AP) Results, 2010-11. D&A Report No. 11.25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleland, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    One method of delivering college-level coursework to high school students is through the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Many colleges and universities provide credit to students who earn a qualifying score on any of the 34 available AP exams offered by the College Board. All qualified comprehensive high schools in the Wake County Public School…

  9. Perspectives on the Development and Future of Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography faced a number of hurdles that nearly derailed the course before it launched in 2000-2001. A dedicated cadre of geography professionals and high school teachers rose to the challenge and the course remains one of the fastest growing AP courses currently offered by College Board. Seventeen readers and leaders…

  10. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  11. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  12. The Advanced Placement Program: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Marika Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    While Advanced Placement (AP) programs have been traditionally targeted toward academically prepared students, some secondary administrators make AP courses accessible to all students in order to support college readiness. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the AP program is being implemented in an urban school where many students…

  13. The Impact of Participation in the Advanced Placement Program on Students' College Admissions Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Larsen, Ross; Anderson, Braydon; Odasso, Alyce J.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is an educational program that permits high school students to take introductory college-level courses and receive college credit by passing a standardized end-of-course exam. Data were obtained from a statewide database of 2 high school graduating cohorts (N = 90,044). We used a series of propensity score…

  14. Measuring Success: Examining Achievement and Perceptions of Online Advanced Placement Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sharon; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams from 2009 to 2011 at Florida Virtual School and to explore student perceptions of their online course experience compared with the classroom-based AP experiences. The data indicated that students performed at levels comparable to the national sample but…

  15. The Advanced Placement Opportunity Gap in Arizona: Access, Participation, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Jesus; Holloway-Libell, Jessica; Gomez, Laura M.; Corley, Kathleen M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in Advanced Placement (AP) classes and AP test-taking are widely viewed as indicators of students' college readiness. We analyzed enrollment in AP courses and AP test outcomes in Arizona to document disparities in students' access to rigorous curricula in high school and outline some implications of these patterns for…

  16. 75 FR 53681 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Advanced Placement (AP) Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee... academic credit is awarded. Program Authority: 20 U.S.C. 6531-6537. Applicable Regulations: The...

  17. Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to…

  18. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  19. Strategies for Increasing Advanced Placement Participation for Underrepresented Students: Barriers, Practices, and Positive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Sergio; Gomez, Martin O.

    2011-01-01

    Some school leaders have viewed programs such as Advanced Placement (AP) as an attractive option to resolve the ongoing achievement gap problem. However, the ongoing debate in the field about maintaining the ostensible purity of the AP program versus diluting it with program expansion has hindered the full utilization of AP classes to close the…

  20. The Effects of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Samia Merza

    2013-01-01

    This study compared student academic achievement in two college readiness programs, Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) and attempted to determine how well program participation predict student performance compared to variables such as SES, parent education level, GPA, gender, and SAT II scores. Finally, the research…

  1. Advanced Placement in Studio Art and Secondary Art Education Policy: Countering the Null Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.; Sims-Gunzenhauser, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Because of education reform policy and misconceptions about artistry and artistic assessment, visual art education remains in the margins of high school education. One response to the lack of supportive arts education policy is the Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art Program, a visual arts assessment at the high school level that engages large…

  2. SREB States Maintain Lead in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states lead the nation in student participation in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs. The region also continued to match the nation in the success rates of high school students on AP exams in 2008. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education recognize the…

  3. Student Participation and Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: Do State-Sponsored Incentives Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook

    2009-01-01

    Many states provide incentives to students, teachers, and schools for the participation and success of students on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations administered by the College Board. The purpose of this article is to examine whether these incentives help students enroll and succeed in AP exams. An analysis of nationally representative AP exam…

  4. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  5. Advanced image placement performance for the current EPL masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Hideyuki; Sugimura, Hiroshi; Koike, Kaoru; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Arimoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kentaro; Susa, Takashi; Kunitani, Shinji; Kurosu, Toshiaki; Yoshii, Takashi; Itoh, Kojiro; Tamura, Akira

    2006-03-01

    We examined two EPL mask fabrication processes to control precisely image placement (IP) on the EPL masks. One is a wafer process using an electrostatic chuck during an e-beam write and another is a membrane process using a mechanical chuck during the e-beam write. In the wafer process, the global IP is corrected during the e-beam write on the basis of the IP data taken with x-y metrology tool. In the membrane process, the global IP is corrected during the e-beam write on the basis of the data taken with the x-y metrology tool and taken in situ with the e-beam writer. The resist and final global IP (3s) of the wafer process is 7.2 nm and 10.6 nm. For the average local IP errors (3s), the local IP of 5.7 nm at the resist step increases to 14.7 nm at the final step due to process-induced distortions. The local IP could be reduced to 6.0 nm by applying the constant scale value to the mask process. In the membrane process, the resist and final global IP (3s) is 15.3 nm and 17.1 nm. With more detectable alignment marks, it would be possible to improve the global IP. For the average local IP errors (3s) of the membrane process, the average resist and final local IP are 6.7 and 7.1 nm which shows no PID. The two approaches proved to control IP more accurately than the conventional one.

  6. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with

  7. Technical advances in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fiducial placement for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; DiMaio, Christopher J.; Siersema, Peter D.; Wagh, Mihir S.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer and can be used alone or in conjunction with surgery and/or systemic chemotherapy. Because of the challenge of delivering an accurate and optimal radiation dose, image-guided radiation therapy can be used to improve targeting. Fiducial markers can be placed in the tumor and used for localization in patients undergoing image-guided radiation therapy. The safety and feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of fiducials has been assessed and reported for the management of pancreatic cancer. We herein review the technique, efficacy, and safety profile of EUS-guided fiducial placement. In addition, we highlight recent advances and technological upgrades in EUS-guided fiducial delivery systems for pancreatic cancer most relevant to practicing gastroenterologists and interventional endoscopists. PMID:26355267

  8. Technical advances in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fiducial placement for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; DiMaio, Christopher J; Siersema, Peter D; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-08-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer and can be used alone or in conjunction with surgery and/or systemic chemotherapy. Because of the challenge of delivering an accurate and optimal radiation dose, image-guided radiation therapy can be used to improve targeting. Fiducial markers can be placed in the tumor and used for localization in patients undergoing image-guided radiation therapy. The safety and feasibility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of fiducials has been assessed and reported for the management of pancreatic cancer. We herein review the technique, efficacy, and safety profile of EUS-guided fiducial placement. In addition, we highlight recent advances and technological upgrades in EUS-guided fiducial delivery systems for pancreatic cancer most relevant to practicing gastroenterologists and interventional endoscopists. PMID:26355267

  9. Advanced Placement Results, 2013-14. Measuring Up. D&A Report No.15.01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleland, Kevin; Muli, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) outcomes for Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) students have continued an upward trend for over 18 years, out-performing the state and the nation in all measures. In 2013-14 there were 13,757 exams taken by 6,955 WCPSS test-takers with almost 76% of the exams resulting in scores at or above 3, outperforming Guilford…

  10. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  11. The role of gastrostomy tube placement in advanced dementia with dysphagia: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Leanne S; Altman, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Over 4.5 million people in North America had a diagnosis of dementia in the year 2000, and more than half had advanced disease with potential aspiration risk. There is much controversy regarding the use and timing of enteral feeding support in these patients with dysphagia. The management of dysphagia is far more complex when considering quality of life, “comfort care” hand feeding, the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG), and associated mortality rates. This study seeks to critically review the literature that evaluates PEG placement in this population. Methods A systematic literature review of PubMed, from 1995–2012, was conducted to identify studies relating to PEG placement in dementia patients with dysphagia. The principal outcomes and related survival rates for this population were compared. Results In total, 100 articles were identified in the search. Of these, ten met the search criteria and were analyzed. There was one study with a 2b level of evidence, one with 3b, and the remainder had level 4. All studies discussed long-term survival in the PEG versus non-PEG populations. No studies showed definitive evidence to suggest long-term survival rates improved in patients who underwent PEG placement as compared to those who did not. Two studies documented median survival worse in patients over age 80 with dementia and PEG placement. Conclusion There is presently no evidence to suggest long-term survival rates improved in patients with advanced dementia who underwent PEG placement for dysphagia. Relevance to quality of life, need for nutrition and hydration, and ethical considerations in the decision process are discussed. PMID:25342891

  12. Biology First: A History of the Grade Placement of High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the high school "general biology" course and details how biology came to be placed first in the traditional order of science subjects (biology-chemistry-physics). The article briefly discusses the implications of the development of this sequence for the present day biology course.

  13. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  14. Gastrostomy tube placement in patients with advanced dementia or near end of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Barrocas, Albert; Wesley, John R; Kliger, Gustavo; Pontes-Arruda, Alessandro; Márquez, Humberto Arenas; James, Rosemarie Lembo; Monturo, Cheryl; Lysen, Lucinda K; DiTucci, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Based on current scientific literature, gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement or other long-term enteral access devices should be withheld in patients with advanced dementia or other near end-of-life conditions. In many instances healthcare providers are not optimally equipped to implement this recommendation at the bedside. Autonomy of the patient or surrogate decision maker should be respected, as should the patient's cultural, religious, social, and emotional value system. Clinical practice needs to address risks, burdens, benefits, and expected short-term and long-term outcomes in order to clarify practice changes. This paper recommends a change in clinical practice and care strategy based on the results of a thorough literature review and provides tools for healthcare clinicians, particularly in the hospital setting, including an algorithm for decision making and a checklist to use prior to the placement of G-tubes or other long-term enteral access devices. Integrating concepts of patient-centered care, shared decision making, health literacy, and the teach-back method of education enhances the desired outcome of ethical dilemma prevention. The goal is advance care planning and a timely consensus among health team members, family members, and significant others regarding end-of-life care for patients who do not have an advance directive and lack the capacity to advocate for themselves. Achieving this goal requires interdisciplinary collaboration and proactive planning within a supportive healthcare institution environment. PMID:25293595

  15. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  16. Reform in an Urban School District: The Role of PSAT Results in Promoting Advanced Placement Course-Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, E. Sidney, III

    2010-01-01

    According to Arthur Powell "Advanced Placement courses have probably brought more challenging academic experiences to more students than any other single reform in recent American high school history" ("Lessons from Privilege: The American Prep School Tradition", p. 243). To this end, there has been a significant increase in Advanced Placement…

  17. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  18. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  19. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  20. Impact of Advanced Grade 8 U.S. History on Participation and Performance in Advanced Placement Social Studies Courses in Grade 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Nyambura Susan

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Office of Curriculum and Instructional Programs, the Office of Shared Accountability examined the impact of offering Advanced Grade 8 U.S. History on enrollment and performance in Advanced Placement (AP) social studies courses in Grade 9. The study compared Grade 9 enrollment and performance in AP U.S. History or AP U.S.…

  1. College Credit Earned in High School: Comparing Student Performance in Project Advance and Advanced Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Syracuse University's Project Advance (one of the first high school college cooperative programs in the United States through which college courses, taught in high schools by high school faculty, are taken for college credit) is described. (MLW)

  2. The Advanced Placement Physics Examinations: Test Development and Free-Response Section Readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Terri; Cain, L. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics B and C Examinations are developed by a Test Development Committee consisting of both high school and college teachers appointed by The College Board. We will discuss the creation of the tests from their conception to their administration to more than 60,000 high school students each year. We will also discuss the reading of the free response sections for each exam. A group of readers, consisting of interested and motivated high school AP physics teachers and college instructors who teach comparable courses, is appointed to read the free response sections during June of each year. Two experienced readers, one of whom is a member of the Test Development Committee, will share information in this talk on becoming involved with the AP program as a reader.

  3. The School Counselor's Role in Addressing the Advanced Placement Equity and Excellence Gap for African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Pamela; Davis, Michael P.; Mobley, Jerry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the collaboration among a school counselor, a school counselor intern, an Advanced Placement Psychology teacher, and a counselor educator to improve African-American access to Advanced Placement (AP) coursework and increase success on the AP Psychology national examination. The team initiated a process that recruited African…

  4. Advanced Placement (AP) Social Studies Teachers' Use of Academic Course Blogs as a Supplemental Resource for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) social studies teachers' utilization of academic course blogs and student achievement. Simultaneously, the study examined the participating teachers' perceptions on the use of course blogs and other social media as supplemental learning resources. The…

  5. Effectiveness of Selected Advanced Placement Programs on the Academic Performance and College Readiness of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Traschell S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected Advanced Placement (AP) programs on the academic performance and college readiness of high school students. Specifically, the researcher was concerned with ascertaining the effectiveness of social science, math, science, English, music/art and language AP programs on the…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of How High School Advanced Placement Classes Prepared First-Generation College Students for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…

  7. The Advanced Placement Program in Pennsylvania: Implications for Policy and Practice in K-12 and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liekar, Christine Y.

    2012-01-01

    Since the time of Sputnik, American educators and policymakers have recognized the need to raise expectations by increasing rigor in high schools across the United States. Copious studies attest to the fact that students who take Advanced Placement coursework experience success in college (Adelman, 1999; Camara, 2003; College Board, 2005;…

  8. A Portrait of Advanced Placement Teachers' Practices. Research Report No. 2005-7. ETS RR-05-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Pamela L.; Ponte, Eva; Sigel, Irv; Braun, Henry; Powers, Don

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) is dedicated to providing high school students opportunities to enroll in college-level courses while in high school. The advantages of such accelerated opportunities are both financial and educational. The AP Program is available internationally. As a result of its widespread availability, considerable effort…

  9. Gaining or Losing Ground? Equity in Offering Advanced Placement Courses in California High Schools 1997-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis by researchers of the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) on Advanced Placement (AP) courses in California public high schools in the mid-1990s concluded that although high school AP programs offered talented youngsters the opportunity to stretch their mental horizons and preview the challenges of college-level coursework, the programs…

  10. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  11. Weighting for Recognition: Accounting for Advanced Placement and Honors Courses when Calculating High School Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Honors and advanced placement (AP) courses are commonly viewed as more demanding than standard high school offerings. Schools employ a range of methods to account for such differences when calculating grade point average and the associated rank in class for graduating students. In turn, these statistics have a sizeable impact on college admission…

  12. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  13. Determinants of Students' Success: The Role of Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment Programs. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speroni, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) are two programs that allow high school students to earn college credits. The recent growth of these programs has been unprecedented. However, there is little evidence that compares how they fare in terms of improving college access and success. Using data from two cohorts of all high school…

  14. Advanced Placement versus Dual Enrollment: Making the Best Choice for College Selection, Persistence, Early Success, and Time to Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial amount of research examines the benefits of high school college-credit attainment programs against non-participation. The growth in popularity of these programs, particularly Advanced Placement (AP) and dual enrollment (DE), has them competing against one another for student attention. However, students, schools, and policymakers do…

  15. Confronting the "Acid Test": Educators' Perspectives on Expanding Access to Advanced Placement at a Diverse Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, M. Lance; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines educators' perspectives on accountability mandates designed to expand access to the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) classes to traditionally underserved students at a diverse suburban high school in Florida, Palm Crest High School. Consistent with Elmore (1979), district and site-based administrators focused on the…

  16. High School Advanced Placement and Student Performance in College: STEM Majors, Non-STEM Majors, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth; Calderwood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The past few decades have seen an explosive growth in high-school student participation in the Advanced Placement program® (AP), with nearly two million exams completed in 2011. Traditionally, universities have considered AP enrollment as an indicator for predicting academic success during the admission process. However, AP…

  17. Assessment of Advanced Placement Participation and University Academic Success in the First Semester: Controlling for Selected High School Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Tolson, Homer; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The College Board Advanced Placement Program allows high school students to take college-level courses and if an appropriate score on an exam is received, college credit is earned. While the program has had its detractors (access in rural and inner-city schools, lack of diversity, pre-selection of talented students, poor articulation with actual…

  18. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  19. The Advanced Placement Program Benefits Mainly Well-Prepared Students Who Pass AP Exams. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Achievement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many policymakers and education leaders have embraced the Advanced Placement (AP) Program as a tool to strengthen the high school curriculum and prepare students for college. The popularity of the AP program among these policy leaders reflects their belief that the traditional high school curriculum has often failed to provide rigorous courses…

  20. An Investigation of College Students' Perceptions of Advanced Placement® Courses. Research Note 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Siobhan M.; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Smith, Kara

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how current college students perceive their experiences in high school Advanced Placement Program (AP) courses. The goal of this research was twofold: We wanted to not only add to the existing literature on outcomes for AP students but also investigate possible benefits for students without success (i.e., a score of…

  1. Coping, Stress, and Job Satisfaction as Predictors of Advanced Placement Statistics Teachers' Intention to Leave the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Crowe, Elizabeth W.; McCarthy, Colleen J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of teachers' perceptions of coping resources and demands to job satisfaction factors. Participants were 158 Advanced Placement Statistics high school teachers who completed measures of personal resources for stress prevention, classroom demands and resources, job satisfaction, and intention to leave the field…

  2. "Shouldn't Everyone Know about Their Government?" An Exploration of Curricular Values in Advanced Placement Government Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutka, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalent models of secondary education in the United States have tended to privilege the acquisition of knowledge of scientific disciplines that is often peripheral to the experiences of students. My Advanced Placement Government classes were no different, and this caused me to wonder whether my classes were meeting the often-stated goal of the…

  3. Early College Academic Performance: Studying the Effects of Earning College Credits from Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jermaine F.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact of Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) on early college academic performance by analyzing and comparing first year and sophomore year persistence rates and grade point averages (GPAs) of four student cohorts who began their education at a large urban research I university in fall 2007. These…

  4. The Experiences of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma Program Participants: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kelly; Caine, Vera; Wimmer, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Enriched high school curricula like the Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma programs are endorsed as "pathway programs" for postsecondary-bound students. Program participation is perceived to have benefits that appeal to a broad stakeholder group of universities, administrators, teachers, students, and parents. In…

  5. A Case Study on Teaching the Topic "Experimental Unit" and How It Is Presented in Advanced Placement Statistics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrett, Jamis J.

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how textbooks differ in their description of the term "experimental unit". Advanced Placement Statistics teachers and students are often limited in their statistical knowledge by the information presented in their classroom textbook. Definitions and descriptions differ among textbooks as well as among different editions…

  6. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Panel for Biology were that AP courses in particular suffer from inadequate quality control as well as excessive pressure to fulfill their advanced placement function, which encourages teachers to attempt coverage of all areas of biology and emphasize memorization of facts rather than in-depth understanding. In this essay, the Panel's principal findings are discussed, with an emphasis on its recommendation that colleges and universities should be strongly discouraged from using performance on either the AP examination or the IB examination as the sole basis for automatic placement out of required introductory courses for biology majors and distribution requirements for nonmajors. PMID:12669097

  7. Characteristics of Advanced Placement environmental science reading teacher participants and their perceptions of the reading as a professional development experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Freda M.

    Sixty percent of American high schools offer one or more Advanced Placement courses, and several thousand Advanced Placement teachers serve as Readers or graders of Advanced Placement exams each year. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of teachers who choose to participate in Advanced Placement Environmental Science Readings and determine how these teachers view the Reading experience as a form of professional development. This study was conducted with teacher participants at the June 2004 Advanced Placement Environmental Science Reading. Sixty of the 114 teacher participants completed a survey regarding their education background, age, experience level, educational philosophy, involvement in professional development opportunities, perceptions of the professional benefits of the Reading, and the influence of the Reading experience on their pedagogical practices. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a subset of 18 teacher participants to determine their perceptions regarding the professional benefits of the Reading experience, its potential to serve as a professional development activity, and perceived changes in their pedagogical practices resulting from participation in the Reading process. Results indicate that APES Reading teacher participants are experienced, effective teachers from many parts of the country. These teachers participate in ongoing professional development activities, can delineate components of effective professional development, strongly believe that effective professional development occurs at the APES Reading, and report that their pedagogical practice has improved as a result of participation in the APES Reading. Considering the crucial role teachers play in the educational process, it is important to pursue this additional avenue of professional development in order to further improve APES teacher effectiveness.

  8. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  9. A comparative analysis of the perceived influence of advanced placement and honors programs upon science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Norman Edward

    These are two major models for advanced science instruction in American high schools, the traditional honors program and the Advanced Placement (AP) program of the College Entrance Examination Board. Using the self-reports of teachers who were experienced in teaching honors and AP courses to students of similar academic preparation and ability, the author examined the perceived influences of program format upon the use of basic teaching techniques, the laboratory experience, the pace of the course, curricular freedom, and student creativity. One of the most notable aspects of the AP program is the speed at which teachers move through the curriculum. In the rush to prepare students for the exam, most AP teachers adopt a strong lecture format and minimize student-centered activities such as laboratory experimentation, student projects, and student presentations. When laboratory work is not assessed on the national AP examination, such experiences are sacrificed to provide time for lecture. When laboratory experiments are assessed, however, teachers respond by allocating more time for laboratory work, and by upgrading their exercises to make them more quantitative and experimental than those used previously or those used in honors classes. Although AP is associated with a loss in curricular freedom and flexibility, teachers perceive no clear influence of program format upon student creativity.

  10. Recent Advances in Engineering Polyvalent Biological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein–ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors. PMID:25426695

  11. "Advanced Classes? They're Only for White Kids": How One Kansas School Is Changing the Face of Honors and Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an accurate picture of minority student enrollment in honors and advanced placement (AP) classes at Wichita (Kansas) High School East and to develop a plan of action to close the achievement gap between White and non-White students. Prior to this study there was no clear, concise data to move this discussion…

  12. Advanced Biology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Larry

    This course in advanced biology is entitled "Advanced Genetics" and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of seven units of study, and 15 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include a review of genetics,…

  13. Current advances in systems and integrative biology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Scott W.; Fernandes, Marco; Husi, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology has gained a tremendous amount of interest in the last few years. This is partly due to the realization that traditional approaches focusing only on a few molecules at a time cannot describe the impact of aberrant or modulated molecular environments across a whole system. Furthermore, a hypothesis-driven study aims to prove or disprove its postulations, whereas a hypothesis-free systems approach can yield an unbiased and novel testable hypothesis as an end-result. This latter approach foregoes assumptions which predict how a biological system should react to an altered microenvironment within a cellular context, across a tissue or impacting on distant organs. Additionally, re-use of existing data by systematic data mining and re-stratification, one of the cornerstones of integrative systems biology, is also gaining attention. While tremendous efforts using a systems methodology have already yielded excellent results, it is apparent that a lack of suitable analytic tools and purpose-built databases poses a major bottleneck in applying a systematic workflow. This review addresses the current approaches used in systems analysis and obstacles often encountered in large-scale data analysis and integration which tend to go unnoticed, but have a direct impact on the final outcome of a systems approach. Its wide applicability, ranging from basic research, disease descriptors, pharmacological studies, to personalized medicine, makes this emerging approach well suited to address biological and medical questions where conventional methods are not ideal. PMID:25379142

  14. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  15. Advanced beamline automation for biological crystallography experiments.

    PubMed

    Cork, Carl; O'Neill, James; Taylor, John; Earnest, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    An automated crystal-mounting/alignment system has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and has been installed on three of the protein-crystallography experimental stations at the Advanced Light Source (ALS); it is currently being implemented at synchrotron crystallography beamlines at CHESS, NSLS and the APS. The benefits to using an automounter system include (i) optimization of the use of synchrotron beam time, (ii) facilitation of advanced data-collection techniques, (iii) collection of higher quality data, (iv) reduction of the risk to crystals and (v) exploration of systematic studies of experimental protocols. Developments on the next-generation automounter with improvements in robustness, automated alignment and sample tracking are under way, with an end-to-end data-flow process being developed to allow remote data collection and monitoring. PMID:16855300

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Guo, Wei; Shen, Jacson K.; Mankin, Henry J.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR), in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS. PMID:26420980

  17. Math Sense: Placement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Math Sense consists of five books that develop from basic to more advanced math skills. This document contains a placement test used with Math Sense to help students and their teachers decide into which Math Sense book to begin working. The placement test is divided into six parts, each consisting of 10 to 22 problems, and is based on exit skill…

  18. Supporting Online Learning for Advanced Placement Students in Small Rural Schools: Conceptual Foundations and Intervention Components of the Facilitator Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Farmer, Thomas W.; de la Varre, Claire; Keane, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the need for interventions to support students who are taking advanced placement courses in small rural districts and describes the Facilitator Preparation Program (FPP) as a strategy to address this need. Issues in the delivery of Online Distance Education (ODE) in small rural schools are summarized and the conceptual…

  19. 2014 Advanced Placement Exam Participation and Performance for Students in Montgomery County Public Schools and Public School Students in the State of Maryland and the Nation. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emphasis by Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) on rigorous course taking resulted in MCPS students taking a record-setting 33,662 Advanced Placement (AP) exams in 2014. Additionally, the percentage of AP exams taken by MCPS students who attained scores of 3 or higher (73.9 percent) was 13.0 and 16.7 percentage points…

  20. The Effects upon Advanced Placement Licensed Vocational Nursing Students When Integrated with Generic Students in the Second Year of a Registered Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balint, Marilyn

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrating advanced placement licensed vocational nursing (APLVN) students with generic students in the second year of the registered nursing program at Long Beach City College. It was hypothesized that the academic achievement of the APLVN students who were taught as a separate group for the first…

  1. An Exploration of Student and Teacher Social Presence in Asynchronous Discussion in an Online Advanced Placement Course for Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Varre, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This study used a social presence construct derived from the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework, with cohesive, affective, and interactive components, to explore online discussion in an Advanced Placement course for rural high school students. The COI is based on the underlying theoretical framework of social constructivism, where interaction is…

  2. Using the PSAT/NMSQT and Course Grades in Predicting Success in the Advanced Placement Program®. Report No. 98-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.; Millsap, Roger

    1998-01-01

    This study reports that student performance on the PSAT/NMSQT can be useful in identifying additional students who may be successful in Advanced Placement Program (AP) courses. PSAT/NMSQT scores can identify students who may not have been initially considered for an AP course through teacher nomination, self-nomination, or other local procedures.…

  3. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  4. An Analysis of Advanced Placement (AP®) Examinations in Economics and Comparative Government and Politics. Research Report No. 2001-4. ETS RR-01-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; Oltman, Philip K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Examinations in Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, and Comparative Government and Politics were studied to examine college course performance and gender differences. It was concluded that students who had received college credit for AP performed as well or better in higher-level college courses in Macroeconomics and…

  5. Students' Perceptions of the Social/Emotional Implications of Participation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Research Monograph Series. RM09238

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Regan Clark; Hertberg-Davis, Holly; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the researchers explored student perceptions of the social and emotional advantages and disadvantages of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) program participation, differences between the AP and IB programs in those perceptions, and whether or not students report experiencing a "forced-choice…

  6. Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  7. Advanced Placement® Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report No. 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  8. Are Advanced Placement English and First-Year College Composition Equivalent? A Comparison of Outcomes in the Writing of Three Groups of Sophomore College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kristine; Reeve, Suzanne; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Hatch, Gary L.; Esplin, Patricia; Bradshaw, William S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain empirical data to inform policy decisions about exempting incoming students from a first-year composition (FYC) course on the basis of Advanced Placement (AP) English exam scores. It examined the effect of avoiding first-year writing on the writing abilities of sophomore undergraduates. Two three-page writing…

  9. A Comparison of the Number of Hours of Sleep in High School Students Who Took Advanced Placement and/or College Courses and Those Who Did Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high…

  10. Reading Images: The Phenomenon of Intertextuality and How It May Contribute to Developing Visual Literacy with Advanced Placement English/Language Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillenwater, Cary

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological case study attempts to understand the phenomenon of intertextuality of traditional novels and graphic novels, and how it may or may not contribute to transference of one mode of literacy to another. The study's sample was seven Grade 12 Advanced Placement English/language arts students and their teacher. I conducted my…

  11. 2013 Advanced Placement Exam Participation and Performance for Students in Montgomery County Public Schools and Public School Students in the State of Maryland and the Nation. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This memorandum provides data on the participation and performance of Advanced Placement (AP) exams taken by students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) in the 2012-2013 school year as compared with those by public school students in Maryland and the nation. Generally, the number of AP exams taken by MCPS students in 2013…

  12. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  13. Advanced L2 Learners and Reading Placement: Self-Assessment, CBT, and Subsequent Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research involving advanced second language (L2) learners in the USA [Brantmeier, C., 2001. Second language reading research on passage content and gender: challenges for the intermediate level curriculum, Foreign Language Annals 34, 325-333; Young, D.J., 2003. Workshop on overcoming anxiety in the foreign language classroom.…

  14. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  15. Progress in focus: recent advances in histochemistry and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Asan, Esther

    2002-12-01

    Advances in histochemical and cell biological techniques enable increasingly refined investigations into the cellular and subcellular distribution of specific molecules and into their role in dynamic processes; thus progress in these fields complements the growing knowledge in genomics and proteomics. The present review summarizes recent technical progress and novel applications. PMID:12483316

  16. Using Advance Organizers to Enhance Students' Motivation in Learning Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shihusa, Hudson; Keraro, Fred N.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance organizers on students' motivation to learn biology. The research design used was quasi-experimental design where the non-randomised Solomon Four group was adopted. The focus was on the topic pollution. The sample comprised of 166 form three (third grade in the secondary school cycle) students in…

  17. A First Attempt to Bring Computational Biology into Advanced High School Biology Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Suzanne Renick; Coon, William; Donley, Kristin; Scott, Abby; Goldberg, Debra S.

    2011-01-01

    Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors. PMID:22046118

  18. A comparative analysis of teacher-authored websites in high school honors and Advanced Placement physics for Web-design and NSES content and process standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persin, Ronald C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statistically significant differences existed between high school Honors Physics websites and those of Advanced Placement (AP) Physics in terms of Web-design, National Science Education Standards (NSES) Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. The procedure began with the selection of 152 sites comprising two groups with equal sample sizes of 76 for Honors Physics and for Advanced Placement Physics. The websites used in the study were accumulated using the Google(TM) search engine. To find Honors Physics websites, the search words "honors physics high school" were entered as the query into the search engine. To find sites for Advanced Placement Physics, the query, "advanced placement physics high school," was entered into the search engine. The evaluation of each website was performed using an instrument developed by the researcher based on three attributes: Web-design, NSES Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. A "1" was scored if the website was found to have each attribute, otherwise a "0" was given. This process continued until all 76 websites were evaluated for each of the two types of physics websites, Honors and Advanced Placement. Subsequently the data were processed using Excel functions and the SPSS statistical software program. The mean and standard deviation were computed individually for the three attributes under consideration. Three, 2-tailed, independent samples t tests were performed to compare the two groups of physics websites separately on the basis of Web Design, Physics Content, and Science Process. The results of the study indicated that there was only one statistically significant difference between high school Honors Physics websites and those of AP Physics. The only difference detected was in terms of National Science Education Standards Physics content. It was found that Advanced Placement Physics websites contained more NSES physics content than Honors

  19. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. PMID:26318074

  20. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271

  1. Advanced composite applications for sub-micron biologically derived microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnur, J. M.; Price, R. R.; Schoen, P. E.; Bonanventura, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    A major thrust of advanced material development is in the area of self-assembled ultra-fine particulate based composites (micro-composites). The application of biologically derived, self-assembled microstructures to form advanced composite materials is discussed. Hollow 0.5 micron diameter cylindrical shaped microcylinders self-assemble from diacetylenic lipids. These microstructures have a multiplicity of potential applications in the material sciences. Exploratory development is proceeding in application areas such as controlled release for drug delivery, wound repair, and biofouling as well as composites for electronic and magnetic applications, and high power microwave cathodes.

  2. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  3. More Home Schoolers Taking Advanced Placement Tests: Students Seek Outside Validation of Work and Leg Up on College-Admissions Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    When Susan Richman called the College Board in 1992 to ask if her son Jesse could take Advanced Placement tests as a home schooler, a staff member responded that no one had ever asked him that question, but then assured her that home schoolers were welcome to take the tests. Ms. Richman went on to coach Jesse for so many AP exams that he started…

  4. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  5. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  6. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  7. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

  9. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  10. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  11. An investigation into trends in Advanced Placement test taking in science and mathematics among student sub-populations using a longitudinal growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. Michael

    The lack of preparation, participation, and equal access of students in mathematics and the science education continues to afflict America's high school system (Ratliff, 2001). Additionally, gender and ethnic status have become significant factors as females and minority subgroups such as African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented in these two subject fields. Recognizing and understanding these trends is extremely important for the future of this country. As fewer minorities and females become involved in advanced mathematics and science curriculum there will be a continued lack of minorities and females in mathematics and science careers. Additionally, this insufficient representation leads to fewer numbers of females and minorities in industry and educational leadership positions in mathematics and science to promote participation and equality in these fields. According to Brainard and Carlin (2003) as trends currently stand, these two groups will be under-represented in the fields of math and science and will continue to be denied economic and social power. Thus, a better understanding of these trends in participation in mathematics and science among these groups of students is warranted. This study is intended to accomplish four objectives. The first objective is to identify the extent to which opportunities are increasing or decreasing for students in high schools taking mathematics and science Advanced Placement exams by examining six years of student testing data from the College Board. A second objective is to identify features of high schools that relate to greater expansion in Advanced Placement test taking for females and minority groups in the areas of both math and science. A third objective is to explore whether, and to what extent, any social or educational features such as economic status, regional school and living locations, and ethnic backgrounds have enhanced or reduced Advanced Placement testing in these schools. Lastly

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology.

    PubMed

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications-in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974-formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7-11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J.; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications—in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974—formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7–11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  14. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  15. Advances in biologically inspired on/near sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.

    1999-07-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory at Elgin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the are of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of two 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. The Neuroseek program is developing a 256 X 256 2-color dual band IRFPA coupled to an optimized silicon CMOS read-out and processing integrated circuit that provides simultaneous full-frame imaging in MWIR/LWIR wavebands along with built-in biologically inspired sensor image processing functions. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  16. Effect of Advancing Age and Multiple Chronic Conditions on Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Kiley, Mary-Lou; Anthony, Faith F; Chen, Yuexin; Chen, Jason; Rajagopal, Sumanth; Liu, Taylor I; Young, Charlie; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is insufficient information on the effect that advancing age and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) have on mortality after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vs non-ESRD. Objective: To assess whether a differential effect of age and MCC exists between ESRD and non-ESRD. Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the national Kaiser Permanente Cardiac Device Registry of patients who underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measures: All-cause mortality. Results: Of 7825 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, ESRD-affected patients constituted 4.0% of the cohort (n = 311), were similar in age (p = 0.91), and presented with a larger comorbidity burden (3.3 ± 1.3 vs 2.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effect of advancing age (every 5 years) on mortality in the ESRD cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.20) was less than in the non-ESRD cohort (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.25–1.32). Similarly, the effect of each additional comorbidity in the ESRD cohort was less (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91–1.19) than in the non-ESRD group (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16–1.25). Lastly, ESRD was independently associated with a 3-fold greater hazard of mortality. Conclusions: Advancing age and increasing number of MCC have a differential effect on mortality risk in patients with ESRD compared with their non-ESRD counterparts. Future studies should focus on assessment of nonlinear relationships of age, MCC, and naturally occurring clusters of MCC on mortality. PMID:26562307

  17. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  18. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  19. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that

  20. Cyanobacterial Metabolite Calothrixins: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Su; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment is host to unparalleled biological and chemical diversity, making it an attractive resource for the discovery of new therapeutics for a plethora of diseases. Compounds that are extracted from cyanobacteria are of special interest due to their unique structural scaffolds and capacity to produce potent pharmaceutical and biotechnological traits. Calothrixins A and B are two cyanobacterial metabolites with a structural assembly of quinoline, quinone, and indole pharmacophores. This review surveys recent advances in the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of calothrixins. Due to the low isolation yields from the marine source and the promise this scaffold holds for anticancer and antimicrobial drugs, organic and medicinal chemists around the world have embarked on developing efficient synthetic routes to produce calothrixins. Since the first review appeared in 2009, 11 novel syntheses of calothrixins have been published in the efforts to develop methods that contain fewer steps and higher-yielding reactions. Calothrixins have shown their potential as topoisomerase I poisons for their cytotoxicity in cancer. They have also been observed to target various aspects of RNA synthesis in bacteria. Further investigation into the exact mechanism for their bioactivity is still required for many of its analogs. PMID:26771620

  1. Advances in microbeam technologies and applications to radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Barberet, P; Seznec, H

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. PMID:25911406

  2. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  3. Advanced nanoelectronic architectures for THz-based biological agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolard, Dwight L.; Jensen, James O.

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) and the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) jointly lead and support novel research programs that are advancing the state-of-the-art in nanoelectronic engineering in application areas that have relevance to national defense and security. One fundamental research area that is presently being emphasized by ARO and ECBC is the exploratory investigation of new bio-molecular architectural concepts that can be used to achieve rapid, reagent-less detection and discrimination of biological warfare (BW) agents, through the control of multi-photon and multi-wavelength processes at the nanoscale. This paper will overview an ARO/ECBC led multidisciplinary research program presently under the support of the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) that seeks to develop new devices and nanoelectronic architectures that are effective for extracting THz signatures from target bio-molecules. Here, emphasis will be placed on the new nanosensor concepts and THz/Optical measurement methodologies for spectral-based sequencing/identification of genetic molecules.

  4. Cyanobacterial Metabolite Calothrixins: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment is host to unparalleled biological and chemical diversity, making it an attractive resource for the discovery of new therapeutics for a plethora of diseases. Compounds that are extracted from cyanobacteria are of special interest due to their unique structural scaffolds and capacity to produce potent pharmaceutical and biotechnological traits. Calothrixins A and B are two cyanobacterial metabolites with a structural assembly of quinoline, quinone, and indole pharmacophores. This review surveys recent advances in the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of calothrixins. Due to the low isolation yields from the marine source and the promise this scaffold holds for anticancer and antimicrobial drugs, organic and medicinal chemists around the world have embarked on developing efficient synthetic routes to produce calothrixins. Since the first review appeared in 2009, 11 novel syntheses of calothrixins have been published in the efforts to develop methods that contain fewer steps and higher-yielding reactions. Calothrixins have shown their potential as topoisomerase I poisons for their cytotoxicity in cancer. They have also been observed to target various aspects of RNA synthesis in bacteria. Further investigation into the exact mechanism for their bioactivity is still required for many of its analogs. PMID:26771620

  5. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually. PMID:15533022

  6. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine. PMID:22103485

  7. Advanced monitoring systems for biological applications in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, U.; Chiffings, T.; Gandelli, A.; Grimaccia, F.; Johnstone, R. W.; Zich, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    The increasing need to manage complex environmental problems demands a new approach and new technologies to provide the information required at a spatial and temporal resolution appropriate to the scales at which the biological processes occur. In particular sensor networks, now quite popular on land, still poses many difficult problems in underwater environments. In this context, it is necessary to develop an autonomous monitoring system that can be remotely interrogated and directed to address unforeseen or expected changes in such environmental conditions. This system, at the highest level, aims to provide a framework for combining observations from a wide range of different in-situ sensors and remote sensing instruments, with a long-term plan for how the network of sensing modalities will continue to evolve in terms of sensing modality, geographic location, and spatial and temporal density. The advances in sensor technology and digital electronics have made it possible to produce large amount of small tag-like sensors which integrate sensing, processing, and communication capabilities together and form an autonomous entity. To successfully use this kind of systems in under water environments, it becomes necessary to optimize the network lifetime and face the relative hindrances that such a field imposes, especially in terms of underwater information exchange.

  8. Mantle cell lymphoma: biological insights and treatment advances.

    PubMed

    Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E; Goy, Andre; Grant, Steven; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Rosen, Steve T; Sweetenham, John W

    2009-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exhibits considerable molecular heterogeneity and complexity, and is regarded as one of the most challenging lymphomas to treat. With increased understanding of the pathobiology of MCL, it is proposed that MCL is the result of 3 major converging factors, namely, deregulated cell cycle pathways, defects in DNA damage responses, and dysregulation of cell survival pathways. In the present era of targeted therapies, these biologic insights have resulted in the identification of several novel rational targets for therapeutic intervention in MCL that are undergoing active clinical testing. To date, there is no standard of care in MCL. Several approaches including conventional anthracycline-based therapies and intensive high-dose strategies with and without stem cell transplantation have failed to produce durable remissions for most patients. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of MCL, it is increasingly being recognized that risk-adapted therapy might be a relevant therapeutic approach in this disease. At the first and second Global Workshops on Mantle Cell Lymphoma, questions addressing advances in the pathobiology of MCL, optimization of existing therapies, assessment of current data with novel therapeutic strategies, and the identification of molecular or phenotypic risk factors for utilization in risk-adapted therapies were discussed and will be summarized herein. PMID:19717376

  9. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  10. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes. PMID:26395117

  11. Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

  12. A Forum To Expand Advanced Placement Opportunities: Increasing Access and Improving Preparation in High Schools. Strategies To Overcome Challenges in Rural and Small Schools. Transcript of Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This transcript reproduces a Department of Education/College Board sponsored discussion on ways to expand advanced placement (AP) opportunities in high schools. The deliberations opened with a presentation by Phil Chavez, an assistant principal in San Antonio, Texas, who outlined the genesis and development of the AP program in his predominantly…

  13. Monitoring Faculty Consultant Performance in the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Program with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model. Research Report No. 2003-1. ETS RR-03-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Myford, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, evaluate, and compare the rating behavior of faculty consultants who scored essays written for the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition (AP® ELC) Exam. Data from the 1999 AP ELC Exam were analyzed using FACETS (Linacre, 1998) and SAS. The faculty consultants were not all…

  14. Recent advances in biological production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Ashok, Somasundar; Park, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is a valuable platform chemical that can be produced biologically from glucose or glycerol. This review article provides an overview and the current status of microbial 3-HP production. The constraints of microbial 3-HP production and possible solutions are also described. Finally, future prospects of biological 3-HP production are discussed. PMID:23473969

  15. Advancing Biological Understanding and Therapeutics Discovery with Small Molecule Probes

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Stuart L.; Kotz, Joanne D.; Li, Min; Aubé, Jeffrey; Austin, Christopher P.; Reed, John C.; Rosen, Hugh; White, E. Lucile; Sklar, Larry A.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Alexander, Benjamin R.; Bittker, Joshua A.; Clemons, Paul A.; de Souza, Andrea; Foley, Michael A.; Palmer, Michelle; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Wawer, Mathias J.; McManus, Owen; Wu, Meng; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Golden, Jennifer E.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Jackson, Michael R.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hodder, Peter S.; Roush, William R.; Roberts, Edward; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Noah, James W.; Severson, William E.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Edwards, Bruce; Oprea, Tudor I.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Hopkins, Corey R.; Wood, Michael R.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule probes can illuminate biological processes and aid in the assessment of emerging therapeutic targets by perturbing biological systems in a manner distinct from other experimental approaches. Despite the tremendous promise of chemical tools for investigating biology and disease, small-molecule probes were unavailable for most targets and pathways as recently as a decade ago. In 2005, the U.S. National Institutes of Health launched the decade-long Molecular Libraries Program with the intent of innovating in and broadening access to small-molecule science. This Perspective describes how novel small-molecule probes identified through the program are enabling the exploration of biological pathways and therapeutic hypotheses not otherwise testable. These experiences illustrate how small-molecule probes can help bridge the chasm between biological research and the development of medicines, but also highlight the need to innovate the science of therapeutic discovery. PMID:26046436

  16. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  17. [A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer Responding to Neoadjuvant Docetaxel/CDDP/S-1 Therapy with Metallic Stent Placement, Leading to Curative Surgery].

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Keiichi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Kimura, Jun; Takagawa, Ryo; Minami, Yuta; Makino, Hirochika; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Tsuburaya, Akira; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Endo, Itaru

    2015-11-01

    A 59-year-old man presented with epigastralgia. A diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer MLU, Circ, Type 3, 160 mm, tub2, cT4b (SI: panc), cN1, cM0, cH0, cP0, cCY0, cStage ⅢB was made. Because of difficulty with oral intake due to malignant outlet obstruction and tumor bleeding, endoscopic self-expanding metallic stent placement was performed. We administered chemotherapy involving docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1(DCS). After 2 courses of chemotherapy, the primary lesion and regional lymph nodes had reduced in size. His response was judged as SD according to the RECIST criteria. The patient elected to undergo explorative laparotomy for assessment of the gastric cancer. The intraoperative findings showed that there was no pancreatic invasion, peritoneal dissemination, or distal metastasis, so a total gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological findings showed that there were very few cancer cells in the primary lesion, and a lymph node metastasis was found. The final stage was gastric cancer MLU, Circ, Type 3, 100 mm, muc, ypT4a(SE), ypN3a (13/51), ypM0, ypH0, ypP0, ypCY0, ypStage ⅢC. The therapy evaluation was Grade 1b. In summary, we encountered a patient with gastric cancer in whom curative surgery was made possible by undergoing chemotherapy and metallic stent placement. PMID:26805260

  18. Feeding Tube Placement in Patients with Advanced Dementia: The Beliefs and Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Helen M.; Shega, Joseph W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the beliefs and practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) among patients with advanced dementia and dysphagia. Method: A survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1,050 medical SLPs. Results: The response rate was 57%, and 326 surveys met…

  19. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  20. Book review: Advances in reintroduction biology of Australian and New Zealand fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Review info: Advances in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna. Doug P. Armstrong, Matthew W. Hayward, Dorian Moro, and Philip J. Seddon, editors. 2015. ISBN 978-1486303014. 320 pp.

  1. Utilization of biologically generated acid for drilling fluid damage removal and uniform acid placement across long formation intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S.W.; Harris, R.E.; Penny, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A method of drilling damage removal is presented which uses biologically generated acid (BGA) as the stimulation fluid. The BGA solution is not reactive during the actual pumping stage which allows its displacement into the reservoir to be controlled by the relatively low permeability of the near wellbore damage. Catalytic generation of acid occurs at a controlled rate once the BGA has been injected into the formation and results in uniform damage removal around the near wellbore region. The ability of BGA to be generated under a variety of temperature and pressure conditions and the compatibility evaluation of BGA with a variety of commonly used oil and water based drilling muds is first presented to establish some of the operational guidelines for BGA use. Drilling damage removal studies utilizing the modified API linear conductivity flow cell and carbonate material with BGA is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this stimulation fluid. Dual core flow test data is then presented which shows BGA`s ability and HCL`s inability to remove drilling damage over long horizontal intervals in carbonate formations.

  2. Family ties and child placement.

    PubMed

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  3. Chemical Biology Probes from Advanced DNA-encoded Libraries.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Hazem; Klika Škopić, Mateja; Jung, Kathrin; Bugain, Olivia; Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    The identification of bioactive compounds is a crucial step toward development of probes for chemical biology studies. Screening of DNA-encoded small molecule libraries (DELs) has emerged as a validated technology to interrogate vast chemical space. DELs consist of chimeric molecules composed of a low-molecular weight compound that is conjugated to a DNA identifier tag. They are screened as pooled libraries using selection to identify "hits." Screening of DELs has identified numerous bioactive compounds. Some of these molecules were instrumental in gaining a deeper understanding of biological systems. One of the main challenges in the field is the development of synthesis methodology for DELs. PMID:26820267

  4. Advances in graft-versus-host disease biology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Blazar, Bruce R.; Murphy, William J.; Abedi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Preface Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat a variety of disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The past decade has brought impressive advances in our understanding of the role of both donor and host adaptive and innate immune stimulatory and immune suppressive factors that influence GVHD pathogenesis. New insights in basic immunology, preclinical models and clinical studies have led to novel prevention or treatment approaches. This review highlights recent advances in GVHD pathophysiology and its treatment with a focus on immune system manipulations that are amenable to clinical application. PMID:22576252

  5. Preparing Future Biology Faculty: An Advanced Professional Development Program for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Stephanie A.; Miller, Amanda J.; Cromie, Meghan M.

    2014-01-01

    Formal professional development programs for biology graduate students interested in becoming faculty members have come far; however, programs that provide advanced teaching experience for seasoned graduate teaching assistants are scarce. We outline an advanced program that focuses on further training of graduate teaching assistants in pedagogy…

  6. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated. PMID:25161694

  7. Recent Advances in the Biology and Genetics of Lowbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild lowbush blueberry is one of the most important agricultural crops in Maine and comprises about one third of all blueberry production in the United States, the rest being from improved cultivars of highbush and rabbiteye blueberry. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding ...

  8. ADVANCES IN CAMPYLOBACTER BIOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiol...

  9. Advanced digital subtraction angiography and MR fusion imaging protocol applied to accurate placement of flow diverter device.

    PubMed

    Faragò, Giuseppe; Caldiera, Valentina; Tempra, Giovanni; Ciceri, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    In recent years there has been a progressive increase in interventional neuroradiology procedures, partially due to improvements in devices, but also to the simultaneous development of technologies and radiological images. Cone beam CT (Dyna-CT; Siemens) is a method recently used to obtain pseudo CT images from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with a flat panel detector. Using dedicated software, it is then possible to merge Dyna-CT images with images from a different source. We report here the usefulness of advanced DSA techniques (Syngo-Dyna CT, three-dimensional DSA iPilot) for the treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with a flow diverter device. Merging MR and Dyna-CT images at the end of the procedure proved to be a simple and rapid additional method of verifying the success of the intervention. PMID:25589548

  10. The effects of a test-taking strategy intervention for high school students with test anxiety in advanced placement science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Doron J.

    Test anxiety is one of the most debilitating and disruptive factors associated with underachievement and failure in schools (Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, & Fadia, 1994; Tobias, 1985). Researchers have suggested that interventions that combine multiple test-anxiety reduction techniques are most effective at reducing test anxiety levels (Ergene, 2003). For the current study, involving 62 public high school students enrolled in advanced placement science courses, the researcher designed a multimodal intervention designed to reduce test anxiety. Analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among test anxiety levels, unit examination scores, and irregular multiple-choice error patterns (error clumping), as well as changes in these measures after the intervention. Results indicate significant, positive relationships between some measures of test anxiety and error clumping, as well as significant, negative relationships between test anxiety levels and student achievement. In addition, results show significant decreases in holistic measures of test anxiety among students with low anxiety levels, as well as decreases in Emotionality subscores of test anxiety among students with high levels of test anxiety. There were no significant changes over time in the Worry subscores of test anxiety. Suggestions for further research include further confirmation of the existence of error clumping, and its causal relationship with test anxiety.

  11. A comparison of the number of hours of sleep in high school students who took advanced placement and/or college courses and those who did not.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high school students were sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation was significantly associated with enrollment in AP/college courses. Results indicated that enrollment in AP/college courses had a greater impact on younger students than older students. Compared with non-AP/college course takers, AP/college course takers slept approximately 20 minutes less per night. Specifically, 9th- and 10th-grade AP/college course takers slept approximately 1 hour less and 40 minutes less, respectively. In addition, students enrolled in two or more AP/college classes received 1 hour less and 30 minutes less among 10th and 11th graders, respectively. These results provide useful information on adolescent sleep patterns for school nurses. PMID:19114472

  12. Advances in Soil Biology: What does this mean for assessing soil change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes [1]. However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. [2]). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.

  13. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed. PMID:25722878

  14. Computational Biology, Advanced Scientific Computing, and Emerging Computational Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-27

    This CRADA was established at the start of FY02 with $200 K from IBM and matching funds from DOE to support post-doctoral fellows in collaborative research between International Business Machines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore effective use of emerging petascale computational architectures for the solution of computational biology problems. 'No cost' extensions of the CRADA were negotiated with IBM for FY03 and FY04.

  15. Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le

    2009-06-01

    One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.

  16. Research advances on structure and biological functions of integrins.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Yuan, Zhijie; Qin, Guixin

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are an important family of adhesion molecules that were first discovered two decades ago. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein receptors consisting of α and β subunits, and are comprised of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. Therein, integrin cytoplasmic domains may associate directly with numerous cytoskeletal proteins and intracellular signaling molecules, which are crucial for modulating fundamental cell processes and functions including cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and survival. The purpose of this review is to describe the unique structure of each integrin subunit, primary cytoplasmic association proteins, and transduction signaling pathway of integrins, with an emphasis on their biological functions. PMID:27468395

  17. [Therapeutic consequences of molecular biology advances in oncology].

    PubMed

    Bauvet, F; Awada, A; Gil, T; Hendlisz, A

    2009-01-01

    This review article presents the improvements made in the field of molecular biology in oncology and their diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. As an illustration, three types of tumors for which these projections strongly modified the management will be used as a basis in this article: breast cancer, kidney cancer and colorectal cancer. Indeed, the last years, new prognostic factors (natural evolution of a specific patient's tumor) and predictive factors (prediction of the responsiveness to anticancer therapies) have emerged for these tumors. In addition, a better comprehension of the mechanisms implied in the development of cancers allowed the advent of many molecular-targeted therapies, which constitute a true revolution in oncology. PMID:19211361

  18. Advancing Systems Biology in the International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM) 2015.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongming; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Yufei; Huang, Kun; Ruan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2015) was held on November 13-15, 2015 in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. ICIBM 2015 included eight scientific sessions, three tutorial sessions, one poster session, and four keynote presentations that covered the frontier research in broad areas related to bioinformatics, systems biology, big data science, biomedical informatics, pharmacogenomics, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the 10 research articles that were selected from ICIBM 2015 and included in the supplement to BMC Systems Biology. PMID:27587087

  19. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  20. Opening up placement opportunities for students.

    PubMed

    Hill, Phillipa; Bullpitt, Samantha; Dean, Sharon; O'Flanagan, Sheryl; Fishburn, Nicky

    Student nurses need a variety of high-quality practice placements to prepare them for qualification yet, in reality, this can be difficult to achieve. A practice placement allocation model has enabled one university and its partner healthcare organisations to shift from a traditional, process-led system to a robust, proactive, student-focused approach. The model is based on partnership concepts including advance planning of student placements and clear lines of communication. It has resulted in 100% of first-year students taking part in a new fundamentals of care placement and received positive feedback from students and mentors. PMID:26012012

  1. Advances in preparation, analysis and biological activities of single chitooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Kecheng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-30

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS), as a source of potential bioactive material, has been reported to possess diverse bioactivities. These bioactivities of COS are often tested using relatively poorly characterized oligomer mixtures during past few decades, resulting in difficult identification of COS molecules responsible for biological effects. Therefore, a new interest has recently been emerged on highly purified COS of defined size. Several technological approaches have been used to produce single COS and new improvements were introduced to their characterization in order to understand the unrevealed structure-function relationship. Here we provide an overview of techniques that were used to prepare and analyze reasonably well-defined COS fractions. Based on the latest reports, several applications of single COS for plants and animals, are also presented, including antitumor, immunostimulatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, elicitors of plant defence and neural activity. PMID:26794961

  2. Biology and management of palm dynastid beetles: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Geoffrey O

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, oil, and date palms are important crops in the tropics and are attacked by dynastids that cause loss of production or death of hosts. Knowledge of their breeding sites has been extended since a previous review in 1980. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has potential as a biopesticide against immature stages in friable breeding sites. The molecular biology and ultrastructure of Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus (OrNV), disseminated by adults, have been studied, and this pathogen can reduce O. rhinoceros populations and damage when introduced into new locations, especially where damage had been high. New PCR techniques may enable reliable quantification of dosages ingested and hence virulence of different isolates. Male-produced aggregation pheromones have been identified in several species, for which they may have management potential, having been used commercially for trapping O. rhinoceros in oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia, and tested against O. monoceros in Africa. PMID:23317044

  3. Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications. PMID:25537445

  4. Mass spectrometric determination of early and advanced glycation in biology.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Naila; Ashour, Amal; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Protein glycation in biological systems occurs predominantly on lysine, arginine and N-terminal residues of proteins. Major quantitative glycation adducts are found at mean extents of modification of 1-5 mol percent of proteins. These are glucose-derived fructosamine on lysine and N-terminal residues of proteins, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone on arginine residues and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine residues mainly formed by the oxidative degradation of fructosamine. Total glycation adducts of different types are quantified by stable isotopic dilution analysis liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Metabolism of glycated proteins is followed by LC-MS/MS of glycation free adducts as minor components of the amino acid metabolome. Glycated proteins and sites of modification within them - amino acid residues modified by the glycating agent moiety - are identified and quantified by label-free and stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) high resolution mass spectrometry. Sites of glycation by glucose and methylglyoxal in selected proteins are listed. Key issues in applying proteomics techniques to analysis of glycated proteins are: (i) avoiding compromise of analysis by formation, loss and relocation of glycation adducts in pre-analytic processing; (ii) specificity of immunoaffinity enrichment procedures, (iii) maximizing protein sequence coverage in mass spectrometric analysis for detection of glycation sites, and (iv) development of bioinformatics tools for prediction of protein glycation sites. Protein glycation studies have important applications in biology, ageing and translational medicine - particularly on studies of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, neurological disorders and cancer. Mass spectrometric analysis of glycated proteins has yet to find widespread use clinically. Future use in health screening, disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, and

  5. Advancing Cell Biology Through Proteomics in Space and Time (PROSPECTS)*

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, Angus I.; Uhlen, Mathias; Horning, Stevan; Makarov, Alexander; Robinson, Carol V.; Serrano, Luis; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Werenskiold, Anne Katrin; Andersen, Jens S.; Vorm, Ole; Linial, Michal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The term “proteomics” encompasses the large-scale detection and analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Driven by major improvements in mass spectrometric instrumentation, methodology, and data analysis, the proteomics field has burgeoned in recent years. It now provides a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU-funded project that brings together leading European research groups, spanning from instrumentation to biomedicine, in a collaborative five year initiative to develop new methods and applications for the functional analysis of cellular proteins. This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics presents 16 research papers reporting major recent progress by the PROSPECTS groups, including improvements to the resolution and sensitivity of the Orbitrap family of mass spectrometers, systematic detection of proteins using highly characterized antibody collections, and new methods for absolute as well as relative quantification of protein levels. Manuscripts in this issue exemplify approaches for performing quantitative measurements of cell proteomes and for studying their dynamic responses to perturbation, both during normal cellular responses and in disease mechanisms. Here we present a perspective on how the proteomics field is moving beyond simply identifying proteins with high sensitivity toward providing a powerful and versatile set of assay systems for characterizing proteome dynamics and thereby creating a new “third generation” proteomics strategy that offers an indispensible tool for cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:22311636

  6. Recent advances in biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kurtovic, Jelica; Segal, Isidor

    2004-01-01

    Immune system is a major determinant of pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cytokines are well known mediators of immune system. Recently, informations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and their role in IBD have led to development of potential therapeutic approach to manipulate these cytokines and there by inhibiting inflammation in IBD. These therapeutic approaches include inhibitors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha lymphocyte trafficking, type 1 T helper (Th1) cell polarization and nuclear factor type beta; immunoregulatory cytokines and various growth factors. Studies on these therapies have documented variable results and the outcomes of many clinical trials are awaited. However, these potential therapies, if become real may revolutionise approach in patients with IBD. Analysis of the inflammed mucosa from patients with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have shown increased expression of certain proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha. The latter is important in the recruitment of neutrophils into inflammed tissue, a process which results from three physiological steps: (i) rolling, (ii) adhesion, and (iii) transendothelial migration. Understanding of the biology of chronic inflammation has expanded the therapies available for IBD and particularly CD. At present, the biological therapies that are being used in clinical practice or investigated for the treatment of IBD are predominantly proteins, usually delivered intravenously or subcutaneously. The therapies used include: 1. TNF-alpha inhibitors: infliximab, CDP 571, etanercept, onercept, CNI- 1493 and thalidomide. 2. Inhibitors of lymphocyte trafficking: natalizumab, LPD-02 and ICAM-1. 3. Inhibitors of Th1 polarization: monoclonal antibodies for IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and anti IFN-gamma. 4. Immunoregulatory cytokines: IL-10 and IL-11. 5. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa (beta NF-kbeta.) 6. Growth factors

  7. Gold Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine: Recent Advances and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Dykman, L.A.; Khlebtsov, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles with controlled geometrical and optical properties are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications, including genomics, biosensorics, immunoassays, clinical chemistry, laser phototherapy of cancer cells and tumors, the targeted delivery of drugs, DNA and antigens, optical bioimaging and the monitoring of cells and tissues with the use of state-of-the-art detection systems. This work will provide an overview of the recent advances and current challenges facing the biomedical application of gold nanoparticles of various sizes, shapes, and structures. The review is focused on the application of gold nanoparticle conjugates in biomedical diagnostics and analytics, photothermal and photodynamic therapies, as a carrier for delivering target molecules, and on the immunological and toxicological properties. Keeping in mind the huge volume and high speed of the data update rate, 2/3 of our reference list (certainly restricted to 250 Refs.) includes publications encompassing the past 5 years. PMID:22649683

  8. Recent advances in molecular biology of parasitic viruses.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

    2014-01-01

    The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses. PMID:25019235

  9. Viability of 3 D Woven Carbon Cloth and Advanced Carbon-Carbon Ribs for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, K. H.; Blosser, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes aerothermodynamic and thermal structural testing that demonstrate the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth and advanced carbon-carbon (ACC) ribs for use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle's shroud and deployed prior to reaching the atmeopheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is a lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than seen with conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient incllude factor-of-ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as the thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerdynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. Arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. Recently completed the thermal structural testing of the cloth attached to a representative ACC rib design is also described. Finally, this paper describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future ADEPT missions and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  10. Recent advances in the chemical biology of nitroxyl (HNO) detection and generation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhengrui; King, S Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Nitroxyl or azanone (HNO) represents the redox-related (one electron reduced and protonated) relative of the well-known biological signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Despite the close structural similarity to NO, defined biological roles and endogenous formation of HNO remain unclear due to the high reactivity of HNO with itself, soft nucleophiles and transition metals. While significant work has been accomplished in terms of the physiology, biology and chemistry of HNO, important and clarifying work regarding HNO detection and formation has occurred within the last 10 years. This review summarizes advances in the areas of HNO detection and donation and their application to normal and pathological biology. Such chemical biological tools allow a deeper understanding of biological HNO formation and the role that HNO plays in a variety of physiological systems. PMID:27108951

  11. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  12. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  13. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described. Students research the chosen topic using paper and electronic resources, generate a list of relevant articles, prepare abstracts based on papers read, and, finally, prepare a “state-of-the-art” paper on the topic. This approach, which extends over most of one semester, has resulted in a number of well-researched and well-written papers that incorporate some of the latest research in cell biology. The steps in this project have also led to students who are prepared to address future projects on new and complex topics. The project is part of an undergraduate course in cell biology, but parts of the assignments can be modified to fit a variety of subject areas and levels. PMID:16341261

  14. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information…

  15. Advanced Computer Simulations Of Nanomaterials And Stochastic Biological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakova, Maria S.

    computational and theoretical studies compose a powerful and diverse set of physical approaches and both analytical and numerical methodologies, that can be successfully applied in the fields of biology, chemistry and biophysics.

  16. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  17. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  18. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  19. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  20. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:25724695

  1. Recent Advances in Molecular Biology of Thyroid Cancer and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with a rapid rising incidence in recent years. Novel efficient management strategies are increasingly needed for this cancer. Remarkable advances have occurred in recent years in understanding the molecular biology of thyroid cancer. This is reflected in several major biological areas of thyroid cancer, including the molecular alterations for the loss of radioiodine avidity of thyroid cancer, the pathogenic role of the MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt pathways and their related genetic alterations, and the aberrant methylation of functionally important genes in thyroid tumorigenesis and pathogenesis. These exciting advances in molecular biology of thyroid cancer provide unprecedented opportunities for the development of molecular-based novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:19040974

  2. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. PMID:26701310

  3. A Placement Advisory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The primary method of placement at Portland CC (PCC) is the Compass Placement test. For the most part, students are placed correctly, but there are cases when students feel that they have been placed too low. In such cases we use our newly created Placement Advisory Test (PAT) to help us place them appropriately. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. Job Placement Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    Designed to serve as a guide for job placement personnel, this handbook is written from the point of view of a school or job preparation facility, based on methodology applicable to the placement function in any setting. Factors identified as critical to a successful placement operation are utilization of a systems approach, establishment of…

  5. Points of View: A Survey of Survey Courses: Are They Effective? A Case for Survey Courses in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fambrough, Douglas M.; Pearlman, Rebecca; Shingles, Richard; Brosnan, Rae

    2005-01-01

    In 2000 the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Department of Biology began teaching year-long survey lecture and lab courses to majors and nonmajors alike. Last year, the lecture courses became required for biology majors (unless they choose to place out of these courses with biology advanced placement [AP] exam scores of 4 or 5). Prior to 2000, most…

  6. Biological assessment of the advanced turbine design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D. D.; Deng, Z. D.; Richmond, M. C.; Moursund, R. A.; Carlson, T. J.; Rakowski, C. L.; Duncan, J. P.

    2007-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.

  7. Screw Placement and Osteoplasty Under Computed Tomographic-Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Case of Advanced Metastatic Destruction of the Iliosacral Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Trumm, Christoph Gregor; Rubenbauer, Bianca; Piltz, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    2011-02-15

    We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography-fluoroscopy (CTF) in a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial particle and coil embolization of the tumor-feeding vessels in the angiography unit, the procedure was performed under general anesthesia by an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologists and trauma surgeons. Under intermittent single-shot CTF, two K wires were inserted into the left iliosacral joint from a lateral transiliac approach at the S1 level followed by two self-tapping surgical screws. Continuous CTF was used for monitoring of the subsequent polymethylmethacrylate injection through two vertebroplasty cannulas for further stabilization of the screw threads within the osteolytic sacral ala. Both the screw placement and cement injection were successful, with no complications occurring during or after the procedure. With additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and opioid medication, the patient reported a marked decrease in his lower back pain and was able to move independently again at the 3-month follow-up assessment. In our patient with intolerable back pain due to tumor destruction and consequent pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint, CTF-guided iliosacral screw placement combined with osteoplasty was successful with respect to joint stabilization and a reduction in the need for analgesic therapy.

  8. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others. PMID:21794185

  9. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed. PMID:17325785

  10. Advanced glycation end-products: a biological consequence of lifestyle contributing to cancer disparity.

    PubMed

    Turner, David P

    2015-05-15

    Low income, poor diet, obesity, and a lack of exercise are interrelated lifestyle factors that can profoundly alter our biologic make up to increase cancer risk, growth, and development. We recently reported a potential mechanistic link between carbohydrate-derived metabolites and cancer, which may provide a biologic consequence of lifestyle that can directly affect tumor biology. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are reactive metabolites produced as a by-product of sugar metabolism. Failure to remove these highly reactive metabolites can lead to protein damage, aberrant cell signaling, increased stress responses, and decreased genetic fidelity. Critically, AGE accumulation is also directly affected by our lifestyle choices and shows a race-specific, tumor-dependent pattern of accumulation in cancer patients. This review will discuss the contribution of AGEs to the cancer phenotype, with a particular emphasis on their biologic links with the socioeconomic and environmental risk factors that drive cancer disparity. Given the potential benefits of lifestyle changes and the potential biologic role of AGEs in promoting cancer, opportunities exist for collaborations affecting basic, translational, epidemiologic, and cancer prevention initiatives. PMID:25920350

  11. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  12. Available evidence and new biological perspectives on medical treatment of advanced thymic epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Serpico, D; Trama, A; Haspinger, E R; Agustoni, F; Botta, L; Berardi, R; Palmieri, G; Zucali, P; Gallucci, R; Broggini, M; Gatta, G; Pastorino, U; Pelosi, G; de Braud, F; Garassino, M C

    2015-05-01

    Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare primary mediastinal tumors arising from thymic epithelium. Their rarity and complexity hinder investigations of their causes and therapy development. Here, we summarize the existing knowledge regarding medical treatment of these tumors, and thoroughly review the known genetic aberrations associated with TETs and the present status of potential biological treatments. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), stem-cell factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and VEGF-2) are overexpressed in TETs. EGFR overexpression in TETs is associated with higher stage, and IGF1R overexpression has poor prognostic value. Data indicate that anti-IGF1R monoclonal antibodies, and inhibitors of angiogenesis, somatostatin receptors, histone deacetylase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclin-dependent kinases may be active against TETs. Continued investigations in this field could lead to advancement of targeted and biological therapies for TETs. PMID:25411417

  13. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870

  14. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  15. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  16. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.

    2015-01-01

    Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…

  17. Computers and Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes computerized placement programs at three colleges. Cornell University developed a microcomputer program while Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University used the university's mainframe system. College of Lake County found that computerized job placement meant a stronger link with the business community. (JAC)

  18. Job Placement Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Elizabeth C.

    The publication presents guidelines to assist secondary schools in developing and implementing a job placement service within an existing guidance program. The need for and the goals of a school placement program are given. Areas to be considered in developing a program according to one of three organizational patterns (decentralized, centralized,…

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-01

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. PMID:25636058

  20. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events. PMID:25868677

  1. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment. PMID:24965093

  2. Biological Assessment of the Advanced Turbine Design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2007-09-12

    This report summarizes the results of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the biological performance (likelihood of injury to fish) from an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State in 2005. PNNL studies included a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile fish in the field, an evaluation of blade-strike using both deterministic and stochastic models, and extended analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish Device to strike, pressure, and turbulence within the turbine system. Fluorescein dye was used to evaluate injuries to live fish passed through the advanced turbine and an existing turbine at two spill discharges (15 and 17 kcfs). Under most treatments the results were not significantly different for the two turbines, however, eye injury occurred in nearly 30% of fish passing through Unit 9 but in less than 10% of those passing through Unit 8 at 15 kcfs. Both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models were applied for the original and new AHTS turbines. The modeled probabilities were compared to the Sensor Fish results (Carlson et al. 2006) and the biological studies using juvenile fish (Normandeau et al. 2005) under the same operational parameters. The new AHTS turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the original turbine, but no statistical evidence to suggest that there is significant difference in blade-strike injury probabilities between the two turbines, which is consistent with the experiment results using Sensor Fish and juvenile fish. PNNL also conducted Sensor Fish studies at Wanapum Dam in 2005 concurrent with live fish studies. The probablility of severe collision events was similar for both turbine. The advanced turbine had a slightly lower probability of severe shear events but a slightly higher probability of slight shear.

  3. Towards advanced biological detection using surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS)-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankus, Mikella E.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2010-08-01

    The Army has a need for an accurate, fast, reliable and robust means to identify and quantify defense related materials. Raman spectroscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy that is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for homeland defense applications, as it is well suited for the molecular identification of a variety of compounds, including explosives and chemical and biological hazards. To measure trace levels of these types of materials, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), a specialized form of Raman scattering, can be employed. The SERS enhancements are produced on, or in close proximity to, a nanoscale roughened metal surface and are typically associated with increased local electromagnetic field strengths. However, before application of SERS in the field and in particular to biological and other hazard sensing applications, significant improvements in substrate performance are needed. In this work, we will report the use of several SERS substrate architectures (colloids, film-over-nanospheres (FONs) and commercially available substrates) for detecting and differentiating numerous endospore samples. The variance in spectra as obtained using different sensing architectures will also be discussed. Additionally, the feasibility of using a modified substrate architecture that is tailored with molecular recognition probe system for detecting biological samples will be explored. We will discuss the progress towards an advanced, hybrid molecular recognition with a SERS/Fluorescence nanoprobe system including the optimization, fabrication, and spectroscopic analysis of samples on a commercially available substrate. Additionally, the feasibility of using this single-step switching architecture for hazard material detection will also be explored.

  4. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control. PMID:26427371

  5. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, P. F.; Ben Azouz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Liu, J.; Marczak, S.; Slouka, Z.; Chang, H. C.; Diamond, D.; Brabazon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  6. Biology of Advanced Uveal Melanoma and Next Steps for Clinical Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Jason J.; Triozzi, Pierre L.; McKenna, Kyle C.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Bastian, Boris C.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M.; Streicher, Howard Z.; Patel, Poulam M.; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A.; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T.; Carvajal, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy though it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15 year period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherpies are reviewed and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  7. Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jason J; Triozzi, Pierre L; McKenna, Kyle C; Van Meir, Erwin G; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Bastian, Boris C; Gutkind, J Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M; Streicher, Howard Z; Patel, Poulam M; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T; Carvajal, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy although it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15-yr period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease, and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between the Melanoma Research Foundation's ocular melanoma initiative, CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherapies are reviewed, and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  8. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  9. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  10. Recent advances in nutrient removal and recovery in biological and bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are key pollutants in wastewater to be removed and recovered for sustainable development. Traditionally, nitrogen removal is practiced through energy intensive biological nitrification and denitrification entailing a major cost in wastewater treatment. Recent innovations in nitrogen removal aim at reducing energy requirements and recovering ammonium nitrogen. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are promising for recovering ammonium nitrogen from nitrogen rich waste streams (urine, digester liquor, swine liquor, and landfill leachate) profitably. Phosphorus is removed from the wastewater in the form of polyphosphate granules by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Alternatively, phosphorous is removed/recovered as Fe-P or struvite through chemical precipitation (iron or magnesium dosing). In this article, recent advances in nutrients removal from wastewater coupled to recovery are presented by applying a waste biorefinery concept. Potential capabilities of BES in recovering nitrogen and phosphorous are reviewed to spur future investigations towards development of nutrient recovery biotechnologies. PMID:27053446

  11. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  12. Considerations in Starting a Patient with Advanced Frailty on Dialysis: Complex Biology Meets Challenging Ethics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nephrologists have focused on the uremic syndrome as an indication for dialysis. The elderly frail renal patient approaching ESRD represents a complex biologic system that is already failing. This patient phenotype exhibits progressive geriatric disabilities and dependence interspersed with shrinking periods of stability regardless of whether dialysis is started. Consequently, the frail renal patient faces challenging treatment choices underpinned by ethical tensions. Identifying the advanced frail renal patient and optimizing the shared decision-making process will enable him or her to make well informed choices based on an understanding of his or her overall condition and personal values and preferences. This approach will also permit nephrologists to fulfill their ethical obligations to respect patient autonomy, promote patient benefit, and minimize patient harm. PMID:23788617

  13. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P F; Ben Azouz, A; Vázquez, M; Liu, J; Marczak, S; Slouka, Z; Chang, H C; Diamond, D; Brabazon, D

    2014-09-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  14. ESL Placement and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  15. The Placement Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Stanley; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Two part presentation consisting, first, of study of reports indicating lack of imagination on part of placement directors, and second, of a nonstereotyped approach which puts emphasis on operating principles rather than on statistical data. (Author/CJ)

  16. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  17. Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: Flourishing Novel Approaches in the Era of Biological Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanne W.; Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Pang, Roberta; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Poon, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    The progress in the development of systemic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) has been slow. The mainstream treatment remains using chemotherapy including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and nab-paclitaxel. Erlotinib is the only approved biological therapy with marginal benefit. Studies of agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and RAS signaling have not been satisfying, and the usefulness of targeted therapy in APC is uncertain. Understanding in molecular processes and tumor biology has opened the door for new treatment strategies such as targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, transforming growth factor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, and Notch pathway. New directions also include the upcoming immunotherapy and many novel agents that act on the microenvironment. The practice of personalized medicine using predictive biomarkers and pharmacogenomics signatures may also enhance the effectiveness of existing treatment. Future treatment approaches may involve comprehensive genomic assessment of tumor and integrated combinations of multiple agents to overcome treatment resistance. PMID:25117068

  18. Advanced pancreatic cancer: flourishing novel approaches in the era of biological therapy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Joanne W; Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Pang, Roberta; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Poon, Ronnie; Yau, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The progress in the development of systemic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) has been slow. The mainstream treatment remains using chemotherapy including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and nab-paclitaxel. Erlotinib is the only approved biological therapy with marginal benefit. Studies of agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and RAS signaling have not been satisfying, and the usefulness of targeted therapy in APC is uncertain. Understanding in molecular processes and tumor biology has opened the door for new treatment strategies such as targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, transforming growth factor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, and Notch pathway. New directions also include the upcoming immunotherapy and many novel agents that act on the microenvironment. The practice of personalized medicine using predictive biomarkers and pharmacogenomics signatures may also enhance the effectiveness of existing treatment. Future treatment approaches may involve comprehensive genomic assessment of tumor and integrated combinations of multiple agents to overcome treatment resistance. PMID:25117068

  19. Advances in islet cell biology: from stem cell differentiation to clinical transplantation: conference report.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Fouad; Smith, Craig V; Todorov, Ivan; Mullen, Yoko

    2003-10-01

    The 3rd Annual Rachmiel Levine Symposium entitled "Advances in Islet Cell Biology-From Stem Cell Differentiation to Clinical Transplantation" was organized by the Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism at the City of Hope National Medical Center, with the support of the Southern California Islet Cell Resources Center, American Diabetes Association-David Shapiro Research Fund, Ross Foundation, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health. The symposium was held at the Hilton Anaheim Hotel in Anaheim, CA, in October 2002, and was attended by nearly 400 participants from 23 countries and 30 U.S. states. The symposium consisted of 11 sessions focusing on 3 areas: (1) pancreas and islet cell differentiation and islet generation, (2) beta cell biology and insulin synthesis and/or secretion, and (3) pancreatic islet transplantation in patients with type I diabetes. Thirty-nine world experts lectured on the most current information in each field. Fifty-three abstracts were selected for presentation and discussed at the poster session. The first author of each of the top 10 posters received a Young Investigator Travel Award provided by the National Center for Research Resources and the Southern California Islet Cell Resources Center. The symposium also offered special Meet the Professor sessions, which gave the attendees an opportunity to closely interact with the participating speakers of the day. PMID:14508143

  20. Glycoproteomics on the rise: established methods, advanced techniques, sophisticated biological applications.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Iulia M; Lee, Wooram; Lazar, Alexandru C

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most complex form of protein PTMs. Affected proteins may carry dozens of glycosylation sites with tens to hundreds of glycan residues attached to every site. Glycosylated proteins have many important functions in biology, from cellular to organismal levels, being involved in cell-cell signaling, cell adhesion, immune response, host-pathogen interactions, and development and growth. Glycosylation, however, expands the biological functional diversity of proteins at the expense of a tremendous increase in structural heterogeneity. Aberrant glycosylation of cell surface proteins, as well as their detectable fingerprint in plasma samples, has been associated with cancer, inflammatory and degenerative diseases, and congenital disorders of glycosylation. Therefore, there are on-going efforts directed toward developing new technologies and approaches for glycan sequencing and high-throughput analysis of glycosylated proteins in complex samples with simultaneous characterization of both the protein and glycan moieties. This work is aimed primarily at pinpointing the challenges associated with the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins and the latest developments in glycoproteomic research, with focus on recent advancements (2011-2012) in microcolumn separations and MS detection. PMID:23161435

  1. Advances in clarifying the phylogenetic relationships of acacias: Relevance for biological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinjan, C. A.; Hoffmann, J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Biological control of invasive Australian acacias will benefit from recent advances in resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Acacia s.l. and Acacia s.s. ("Australian acacias") within the subfamily Mimosoideae. Some of the phytophage taxa associated with Acacia s.s. display fidelity to a derived clade within the genus. This derived clade contains most of the Acacia s.s. species that have become problematic around the world. Phytophages that are demonstrably restricted to species within the derived clade pose essentially no risk to species outside Acacia s.s.. In contrast, prospective agents able to develop on species in the basal lineages of Acacia s.s. would require more-expansive testing because Acacia s.s. is closely related to the Ingeae, and then sequentially to the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa and Senegalia. Importantly, Vachellia is distantly related to Acacia s.s., being nested in basal Mimoseae lineages, and is thus less likely to be at risk than previously envisaged. Elucidation of these trends shows the benefits of having a comprehensive knowledge of the phylogeny of plants and phytophages under consideration for biological control.

  2. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination--a review.

    PubMed

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment. PMID:20956012

  3. The Biology Of Activin: Recent Advances In Structure, Regulation And Function

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Activin was discovered in the 1980’s as a gonadal protein that stimulated FSH release from pituitary gonadotropes and was thought of as a reproductive hormone. In the ensuing decades many additional activities of activin were described and it was found to be produced in a wide variety of cell types at nearly all stages of development. Its signaling and actions are regulated intracellularly as well as by extracellular antagonists. Over the past 5 years a number of important advances have been made that clarify our understanding of the structural basis for signaling and regulation, as well as the biological roles of activin in stem cells, embryonic development, and in adults. These include the crystallization of activin in complex with the activin type II receptor ActRIIB, or with the binding proteins follistatin and follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), and identification of the activin roles in gonadal sex development, follicle development and luteolysis, in β-cell proliferation and function in the islet, in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation into different cell types, and in immune cells. These advances are reviewed to provide perspective for future studies. PMID:19273500

  4. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493

  5. Biologically active collagen-based scaffolds: advances in processing and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yannas, I V; Tzeranis, D S; Harley, B A; So, P T C

    2010-04-28

    A small number of type I collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen-GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identified, including ligands for binding of fibroblasts to the collagen surface, the mean pore size (which affects ligand density) and the degradation rate (which affects the duration of the wound contraction-blocking activity by the scaffold). Processing variables that affect these determinants include the kinetics of swelling of collagen fibres in acetic acid, freezing of the collagen-GAG suspension and cross-linking of the freeze-dried scaffold. Recent developments in the processing of CGSs include fabrication of scaffolds that are paucidisperse in pore size, scaffolds with gradients in physicochemical properties (and therefore biological activity) and scaffolds that incorporate a mineral component. Advances in the characterization of the pore structure of CGSs have been made using confocal and nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM). The mechanical behaviour of CGSs, as well as the resistance to degradative enzymes, have been studied. Following seeding with cells (typically fibroblasts), contractile forces in the range 26-450 nN per cell are generated by the cells, leading to buckling of scaffold struts. Ongoing studies of cell-seeded CGSs with NLOM have shown an advantage over the use of confocal microscopy due to the ability of the former method to image the CGS surfaces without staining (which alters its surface ligands), reduced cell photodamage, reduced fluorophore photobleaching and the ability to image deeper inside the scaffold. PMID:20308118

  6. Biological Manipulation of Migration Rate: The Use of Advanced Photoperiod to Accelerate Smoltification in Yearling Chinook Salmon, Annual Report 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Albert E.; Muir, William D.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of biologically manipulating physiological development and migratory behavior of yearling spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. At Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, treatment groups were exposed to a variety of advanced photoperiod cycles preceding release to accelerate smolt development. Physiological development and migratory performance were described for all groups. The treatments included a 14-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod cycle, an 18-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod cycle, and an 18-week exposure to a 4-month advanced photoperiod cycle. Two additional groups, an 18-week exposure to a 3-month advanced photoperiod and a control equivalent, were reared at an elevated water temperature (11{degrees}C) for 2 weeks prior to release. Results indicated that the treated fish which were the most physiologically advanced at release were detected in the highest proportion at collector dams and also migrated fastest downstream. 26 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Description and phylogenetic placement of Beauveria hoplocheli sp. nov. used in the biological control of the sugarcane white grub, Hoplochelus marginalis, on Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Jouen, Emmanuel; Pastou, Didier; Payet-Hoarau, Magali; Goble, Tarryn; Linderme, Daphné; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Calmès, Cédric; Reynaud, Bernard; Nibouche, Samuel; Costet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    On Reunion Island successful biological control of the sugarcane white grub Hoplochelus marginalis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) has been conducted for decades with strains from the entomopathogenic fungal genus Beauveria (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). A study based on morphological characters combined with a multisequence phylogenetic analysis of genes that encode the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the Bloc nuc intergenic region was carried out on Beauveria strains isolated on Reunion and Madagascar from H. marginalis. This study revealed that these strains, previously identified as Beauveria brongniartii, did not match that species and are closely related to but still distinct from B. malawiensis strains. Therefore we describe the Reunion Island fungus as the new species B. hoplocheli. PMID:26297783

  8. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  9. Plasma cell myeloma--new biological insights and advances in therapy.

    PubMed

    Barlogie, B; Epstein, J; Selvanayagam, P; Alexanian, R

    1989-03-01

    levels) and biology. Further studies of cellular and molecular biology (ie, CAL-LA, H-ras) may reveal those tumor cell features that define clinical entities, response to therapy, and long-term prognosis. The lack of a major advance in prognosis despite the use of more drugs and more intensive regimens justifies the continued use of standard melphalan-prednisone for patients with a highly favorable prognosis, for the very aged, and for those with a short life expectancy due to other major medical problems. However, a radical departure from standard practice is required to improve the prognosis for younger patients with poor risk features.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2465790

  10. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  11. Advances in T Helper 17 Cell Biology: Pathogenic Role and Potential Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Elisabetta; Battistini, Luca; Borsellino, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the T helper (Th) 17 lineage, involved in the protection against fungal and extracellular bacterial infections, has profoundly revolutionized our current understanding of T cell-mediated responses in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, recent data demonstrate the pathogenic role of Th17 cells in autoimmune disorders. In particular, studies in MS and in its animal model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) have revealed a crucial role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelinating diseases in both mice and humans. Over the past years, several important aspects concerning Th17 cells have been elucidated, such as the factors which promote or inhibit their differentiation and the effector cytokines which mediate their responses. The identification of the features endowing Th17 cells with high pathogenicity in MS is of particular interest, and discoveries in Th17 cell biology and function could lead to the design of new strategies aimed at modulating the immune response in MS. Here, we will discuss recent advances in this field, with particular focus on the mechanisms conferring pathogenicity in MS and their potential modulation. PMID:26770017

  12. Advances in Wilms Tumor Treatment and Biology: Progress Through International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Dome, Jeffrey S; Graf, Norbert; Geller, James I; Fernandez, Conrad V; Mullen, Elizabeth A; Spreafico, Filippo; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-09-20

    Clinical trials in Wilms tumor (WT) have resulted in overall survival rates of greater than 90%. This achievement is especially remarkable because improvements in disease-specific survival have occurred concurrently with a reduction of therapy for large patient subgroups. However, the outcomes for certain patient subgroups, including those with unfavorable histologic and molecular features, bilateral disease, and recurrent disease, remain well below the benchmark survival rate of 90%. Therapy for WT has been advanced in part by an increasingly complex risk-stratification system based on patient age; tumor stage, histology, and volume; response to chemotherapy; and loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p and 16q. A consequence of this system has been the apportionment of patients into such small subgroups that only collaboration between large international WT study groups will support clinical trials that are sufficiently powered to answer challenging questions that move the field forward. This article gives an overview of the Children's Oncology Group and International Society of Pediatric Oncology approaches to WT and focuses on four subgroups (stage IV, initially inoperable, bilateral, and relapsed WT) for which international collaboration is pressing. In addition, biologic insights resulting from collaborative laboratory research are discussed. A coordinated expansion of international collaboration in both clinical trials and laboratory science will provide real opportunity to improve the treatment and outcomes for children with renal tumors on a global level. PMID:26304882

  13. Advancements in Transmitters and Sensors for Biological Tissue Imaging in Magnetic Induction Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zulkarnay; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Mansor, Muhammad Saiful Badri; Yaacob, Sazali; Ayub, Nor Muzakkir Nor; Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul; Aman, Syed Mustafa Kamal Syed

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT), which is also known as Electromagnetic Tomography (EMT) or Mutual Inductance Tomography, is among the imaging modalities of interest to many researchers around the world. This noninvasive modality applies an electromagnetic field and is sensitive to all three passive electromagnetic properties of a material that are conductivity, permittivity and permeability. MIT is categorized under the passive imaging family with an electrodeless technique through the use of excitation coils to induce an electromagnetic field in the material, which is then measured at the receiving side by sensors. The aim of this review is to discuss the challenges of the MIT technique and summarize the recent advancements in the transmitters and sensors, with a focus on applications in biological tissue imaging. It is hoped that this review will provide some valuable information on the MIT for those who have interest in this modality. The need of this knowledge may speed up the process of adopted of MIT as a medical imaging technology. PMID:22969341

  14. Assessment of Field Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshood, Nabil

    While field placement in human services programs is an extremely important practical phase of training, it has generally not been standardized, and thus can be difficult to assess. A model program and assessment format developed by Hudson County Community College (HCCC), in Jersey City, New Jersey, however, provides a possible framework for…

  15. Aerator Placement Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on fish production, water quality and economics of concentrating paddlewheel aeration in large commercial ponds, compared to the current method of aerator placement. Ten 17-acre ponds (approximately 600 X 1300 ft) were brought into the study in ...

  16. Research: Hyperactivity, Placement Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A diet that emphasizes the elimination of food containing artificial coloring and flavoring from meals served to hyperactive children has met with success in preliminary studies; college placement centers are advised to shift their emphasis from job research and counseling. (Author/MLF)

  17. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment. PMID:26564190

  18. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity, and

  19. Testing with Feedback Yields Potent, but Piecewise, Learning of History and Biology Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Steven C.; Gopal, Arpita; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Does correctly answering a test question about a multiterm fact enhance memory for the entire fact? We explored that issue in 4 experiments. Subjects first studied Advanced Placement History or Biology facts. Half of those facts were then restudied, whereas the remainder were tested using "5 W" (i.e., "who, what, when, where",…

  20. Combined processes of two-stage Fenton-biological anaerobic filter-biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen

    2012-12-01

    There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of COD<70 mg/L, TN<40 mg/L and NH(3)-N<10 mg/L. The removal efficiency of COD and TN were 96.1% and 95.9%, respectively. The effluent quality met the new discharge standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid of PR China (GB16889-2008). The operation cost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t). PMID:22841597

  1. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  2. A novel guide catheter enabling intracranial placement.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael C; Sherma, Arun K; Surdell, Daniel; Shaibani, Ali; Bendok, Bernard R

    2009-11-15

    We describe use of a novel guide, catheter with a soft and pliable, 6-cm or 12-cm distal segment that enables distal, including intracranial, placement--the Neuron guide catheter (Penumbra, San Leandro, CA)--in the treatment of 11 cases with a range of neuroendovascular lesions. We were able to advance the Neuron guide catheter to the intended level in each case and suffered no complications related to catheter spasm, dissection, thrombosis or thromboembolism. PMID:19670314

  3. Advances and challenges in the molecular biology and treatment of glioblastoma—is there any hope for the future?

    PubMed Central

    Veliz, Ignacio; Loo, Yong; Castillo, Omar; Karachaliou, Niki; Nigro, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), present some of the greatest challenges in the management of cancer patients worldwide. Even with aggressive surgical resections and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients remains dismal and quality of life is poor. Although new molecular pathways crucial to the biology and invasive ability of GBM are coming to light, translation of basic science achievements into clinical practice is slow. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications arising from both disease and treatment. To help illustrate “where we are going” with GBM, we here include a detailed depiction of the molecular alterations underlying this fatal disease, as well as intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of basic GBM biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25705639

  4. Recent advances and future directions in the management of knee osteoarthritis: Can biological joint reconstruction replace joint arthroplasty and when?

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a concise description of the recent advances in the field of osteoarthritis management is presented. The main focus is to highlight the most promising techniques that emerge in both biological joint replacement and artificial joint arthroplasty. A critical view of high quality evidence regarding outcome and safety profile of these techniques is presented. The potential role of kinematically aligned total knee replacement, navigation, and robotic-assisted surgery is outlined. A critical description of both primary and stem cell-based therapies, the cell homing theory, the use of biologic factors and recent advancements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is provided. Based on the current evidence, some thoughts on a realistic approach towards answering these questions are attempted. PMID:26495242

  5. Advances and challenges in the molecular biology and treatment of glioblastoma-is there any hope for the future?

    PubMed

    Veliz, Ignacio; Loo, Yong; Castillo, Omar; Karachaliou, Niki; Nigro, Olga; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), present some of the greatest challenges in the management of cancer patients worldwide. Even with aggressive surgical resections and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients remains dismal and quality of life is poor. Although new molecular pathways crucial to the biology and invasive ability of GBM are coming to light, translation of basic science achievements into clinical practice is slow. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications arising from both disease and treatment. To help illustrate "where we are going" with GBM, we here include a detailed depiction of the molecular alterations underlying this fatal disease, as well as intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of basic GBM biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25705639

  6. Recent advances and future directions in the management of knee osteoarthritis: Can biological joint reconstruction replace joint arthroplasty and when?

    PubMed

    Paschos, Nikolaos K

    2015-10-18

    In this article, a concise description of the recent advances in the field of osteoarthritis management is presented. The main focus is to highlight the most promising techniques that emerge in both biological joint replacement and artificial joint arthroplasty. A critical view of high quality evidence regarding outcome and safety profile of these techniques is presented. The potential role of kinematically aligned total knee replacement, navigation, and robotic-assisted surgery is outlined. A critical description of both primary and stem cell-based therapies, the cell homing theory, the use of biologic factors and recent advancements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is provided. Based on the current evidence, some thoughts on a realistic approach towards answering these questions are attempted. PMID:26495242

  7. Advances in molecular imaging of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: shedding new light on in vivo cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Shah, Ajay M.; Botnar, René M.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging of the cardiovascular system heavily relies on the development of new imaging probes and technologies to facilitate visualization of biological processes underlying or preceding disease. Molecular imaging is a highly active research discipline that has seen tremendous growth over the past decade. It has broadened our understanding of oncologic, neurologic, and cardiovascular diseases by providing new insights into the in vivo biology of disease progression and therapeutic interventions. As it allows for the longitudinal evaluation of biological processes, it is ideally suited for monitoring treatment response. In this review, we will concentrate on the major accomplishments and advances in the field of molecular imaging of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction with a special focus on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23064836

  8. Evolution in Action, a Case Study Based Advanced Biology Class at Spelman College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Aditi

    2009-01-01

    The Biology department at Spelman, a historically black women's college has undertaken a major curriculum revision in the last few years. A primary goal of this revision is to increase the breadth of topics in biology classes. Historically, classes in the areas of ecology and evolution have been underrepresented whereas Spelman has always offered…

  9. Biological Sciences in Advanced Further Education. Coombe Lodge Report, Study Conference 75/2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    Biology is an important growth area in postsecondary education in Great Britain, although confined to a small number of institutions. Papers presented on this topic include: trends and developments (E. Norris); biological manpower (B. Gregson-Allcott); laboratory design (A.J. Branton, F. Drake); the place of research (K. Wilson); Degree and…

  10. Advancing Biological Understanding and Therapeutics Discovery with Small-Molecule Probes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stuart L; Kotz, Joanne D; Li, Min; Aubé, Jeffrey; Austin, Christopher P; Reed, John C; Rosen, Hugh; White, E Lucile; Sklar, Larry A; Lindsley, Craig W; Alexander, Benjamin R; Bittker, Joshua A; Clemons, Paul A; de Souza, Andrea; Foley, Michael A; Palmer, Michelle; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wawer, Mathias J; McManus, Owen; Wu, Meng; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Golden, Jennifer E; Schoenen, Frank J; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Jackson, Michael R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Chung, Thomas D Y; Griffin, Patrick R; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Hodder, Peter S; Roush, William R; Roberts, Edward; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B; Noah, James W; Severson, William E; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Edwards, Bruce; Oprea, Tudor I; Conn, P Jeffrey; Hopkins, Corey R; Wood, Michael R; Stauffer, Shaun R; Emmitte, Kyle A

    2015-06-01

    Small-molecule probes can illuminate biological processes and aid in the assessment of emerging therapeutic targets by perturbing biological systems in a manner distinct from other experimental approaches. Despite the tremendous promise of chemical tools for investigating biology and disease, small-molecule probes were unavailable for most targets and pathways as recently as a decade ago. In 2005, the NIH launched the decade-long Molecular Libraries Program with the intent of innovating in and broadening access to small-molecule science. This Perspective describes how novel small-molecule probes identified through the program are enabling the exploration of biological pathways and therapeutic hypotheses not otherwise testable. These experiences illustrate how small-molecule probes can help bridge the chasm between biological research and the development of medicines but also highlight the need to innovate the science of therapeutic discovery. PMID:26046436

  11. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  12. Intelligent biology and medicine in 2015: advancing interdisciplinary education, collaboration, and data science.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Yufei; Li, Lang; Cooper, Lee; Ruan, Jianhua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2015) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics. The supplement includes 20 research articles selected from the manuscripts submitted to ICIBM 2015. The conference was held on November 13-15, 2015 at Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. It included eight scientific sessions, three tutorials, four keynote presentations, three highlight talks, and a poster session that covered current research in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational biology, biotechnologies, and computational medicine. PMID:27556295

  13. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  14. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  15. Client-Centered Placement Revisited: A Dialogue on Placement Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Usdane, William M.

    1977-01-01

    The authors take substantially different philosophical stances concerning placement in the rehabilitation process. Usdane believes that job placement is not given enough attention by rehabilitation counselors early in the rehabilitation process. Salomone advocates a greater emphasis on client growth and independence. (Author)

  16. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  17. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank—Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Iain R.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Musahl, Volker; Geeslin, Andrew G.; Zlotnicki, Jason P.; Mann, Barton J.; Petrigliano, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and result in considerable morbidity. Tears within the tendon substance or at its insertion into the humeral head represent a considerable clinical challenge because of the hostile local environment that precludes healing. Tears often progress without intervention, and current surgical treatments are inadequate. Although surgical implants, instrumentation, and techniques have improved, healing rates have not improved, and a high failure rate remains for large and massive rotator cuff tears. The use of biologic adjuvants that contribute to a regenerative microenvironment have great potential for improving healing rates and function after surgery. This article presents a review of current and emerging biologic approaches to augment rotator cuff tendon and muscle regeneration focusing on the scientific rationale, preclinical, and clinical evidence for efficacy, areas for future research, and current barriers to advancement and implementation. PMID:27099865

  18. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. PMID:25936898

  19. Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: Guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Sarah R.; Whittington, Ian D.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

    2013-01-01

    We review the use of parasites as biological tags of marine fishes and cephalopods in host population structure studies. The majority of the work published has focused on marine fish and either single parasite species or more recently, whole parasite assemblages, as biological tags. There is representation of host organisms and parasites from a diverse range of taxonomic groups, although focus has primarily been on host species of commercial importance. In contrast, few studies have used parasites as tags to assess cephalopod population structure, even though records of parasites infecting cephalopods are well-documented. Squid species are the only cephalopod hosts for which parasites as biological tags have been applied, with anisakid nematode larvae and metacestodes being the parasite taxa most frequently used. Following a brief insight into the importance of accurate parasite identification, the population studies that have used parasites as biological tags for marine fishes and cephalopods are reviewed, including comments on the dicyemid mesozoans. The advancement of molecular genetic techniques is discussed in regards to the new ways parasite genetic data can be incorporated into population structure studies, alongside host population genetic analyses, followed by an update on the guidelines for selecting a parasite species as a reliable tag candidate. As multiple techniques and methods can be used to assess the population structure of marine organisms (e.g. artificial tags, phenotypic characters, biometrics, life history, genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasitological data), we conclude by commenting on a holistic approach to allow for a deeper insight into population structuring. PMID:25197624

  20. 'The Relation of Biology to Astronomy' and Theology: Panspermia and Panentheism; Revolutionary Convergences Advanced by Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    In contrast to the Copernican revolution in astro-geometry, the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe contribution to the recent and continuing revolution in astrobiology - "cometary panspermia" - features astronomy and biology converging toward theology. They employed astro-biotic reasoning (often labeled "anthropic" reasoning) to demonstrate that life is made possible by the deliberate controlling influence of the living all-embracing "intelligent universe." This is consistent with panentheism [pan-en-theos-ism, not pantheism]. As advanced by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, cometary panspermia is panentheistic. Also, neoclassical panentheism requires generic panspermia, and favors cometary panspermia.

  1. The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and environmental X-ray facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O. B.; George, S. J.; Cramer, S. P.

    2007-11-01

    We have built a 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute samples in the soft X-ray band. It offers an energy resolution of ˜10-20 eV FWHM below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage of ˜10 -3, and can be operated at total rates of up to ˜10 6 counts/s. Here, we describe the spectrometer performance in speciation measurements by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray facility at the ALS synchrotron.

  2. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  3. Advanced concepts in biomass production and biological pretreatment. Annual report, April 1988 to March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.

    1989-04-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate fundamental processes for enhancing the efficiency of methane from sorghum systems. The report provides specifics of research activities in the Texas A and M biomass and biological pretreatment program sponsored by Gas Research Institute and co-funded by Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Four research groups, each with specific tasks, are involved in the project: biomass production, quantity and quality, biological pretreatment and processing, long-term effects of land application of digester effluent, and systems modeling and analysis.

  4. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:26227570

  5. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…

  6. MAPP: A Mathematics Placement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doblin, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    MAPP (A Mathematics Placement Program) uses two COBOL programs to place entering freshmen in mathematics courses which are commensurate with their backgrounds and abilities. Having been used for three years, the program is considered to be a viable alternative to the traditional mathematics placement process. (Author/JKS)

  7. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  8. Improvement of Job Placement Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    The Improvement of Job Placement Services Project was undertaken to examine and strengthen job placement services and programs in the California community colleges. Specific objectives of the project were to: (1) select and convene a 12-member representative advisory committee to oversee project operations working with the California Placement…

  9. Job Placement Services Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Pat N.; Tobias, Jeanette

    A mailout questionnaire was used in a study which focused on three areas of inquiry: (1) Needs assessment for job placement programs in public schools as viewed by superintendents of school districts and vocational administrators of occupational programs, (2) assessment of the perceived and established benefits of a placement program from the…

  10. 30 CFR 57.22004 - Category placement or change in placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Category placement or change in placement. 57... placement or change in placement. The Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health (Administrator) shall be responsible for category and subcategory placement, change in placement,...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22004 - Category placement or change in placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Category placement or change in placement. 57... placement or change in placement. The Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health (Administrator) shall be responsible for category and subcategory placement, change in placement,...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22004 - Category placement or change in placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Category placement or change in placement. 57... placement or change in placement. The Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health (Administrator) shall be responsible for category and subcategory placement, change in placement,...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22004 - Category placement or change in placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Category placement or change in placement. 57... placement or change in placement. The Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health (Administrator) shall be responsible for category and subcategory placement, change in placement,...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22004 - Category placement or change in placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Category placement or change in placement. 57... placement or change in placement. The Administrator for Metal and Nonmetal Mine Safety and Health (Administrator) shall be responsible for category and subcategory placement, change in placement,...

  15. Advanced Rotating Biological Surface Operation. Training Module 2.122.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, W. L.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a rotating biological surface (RBS) wastewater treatment system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and…

  16. Using Superstitions & Sayings To Teach Experimental Design in Beginning and Advanced Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefnagels, Marielle H.; Rippel, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a collaborative learning exercise intended to teach the unfamiliar terminology of experimental design both in biology classes and biochemistry laboratories. The exercise promotes discussion and debate, develops communication skills, and emphasizes peer review. The effectiveness of the exercise is supported by student surveys. (SOE)

  17. Advances in biological nitrogen treatment of animal wastewater: Nitrification and anammox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological nitrogen removal (BNR) is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of nitrogen from municipal wastewaters. Its use for economical treatment of animal wastewaters required development of new technologies and systems adapted to the higher-strengt...

  18. Apoptosis: A Four-Week Laboratory Investigation for Advanced Molecular and Cellular Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.; Mone, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, apoptosis has emerged as an important field of study central to ongoing research in many diverse fields, from developmental biology to cancer research. Apoptosis proceeds by a highly coordinated series of events that includes enzyme activation, DNA fragmentation, and alterations in plasma membrane permeability. The detection…

  19. ATP: A Coherent View for School Advanced Level Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how instruction of biological concepts as ATP cellular energetics is related to fundamental physical science understandings. Reviews areas of common misconceptions and confusions. Summarizes results of a study which investigated students' knowledge and perception of difficulty associated with the topic of energy and ATP. (ML)

  20. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Next Generation of Risk Assessment Final report This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molec...

  1. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. PMID:24076569

  2. Advances in biological control in relation to vectors of human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, J.

    1963-01-01

    In recent years, increased knowledge of insect pathology and ecology and the development of insecticide-resistance have led to a revival of interest in biological methods of controlling insects that carry human diseases. The author of this paper reviews the information at present available with regard to the various pathogens, predators and parasites of insect vectors of human disease—cockroaches, lice, bugs, fleas, mosquitos, flies and ticks—and suggests lines of future research that might prove profitable. In this connexion he stresses that only a world-wide investigation of the diseases of medically important insects will yield data on which a balanced biological research programme can be based—a programme leading to the development of practicable control procedures and their integration with chemical and other methods of control. PMID:20604158

  3. Advances in characterisation and biological activities of chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Li, Yongfei; Yu, Hailong; Zhang, Yanxin; Liu, Guangyang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been reported to possess various biomedical properties, including antimicrobial activities, immuno-enhancing effects, and anti-tumour activities. COS have attracted considerable interest due to their physicochemical properties, and potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries, especially in cancer therapies. This paper describes the preparation of COS and their physicochemical properties, and modification, which aids understanding of their biological activities. Based on the latest reports, several biological and anti-tumour activities of COS will be discussed. The proposed anti-tumour mechanisms of COS are summarised, to provide comprehensive insights into research on the molecular level. Finally, the potential applications and future development of the biopolymer will be discussed. PMID:26213092

  4. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.; Coutant, Charles C.; Whitney, Richard R.

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  5. Dietitians and small bowel feeding tube placement.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Cheryl

    2010-06-01

    Some advanced practice nutrition support dietitians have added small bowel feeding tube placement to their scope of responsibility. This is due, in part, to the challenges of gaining early enteral access in patients with functioning GI tracts. Emerging literature supports the practice of skilled practitioners placing feeding tubes at bedside. A variety of methods can be used to place tubes at the bedside. The nutrition support dietitian must understand licensure and liability considerations to perform this invasive procedure. This article will review literature reports of dietitians placing feeding tubes and provide information on the methods used, training and competencies required, and legal issues involved. PMID:20581321

  6. Physiological ecology in the 21st century: advancements in biologging science.

    PubMed

    Block, Barbara A

    2005-04-01

    Top pelagic predators such as tunas, sharks, marine turtles and mammals have historically been difficult to study due to their large body size and vast range over the oceanic habitat. In recent years the development of small microprocessor-based data storage tags that are surgically implanted or satellite-linked provide marine researchers a novel avenue for examining the movements, physiology and behaviors of pelagic animals in the wild. When biological and physical data obtained from the tags are combined with satellite derived sea surface temperature and ocean color data, the relationships between the movements, behaviors and physical ocean environment can be examined. Tag-bearing marine animals can function as autonomous ocean profilers providing oceanographic data wherever their long migrations take them. The biologging science is providing ecological physiologists with new insights into the seasonal movements, habitat utilization, breeding behaviors and population structures in of marine vertebrates. In addition, the data are revealing migration corridors, hot spots and physical oceanographic patterns that are key to understanding how organisms such as bluefin tunas use the open ocean environment. In the 21st century as ecosystem degradation and global warming continue to threaten the existence of species on Earth, the field of physiological ecology will play a more pivotal role in conservation biology. PMID:21676774

  7. [Advances in biological psychiatry research on dementia: AD-FTLD spectrum].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masatoshi

    2012-02-01

    Neurodegenerative dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), is one of the main target areas for research in biological psychiatry. In this review, the historical view, present situation, and further development in dementia research have been discussed from the viewpoint of biological psychiatry. Considering the rapidly increasing number of dementia patients in Japan, the importance of dementia in clinical psychiatry service will keep increasing in the near future. Biological as well as psychosocial knowledge is required to elucidate the mechanism underlying dementia. Although the molecular mechanism underlying the pathological features of AD has not yet been fully elucidated, it can be placed under the concept of the AD-FTLD spectrum, in which loss of function of an important gene may result in accumulation of insoluble proteins inside and outside neurons. To develop disease-modifying drugs for AD and FTLD, elucidation of pathological events that occur earlier than abnormal protein deposition is essential. Early diagnosis and early intervention are important for overcoming these neurodegenerative dementia. PMID:22308260

  8. Advances in biologically based models for respiratory tract uptake of inhaled volatiles.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Kimbell, J S; Morris, J B; Gerde, P; Overton, J H

    1993-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for volatile organic chemicals typically describe the respiratory tract as a single compartment in which chemicals in the alveolar air space and the arterial blood are in instantaneous equilibrium. These models also assume that the distribution of chemical in the air-stream is uniform throughout the respiratory tract and that uptake is significant only in the alveolar region. A functional role for the upper respiratory tract in the uptake of volatile chemicals has been largely ignored. While these models have worked well for chemicals with low aqueous solubility in biological fluids, systemic uptake of highly soluble volatiles is overestimated. Thus, there is a significant effort to describe the critical determinants for uptake of soluble chemicals and to formulate models with more biologically relevant descriptions of respiratory tract structure and function. Investigators have addressed this problem from several viewpoints. Airflow patterns in the respiratory tract, regional metabolism, diffusion-dependent uptake, and the cyclic nature of respiration are now being incorporated into current models. Use of dosimetric models that incorporate relevant biology for inhaled chemicals will ultimately result in more meaningful human risk assessments. PMID:8504900

  9. Computerized Placement Management Software (CPMS): User Manual, Version 3.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This guide is designed to enable the beginner, as well as the advanced user, to understand and use the Computerized Placement Management Software (CPMS). The CPMS is a system for evaluating information about students and recommending their placement into courses best suited for them. It also tracks their progress and maintains their records. The…

  10. Validating the Use of AP® Exam Scores for College Course Placement. Research Report 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Ewing, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) was created to provide access to rigorous, college-level curricula to motivated and prepared high school students. This study evaluated whether the AP Exam scores from the summative exams associated with 10 courses were valid for the placement of students into higher-level college courses in the subject area…

  11. Job Placement Regimes in Europe: Trends and Impacts of Changes. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konle-Seidl, Regina; Walwei, Ulrich

    Trends in job placement in Europe and the effects of advances in information and communication technologies on job placement practices were examined through case studies of France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The case studies revealed that the market shares of public employment services (PES) are generally higher than those…

  12. New and unconventional approaches for advancing resolution in biological transmission electron microscopy by improving macromolecular specimen preparation and preservation.

    SciTech Connect

    Massover, W.; Materials Science Division

    2011-02-01

    Resolution in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) now is limited by the properties of specimens, rather than by those of instrumentation. The long-standing difficulties in obtaining truly high-resolution structure from biological macromolecules with TEM demand the development, testing, and application of new ideas and unconventional approaches. This review concisely describes some new concepts and innovative methodologies for TEM that deal with unsolved problems in the preparation and preservation of macromolecular specimens. The selected topics include use of better support films, a more protective multi-component matrix surrounding specimens for cryo-TEM and negative staining, and, several quite different changes in microscopy and micrography that should decrease the effects of electron radiation damage; all these practical approaches are non-traditional, but have promise to advance resolution for specimens of biological macromolecules beyond its present level of 3-10 {angstrom} (0.3-1.0 nm). The result of achieving truly high resolution will be a fulfillment of the still unrealized potential of transmission electron microscopy for directly revealing the structure of biological macromolecules down to the atomic level.

  13. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank—Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 3

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnicki, Jason P.; Geeslin, Andrew G.; Murray, Iain R.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Mann, Barton J.; Musahl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Focal chondral defects of the articular surface are a common occurrence in the field of orthopaedics. These isolated cartilage injuries, if not repaired surgically with restoration of articular congruency, may have a high rate of progression to posttraumatic osteoarthritis, resulting in significant morbidity and loss of function in the young, active patient. Both isolated and global joint disease are a difficult entity to treat in the clinical setting given the high amount of stress on weightbearing joints and the limited healing potential of native articular cartilage. Recently, clinical interest has focused on the use of biologically active compounds and surgical techniques to regenerate native cartilage to the articular surface, with the goal of restoring normal joint health and overall function. This article presents a review of the current biologic therapies, as discussed at the 2015 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologics Think Tank, that are used in the treatment of focal cartilage deficiencies. For each of these emerging therapies, the theories for application, the present clinical evidence, and specific areas for future research are explored, with focus on the barriers currently faced by clinicians in advancing the success of these therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:27123466

  14. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15 mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application. PMID:26141873

  15. Postmarket safety in Canada: are significant therapeutic advances and biologics less safe than other drugs? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine the probability of new active substances (NASs) approved in Canada between 1 January 1997 and 31 March 2012 acquiring a serious postmarket safety warning. Design Cohort study. Data sources Annual reports of the Therapeutic Products Directorate and the Biologic and Genetic Therapies Directorate; evaluations of therapeutic innovation from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board and Prescrire International; MedEffect Canada website. Interventions Postmarket regulatory safety warning or withdrawal from market due to safety reasons. Primary and secondary outcome measures Compare the probability of acquiring a postmarket safety warning in Canada in four different groups of drugs: (1) traditional medications versus biologics; (2) medications that offer significant new therapeutic benefits versus those that do not. Determine how well the type of review that an NAS received from Health Canada predicted the product's postmarket therapeutic value. Results The probability of a traditional NAS acquiring a serious safety warning and/or being withdrawn was 29.9% (95% CI 21.8% to 40.2%) vs 27.3% (95% CI 18.2% to 39.7%) for an NAS of biological origin (p=0.47, log-rank test). For medications that were significant therapeutic advances the probability was 40.2% (95% CI 24.5% to 60.9%) vs 33.9% (95% CI 26.4% to 42.7%) for those that were not (p=0.18, log-rank test). Health Canada was 77.4% accurate in predicting the therapeutic importance of an NAS. Conclusions There was no difference in postmarket regulatory safety action between traditional medications and biologics and no difference between drugs with significant therapeutic benefits and those without. Although these results draw on Canadian data, they are likely to be relevant internationally. Further research should assess whether the current level of premarket safety evaluation is acceptable. PMID:24549164

  16. Kernel-Based Discriminant Techniques for Educational Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Miao-hsiang; Huang, Su-yun; Chang, Yuan-chin

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the problem of educational placement. Several discriminant techniques are applied to a data set from a survey project of science ability. A profile vector for each student consists of five science-educational indicators. The students are intended to be placed into three reference groups: advanced, regular, and remedial.…

  17. Training Special Educators: Sustaining Professional Development in Special School Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly changing demographic due to survival rates from medical advances, the need to strengthen training on SEND is now recognised, and special school placements valued, having been previously marginalised within initial teacher training. Practices developed since 2008 at one university to support progression of trainees to gain advanced…

  18. Systems biology and brain activity in neuronal pathways by smart device and advanced signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359

  19. Recent advances in superhydrophobic surfaces and their relevance to biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Ciasca, G; Papi, M; Businaro, L; Campi, G; Ortolani, M; Palmieri, V; Cedola, A; De Ninno, A; Gerardino, A; Maulucci, G; De Spirito, M

    2016-02-01

    By mimicking naturally occurring superhydrophobic surfaces, scientists can now realize artificial surfaces on which droplets of a few microliters of water are forced to assume an almost spherical shape and an extremely high contact angle. In recent decades, these surfaces have attracted much attention due to their technological applications for anti-wetting and self-cleaning materials. Very recently, researchers have shifted their interest to investigate whether superhydrophobic surfaces can be exploited to study biological systems. This research effort has stimulated the design and realization of new devices that allow us to actively organize, visualize and manipulate matter at both the microscale and nanoscale levels. Such precise control opens up wide applications in biomedicine, as it allows us to directly manipulate objects at the typical length scale of cells and macromolecules. This progress report focuses on recent biological and medical applications of superhydrophobicity. Particular regard is paid to those applications that involve the detection, manipulation and study of extremely small quantities of molecules, and to those that allow high throughput cell and biomaterial screening. PMID:26844980

  20. Combining Cooperative Education and Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Glenda F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that placement, like cooperative education, can function better in academic affairs rather than student affairs. Describes the combination of the two departments at the University of South Florida and discusses advantages and disadvantages of a combined program. (JAC)

  1. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  2. Recent advances of cytotoxic chalconoids targeting tubulin polymerization: Synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Hassan; Emami, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Since microtubules have an important role in mitosis and other vital cellular functions, tubulin-targeting chemotherapy has been received growing attention in anticancer drug design and development. It was found that a number of naturally occurring compounds including distinct chalcones exert their effect by inhibition of tubulin polymerization. After the identification of tubulin polymerization as potential target for chalcone-type compounds, extensive researches have been made to design and synthesis of new anti-tubulin chalconoids. Although diverse chalcones have found to be potent anticancer agents but in the present review, we focused on the recently reported tubulin polymerization inhibitors from chalcone origin and related synthetic compounds, and their detailed synthetic methods and biological activities. PMID:27318983

  3. Current Advances and Future Challenges in Adenoviral Vector Biology and Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Samuel K.; Barry, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene delivery vectors based on Adenoviral (Ad) vectors have enormous potential for the treatment of both hereditary and acquired disease. Detailed structural analysis of the Ad virion, combined with functional studies has broadened our knowledge of the structure/function relationships between Ad vectors and host cells/tissues and substantial achievement has been made towards a thorough understanding of the biology of Ad vectors. The widespread use of Ad vectors for clinical gene therapy is compromised by their inherent immunogenicity. The generation of safer and more effective Ad vectors, targeted to the site of disease, has therefore become a great ambition in the field of Ad vector development. This review provides a synopsis of the structure/function relationships between Ad vectors and host systems and summarizes the many innovative approaches towards achieving Ad vector targeting. PMID:17584037

  4. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  5. The cell biology of malaria infection of mosquito: advances and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sinden, R E

    2015-01-01

    Recent reviews (Feachem et al.; Alonso et al.) have concluded that in order to have a sustainable impact on the global burden of malaria, it is essential that we knowingly reduce the global incidence of infected persons. To achieve this we must reduce the basic reproductive rate of the parasites to < 1 in diverse epidemiological settings. This can be achieved by impacting combinations of the following parameters: the number of mosquitoes relative to the number of persons, the mosquito/human biting rate, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying infectious sporozoites, the daily survival rate of the infectious mosquito and the ability of malaria-infected persons to infect mosquito vectors. This paper focuses on our understanding of parasite biology underpinning the last of these terms: infection of the mosquito. The article attempts to highlight central issues that require further study to assist in the discovery of useful transmission-blocking measures. PMID:25557077

  6. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    PubMed

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  7. Recent advances in the structural biology of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Mikami, Tadahisa; Uyama, Toru; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Recent glycobiology studies have suggested fundamental biological functions for chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, which are widely distributed as glycosaminoglycan sidechains of proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and at cell surfaces. They have been implicated in the signaling functions of various heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines, and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system. They also function as receptors for various pathogens. These functions are closely associated with the sulfation patterns of the glycosaminoglycan chains. Surprisingly, nonsulfated chondroitin is indispensable in the morphogenesis and cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans, as revealed by RNA interference experiments of the recently cloned chondroitin synthase gene and by the analysis of mutants of squashed vulva genes. PMID:14568617

  8. Can the Natural Diversity of Quorum-Sensing Advance Synthetic Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell–cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  9. Correlation between iodine-131 MIBG imaging and biological markers in advanced neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.D.; Helson, L.; Benua, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging was performed in 38 patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Abnormal images were found in patients with elevations of urinary vanillylmandelic acid and dopamine and high serum neuron-specific enolase levels. Normal or minimal elevation of markers was seen in patients with negative images. In follow-up studies after chemotherapy, the disappearance of abnormal uptake was noted in those patients with normal marker values. A persistently abnormal uptake occurred in patients with high marker values. Conversion from a normal image to an abnormal image also occurred in patients whose markers became elevated. I-131 MIBG imaging is sensitive in detecting active foci of a neuroblastoma and is useful in monitoring chemotherapy in these patients.

  10. 34 CFR 300.327 - Educational placements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Educational placements. 300.327 Section 300.327... Educational Placements Development of Iep § 300.327 Educational placements. Consistent with § 300.501(c), each... makes decisions on the educational placement of their child. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1414(e))...

  11. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: implications of the recent advances in molecular biology, treatment and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Priyanka; Bhardwaj, Bhaskar; Susheela, Sridhar Papaiah; Madabhavi, Irappa

    2014-01-01

    A decade ago, lung cancer could conveniently be classified into two broad categories—either the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), mainly to assist in further treatment related decision making. However, the understanding regarding the eligibility of adenocarcinoma histology for treatments with agents such as pemetrexed and bevacizumab made it a necessity for NSCLC to be classified into more specific sub-groups. Then, the availability of molecular targeted therapy with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib not only further emphasized the need for accurate sub-classification of lung cancer, but also heralded the important role of molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas. Given the remarkable advances in molecular biology, oncology and radiology, a need for felt for a revised classification for lung adenocarcinoma, since the existing World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung cancer, published in the year 2004 was mainly a pathological system of classification. Thus, there was a combined effort by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) with an effort to inculcate newly established perspectives from clinical, molecular and radiological aspects in evolving a modern classification for lung adenocarcinomas. This review provides a summary of the recent advances in molecular biology and molecular targeted therapy with respect to lung adenocarcinoma. Also, a brief summation of the salient recommendations provided in the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinomas is provided. Lastly, a discussion regarding the future prospects with lung adenocarcinoma is included. PMID:25349702

  12. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Fabric Seams for Adapative Deployable Placement Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. O.; de Jong, M.; Prabhu, D. K.; Boghozian, T.; Kruger, C.; Cassell, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    The joining of gores of woven carbon fabric, robust to loading experienced during atmospheric entry is enabling for Advanced Deployable Entry Placement Technology. This paper demonstrates the viability stitched seams for use in ADEPT vehicles.

  13. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas. PMID:25149446

  14. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  15. Polar marine biology science in Portugal and Spain: Recent advances and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.

  16. Advances in design and testing of limited angle optical diffraction tomographysystem for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuś, A.; Makowski, P.; Kujawińska, M.

    2016-03-01

    Optical diffraction tomography has been steadily proving its potential to study one of the hot topics in modern cell biology -- 3D dynamic changes in cells' morphology represented with refractive index values. In this technique digital holography is combined with tomographic reconstruction and thus it is necessary to provide projections acquired at different viewing directions. Usually the Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration is used and while the object beam performs scanning, the reference beam is in most cases stationary. This approach either limits possible scanning strategies or requires additional mechanical movement to be introduced in the reference beam. On the other hand, spiral or grid scanning is possible in alternative common-path or Michelson configurations. However, in this case there is no guarantee that a specimen is sparse enough for the object to interfere with an object-free part of the beam. In this paper we present a modified version of Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based tomographic microscope, in which both object and reference beam are subject to scanning using one scanning device only thus making any scanning scenario possible. This concept is realized with a custom-built optical system in the reference beam and is appropriate for mechanical as well as optical scanning. Usually, the tomographic reconstruction setups and algorithms are verified using a microsphere phantom, which is not enough to test the influence of the distribution of the projections. In this work we propose a more complex calibration object created using two-photon polymerization.

  17. Children are not just little adults: recent advances in understanding of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma biology.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Kristin M; Hoeman, Christine M; Becher, Oren J

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a high-grade glioma that originates in the pons and is seen exclusively in children. Despite numerous efforts to improve treatment, DIPG remains incurable with 90% of children dying within 2 y of diagnosis, making it one of the leading causes of death in children with brain tumors. With the advent of new genomic tools, the genetic landscape of DIPG is slowly being unraveled. The most common genetic alterations include a K27M mutation in H3.3 or H3.1, which are found in up to 78% of DIPGs, whereas p53 mutations are found in up to 77%. Other recently discovered alterations include amplification of components of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, particularly platelet-derived growth factor receptor A. Recapitulating such alterations, genetically engineered DIPG preclinical models have been developed, and DIPG xenograft models have also been established. Both models have strengths and weaknesses but can help with the prioritization of novel agents for clinical trials for children with DIPG. As we move forward, it is important that we continue to study the complex and unique biology of DIPG and develop improved preclinical models to increase our understanding of DIPG pathogenesis, allowing translation into successful therapies in the not too distant future. PMID:24192697

  18. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.

  19. Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the world and the United States. However, Hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydro turbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make these hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon in the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Grant County Public Utility District (Grant PUD) requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that are designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy provided co-funding to Grant PUD for aspects of performance testing that supported the application. As an additional measure to the primary evaluation measure of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions or physical stresses that the fish experienced or the specific causes of the biological response. We found that the new blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by balloon tag-recapture tests. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of change environment for fish passage. Overall, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydro turbine design met the desired fish passage goals for Wanapum Dam.

  20. Use of an autonomous sensor to evaluate the biological performance of the advanced turbine at Wanapum Dam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2010-10-13

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy resource in the United States and the world. However, hydropower dams have adverse ecological impacts because migrating fish may be injured or killed when they pass through hydroturbines. In the Columbia and Snake River basins, dam operators and engineers are required to make those hydroelectric facilities more fish-friendly through changes in hydroturbine design and operation after fish population declines and the subsequent listing of several species of Pacific salmon under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, requested authorization from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission tomore » replace the ten turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines designed to improve survival for fish passing through the turbines while improving operation efficiency and increasing power generation. As an additional measure to the primary metric of direct injury and mortality rates of juvenile Chinook salmon using balloon tag-recapture methodology, this study used an autonomous sensor device - the Sensor Fish - to provide insight into the specific hydraulic conditions and physical stresses experienced by the fish as well as the specific causes of fish biological response. We found that the new hydroturbine blade shape and the corresponding reduction of turbulence in the advanced hydropower turbine were effective in meeting the objectives of improving fish survival while enhancing operational efficiency of the dam. The frequency of severe events based on Sensor Fish pressure and acceleration measurements showed trends similar to those of fish survival determined by the balloon tag-recapture methodology. In addition, the new turbine provided a better pressure and rate of pressure change environment for fish passage. Altogether, the Sensor Fish data indicated that the advanced hydroturbine design improved passage of juvenile salmon at Wanapum Dam.« less

  1. Recent advances in alveolar biology: evolution and function of alveolar proteins.

    PubMed

    Orgeig, Sandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Casals, Cristina; Clark, Howard W; Haczku, Angela; Knudsen, Lars; Possmayer, Fred

    2010-08-31

    This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two groups of surfactant proteins - the small molecular weight hydrophobic SPs, SP-B and -C, that regulate interfacial adsorption of the lipids, and the large hydrophilic SPs, SP-A and -D, which are surfactant collectins capable of inhibiting foreign pathogens. Further aiding pulmonary host defence are non-surfactant collectins and antimicrobial peptides that are expressed across the biological kingdoms. Linking to the first symposium session, which emphasised molecular structure and biophysical function of surfactant lipids and proteins, this review begins with a discussion of the role of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in shaping the evolution of SP-C in mammals. Transitioning to the role of the alveolus in innate host defence we discuss the structure, function and regulation of antimicrobial peptides, the defensins and cathelicidins. We describe the recent discovery of novel avian collectins and provide evidence for their role in preventing influenza infection. This is followed by discussions of the roles of SP-A and SP-D in mediating host defence at the alveolar surface and in mediating inflammation and the allergic response of the airways. Finally we discuss the use of animal models of lung disease including knockouts to develop an understanding of the role of these proteins in initiating and/or perpetuating disease with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:20433956

  2. Prognostic role of clinical, pathological and biological characteristics in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Honkoop, A. H.; van Diest, P. J.; de Jong, J. S.; Linn, S. C.; Giaccone, G.; Hoekman, K.; Wagstaff, J.; Pinedo, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical stage IIIA or IIIB breast cancer were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 10-72 months) and the median time to progression was 17 months (range 10-30 months). A multivariate analysis showed that a longer disease-free survival (DFS) was related to more chemotherapy cycles given (P = 0.003), a better pathological response to chemotherapy (P = 0.04) and fewer positive axillary lymph nodes (P = 0.05). A better overall survival (OS) was related to more chemotherapy cycles given (P = 0.03) and better pathological response to chemotherapy (P = 0.04). In patients with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, high levels of staining for Ki-67 was correlated with a worse DFS (P = 0.008). Other biological characteristics, including oestrogen receptor status, microvessel density (CD31 staining), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) staining and nuclear accumulation of p53, were not independent prognostic factors for either DFS or OS. If both P-gp and p53 were expressed, DFS and OS were worse in the uni- and multivariate analysis. The preliminary results of this phase II study suggest that coexpression of P-gp/p53 and a high level of staining for Ki-67 after chemotherapy are associated with a worse prognosis, and that prolonged neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the attainment of a pathological complete remission are important factors in determining outcome for patients with this disease. PMID:9484820

  3. Advancing Clinical Proteomics via Analysis Based on Biological Complexes: A Tale of Five Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in proteomic technologies, idiosyncratic data issues, for example, incomplete coverage and inconsistency, resulting in large data holes, persist. Moreover, because of naïve reliance on statistical testing and its accompanying p values, differential protein signatures identified from such proteomics data have little diagnostic power. Thus, deploying conventional analytics on proteomics data is insufficient for identifying novel drug targets or precise yet sensitive biomarkers. Complex-based analysis is a new analytical approach that has potential to resolve these issues but requires formalization. We categorize complex-based analysis into five method classes or paradigms and propose an even-handed yet comprehensive evaluation rubric based on both simulated and real data. The first four paradigms are well represented in the literature. The fifth and newest paradigm, the network-paired (NP) paradigm, represented by a method called Extremely Small SubNET (ESSNET), dominates in precision-recall and reproducibility, maintains strong performance in small sample sizes, and sensitively detects low-abundance complexes. In contrast, the commonly used over-representation analysis (ORA) and direct-group (DG) test paradigms maintain good overall precision but have severe reproducibility issues. The other two paradigms considered here are the hit-rate and rank-based network analysis paradigms; both of these have good precision-recall and reproducibility, but they do not consider low-abundance complexes. Therefore, given its strong performance, NP/ESSNET may prove to be a useful approach for improving the analytical resolution of proteomics data. Additionally, given its stability, it may also be a powerful new approach toward functional enrichment tests, much like its ORA and DG counterparts. PMID:27454466

  4. Effective conflict resolution strategies for SRAF placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjugunte, Shashidhara K.; Strecker, Norbert; Jayaram, Srividya; LaCour, Pat; Torunoglu, Ilhami

    2015-07-01

    Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) have emerged as a key technology to enable semiconductor manufacturing for advanced technology nodes. SRAF placement is required to adhere to manufacturability constraints (MRC). MRC specifications are distance and size constraints specified by the user to ensure SRAFs are not detrimental to the final target shapes being printed. Conceptually, SRAF placement can be divided into two steps - SRAF candidate generation and SRAF candidate cleanup or conflict resolution. SRAFs generated as candidates may not adhere to MRC constraints. It is during the cleanup/conflict resolution process that the MRC constraints are enforced. In this paper we focus on the latter phase - cleanup. The goal of the cleanup phase is to retain as much of the initial candidates as possible, and, if necessary, transform them to adhere to MRC conditions. An SRAF is said to be in conflict with another shape if it violates the distance MRC constraint. One can model these conflicts using a conflict graph G=(V,E), whose vertices V correspond to geometric shapes involved in a conflict and an edge is present in E, between two vertices if the corresponding shapes are involved in a conflict. A weight is associated with each vertex that could, for example, correspond to area of the corresponding shape. The goal of conflict resolution then, is to find a transformation of the vertices so that the resulting graph is conflict free while maximizing the weight of vertices retained. This can be viewed as a generalization of the computationally hard problem of finding the largest independent set of candidates, albeit allowing for transformation. The transformations we allow include deletion, splitting, resizing, merge, and bounded translation. In this paper, we describe an approach which classifies the conflicts and apply appropriate transformations to achieve effective SRAF placement. Further, we demonstrate that such a strategy reduces the number of rules to be specified by

  5. From technological advances to biological understanding: The main steps toward high-precision RT in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Ricotti, Rosalinda; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Cattani, Federica; Morra, Anna; Dell'Acqua, Veronica; Orecchia, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja

    2016-10-01

    Radiotherapy improves local control in breast cancer (BC) patients which increases overall survival in the long term. Improvements in treatment planning and delivery and a greater understanding of BC behaviour have laid the groundwork for high-precision radiotherapy, which is bound to further improve the therapeutic index. Precise identification of target volumes, better coverage and dose homogeneity have had a positive impact on toxicity and local control. The conformity of treatment dose due to three-dimensional radiotherapy and new techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy makes it possible to spare surrounding normal tissue. The widespread use of dose-volume constraints and histograms have increased awareness of toxicity. Real time image guidance has improved geometric precision and accuracy, together with the implementation of quality assurance programs. Advances in the precision of radiotherapy is also based on the choice of the appropriate fractionation and approach. Adaptive radiotherapy is not only a technical concept, but is also a biological concept based on the knowledge that different types of BC have distinctive patterns of locoregional spread. A greater understanding of cancer biology helps in choosing the treatment best suited to a particular situation. Biomarkers predictive of response play a crucial role. The combination of radiotherapy with molecular targeted therapies may enhance radiosensitivity, thus increasing the cytotoxic effects and improving treatment response. The appropriateness of an alternative fractionation, partial breast irradiation, dose escalating/de-escalating approaches, the extent of nodal irradiation have been examined for all the BC subtypes. The broadened concept of adaptive radiotherapy is vital to high-precision treatments. PMID:27542556

  6. Growth and development of Arabidopsis in the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) hardware designed for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidge, Rodney

    Wild type (Col 0) Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a growth chamber within the single mid-deck sized Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) spaceflight hardware developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center. Before beginning this experiment, the plants, each rooted in individual transferable tubes containing nutrients, were cultivated hydroponically on halfstrength Hoagland's solution beneath either LED lighting similar to that provided by the ABRS growth chamber or white fluorescent lighting. The leaves of the basal whorl of plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were small and purplish at the start of the experiment, whereas those under fluorescent lighting were larger and green. The plants were transferred to the ABRS soon after their inflorescence axes had started to elongate, and thereafter they were maintained under preset conditions (22 o C, approximately 1500 ppm CO2 , predominantly 125 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) with pulses of water provided at 1-3 d intervals (as needed) to the module into which the root tubes were inserted. That module was pre-treated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution on day 0, but no additional nutrients were provided the plants thereafter. Strong primary growth of all inflorescence stems occurred soon after initiating the ABRS experiment, and the plants began forming an overarching canopy of flowering stems beneath the LED lighting module within two weeks. After 38 days the root module was littered with seeds, siliques and abscised leaves, but all plants remained alive. Plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were more advanced toward senescence, and leaves and stems of plants pre-grown in fluorescent lighting although greener were also acquiring a purplish hue. Microscopy revealed that the flowering stems achieved no secondary growth; however, progressive inward conversion of pith parenchyma into sclerenchyma cells did occur resulting in the inflorescence stems becoming abnormally woody.

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of an Advanced Organizer and/or Behavioral Objectives on the Achievement of Disadvantaged Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    The use of an advanced organizer (a generalizable, encompassing concept) prior to an individualized instructional sequence in a self-paced, audiotutorial learning format was accompanied by gains in individual unit achievement and in retention by disadvantaged biology students. Although behavioral objectives generally were shown to make no…

  8. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  9. The Application of Advanced Cultivation Techniques in the Long Term Maintenance of Space Flight Plant Biological Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station (ISS) presents extensive opportunities for the implementation of long duration space life sciences studies. Continued attention has been placed in the development of plant growth chamber facilities capable of supporting the cultivation of plants in space flight microgravity conditions. The success of these facilities is largely dependent on their capacity to support the various growth requirements of test plant species. The cultivation requirements for higher plant species are generally complex, requiring specific levels of illumination, temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, and gas composition in order to achieve normal physiological growth and development. The supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen to the plant root system is a factor, which has proven to be particularly challenging in a microgravity space flight environment. The resolution of this issue is particularly important for the more intensive crop cultivation of plants envisaged in Nasa's advanced life support initiative. BioServe Space Technologies is a NASA, Research Partnership Center (RPC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. BioServe has designed and operated various space flight plant habitat systems, and placed specific emphasis on the development and enhanced performance of subsystem components such as water and nutrient delivery, illumination, gas exchange and atmosphere control, temperature and humidity control. The further development and application of these subsystems to next generation habitats is of significant benefit and contribution towards the development of both the Space Plant biology and the Advanced Life Support Programs. The cooperative agreement between NASA Ames Research center and BioServe was established to support the further implementation of advanced cultivation techniques and protocols to plant habitat systems being coordinated at NASA Ames Research Center. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of passive

  10. Advanced electro-Fenton degradation of biologically-treated coking wastewater using anthraquinone cathode and Fe-Y catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of bare and 2-ethyl anthraquinone-modified graphite felt (2-EAQ/GF) toward oxygen reduction was investigated using a cyclic voltammetry technique in a neutral solution. The prepared cathodes were tested for electrogeneration of H2O2 and electro-Fenton oxidation (EFO) treatment of neutral coking wastewater (CW) after biological process, using a graphite anode and Fezeolite Y catalyst. The results showed that (i) H2O2 yield and current efficiency greatly depended on cathodic potential and materials; (ii) hydroxyl radicals, generated from Fe-zeolite Y-catalyzed H2O2 decomposition, played a great role in EFO treatment, while anodic direct and indirect oxidation was insignificant; (iii) chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon (TOC) and acute toxicity of wastewater decreased by 40-50, 30-40 and 50-60%, respectively, and biodegradability increased after 1 h of EFO treatment. Due to the free-pH adjustment, EFO presents a potential engineering application for advanced treatment of CW. PMID:22053459

  11. The effects of student-led and teacher-led advance organizers on students' achievement and motivation of high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Melody Denise

    The purpose of this research study was to explore what effects student-led and teacher-led advance organizer's instruction had on students' achievement and motivation in a high school biology class. The study used three advance organizers - Venn diagrams, concept maps, and KWL charts. There was a total of 83 students who participated in this study, and were enrolled in four sections of high school biology. The students were divided into two groups using systematic matching and received different advance organizer's instruction. Two groups received student-led instruction using cooperative learning, whereas, the other two groups received teacher-led instruction. Each group received a pretest, Advance Organizer Motivation Survey, weekly advance organizer-based lessons and weekly advance organizer evaluations for six weeks, posttest, and Advance Organizer Motivation Survey. Pretest and posttest scores on the biology exam, weekly objective quizzes, and presurvey and postsurvey scores on the Advance Organizer Motivation Survey were collected. Statistical analyses found no overall statistically significant difference in achievement between groups. When looking at achievement results for redundant organizers it was found that the student-led group had a higher mean than the teacher-led group when working with concept maps. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in students' motivation to learn and motivation to participate in student-led activities between groups. The student-led group reported higher motivation than the teacher-led group. In regard to motivation and kinds of advance organizers, Venn diagrams and concept maps showed a statistically significant difference between groups, with the student-led group possessing more motivated with those two kinds of advance organizers than the teacher-led group. Qualitative data were also collected through weekly advance organizer evaluations, Advance Organizer Motivation Survey, and focus groups. These

  12. The Homogeneity of Optimal Sensor Placement Across Multiple Winged Insect Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Abigail L.

    Taking inspiration from biology, control algorithms can be implemented to imitate the naturally occurring control systems present in nature. This research is primarily concerned with insect flight and optimal wing sensor placement. Many winged insects with halteres are equipped with mechanoreceptors termed campaniform sensilla. Although the exact information these receptors provide to the insect's nervous system is unknown, it is thought to have the capability of measuring inertial rotation forces. During flight, when the wing bends, the information measured by the campaniform sensilla is received by the central nervous system, and provides the insect necessary data to control flight. This research compares three insect species - the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, the honeybee Apis mellifera, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Using an observability-based sensor placement algorithm, the optimal sensor placement for these three species is determined. Simulations resolve if this optimal sensor placement corresponds to the insect's campaniform sensilla, as well as if placement is homogeneous across species.

  13. The Placement Professional as Marketeer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses resistance of helping professions to marketing. Defines human services marketing. Describes forces that are placing human services in an increasingly competitive position. Makes recommendations to enhance the image of career planning and placement services and increase their usage. Concludes that by adopting a marketeer orientation,…

  14. When Placement People Are Displaced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Marianne

    1991-01-01

    Describes the experiences and insights of five laid-off placement people who discover the trauma of job loss. Discusses grieving a job loss, the emotions involved, the challenge of finding a new job, guilt faced by survivors, and advice to colleagues. (NB)

  15. Children with Behavioral, Non-Behavioral, and Multiple Disabilities, and the Risk of Out-of-Home Placement Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, Jesse J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relative risk of placement disruption for 3-10 year-old children placed in out-of-home care based on the biological relatedness of the placement caregiver and child disability status: no disability, a non-behavioral disability only, a behavioral disability only, or both a non-behavioral and behavioral disability.…

  16. Lumbar Catheter Placement Using Paramedian Approach Under Fluoroscopic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Khan, Asif A.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Herial, Nabeel A.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar catheter placement under fluoroscopic guidance may reduce the rate of technical failures and associated complications seen with insertion guided by manually palpable landmarks. Methods We reviewed our experience with 43 attempted lumbar catheter placements using paramedian approach under fluoroscopic guidance and ascertained rates of technical success, and clinical events. Results Among the 43 patients, 18, 1, and 1 patients were on aspirin (with dipyrimadole in 2), clopidogrel, and combination of both, respectively. Lumbar catheter placement was successful in 42 of 43 attempted placements. Floroscopic guidance was critical in three patients; one patient had severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) depletion (empty thecal sac phenomenon) following pituitary surgery leading to no cerebrospinal fluid return despite correct placement confirmation under fluoroscopy. Two patients had spinal needle placement at the junction between epidural and cerebrospinal fluid spaces (junctional position) leading to cerebrospinal fluid return but inability to introduce the lumbar catheter. After confirmation of position by the injection of contrast or radiographic landmarks the needle was advanced by indenting the subcutaneous tissue or reinserting at a spinal level above the first insertion. The lumbar catheter remained in position over a mean period (±standard deviation) of 4.1(±2.3) days. Improvement in hydrocephalus was seen in two patients with intracranial mass lesions. One patient developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the insertion track following removal of catheter and required skin suturing at the site of insertion. Conclusions We observed a high technical success rate with low rate of complications even in patients with intracranial mass lesions, those on ongoing antiplatelet medications or in whom insertion would not be possible guided by manually palpable landmarks. PMID:26958156

  17. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.104 Residential placement If placement in a public or private residential program is necessary to provide special education and related services to...

  18. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.104 Residential placement If placement in a public or private residential program is necessary to provide special education and related services to...

  19. Mathematics Placement at the University of Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren Reddy, Alison; Harper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ALEKS-based placement program at the University of Illinois is presented visually in several ways. The placement exam (an ALEKS assessment) contains precise item-specific information and the data show many interesting properties of the student populations of the placement courses, which include Precalculus, Calculus, and Business…

  20. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau...

  1. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau...

  2. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau...

  3. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau...

  4. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau...

  5. Can Placement Tests Inform Instructional Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony B.; Weir, Cyril J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of placement tests are typically narrowly concerned with their validation as instruments for the efficient grouping of students. They rarely explore the assumption that placement test content can be related to classroom tasks and so inform instructional decisions. This study focuses on a trial version of the Global Placement Test (GPT), a…

  6. A Client Centered Approach to Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.

    1971-01-01

    A client centered placement approach for handicapped people is proposed as an alternative to the traditional selective placement method. The client centered placement is based on client responsibility and counselor direction and requires the counselor to have an unrealistic but optimistic attitude that the client will get a suitable job.…

  7. Biological Manipulation of Migration Rate: The Use of Advanced Photoperiod to Accelerate Smoltification in Yearling Chinook Salmon, Annual Report of Research 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.

    1992-06-01

    Research was conducted during 1990 to assess the feasibility of biologically manipulating physiological development and migratory behavior of yearling spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. At Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, one treatment group was exposed to a 3-month advanced photoperiod schedule for 13 weeks preceding release to accelerate smolt development. Another group was exposed to the same advanced photoperiod schedule, but additionally was reared at an elevated water temperature (11.9{degrees}C) for 10 days prior to release. At Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery, a treatment group was exposed to a 3-month advanced photoperiod schedule for 17 weeks. Gill Na{sup +}-K{sup +}ATPase development and migratory performance were described for all groups. The treated fish which were the most physiologically advanced at release were detected in the highest proportions at collector dams and also migrated fastest downstream--similar to results obtained in 1988 and 1989.

  8. COURSE OUTLINE AND TEACHING GUIDE FOR ADVANCED STANDING ENGLISH II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMPSON, PHILLIP

    THE ADVANCED STANDING PROGRAM IN ENGLISH IS DESIGNED TO PREPARE SELECTED STUDENTS FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT CLASSES, WHICH ARE EQUIVALENT OF COLLEGE FRESHMAN ENGLISH, IN HIGH SCHOOL. WHILE KEEPING ADVANCED PLACEMENT NEEDS IN MIND, EMPHASIS IN CURRICULUM IS PLACED ON THE MORE IMPORTANT GOAL OF BETTER COLLEGE PREPARATION IN ENGLISH. THE ADVANCED…

  9. Acadian flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    We located 511 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in bottomland hardwood forest of eastern Arkansas. Microhabitat characteristics were measured and their relationship with nest success evaluated. Fifty-two percent of all nesting attempts resulted in predation. Attributes of nest placement were similar between successful and unsuccessful nests, although successful nests were placed higher. Similarly, nonparasitized nests were typically higher than parasitized nests. Nests initiated late in the breeding season were placed in larger trees with higher canopy bases resulting in increased vegetation around the nest. Fifteen different tree species were used for nesting. Acadian Flycatchers chose nest trees in a nonrandom fashion, selecting Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) and possumhaw (Ilex decidua) in greater proportions than their availability. However, there was no relationship between tree species used for nesting and nest success. Nest height was positively correlated with concealment at the nest site, supporting the predator-avoidance theory. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites, suggesting that nest predation is likely a function of random events in space and time.

  10. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  11. Peripheral Stent Placement in Hemodialysis Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kariya, Shuji Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Komemushi, Atsushi; Shomura, Yuzo; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Kawanaka, Toshiaki; Sawada, Satoshi

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of peripheral stent placement after failed balloon angioplasty in patients with grafts who are on hemodialysis. We examined 30 Wallstents that were placed in 26 patients because balloon angioplasty failed or early restenosis (<3 months) occurred within 3 months. We retrospectively reviewed 267 consecutive balloon angioplasties performed in 71 patients with graft access between August 2000 and March 2007. Stent placements accounted for 30 (11.2%) of the 267 balloon angioplasties. The clinical success rate of stent placement was 93.3% (28 of 30 stent placements). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency rates were 73.3%, 39.3%, and 17.7%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year secondary patency rates were 90.2%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Primary patency was significantly prolonged by stent placement after early restenosis compared with previous balloon angioplasty alone (P = 0.0059). Primary patency after stent placement was significantly lower than after successful balloon angioplasty without indications for stent placement (P = 0.0279). Secondary patency rates did not significantly differ between stent placement and balloon angioplasty alone. The mean number of reinterventions required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement was significantly larger than that after balloon angioplasty alone (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0419). We concluded that peripheral stent placement for graft access is effective for salvaging vascular access after failed balloon angioplasty and for prolonging patency in early restenosis after balloon angioplasty. However, reinterventions are required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement. Furthermore, peripheral stent placement for graft access cannot achieve the same primary patency as balloon angioplasty alone.

  12. NASA Automated Fiber Placement Capabilities: Similar Systems, Complementary Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Jackson, Justin R.; Pelham, Larry I.; Stewart, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    New automated fiber placement systems at the NASA Langley Research Center and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provide state-of-art composites capabilities to these organizations. These systems support basic and applied research at Langley, complementing large-scale manufacturing and technology development at Marshall. These systems each consist of a multi-degree of freedom mobility platform including a commercial robot, a commercial tool changer mechanism, a bespoke automated fiber placement end effector, a linear track, and a rotational tool support structure. In addition, new end effectors with advanced capabilities may be either bought or developed with partners in industry and academia to extend the functionality of these systems. These systems will be used to build large and small composite parts in support of the ongoing NASA Composites for Exploration Upper Stage Project later this year.

  13. [Cases of Obstructive Colon Cancer for Which Elective Surgery Was Performed after Colonic Stent Placement].

    PubMed

    Maruo, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Nishiyama, Raisuke; Koike, Kota; Kubota, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the short-term outcomes of 20 patients with obstructive colon cancer who underwent colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery (BTS) during the 3-year period between April 2012 and March 2015. Subjects comprised 13 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 68.3 years. Placement and decompression were successfully achieved in all of the patients. Oral ingestion became possible from a mean of 2.7 days after placement. No serious complications associated with placement were encountered. Total colonoscopy was performed after placement in 17 patients (85%), and independent advanced cancer was seen in the proximal portion of the colon in 1 patient. Elective surgery was performed for all of the patients after placement. Excluding the 2 patients for whom preoperative chemotherapy or treatment of another disease was prioritized, the mean interval to surgery for the remaining 18 patients was 23.2 days. The operative procedure performed was laparoscopic surgery in 8 patients (40%). Although minor leakage (n=1) and abdominal wall abscess (n=1) were observed as postoperative complications, the patients generally had an uneventful course. Colonic stent placement for obstructive colon cancer is relatively easy and safe, and may be considered as an effective treatment method that enables favorable intestinal decompression preoperatively and one-stage resection. PMID:26805323

  14. Product placement of computer games in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng-Li; Wang, Cheng-Shu

    2008-08-01

    Computer games are considered an emerging media and are even regarded as an advertising channel. By a three-phase experiment, this study investigated the advertising effectiveness of computer games for different product placement forms, product types, and their combinations. As the statistical results revealed, computer games are appropriate for placement advertising. Additionally, different product types and placement forms produced different advertising effectiveness. Optimum combinations of product types and placement forms existed. An advertisement design model is proposed for use in game design environments. Some suggestions are given for advertisers and game companies respectively. PMID:18721087

  15. Automated fiber placement: Evolution and current demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Carroll G.; Benson, Vernon M.

    1993-01-01

    The automated fiber placement process has been in development at Hercules since 1980. Fiber placement is being developed specifically for aircraft and other high performance structural applications. Several major milestones have been achieved during process development. These milestones are discussed in this paper. The automated fiber placement process is currently being demonstrated on the NASA ACT program. All demonstration projects to date have focused on fiber placement of transport aircraft fuselage structures. Hercules has worked closely with Boeing and Douglas on these demonstration projects. This paper gives a description of demonstration projects and results achieved.

  16. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Adaptable, Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project will test and demonstrate a deployable aeroshell concept as a viable thermal protection system for entry, descent, and landing o...

  17. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicated by Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Palliative Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Jin Hyoung Song, Ho-Young; Park, Jung-Hoon; Na, Han Kyu; Kim, Pyeong Hwa; Fan, Yong

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-expandable metallic stents in seven patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction caused by inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Seven patients with gastroduodenal obstruction caused by advanced HCC underwent metallic stent placement from 2003 to 2010. These patients had total dysphagia (n = 5) or were able to eat only liquids (n = 2) before stent placement. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores of 2 or 3, and Child-Pugh classification B or C. Results: Stent placement was technically successful in all seven patients (100%) and clinically successful in six (86%). Five patients could eat a soft diet, and one patient tolerated regular diet after stent placement. Stent-related obstructive jaundice occurred in one patient. One patient had hematemesis 11 days after stent placement. Overall mean survival was 51 days (range, 10-119 days). Stent patency was preserved in six patients with clinical success until death. Conclusion: Placement of a covered self-expandable metallic stent may offer good palliation in patients with gastroduodenal obstruction due to advanced HCC.

  18. ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURE METHODS AND DOSIMETRIC TECHNIQUES USED IN RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The various techniques and methodologies used for exposure and dosimetric assessment in radio-frequency (RF) biological effects studies are reviewed. Techniques are compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Significant progress has been made during the ...

  19. Gel placement in fractured systems

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines several factors that can have an important effect on gel placement in fractured systems, including gelant viscosity, degree of gelation, and gravity. For an effective gel treatment, the conductivity of the fracture must be reduced and a viable flow path must remain open between the wellbore and mobile oil in the reservoir. During placement, the gelant that``leaks off`` from the fracture into the rock plays an important role in determining how well a gel treatment will reduce channeling. For a given volume of gelant injected the distance of gelant leakoff is greater for a viscous gelant than for a low-viscosity gelant. In one method to minimize gelant leakoff, sufficient gelation is designed to occur before the gelant leaves the wellbore. The authors investigated this approach in numerous experiments with both fractured and unfractured cores. They studied Cr(III)/acetate/hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), resorcinol/formaldehyde, Cr(III)/xanthan, aluminum/citrate/HPAM, and other gelants and gels with various delay times between gelant preparation and injection. Their results suggest both hope and caution concerning the injection of gels into fractured systems.

  20. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 2: Rotator Cuff.

    PubMed

    Murray, Iain R; LaPrade, Robert F; Musahl, Volker; Geeslin, Andrew G; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Mann, Barton J; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2016-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and result in considerable morbidity. Tears within the tendon substance or at its insertion into the humeral head represent a considerable clinical challenge because of the hostile local environment that precludes healing. Tears often progress without intervention, and current surgical treatments are inadequate. Although surgical implants, instrumentation, and techniques have improved, healing rates have not improved, and a high failure rate remains for large and massive rotator cuff tears. The use of biologic adjuvants that contribute to a regenerative microenvironment have great potential for improving healing rates and function after surgery. This article presents a review of current and emerging biologic approaches to augment rotator cuff tendon and muscle regeneration focusing on the scientific rationale, preclinical, and clinical evidence for efficacy, areas for future research, and current barriers to advancement and implementation. PMID:27099865

  1. A Risk-Based Sensor Placement Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ronald W; Kulesz, James J

    2006-08-01

    A sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors or detectors to protect population against the exposure to and effects of known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as wind speed and direction pairs with the percentage of occurrence of the pairs over the historical period. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate population at risk against standard exposure levels. Sensor locations are determined via a dynamic programming algorithm where threats captured or detected by sensors placed in prior stages are removed from consideration in subsequent stages. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor or detector. Thus, the criterion for halting the iterative process can be the number of detectors available, a threshold marginal utility value, or the cumulative detection of a minimum factor of the total risk value represented by all threats.

  2. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  3. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  4. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  5. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  6. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  7. Exploring Continuous Clinical Placement for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Lisa G.; Wray, Natalie; McCall, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Clinical placements are integral to health professional preparatory courses. These placements allow for the application of classroom-based learning into real patient care situations. In doing so, they provide opportunities for applying theoretical knowledge into practice contexts, skills development and socialisation into the chosen profession.…

  8. Film Processing Module for Automated Fiber Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes fiber placement technology which was originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the fabrication of fiber composite propellant tanks. The presentation includes an image of the MSFC Fiber Placement Machine, which is a prototype test bed, and images of some of the machine's parts. Some possible applications for the machines are listed.

  9. PASS--Placement/Advisement for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Chuck; Wildie, Avace

    In 1985-86, Northern Michigan College (NMC) used funds received from the United States Department of Education to develop a system of assessment, advisement, and placement--Placement/Advisement for Student Success (PASS), an integrated system designed to improve student retention. PASS currently consists of three components: summer orientation,…

  10. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  11. Preceptor Handbook: Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart-Siddall, Sandra; Haberlin, Jean

    This handbook provides Rural Clinical Nurse Placement Program (RCNP) preceptors with a program overview and practical suggestions to apply during student placement. An introductory section describes how the program addresses the maldistribution of nurses by raising awareness about the rural experience, adding a needed perspective to the urban bias…

  12. Understanding Successful Sandwich Placements: A Bourdieusian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Martyn; Zukas, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich placements and other integrated work and study schemes are increasingly advocated as a key means by which universities can promote students' employability. However, there is little understanding of how successful placements work in terms of facilitating learning and development. Drawing on three longitudinal case studies of students who…

  13. Preparing ESP Learners for Workplace Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David

    2009-01-01

    Engineering students in North American universities often participate in cooperative education placements in workplaces as part of the requirements for their degrees and professional certification. Students for whom English is an L2 often experience difficulties in these placements due to the fact that while their academic language ability may be…

  14. Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    The Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines Project was designed to strengthen placement programs and services for California community college vocational students, and for all students needing part-time employment to realize their educational goals. The project was designed to test the validity and relevance of quality indicators…

  15. Job Placement and the School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke, John D.; Salomone, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The trend toward career education in the schools and its implications suggest the addition of job placement, especially client-centered placement, as part of the school counselor's responsibility. Planning for its eventual inclusion can only increase a counselor's ability to adapt in an ever-changing system of transient educational priorities.…

  16. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M; Hirsch, Penny R; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-03-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  17. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  18. Birth placement and child health.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  19. Using more healthcare areas for placements.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Lou; Whitehead, Bill; Young, Alwyn; Collins, Guy; Brundrett, Heather

    The need for private, voluntary and independent placements in nursing programmes has become more important in recent years due to changes in where health services are delivered. These placements can be used effectively within nursing programmes to show students the realities of healthcare, and to challenge myths and attitudes. Dedicated time and resources need to be provided to discover and maintain these placements, and to ensure appropriate, high-quality learning opportunities. This article presents the findings of a national Higher Education Academy workshop, held at the University of Derby in November 2012. It explores three key issues discussed at the workshop: current practice and opportunities for learning; myths, attitudes and solutions; and maintaining the quality of placements. The use of PVI placements is seen as valuable and a set of recommendations are provided to assist in their use. PMID:23905296

  20. Genetic Algorithm Approaches for Actuator Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2000-01-01

    This research investigated genetic algorithm approaches for smart actuator placement to provide aircraft maneuverability without requiring hinged flaps or other control surfaces. The effort supported goals of the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization focus efforts in NASA's Aircraft au program. This work helped to properly identify various aspects of the genetic algorithm operators and parameters that allow for placement of discrete control actuators/effectors. An improved problem definition, including better definition of the objective function and constraints, resulted from this research effort. The work conducted for this research used a geometrically simple wing model; however, an increasing number of potential actuator placement locations were incorporated to illustrate the ability of the GA to determine promising actuator placement arrangements. This effort's major result is a useful genetic algorithm-based approach to assist in the discrete actuator/effector placement problem.

  1. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  2. Advanced treatment of oilfield production wastewater by an integration of coagulation/flotation, catalytic ozonation and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, advanced treatment of heavily polluted oilfield production wastewater (OPW) was investigated employing the combination of coagulation/dissolved air flotation, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes. Two SBR reactors were separately set up before and after the ozonation unit. The results show that microbubble flotation was more efficient than macrobubble flotation in pollutant removal. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared Fe/activated carbon catalyst significantly enhanced pollutant removal in the second SBR by improving wastewater biodegradability and reducing wastewater microtoxicity. The treatment technique decreased oil, chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N by about 97%, 88% and 91%, respectively, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real OPW. PMID:26936286

  3. Pilot study on the advanced treatment of landfill leachate using a combined coagulation, fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Sili; Gu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Kaiyan

    2009-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate is typically non-biodegradable. A combination process was developed that includes coagulation, Fenton oxidation, and biological aerated filtering to treat biologically-produced effluent. In this process, coagulation and Fenton oxidation were applied in order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load, and enhance biodegradability. Poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) at 600 mgl(-1) was found to be a suitable dosage for coagulation. For Fenton oxidation, an initial pH of 5, a total reaction time of 3h, and an H(2)O(2) dosage of 5.4mmoll(-1), with a (H(2)O(2))/n(Fe(2+)) ratio of 1.2 and two-step dosing were selected to achieve optimal oxidation. Under these optimal coagulation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal ratios were found to be 66.67% and 56%, respectively. Following pretreatment with coagulation and Fenton oxidation, the landfill leachate was further treated using a biological aerated filter (BAF). Our results show that COD was reduced to 75mgl(-1), and the color was less than 10 degrees. PMID:19081237

  4. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  5. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health. PMID:27095366

  6. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 3: Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Petrigliano, Frank A; LaPrade, Robert F; Mann, Barton J; Musahl, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Focal chondral defects of the articular surface are a common occurrence in the field of orthopaedics. These isolated cartilage injuries, if not repaired surgically with restoration of articular congruency, may have a high rate of progression to posttraumatic osteoarthritis, resulting in significant morbidity and loss of function in the young, active patient. Both isolated and global joint disease are a difficult entity to treat in the clinical setting given the high amount of stress on weightbearing joints and the limited healing potential of native articular cartilage. Recently, clinical interest has focused on the use of biologically active compounds and surgical techniques to regenerate native cartilage to the articular surface, with the goal of restoring normal joint health and overall function. This article presents a review of the current biologic therapies, as discussed at the 2015 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologics Think Tank, that are used in the treatment of focal cartilage deficiencies. For each of these emerging therapies, the theories for application, the present clinical evidence, and specific areas for future research are explored, with focus on the barriers currently faced by clinicians in advancing the success of these therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:27123466

  7. Setting standards for high-quality placements.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Susan; Farran, Sean; Bateman, Ian

    As part of a project undertaken by a local education and training board, a wide range of stakeholders across South London were asked what makes a high-quality practice placement for student nurses, and how that quality could be effectively measured. This article outlines the drafting and testing of a set of quality standards in a mix of provider settings. Although further refinement is required, the standards enabled placement sites to question themselves about their own education and training processes, strengthened their partnership with the training and education board and facilitated the assurance that student nurses receive safe, effective and compassionate preparation when they are on placement. PMID:26434190

  8. Placement of tibial intraosseous infusion devices.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Crawley, Geoffrey; Mabry, Robert; Mazuchowski, Edward

    2011-07-01

    Post-mortem preautopsy multidetector computed tomography was used to assess the placement of tibial intraosseous infusion needles in 52 cases of battlefield trauma deaths for which medical intervention included the use of the technique. In 58 (95%) of 61 needles, the tip was positioned in medullary bone. All 3 (5%) unsuccessful placements were in the left leg, and the needle was not directed perpendicular to the medial tibial cortex as recommended. Considering the nature of military trauma and the environmental conditions under which care is rendered, military medical personnel appear to be highly successful in the placement of tibial intraosseous infusion needles. PMID:22128726

  9. The Interactive Effects of Race, Gender and School Composition on College Track Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates how organizational features of high schools interact with students' ascriptive characteristics to shape opportunities to learn. It advances previous research by examining the intersection of students' gender-by-race cohort with their high schools' racial composition on their Grade 12 English track placement in the…

  10. Career Counseling and Job Placement of Disabled Students at Two-Year Colleges: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; And Others

    This six-part guide, drawing upon recent research and development activities at the City University of New York's Center for Advanced Study in Education, presents information on the career development and placement of handicapped students for use by all specialists within a community college student personnel office. After introductory material…

  11. Virtual Transgenics: Using a Molecular Biology Simulation to Impact Student Academic Achievement and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shegog, Ross; Lazarus, Melanie M.; Murray, Nancy G.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Sessions, Nathalie; Zsigmond, Eva

    2012-10-01

    The transgenic mouse model is useful for studying the causes and potential cures for human genetic diseases. Exposing high school biology students to laboratory experience in developing transgenic animal models is logistically prohibitive. Computer-based simulation, however, offers this potential in addition to advantages of fidelity and reach. This study describes and evaluates a computer-based simulation to train advanced placement high school science students in laboratory protocols, a transgenic mouse model was produced. A simulation module on preparing a gene construct in the molecular biology lab was evaluated using a randomized clinical control design with advanced placement high school biology students in Mercedes, Texas ( n = 44). Pre-post tests assessed procedural and declarative knowledge, time on task, attitudes toward computers for learning and towards science careers. Students who used the simulation increased their procedural and declarative knowledge regarding molecular biology compared to those in the control condition (both p < 0.005). Significant increases continued to occur with additional use of the simulation ( p < 0.001). Students in the treatment group became more positive toward using computers for learning ( p < 0.001). The simulation did not significantly affect attitudes toward science in general. Computer simulation of complex transgenic protocols have potential to provide a "virtual" laboratory experience as an adjunct to conventional educational approaches.

  12. Placement of the acetabular component.

    PubMed

    Beverland, D E; O'Neill, C K J; Rutherford, M; Molloy, D; Hill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Ideal placement of the acetabular component remains elusive both in terms of defining and achieving a target. Our aim is to help restore original anatomy by using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) to control the height, depth and version of the component. In the normal hip the TAL and labrum extend beyond the equator of the femoral head and therefore, if the definitive acetabular component is positioned such that it is cradled by and just deep to the plane of the TAL and labrum and is no more than 4mm larger than the original femoral head, the centre of the hip should be restored. If the face of the component is positioned parallel to the TAL and psoas groove the patient specific version should be restored. We still use the TAL for controlling version in the dysplastic hip because we believe that the TAL and labrum compensate for any underlying bony abnormality. The TAL should not be used as an aid to inclination. Worldwide, > 75% of surgeons operate with the patient in the lateral decubitus position and we have shown that errors in post-operative radiographic inclination (RI) of > 50° are generally caused by errors in patient positioning. Consequently, great care needs to be taken when positioning the patient. We also recommend 35° of apparent operative inclination (AOI) during surgery, as opposed to the traditional 45°. PMID:26733639

  13. A blow to the fly - Lucilia cuprina draft genome and transcriptome to support advances in biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Clare A; Batterham, Philip; Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Bowles, Vernon M; Richards, Stephen; Scott, Maxwell J; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    The blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) is a parasitic insect of major global economic importance. Maggots of this fly parasitize the skin of animal hosts, feed on excretions and tissues, and cause severe disease (flystrike or myiasis). Although there has been considerable research on L. cuprina over the years, little is understood about the molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics of this parasitic fly, as well as its relationship with its hosts and the disease that it causes. This situation might change with the recent report of the draft genome and transcriptome of this blow fly, which has given new and global insights into its biology, interactions with the host animal and aspects of insecticide resistance at the molecular level. This genomic resource will likely enable many fundamental and applied research areas in the future. The present article gives a background on L. cuprina and myiasis, a brief account of past and current treatment, prevention and control approaches, and provides a perspective on the impact that the L. cuprina genome should have on future research of this and related parasitic flies, and the design of new and improved interventions for myiasis. PMID:26944522

  14. An MBO Approach to Placement Office Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storholm, Gordon R.

    1978-01-01

    This article investigates the basic functions and responsibilities of the college or university placement director and attempts to translate them into a specific MBO-oriented performance valuation format. (Author)

  15. Student life - Tips for placement success.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Placements are an inevitable part of a nursing degree which provide a platform for on-the-job learning and development, greatly enhancing a student nurse's understanding of their career choice. PMID:26932655

  16. Educational Placement of Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Calvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Procedures of school placement for 38 children (ages 5 to 18 years) with spina bifida in 23 school districts in western New York State were studied 5 years after a mandated process was enacted. (Author)

  17. Nerves and excitement on my first placement.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Emma

    2016-09-12

    After working in the children's accident and emergency department as a healthcare assistant for three years before starting university, I am about to start a placement there as a nursing student. PMID:27615579

  18. Exploring continuous clinical placement for undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Lisa G; Wray, Natalie; McCall, Louise

    2009-08-01

    Clinical placements are integral to health professional preparatory courses. These placements allow for the application of classroom-based learning into real patient care situations. In doing so, they provide opportunities for applying theoretical knowledge into practice contexts, skills development and socialisation into the chosen profession. However, despite its recognised importance across health professions, little has been written about optimal structures for supporting clinical learning. This paper presents one group of findings from a larger qualitative study aimed at exploring health professional student's clinical experiences and their impact on career intentions. Findings reported here present a group of undergraduate midwifery student's perspectives on a "home" hospital clinical placement model where continuous clinical placements were taken in the same agency (or hospital group) for 2 days per week over the final 2 years of their course. Two main themes emerged from the data analysis, these being, 'familiarity' and 'continuity'. It is concluded that continuous placements in the same clinical setting have the potential to offer greater opportunities for learning and early professional socialisation than traditional block (Monday to Friday) placements. They can offer a more integrated approach to classroom theory and its application into practice. PMID:18427942

  19. Recent advances in the determination of tocopherols in biological fluids: from sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Barbora; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Melichar, Bohuslav; Solich, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin E comprises eight related compounds: α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols. In the past, α-tocopherol has been the isomer that was studied most, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects have been described. Therefore, many prevention trials have investigated the effect of α-tocopherol on human health. Current research studies have also defined the important roles of other tocopherols, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cancer preventative effects. Knowledge of the individual tocopherols could help to understand their roles in various metabolic pathways. This review summarizes the recent trends in sample pretreatment, liquid chromatography and selected applications of the determination of tocopherols in various biological materials. The relationship between tocopherol isomers and serious diseases is also described. Graphical Abstract Article structure. PMID:26758599

  20. Advances in systems biology are enhancing our understanding of disease and moving us closer to novel disease treatments.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Eric E; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-01

    With tens of billions of dollars spent each year on the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and with fewer and fewer applications for investigational new drugs filed each year despite this massive spending, questions now abound on what changes to the drug discovery paradigm can be made to achieve greater success. The high rate of failure of drug candidates in clinical development, where the great majority of these drugs fail due to lack of efficacy, speak directly to the need for more innovative approaches to study the mechanisms of disease and drug discovery. Here we review systems biology approaches that have been devised over the last several years to understand the biology of disease at a more holistic level. By integrating a diversity of data like DNA variation, gene expression, protein-protein interaction, DNA-protein binding, and other types of molecular phenotype data, more comprehensive networks of genes both within and between tissues can be constructed to paint a more complete picture of the molecular processes underlying physiological states associated with disease. These more integrative, systems-level methods lead to networks that are demonstrably predictive, which in turn provides a deeper context within which single genes operate such as those identified from genome-wide association studies or those targeted for therapeutic intervention. The more comprehensive views of disease that result from these methods have the potential to dramatically enhance the way in which novel drug targets are identified and developed, ultimately increasing the probability of success for taking new drugs through clinical development. We highlight a number of the integrative approaches via examples that have resulted not only in the identification of novel genes for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but in more comprehensive networks as well that describe the context in which the disease genes operate. PMID:19363597