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Sample records for advanced placement high

  1. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  2. Characteristics of Grosse Pointe High School Students in Advanced Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloger, James Heracles

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to identify those factors that influence a high school student's success on the Advanced Placement (AP) Examinations by examining and comparing the variables contained in the high school records of former AP participants. A total of 248 high school students participated in the research. The criterion for…

  3. Teaching Advanced Placement United States History in the Urban, Minority High School: Successful Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLorenzo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses teaching Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history at an urban, minority high school. Addresses student recruitment; using a summer assignment; notetaking and the Document-Based Quiz, various teaching strategies; preparing and reviewing for the AP examination; using special events; and the importance of professional development and…

  4. Developing a Plan to Support Mathematics Students with Advanced Placement Potential at Indian River High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the many goals of schools is to have each student reach his/her fullest potential. One way schools challenge the accelerated learners is through the advanced placement (AP) program. Many able students at Indian River High School (IRHS) are choosing to enroll in college prep math courses instead of enrolling in honors and AP math. When…

  5. The Influence of Advanced Placement Enrollment on High School GPA and Class Rank: Implications for School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehde-Roddiger, Christina, Trevino, Rolando; Anderson, Pamela; Arrambide, Teresa; O'Conor, Juana; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    As high schools offer more pre-Advanced Placement (pre-AP) and Advanced Placement (AP) courses to prepare students for college academics, students often are given quality grade point average (GPA) points to help compensate for the rigorous curriculum. In states where class ranking determines automatic university admission, fluctuations of class…

  6. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  7. College Credit Earned in High School: Comparing Student Performance in Project Advance and Advanced Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Syracuse University's Project Advance (one of the first high school college cooperative programs in the United States through which college courses, taught in high schools by high school faculty, are taken for college credit) is described. (MLW)

  8. Access to Success:Patterns of Advanced Placement Participation in U.S. High Schools. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handwerk, Philip; Tognatta, Namrata; Coley, Richard J.; Gitomer, Drew H.

    2008-01-01

    Providing high school students access to advanced coursework has long been considered an important means of preparing students for success after high school. This study merges data from College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) program for the 2003-2004 school year with data from the U.S. Department of Education for all U.S. public high schools to…

  9. The Advanced Placement Program: A Case Study of One Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Marika Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    While Advanced Placement (AP) programs have been traditionally targeted toward academically prepared students, some secondary administrators make AP courses accessible to all students in order to support college readiness. The purpose of the present study is to explore how the AP program is being implemented in an urban school where many students…

  10. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  11. Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to…

  12. Confronting the "Acid Test": Educators' Perspectives on Expanding Access to Advanced Placement at a Diverse Florida High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, M. Lance; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines educators' perspectives on accountability mandates designed to expand access to the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP) classes to traditionally underserved students at a diverse suburban high school in Florida, Palm Crest High School. Consistent with Elmore (1979), district and site-based administrators focused on the…

  13. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    Four hundred sixty students in four public high schools were used as subjects to determine which of eleven academic and demographic factors studied were significant predictors of success for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination. Factors studied were attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the examination, grade point average, level of prerequisite biology course, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, proposed major in college, race, and SAT mathematics, verbal, and combined score. Significant relationships were found to exist between the Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, grade point average, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, race, and SAT scores. Significant relationships were not found to exist between Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and level prerequisite biology course and Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and proposed major in college. A multiple regression showed the best combination of predictors to be attendance, SAT verbal score, and SAT mathematics score. Discriminant analysis showed the variables in this study to be good predictors of whether the student would pass the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 3, 4, or 5) or fail the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 1 or 2). These results demonstrated that significant predictors for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination do exist and can be used to assist in the prediction of scores, prediction of passing or failing, the identification of

  14. Online Advanced Placement Courses: Experiences of Rural and Low-Income High School Students. WCALO Special Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcel, Kathleen W.

    A study examined rural, low-income students' experiences with online advanced placement (AP) courses. Interviews were conducted with 30 students, their mentors, and school administrators at four rural high schools in two Western states; 25 students were low-income. Positive comments about the online experience mentioned interaction with other…

  15. Assessment of Advanced Placement Participation and University Academic Success in the First Semester: Controlling for Selected High School Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Tolson, Homer; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    The College Board Advanced Placement Program allows high school students to take college-level courses and if an appropriate score on an exam is received, college credit is earned. While the program has had its detractors (access in rural and inner-city schools, lack of diversity, pre-selection of talented students, poor articulation with actual…

  16. Weighting for Recognition: Accounting for Advanced Placement and Honors Courses when Calculating High School Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Honors and advanced placement (AP) courses are commonly viewed as more demanding than standard high school offerings. Schools employ a range of methods to account for such differences when calculating grade point average and the associated rank in class for graduating students. In turn, these statistics have a sizeable impact on college admission…

  17. Effectiveness of Selected Advanced Placement Programs on the Academic Performance and College Readiness of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Traschell S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected Advanced Placement (AP) programs on the academic performance and college readiness of high school students. Specifically, the researcher was concerned with ascertaining the effectiveness of social science, math, science, English, music/art and language AP programs on the…

  18. High School Advanced Placement and Student Performance in College: STEM Majors, Non-STEM Majors, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth; Calderwood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The past few decades have seen an explosive growth in high-school student participation in the Advanced Placement program® (AP), with nearly two million exams completed in 2011. Traditionally, universities have considered AP enrollment as an indicator for predicting academic success during the admission process. However, AP…

  19. A Phenomenological Study of How High School Advanced Placement Classes Prepared First-Generation College Students for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…

  20. Engaging High School Students in Advanced Math and Science Courses for Success in College: Is Advanced Placement the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Kemple, Thomas; Proger, Amy; Roderick, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The current study provides an in-depth look at Advanced Placement (AP) math and science course-taking in one school district, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). Using quasi-experimental methods, this study examines the college outcomes of students who take AP math and science courses. Specifically, this study asks whether students who take AP math…

  1. Expanding the Scope of Advanced Placement Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Paul Dosal of the University of South Florida is not impressed with the way most high school students learn about Latin American history. Dosal believes an advanced placement course in the subject will change that. He's the executive director of ENLACE Florida, a statewide network funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, designed to increase the…

  2. Literary Archetypes. Advanced Placement English Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Providing students with the opportunity to earn college credit while still in high school, the Advanced Placement English course described in this guide is designed to help students (1) want to choose from a wide range of literature for independent reading; (2) develop a critical awareness about literature; (3) recognize connections among works of…

  3. Advanced Placement: Model Policy Components. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP), launched in 1955 by the College Board as a program to offer gifted high school students the opportunity to complete entry-level college coursework, has since expanded to encourage a broader array of students to tackle challenging content. This Education Commission of the State's Policy Analysis identifies key components of…

  4. Honors and Advanced Placement Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes papers and minipapers on honors and advanced placement (AP) chemistry courses presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Advantages/disadvantages of AP chemistry, high school/college courses, and grouping all chemistry students in one class were among the topics discussed. (JN)

  5. Advanced Placement Program: Delaware Profile 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carole D.

    The major objectives and benefits of the Advanced Placement Program (APP) are summarized, and data specific to Delaware are compared to national statistics about advanced placement (AP) courses in high schools. School participation in the APP is considered an indicator of academic success by educators and policy makers. The extent to which…

  6. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  7. Advanced Placement Courses and American Indian Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and performance on Advanced Placement examinations for American Indians in the U.S. for 2007 was analyzed. Scores on AP examinations, overall and then for five AP courses, were compared to the AP examination scores of White students. In every case, American Indians had AP examination scores that were…

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  9. High School Students' Attitudes and Beliefs on Using the Science Writing Heuristic in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putti, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses student attitudes and beliefs on using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in an advanced placement (AP) chemistry classroom. During the 2007 school year, the SWH was used in a class of 24 AP chemistry students. Using a Likert-type survey, student attitudes and beliefs on the process were determined. Methods for the study are…

  10. A Comparison of the Number of Hours of Sleep in High School Students Who Took Advanced Placement and/or College Courses and Those Who Did Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high…

  11. Academic Preparedness and College Preparation Efforts: A Comparative Analysis of Perception of High School Advanced Placement Teachers and College Admissions Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Jason Hughes

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between high school efforts at post-secondary preparation for college bound students and the expectations of college and university admissions personnel. The Advanced Placement (AP) teachers and administrators at a rural Northwest Florida high school were administered a quantitative survey in order to collect…

  12. An Exploration of Student and Teacher Social Presence in Asynchronous Discussion in an Online Advanced Placement Course for Rural High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Varre, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This study used a social presence construct derived from the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework, with cohesive, affective, and interactive components, to explore online discussion in an Advanced Placement course for rural high school students. The COI is based on the underlying theoretical framework of social constructivism, where interaction is…

  13. A Forum To Expand Advanced Placement Opportunities: Increasing Access and Improving Preparation in High Schools. Transcript of Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This transcript reproduces a Department of Education/College Board-sponsored discussion on ways to expand advanced-placement (AP) opportunities in high schools. The deliberations opened with a presentation by Terry Peterson, Senior Advisor to Education Secretary Richard Riley, in which he focused on the importance of AP courses for minority and…

  14. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  15. A comparative analysis of teacher-authored websites in high school honors and Advanced Placement physics for Web-design and NSES content and process standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persin, Ronald C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statistically significant differences existed between high school Honors Physics websites and those of Advanced Placement (AP) Physics in terms of Web-design, National Science Education Standards (NSES) Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. The procedure began with the selection of 152 sites comprising two groups with equal sample sizes of 76 for Honors Physics and for Advanced Placement Physics. The websites used in the study were accumulated using the Google(TM) search engine. To find Honors Physics websites, the search words "honors physics high school" were entered as the query into the search engine. To find sites for Advanced Placement Physics, the query, "advanced placement physics high school," was entered into the search engine. The evaluation of each website was performed using an instrument developed by the researcher based on three attributes: Web-design, NSES Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. A "1" was scored if the website was found to have each attribute, otherwise a "0" was given. This process continued until all 76 websites were evaluated for each of the two types of physics websites, Honors and Advanced Placement. Subsequently the data were processed using Excel functions and the SPSS statistical software program. The mean and standard deviation were computed individually for the three attributes under consideration. Three, 2-tailed, independent samples t tests were performed to compare the two groups of physics websites separately on the basis of Web Design, Physics Content, and Science Process. The results of the study indicated that there was only one statistically significant difference between high school Honors Physics websites and those of AP Physics. The only difference detected was in terms of National Science Education Standards Physics content. It was found that Advanced Placement Physics websites contained more NSES physics content than Honors

  16. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  17. Advanced Placement Economics. Macroeconomics: Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book is designed to help advanced placement students better understand macroeconomic concepts through various activities. The book contains 6 units with 64 activities, sample multiple-choice questions, sample short essay questions, and sample long essay questions. The units are entitled: (1) "Basic Economic Concepts"; (2) "Measuring Economic…

  18. Advanced Placement Economics. Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, John S.

    This book, in conjunction with the student activities books for macroeconomics and microeconomics, is designed for teaching the Advanced Placement Economics course. The book contains five units for the microeconomic portion and six units for the macroeconomic portion of the text. Along with the many activities are sample multiple-choice questions,…

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHIC GUIDE FOR ADVANCED PLACEMENT, LATIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRON, ROBERT; ROSELLE, LEONE

    LITERARY AND CRITICAL WORKS, REFERENCE BOOKS, PERIODICALS, RECORDS, FILMS, AND FILMSTRIPS DEALING WITH ROMAN LITERATURE, HISTORY, CIVILIZATION, MYTHOLOGY, AND LANGUAGE ARE INCLUDED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECOMMENDED READING IN ENGLISH FOR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAMS IN LATIN. THE LIST IS DIVIDED INTO TWO $500 GROUPS, SO THAT FOR CONVENIENCE IN…

  20. Introduction. Teaching Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Alexander B.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of "Journal of Geography" focusing on the teaching of Advanced Placement (AP) human geography. States that essays were developed by members of the AP Human Geography Development Committee focusing on areas in the human geography course outline which are included in the appendix. (CMK)

  1. Writing Strategies for Advanced Placement European History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jacqueline

    This guide to effective writing strategies is based on three ideas that provide motivation for writing skills development in an advanced placement history class: students learn to write by writing; problem essays are more effective in developing writing skills than topic essays; and writing is a learning tool. Stressing that writing practice is…

  2. Advanced Placement Courses Are Not for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blagaich, Pete

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates that Advanced Placement (AP) courses may not be appropriate for every student. Discusses the process of selecting students for AP U.S. history. Criteria include an application, summer sessions, and evidence of motivation to excel in the program. Considers the effects of this policy. (CMK)

  3. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  4. Advanced Placement Exam Results, 1998-99. Measuring Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernholc, Alissa; Baenen, Nancy; Howell, Toni

    The Advanced Placement (AP) Program allows high school students to learn subjects at a college level of difficulty. Students may receive college credit if they earn a high enough score on the AP examination typically taken at the end of an AP course. This report describes the participation and achievement of AP students in the Wake County Public…

  5. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M., Ed.; Sonnert, Gerhard, Ed.; Tai, Robert H., Ed.; Klopfenstein, Kristin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With an annual yearly growth rate of 9.3 percent over the last two decades, Advanced Placement courses have become a juggernaut in American high school education. AP courses are routinely perceived as an indicator of educational rigor, and many schools push to enroll low-income or minority students in these courses in the hope of preparing them…

  6. The Introduction of the Advanced Placement Examination in Political Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazer, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the format and results of the first Advanced Placement (AP) Government and Politics Examinations given by high schools in May 1987. Findings show the need for further training of AP teachers, improved instruction, and increased student interest in political science. Provides ordering information for two AP guides to assist political…

  7. Advanced Placement Human Geography: The First Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Paul T., Jr.; Hidlebrant, Barbara S.; Strauss, Tim R.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Placement Human Geography (APHG) has grown steadily from 3,272 tests at the first test administration in 2001 to 14,139 tests in 2005. This paper examines the dynamics of growth throughout the United States through numbers of students and numbers of high schools involved in the program. APHG is discussed relative to the establishment of…

  8. Advanced Placement United States History: A Student's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neutuch, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the experience of being in an Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history course in high school. Stresses that the intent of the course was only to prepare students to score well on the AP examination. Asserts that the course should have aimed beyond teaching to the test. (CMK)

  9. Beginning an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course, Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornoff, Frank, Comp.

    This publication is intended to aid in the planning and implementation of Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry courses. Included are reports from high schools that have established such courses concerning costs, facilities, and instructional requirements. Also included are the free-response sections of the 1974 and 1975 AP Chemistry Examination,…

  10. Surviving a Midlife Crisis: Advanced Placement Turns Fifty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In 1956, 1,220 college-bound juniors and seniors in 104 American high schools took the first Advanced Placement (AP) exams conducted by the Educational Testing Service for the College Board. The AP program was unabashedly elitist and designed to fortify the education of the nation's future leaders in anticipation of Cold War national security…

  11. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that

  12. Advanced Placement Chemistry: A Feasible, Alternative Approach to Advanced Placement Chemistry Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmeier, Brian D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two factors to consider when initiating advanced placement (AP) chemistry, namely, the quality of those teaching the program and the time necessary to teach the relevant concepts. Suggests offering laboratory sessions during evening hours as an alternative to traditional daytime arrangements for laboratory blocks. (JN)

  13. Advanced Placement Academy: Case Study of a Program within a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Julie Dingle; Nagy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the first year of implementation of the Advanced Placement Academy (APA), a program within a high school providing honors and Advanced Placement coursework for high-ability African American students with previously limited access to rigorous courses. The qualitative investigation explores practical solutions from…

  14. CEEB Advanced Placement Mathematics Examination Results and Performance in First-Quarter UW Calculus Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Freshmen placed into the second or third quarter of the first year calculus sequence at the University of Washington were studied. Two major findings were: freshmen eligible for advanced placement earned mean mathematics Grade Point Averages (GPAs) which were quite high; and advanced placement students earned mean mathematics GPAs substantially…

  15. Her Physics, His Physics: Gender Issues in Israeli Advanced Placement Physics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Sela, David

    2003-01-01

    Investigates gender issues in Israeli advanced placement physics classes. Analyzes matriculation exam scores from approximately 400 high schools over 12 years. Conducts semi-constructed interviews with 50 advanced placement physics students (25 girls and 25 boys). Discusses changes in the ratio of girls, performance, and factors that are…

  16. Examining Advanced Placement Program Access and Equity for Low-Income, Latino, and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was initiated during the early 1950's in response to growing concerns regarding the educational needs of high ability secondary school students. The Advanced Placement "Status Quo" (AP Status Quo) framework suggests that there has been an emphasis on preparing a few students while excluding the majority of…

  17. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  18. A Forum To Expand Advanced Placement Opportunities: Increasing Access and Improving Preparation in High Schools. Strategies To Overcome Challenges in Rural and Small Schools. Transcript of Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This transcript reproduces a Department of Education/College Board sponsored discussion on ways to expand advanced placement (AP) opportunities in high schools. The deliberations opened with a presentation by Phil Chavez, an assistant principal in San Antonio, Texas, who outlined the genesis and development of the AP program in his predominantly…

  19. A comparison of the number of hours of sleep in high school students who took advanced placement and/or college courses and those who did not.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high school students were sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation was significantly associated with enrollment in AP/college courses. Results indicated that enrollment in AP/college courses had a greater impact on younger students than older students. Compared with non-AP/college course takers, AP/college course takers slept approximately 20 minutes less per night. Specifically, 9th- and 10th-grade AP/college course takers slept approximately 1 hour less and 40 minutes less, respectively. In addition, students enrolled in two or more AP/college classes received 1 hour less and 30 minutes less among 10th and 11th graders, respectively. These results provide useful information on adolescent sleep patterns for school nurses.

  20. The effects of a test-taking strategy intervention for high school students with test anxiety in advanced placement science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Doron J.

    Test anxiety is one of the most debilitating and disruptive factors associated with underachievement and failure in schools (Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, & Fadia, 1994; Tobias, 1985). Researchers have suggested that interventions that combine multiple test-anxiety reduction techniques are most effective at reducing test anxiety levels (Ergene, 2003). For the current study, involving 62 public high school students enrolled in advanced placement science courses, the researcher designed a multimodal intervention designed to reduce test anxiety. Analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among test anxiety levels, unit examination scores, and irregular multiple-choice error patterns (error clumping), as well as changes in these measures after the intervention. Results indicate significant, positive relationships between some measures of test anxiety and error clumping, as well as significant, negative relationships between test anxiety levels and student achievement. In addition, results show significant decreases in holistic measures of test anxiety among students with low anxiety levels, as well as decreases in Emotionality subscores of test anxiety among students with high levels of test anxiety. There were no significant changes over time in the Worry subscores of test anxiety. Suggestions for further research include further confirmation of the existence of error clumping, and its causal relationship with test anxiety.

  1. Technological advances for PICC placement and management.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Janet

    2007-06-01

    Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is often complicated by the infant's small size and previous use of the peripheral veins, making the traditional means of insertion inadequate. New techniques and technologies, previously reserved for pediatric and adult patients, are now available for use in neonates and can enhance the practice of neonatal PICC teams. The modified Seldinger technique allows insertion of the PICC via smaller peripheral veins while decreasing venous trauma and enhancing the rate of successful placement. A second useful technique, the catheter exchange procedure, allows insertion of a new catheter within the same vein when complications such as occlusion, breakage, or inappropriate position occur and require removal of the currently dwelling PICC. Clinicians caring for neonates and infants must continually update their knowledge and skill by incorporating new techniques into their practice.

  2. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Examination Results in Texas, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Office of Policy Planning and Research.

    The participation and performance of 11th- and 12th-grade Texas public school district students on the College Entrance Examination Board's Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Organisation's programs during the 1999-2000 school year were studied. Results show the largest 1-year gains to date in the number of Texas Advanced Placement…

  3. Powerful Pedagogies: Evaluating Effective Culturally Relevant English Instruction for High Achieving African American Males in Advanced Placement English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stanley Louis, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Helping teachers to effectively use culturally relevant instructional practices can help the educational community close the literacy gap for African American males. This study examines effective secondary English teachers and their high achieving African American male students. Using critical race and sociocultural theories as a conceptual…

  4. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate: Do They Deserve Gold Star Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    For many people committed to strong academic standards, the "advanced" high school courses offered through the College Board's Advanced Placement program and, increasingly, the Diploma Programme of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) represent the curricular gold standard for secondary education. Admissions directors and…

  5. Gifted Spanish Speaking English Learners' Participation in Advanced Placement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Luz Adriana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…

  6. 75 FR 75666 - Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE), Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2011 competition. SUMMARY... applications for the AP Test Fee FY 2011 competition. That notice established a November 17, 2010 deadline...

  7. Advanced Placement Course Enrollment and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; McGaha-Garnett, Valerie; Burley, Hansel

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as a function of these school characteristics (e.g., percentage of ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic status) and then examined AP course enrollment as a function of both access to AP courses and these school characteristics. Using structural equation modeling techniques,…

  8. Advanced Placement and Rural Schools: Access, Success, and Exploring Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Completing Advanced Placement (AP) coursework is an important part of the selective college admissions process, and access to AP coursework can be viewed as a measure of equal opportunity. Relatively little research has fully examined how access to AP coursework is mediated by school characteristics. Rural schools are at a particular disadvantage…

  9. Conceptualizing a Framework for Advanced Placement Statistics Teaching Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to sketch a conceptualization of a framework for Advanced Placement (AP) Statistics Teaching Knowledge. Recent research continues to problematize the lack of knowledge and preparation among secondary level statistics teachers. The College Board's AP Statistics course continues to grow and gain popularity, but is a…

  10. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  11. Beginning an Advanced Placement Music Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, William; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board has prepared this publication to help secondary school teachers develop Advanced Placement (AP) courses in music. The discussion of strategy recommendations, reading materials, and record collections should be adapted to suit local preferences and individual skills. An opening section of general remarks…

  12. The Effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on Increasing Enrollment and Performance on Advanced Placement Science Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The…

  13. Advanced Placement in Studio Art and Secondary Art Education Policy: Countering the Null Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.; Sims-Gunzenhauser, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Because of education reform policy and misconceptions about artistry and artistic assessment, visual art education remains in the margins of high school education. One response to the lack of supportive arts education policy is the Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art Program, a visual arts assessment at the high school level that engages large…

  14. The Impact of Participation in the Advanced Placement Program on Students' College Admissions Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Larsen, Ross; Anderson, Braydon; Odasso, Alyce J.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program is an educational program that permits high school students to take introductory college-level courses and receive college credit by passing a standardized end-of-course exam. Data were obtained from a statewide database of 2 high school graduating cohorts (N = 90,044). We used a series of propensity score…

  15. WCPSS Advanced Placement (AP) Results, 2010-11. D&A Report No. 11.25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleland, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    One method of delivering college-level coursework to high school students is through the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Many colleges and universities provide credit to students who earn a qualifying score on any of the 34 available AP exams offered by the College Board. All qualified comprehensive high schools in the Wake County Public School…

  16. Is Increased Access Enough? Advanced Placement Courses, Quality, and Success in Low-Income Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Venegas, Kristan M.

    2011-01-01

    This article combines descriptive statistics and interviews with college-bound high school students to explore the connection between increased access and academic quality of Advanced Placement (AP) courses in low-income urban high schools. Results suggest that although moderately more opportunities to take AP courses exist than in previous years,…

  17. Student Access to Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) Coursework: Principals' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) courses provide high school students an opportunity to be exposed to the rigors of college while they are still in high school. Since school policies play a role in the opportunities for students to pursue these courses, educational leaders must be aware of the ways in which their personal beliefs and school practices…

  18. Advanced Placement and College Credit. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Washington's 2008 Strategic Master Plan for Higher Education called for creating "multiple pathways from high school to college or workforce training" --through greater use of dual credit and concurrent high school and college enrollment options. The most prevalent of these in Washington are Running Start, which accounts for 12,500 FTE;…

  19. Advanced Placement Program at Palo Verde College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twitchell, Theodore G.

    This study reports the outcome of an initial implementation of a California law permitting mentally gifted high school students to attend a junior college part time. The program procedure is described in terms of (1) selection and enrollment, (2) discipline, (3) books, (4) matters relating to high school graduation, (5) information for parents,…

  20. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  1. Maryland Ranks #1 in the Nation on Advanced Placement Exams for Participation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Maryland public high school students outperformed all others in the nation on the rigorous Advanced Placement (AP) exams, according to the College Board's fifth annual analysis of the AP program. Maryland ranked first nationwide in the percentage of public school students scoring 3 or higher on at least one AP exam. A score of 3 or higher on the…

  2. Class of 2015 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    This memorandum describes the Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) exams participation and performance of 2013 to 2015 public school graduates in Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) and the state of Maryland. The results are disaggregated by demographics and high schools. Students in the MCPS Class of 2015 continued to…

  3. A Narrow Escape: Gifted Students' Perceptions of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertberg-Davis, Holly; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2008-01-01

    Although limited research exists on the appropriateness of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs for gifted secondary learners, these courses serve as the primary methods of meeting the needs of gifted students in most high schools. This qualitative study investigates how a broad range of gifted secondary students…

  4. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  5. The Advanced Placement Opportunity Gap in Arizona: Access, Participation, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Jesus; Holloway-Libell, Jessica; Gomez, Laura M.; Corley, Kathleen M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in Advanced Placement (AP) classes and AP test-taking are widely viewed as indicators of students' college readiness. We analyzed enrollment in AP courses and AP test outcomes in Arizona to document disparities in students' access to rigorous curricula in high school and outline some implications of these patterns for education…

  6. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Advanced Placement Exam Performance: A Multiyear National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Maria Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze ethnic and gender differences in Advanced Placement (AP) exam performance of U.S. high school students. Specifically, the extent to which differences exist in overall AP exam performance scores within and between four ethnic groups (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) was investigated. Within…

  7. Beginning an Advanced Placement German Literature (Level 3) Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Donna H.; And Others

    This is a supplement to the Advanced Placement (AP) German literature course description. Its aim is both to assist teachers in planning an AP German literature course and to provide experienced AP teachers with information about other successful programs. To this end, six teachers from different high schools in the U.S. provide descriptions of…

  8. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  9. SREB States Maintain Lead in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states lead the nation in student participation in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs. The region also continued to match the nation in the success rates of high school students on AP exams in 2008. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education recognize the…

  10. Perspectives on the Development and Future of Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrant, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography faced a number of hurdles that nearly derailed the course before it launched in 2000-2001. A dedicated cadre of geography professionals and high school teachers rose to the challenge and the course remains one of the fastest growing AP courses currently offered by College Board. Seventeen readers and leaders…

  11. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs: A "Fit" for Gifted Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertberg-Davis, Holly; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Kyburg, Robin M.

    2006-01-01

    Although limited research exists on the appropriateness of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) Programs for gifted secondary learners, these courses serve as the primary methods of meeting the needs of gifted students in most high schools. This qualitative study employed a grounded theory approach to investigate how…

  12. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  13. Collective Teacher Efficacy and Minority Enrollment in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Mary Collier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which Collective Teacher Efficacy explained the variance in Black and Hispanic enrollment in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate classes. In order to achieve this purpose, survey research methodology was employed with Virginia high schools as the unit of study. Fifty-three…

  14. The effect of the Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program on increasing enrollment and performance on Advanced Placement science exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Susan Brady

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the National Math and Science Initiative's Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP) on the number of students taking AP science courses and their performance. The study evaluated 39 schools over a six-year period in six states that participate in the APTIP. The National Math and Science Initiative provided data for cohort I. A general linear model for repeated measures was used to evaluate the data. Data was evaluated three years prior to the intervention and three years during the intervention, which will actually continue for two more years (2012 and 2013) since cohort I schools were awarded five years of support. Students in APTIP schools enrolled in more AP science exams (AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Environmental Science, and AP Physics-B) over the course of the intervention. The quantity of students earning qualifying scores increased during the intervention years. APTIP is a multi-tiered program that includes seven days of teacher training, three six-hour student prep sessions, school equipment, reduced exam fees, and monetary incentives for students and teachers. This program positively impacted the quantity of enrollment and qualifying scores during the three years evaluated in this study. Increases in the number of female and African American students' test takers their and qualifying scores were seen in all three years of the APTIP intervention. This study supports the premise that the first step to increasing the Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) pipeline is giving access to advanced courses to more students in high schools.

  15. Advancing Excellence in Urban Schools: A Report on Advanced Placement Examinations in the Great City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Caroline, Ed.

    This is the first comprehensive study to examine Advanced Placement (AP) course-taking patterns and subject test results in the nation's urban schools. This study investigates both Great City Schools' (GCS) AP scores and scores for a national sample of test takers. The GCS data set includes 58 large urban public school districts. The primary…

  16. 77 FR 8848 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Advanced Placement Test.... Full Text of Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test...

  17. 78 FR 19691 - Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Advanced Placement Test... Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The AP Test Fee program awards grants...

  18. The Disappearing Continent: A Critique of the Revised Advanced Placement European History Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, David

    2016-01-01

    This document extends the National Association of Scholars' (NAS's) critique of the College Board from Advanced Placement U.S. History (APUSH) to Advanced Placement European History (APEH). The College Board distorts APEH in the same way that it distorted the first version of APUSH. The traditional history of Europe tells how Europeans, uniquely,…

  19. A Critical Investigation of Advanced Placement U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation critically investigates how Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. History textbooks portray key events in Latino/a history. The investigation is made in light of claims made by the College Board, the ACLU, scholars, and federal and state governments that the Advanced Placement program is the path to educational equity for Latino/a…

  20. Advanced Placement U.S. History: What Happens after the Examination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 56 advanced placement (AP) U.S. history teachers. Explores the scope of AP history and types of posttest activities used after Advanced Placement examinations. Concludes that public school courses developed more deeply into post-1960 events than the private schools did. Describes movies, debates, simulations, and local…

  1. Hispanic Student Performance on Advanced Placement Exams: A Multiyear, National Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Teresa Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the Advanced Placement exams that Hispanic students complete and to compare their overall performance with the performance of White students from 2000 to 2012. A second purpose was to determine which Advanced Placement exams were the most difficult exams for Hispanic students and which Advanced…

  2. The Advanced Placement Program Benefits Mainly Well-Prepared Students Who Pass AP Exams. Issues in College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Achievement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many policymakers and education leaders have embraced the Advanced Placement (AP) Program as a tool to strengthen the high school curriculum and prepare students for college. The popularity of the AP program among these policy leaders reflects their belief that the traditional high school curriculum has often failed to provide rigorous courses…

  3. Determinants of Students' Success: The Role of Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment Programs. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speroni, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) are two programs that allow high school students to earn college credits. The recent growth of these programs has been unprecedented. However, there is little evidence that compares how they fare in terms of improving college access and success. Using data from two cohorts of all high school…

  4. A Portrait of Advanced Placement Teachers' Practices. Research Report No. 2005-7. ETS RR-05-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Pamela L.; Ponte, Eva; Sigel, Irv; Braun, Henry; Powers, Don

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) is dedicated to providing high school students opportunities to enroll in college-level courses while in high school. The advantages of such accelerated opportunities are both financial and educational. The AP Program is available internationally. As a result of its widespread availability, considerable effort…

  5. A Mixed Methods Approach to Examining an Advanced Placement Program in One Connecticut Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docimo, Chelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this eleventh grade Advanced Placement (AP) program study was to determine factors associated with AP placement and subsequent student performance. This research was considered to be a mixed methods case study with elements of arrested action research. One hundred and twenty-four students, four guidance counselors, three AP…

  6. Advanced in In Situ Inspection of Automated Fiber Placement Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue. Keywords: Automated Fiber Placement, Manufacturing defects, Thermography

  7. The Advanced Placement Program in Pennsylvania: Implications for Policy and Practice in K-12 and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liekar, Christine Y.

    2012-01-01

    Since the time of Sputnik, American educators and policymakers have recognized the need to raise expectations by increasing rigor in high schools across the United States. Copious studies attest to the fact that students who take Advanced Placement coursework experience success in college (Adelman, 1999; Camara, 2003; College Board, 2005;…

  8. Advanced Placement versus Dual Enrollment: Making the Best Choice for College Selection, Persistence, Early Success, and Time to Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial amount of research examines the benefits of high school college-credit attainment programs against non-participation. The growth in popularity of these programs, particularly Advanced Placement (AP) and dual enrollment (DE), has them competing against one another for student attention. However, students, schools, and policymakers do…

  9. An Investigation of College Students' Perceptions of Advanced Placement® Courses. Research Note 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Siobhan M.; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Smith, Kara

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how current college students perceive their experiences in high school Advanced Placement Program (AP) courses. The goal of this research was twofold: We wanted to not only add to the existing literature on outcomes for AP students but also investigate possible benefits for students without success (i.e., a score of…

  10. The Experiences of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma Program Participants: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kelly; Caine, Vera; Wimmer, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Enriched high school curricula like the Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Diploma programs are endorsed as "pathway programs" for postsecondary-bound students. Program participation is perceived to have benefits that appeal to a broad stakeholder group of universities, administrators, teachers, students, and parents. In…

  11. Coping, Stress, and Job Satisfaction as Predictors of Advanced Placement Statistics Teachers' Intention to Leave the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Lambert, Richard G.; Crowe, Elizabeth W.; McCarthy, Colleen J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of teachers' perceptions of coping resources and demands to job satisfaction factors. Participants were 158 Advanced Placement Statistics high school teachers who completed measures of personal resources for stress prevention, classroom demands and resources, job satisfaction, and intention to leave the field…

  12. What Do You Mean You Don't Do Advanced Placement?: Confessions of an Educational Heretic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2000-01-01

    Explains why Advanced Placement courses are not offered at Sandia Preparatory School, a college preparatory school located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Focuses on the school mission, overall philosophy, and how this relates to the history classroom in particular. (CMK)

  13. Placement of Accelerometers for High Sensing Resolution in Micromanipulation

    PubMed Central

    Latt, W. T.; Tan, U-X.; Riviere, C. N.; Ang, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    High sensing resolution is required in sensing of surgical instrument motion in micromanipulation tasks. Accelerometers can be employed to sense physiological motion of the instrument during micromanipulation. Various configurations of accelerometer placement had been introduced in the past to sense motion of a rigid-body such as a surgical instrument. Placement (location and orientation) of accelerometers fixed in the instrument plays a significant role in achieving high sensing resolution. However, there is no literature or work on the effect of placement of accelerometers on sensing resolution. In this paper, an approach of placement of accelerometers within an available space to obtain highest possible sensing resolution in sensing of rigid-body motion in micromanipulation tasks is proposed. Superiority of the proposed placement approach is shown in sensing of a microsurgical instrument angular motion by comparing sensing resolutions achieved as a result of employing the configuration following the proposed approach and the existing configurations. Apart from achieving high sensing resolution, and design simplicity, the proposed placement approach also provides flexibility in placing accelerometers; hence it is especially useful in applications with limited available space to mount accelerometers. PMID:22423176

  14. Advances in in situ inspection of automated fiber placement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Peter D.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2016-05-01

    Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) systems have been developed to help take advantage of the tailorability of composite structures in aerospace applications. AFP systems allow the repeatable placement of uncured, spool fed, preimpregnated carbon fiber tape (tows) onto substrates in desired thicknesses and orientations. This automated process can incur defects, such as overlapping tow lines, which can severely undermine the structural integrity of the part. Current defect detection and abatement methods are very labor intensive, and still mostly rely on human manual inspection. Proposed is a thermographic in situ inspection technique which monitors tow placement with an on board thermal camera using the preheated substrate as a through transmission heat source. An investigation of the concept is conducted, and preliminary laboratory results are presented. Also included will be a brief overview of other emerging technologies that tackle the same issue.

  15. "Advanced Classes? They're Only for White Kids": How One Kansas School Is Changing the Face of Honors and Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an accurate picture of minority student enrollment in honors and advanced placement (AP) classes at Wichita (Kansas) High School East and to develop a plan of action to close the achievement gap between White and non-White students. Prior to this study there was no clear, concise data to move this discussion…

  16. High School Preparation, Placement Testing, and College Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Sorensen, Colleen T.

    2001-01-01

    Reports that students entering an urban state college still had high remedial placement rates even though they successfully completed college preparatory math and English courses in high school. Discusses the "chain of blame" and concerns regarding the rigor of high school programs. (Contains 45 references.) (AUTH/NB)

  17. Characteristics of Advanced Placement environmental science reading teacher participants and their perceptions of the reading as a professional development experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Freda M.

    Sixty percent of American high schools offer one or more Advanced Placement courses, and several thousand Advanced Placement teachers serve as Readers or graders of Advanced Placement exams each year. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of teachers who choose to participate in Advanced Placement Environmental Science Readings and determine how these teachers view the Reading experience as a form of professional development. This study was conducted with teacher participants at the June 2004 Advanced Placement Environmental Science Reading. Sixty of the 114 teacher participants completed a survey regarding their education background, age, experience level, educational philosophy, involvement in professional development opportunities, perceptions of the professional benefits of the Reading, and the influence of the Reading experience on their pedagogical practices. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a subset of 18 teacher participants to determine their perceptions regarding the professional benefits of the Reading experience, its potential to serve as a professional development activity, and perceived changes in their pedagogical practices resulting from participation in the Reading process. Results indicate that APES Reading teacher participants are experienced, effective teachers from many parts of the country. These teachers participate in ongoing professional development activities, can delineate components of effective professional development, strongly believe that effective professional development occurs at the APES Reading, and report that their pedagogical practice has improved as a result of participation in the APES Reading. Considering the crucial role teachers play in the educational process, it is important to pursue this additional avenue of professional development in order to further improve APES teacher effectiveness.

  18. Post High School Transition: A Planning Guide for Educational and Job Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    This guide for teachers, counselors, and administrators presents a comprehensive system for educational and job placement aimed at facilitating post high school transition. It emphasizes activities and services for educational placement and job placement and development of student skills leading to self-placement. Chapter 1 describes features of…

  19. Mathematics Placement Decisions for High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murzyn, Amy Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study is to describe the experiences of case managers making mathematics placement decisions of high school students with high incidence disabilities. There is much information about what should be happening when making mathematics placement decisions of high school students with high incidence disabilities, but…

  20. The School Counselor's Role in Addressing the Advanced Placement Equity and Excellence Gap for African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Pamela; Davis, Michael P.; Mobley, Jerry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the collaboration among a school counselor, a school counselor intern, an Advanced Placement Psychology teacher, and a counselor educator to improve African-American access to Advanced Placement (AP) coursework and increase success on the AP Psychology national examination. The team initiated a process that recruited African…

  1. Advanced Placement English in a Solipsistic Era: How Structuralism Can Renew Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) courses within secondary English education can fail to meet the needs of gifted students in the postmodern era. Because AP courses often are standardized, despite the College Board's efforts to allow freedom in course design, gifted students, as especially attuned to discrepancies between practice and theory, are being…

  2. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  3. Melodic Dictation Instruction: A Survey of Advanced Placement Music Theory Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…

  4. Exploring the Third World: Two Interdisciplinary Units for Advanced Placement English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traubitz, Nancy; Pfetsch, Cheryl

    Developed to enhance students' cultural awareness of Africa and the Far East, this guide contains both interdisciplinary and specific content curriculum materials for two course units in Advanced Placement English. These units were designed to (1) communicate the countries' rudimentary geography and history; (2) introduce the value systems,…

  5. Class of 2013 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, Maryland has led the nation as the state with the highest percentage of graduates who earned one or more Advanced Placement (AP) exam scores of 3 or higher. Students in the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2013 continued to outperform students in the state of Maryland and the nation on AP examinations, based on…

  6. Class of 2012 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2012 continued to outperform Maryland and the nation on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations based on the "AP Report to the Nation" released by the College Board on February 20, 2013. In 2012, 67.3 percent of MCPS graduates took one or more AP exams. A striking…

  7. The Effects of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Samia Merza

    2013-01-01

    This study compared student academic achievement in two college readiness programs, Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) and attempted to determine how well program participation predict student performance compared to variables such as SES, parent education level, GPA, gender, and SAT II scores. Finally, the research…

  8. Class of 2014 Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Participation and Performance. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, Maryland has led the nation as the state with the highest percentage of graduates who earned one or more Advanced Placement (AP) exam scores of 3 or higher. Students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) Class of 2014 continued to outperform students in the state of Maryland on AP examinations based on AP…

  9. Advanced Placement Human Geography and the Annual Meetings of the National Council for Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the National Council for Geographic Education have been instrumental in the creation, launch, and early success of Advanced Placement Human Geography. Annual meetings of the Council have served as a forum for spreading the word about the course and its follow-up national examination and in helping teachers develop content confidence and…

  10. Strategies for Increasing Advanced Placement Participation for Underrepresented Students: Barriers, Practices, and Positive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Sergio; Gomez, Martin O.

    2011-01-01

    Some school leaders have viewed programs such as Advanced Placement (AP) as an attractive option to resolve the ongoing achievement gap problem. However, the ongoing debate in the field about maintaining the ostensible purity of the AP program versus diluting it with program expansion has hindered the full utilization of AP classes to close the…

  11. Measuring Success: Examining Achievement and Perceptions of Online Advanced Placement Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sharon; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams from 2009 to 2011 at Florida Virtual School and to explore student perceptions of their online course experience compared with the classroom-based AP experiences. The data indicated that students performed at levels comparable to the national sample but…

  12. Exploring the Utility of Advanced Placement Participation and Performance in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica P.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relationship between various operationalizations of the Advanced Placement[R] (AP) exam and course information with first-year grade point average (FYGPA) in college to better understand the role of AP in college admission decisions. In particular, the incremental validity of the different AP variables, above…

  13. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  14. Advanced Placement® Summer Institute: A Survey of Florida AP® Teachers. Research Notes. RN-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Placement Program Summer Institute (APSI) courses provide teachers with an overview of the curriculum, structure, and content of specific AP courses. Attention is devoted not only to the development of curriculum but also to teaching strategies and the relationship of the course to the AP Examination. During the summers of 2006 and 2007,…

  15. The Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratopoulos, Irene Chachas

    The main purposes in examining and evaluating the Advanced Placement English Program in Salt Lake and Granite School Districts were to identify the essential curriculum features of the program, to make suggestions for curriculum improvement, and to determine whether or not the quality of the AP English Program surpassed that of the conventional…

  16. SREB States Lead the Nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Challenge to Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal; Lenard, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses continue to receive national recognition for their rigorous curricula, and many colleges and universities award credit to students who score well on end-of-course exams in AP classes. Research suggests that students are better prepared for college if they take these courses and…

  17. Preparing Students for Advanced Placement Spanish Literature: Content Sequencing of the Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Roger D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)

  18. The Advanced Placement Arms Race and the Reproduction of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses is stratified by class and race. Researchers have identified how schools serving disadvantaged students suffer from various kinds of resource deprivations, concluding that interventions are needed to equalize access to AP courses. On the other hand, the theory of Effectively Maintained…

  19. Advanced Placement European History: An Anatomy of the Essay Examination, 1956-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackey, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The College Board's Advanced Placement European History examination has evolved over the course of its first half-century of existence in virtually all respects: the types and subject matter of questions asked (and not asked); the nature of the history those questions reflect; the number of questions both offered and to be answered, as well as how…

  20. Teacher Scaffolding of Academic Language in an Advanced Placement U.S. History Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine; Beers, Scott; Knaus, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines teacher scaffolding of academic language in an Advanced Placement United States History (APUSH) course throughout a school year for one student who received a perfect score on the end of year APUSH exam. Data includes four months of observation of teacher instructional strategies to scaffold student writing and vignettes of…

  1. Excellence, Equity, and Access: Educators' Perceptions of Students in Open Access Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Justyna Plichta

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines educators' perceptions regarding open access Advanced Placement (AP) program courses and their impact on non-traditional AP students in one suburban school district. The data were collected during the 2009-2010 school year through a 15-item Likert scale (and one open-ended item) survey which was disseminated during…

  2. The Challenge of Advanced Placement Partnerships in the South Texas Border Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Deborah L.; Pisani, Jana S.; Pisani, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2000, the Texas Education Agency and the Texas A&M University System teamed up to create an initiative called the University Faculty Fellows Program. Spearheaded by Texas A&M International University in Laredo, the program paired up faculty from the university with area Advanced Placement (AP) teachers in a variety of…

  3. Science and Mathematics Advanced Placement Exams: Growth and Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of Advanced Placement (AP) exams in the last 2 decades has been paralleled by national enthusiasm to promote availability and rigor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Trends were examined in STEM AP to evaluate and compare growth and achievement. Analysis included individual STEM subjects and disaggregation…

  4. A Validity Study of the Multiple-Choice Component of the Advanced Placement Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modu, Christopher C.; Taft, Hessy L.

    1982-01-01

    Compares performance of first-year general chemistry college students from 32 institutions with performance of Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry Candidates in 1978 to provide a concurrent validity measure of the multiple-choice section of the AP chemistry examination. Average AP candidates scored significantly higher than average college students.…

  5. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  6. A Transition Course from Advanced Placement to College Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Timothy A.; Spivey, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In the Spring of 2007, a group of highly motivated mathematics graduate students conducted a review of Duke's Calculus curriculum. They focused on two main problems. The first problem is the result of a very positive trend: a growing number of students are earning AP credit for Calculus I in high school. However, this results in Calculus II…

  7. Myth 19: Is Advanced Placement an Adequate Program for Gifted Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Shelagh A.

    2009-01-01

    Is it a myth that Advanced Placement (AP) is an adequate program for gifted students? AP is so covered with myths and assumptions that it is hard to get a clear view of the issues. In this article, the author finds the answer about AP by looking at current realties. First, AP is hard for gifted students to avoid. Second, AP never was a program…

  8. Advanced Placement Results, 2013-14. Measuring Up. D&A Report No.15.01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleland, Kevin; Muli, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Placement (AP) outcomes for Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) students have continued an upward trend for over 18 years, out-performing the state and the nation in all measures. In 2013-14 there were 13,757 exams taken by 6,955 WCPSS test-takers with almost 76% of the exams resulting in scores at or above 3, outperforming Guilford…

  9. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  10. Assessing Competing Demands and Charting a Course: A Phenomenological Study of Advanced Placement U.S. History Teachers' Decision Making and Course Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Florida has experienced some of the greatest growth of Advanced Placement (AP) programs in recent years and student scores on the AP exams have evolved into a highly significant metric in evaluating student proficiency and teacher and school effectiveness. Despite this growth, it is not well known how AP teachers make decisions about the content…

  11. Is a 3 a C?: The Reliability of the Advanced Placement United States History Test for College Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyser, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the development of the Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history test and reviews its grading process for consistency and fairness. Examines the efforts taken to ensure compatibility with college-level U.S. history survey courses. (CMK)

  12. High Cost Residential Placements for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Poynter, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concern has been expressed repeatedly about the cost and quality of residential placements for adults with learning disabilities and additional needs. This study sought to identify characteristics of the highest cost placements in the South-East of England. Method: Lead learning disability commissioners in the South-East of England…

  13. Reaching the Next Stephen Hawking: Five Ways to Help Students with Disabilities in Advanced Placement Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lori A.; Potts, Elizabeth A.; Linz, Ed

    2013-01-01

    As the federal government encourages all students to attempt advanced math and science courses, more students with disabilities are enrolling in Advanced Placement (AP) science classes. AP science teachers can better serve these students by understanding the various types of disabilities (whether physical, learning, emotional, or behavioral),…

  14. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with

  15. Making Mathematics Placement Decisions for High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murzyn, Amy; Hughes, Trudie

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study described the experiences of case managers making mathematics placement decisions for high school students with high incidence disabilities. Participants included three parents, three students, three case managers, three mathematics teachers, and three administrators from different high schools across rural, suburban and…

  16. Advanced placement math and science courses: Influential factors and predictors for success in college STEM majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were

  17. Impact of Advanced Grade 8 U.S. History on Participation and Performance in Advanced Placement Social Studies Courses in Grade 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Nyambura Susan

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Office of Curriculum and Instructional Programs, the Office of Shared Accountability examined the impact of offering Advanced Grade 8 U.S. History on enrollment and performance in Advanced Placement (AP) social studies courses in Grade 9. The study compared Grade 9 enrollment and performance in AP U.S. History or AP U.S.…

  18. Four Years Later: A Longitudinal Study of Advanced Placement Students in College. College Board Report No. 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Warren W.; Morris, Margaret

    The college careers of students who had participated in the Advanced Placement Program (AP) in secondary school were studied, based on extensive information on 4,814 students who participated in the Personal Qualities Project, a longitudinal study in nine colleges and universities. The project included information on 1,115 AP and 3,699 non-AP…

  19. Early College Academic Performance: Studying the Effects of Earning College Credits from Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jermaine F.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact of Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) on early college academic performance by analyzing and comparing first year and sophomore year persistence rates and grade point averages (GPAs) of four student cohorts who began their education at a large urban research I university in fall 2007. These…

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

    Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

  1. Advanced Placement (AP) Social Studies Teachers' Use of Academic Course Blogs as a Supplemental Resource for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Seth M.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) social studies teachers' utilization of academic course blogs and student achievement. Simultaneously, the study examined the participating teachers' perceptions on the use of course blogs and other social media as supplemental learning resources. The…

  2. Racial Differences in the Impact of Participating in Advanced Placement Programs on Educational and Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the wealth of information generated in recent years regarding the benefits for students who participate in Advanced Placement (AP) programs on educational outcomes, limited research exists contrasting and comparing the differential effects of AP program participation on educational and labor market outcomes by race. However, research…

  3. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal Year.... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic... 8848) a notice inviting applications for the AP Test Fee fiscal year (FY) 2012 competition (February...

  4. Advanced Placement English Exam Scores: A Comparison of Scores for Hispanic Students from California, Texas, and Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Bevan; Slate, John R.; Moore, George W.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the performance of Hispanic students from California, Texas, and Arizona on the two Advanced Placement (AP) English exams (i.e., English Language and Composition and English Literature and Composition) using archival data from the College Board from 1997 through 2012. Pearson chi-square tests yielded statistically significant…

  5. "Shouldn't Everyone Know about Their Government?" An Exploration of Curricular Values in Advanced Placement Government Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutka, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalent models of secondary education in the United States have tended to privilege the acquisition of knowledge of scientific disciplines that is often peripheral to the experiences of students. My Advanced Placement Government classes were no different, and this caused me to wonder whether my classes were meeting the often-stated goal of the…

  6. Investigation of High School Credit and Placement for Summer Coursework Taken outside of Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how local schools responded to students' outside-of-school summer courses, particularly regarding the awarding of credit and appropriate placement. It involved 262 middle and high school administrators of students who had attended a gifted summer program at a local university. Survey data showed the critical influence of the…

  7. Do High-Stakes Placement Exams Predict College Success? CCRC Working Paper No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are typically assumed to be nonselective, open-access institutions. Yet access to college-level courses at such institutions is far from guaranteed: the vast majority of two-year institutions administer high-stakes exams to entering students that determine their placement into either college-level or remedial education. Despite…

  8. 75 FR 53681 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Advanced Placement (AP) Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... include the College Board and IB Americas. VII. Agency Contact FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Francisco... placement tests and receive scores for which college academic credit is awarded. Program Authority: 20 U.S.C... through a proposed College Pathways and Accelerated Learning program. However, we are...

  9. The Effect of Enrollment in Middle School Challenge Courses on Advanced Placement Exams in Social Studies and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaude-Bolte, Katherine

    Educators seek to guide students through appropriate programs and courses that prepare them for future success, in more advanced coursework and in other challenges of life. Some middle schools offer Challenge, or honors, courses for students who have demonstrated high ability. High schools often offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, which are taught at the college level. This study examined the correlation between enrollment in middle school Challenge courses and subsequent AP exam category scores in social studies and science in a suburban school district. The independent variables were the number of years of enrollment in middle school social studies or science Challenge courses. The dependent variables were the AP exam category scores in the eight social studies AP courses or the six science AP courses. The sample sizes were limited to the number of students who took an AP social studies or science exam and also attended the middle school of study. The null hypothesis was that there was no relationship between the two variables. This study included eight social studies AP courses and six science AP courses. A significant positive correlation was indicated in only two of the courses, U.S. Government and Comparative Government, supporting the claim that enrollment in middle school Challenge social studies was correlated with success, at least on these two AP exams. In the remaining 12 courses, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, enrollment in middle school Challenge science and social studies courses generally did not seem to correlate with AP exam category scores. Results of this study call into question the validity of the claim by the district that enrollment in Challenge courses helps prepare students for rigorous coursework in high school. Several factors, including student readiness, teacher training, familiarity with course content, and previous AP experience may contribute more to a student's AP exam category score

  10. The Role of Advanced High School Coursework in Increasing STEM Career Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Hazari, Zahra; Tai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Several avenues are open to students who wish to study advanced science or mathematics in high school, which include Advanced Placement courses and teacher-designed courses unaffiliated with organized programs. We employ a retrospective cohort study of 4,691 nationally representative college students at 34 randomly selected, colleges and…

  11. Does High School Performance Predict College Math Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowski, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting student success has long been a question of interest for postsecondary admission counselors throughout the United States. Past research has examined the validity of several methods designed for predicting undergraduate success. High school record, standardized test scores, extracurricular activities, and combinations of all three have…

  12. Predicting Success in College: The Importance of Placement Tests and High School Transcripts. CCRC Working Paper No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses student-level data from a statewide community college system to examine the validity of placement tests and high school information in predicting course grades and college performance. We consider the ACCUPLACER and COMPASS placement tests, using two quantitative and two literacy tests from each battery. We find that placement…

  13. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…

  14. Improving Advanced High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spital, Robin David

    2003-04-01

    A National Research Council study committee recently commissioned a "Physics Panel" to evaluate and make recommendations for improving advanced physics education in American high schools [1]. The Physics Panel recommends the creation of a nationally standardized Newtonian Mechanics Unit that would form the foundation of all advanced physics programs. In a one-year program, the Panel recommends that advanced physics students study at most one other major area of physics, so that sufficient time is available to develop the deep conceptual understanding that is the primary goal of advanced study. The Panel emphasizes that final assessments must be improved to focus on depth of understanding, rather than technical problem-solving skill. The Physics Panel strongly endorses the inclusion of meaningful real-world experiences in advanced physics programs, but believes that traditional "cook-book" laboratory exercises are not worth the enormous amount of time and effort spent on them. The Physics Panel believes that the talent and preparation of teachers are the most important ingredients in effective physics instruction; it therefore calls for a concerted effort by all parts of the physics community to remedy the desperate shortage of highly qualified teachers. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  15. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  16. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  17. An Analysis of Advanced Placement (AP®) Examinations in Economics and Comparative Government and Politics. Research Report No. 2001-4. ETS RR-01-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; Oltman, Philip K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) Examinations in Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, and Comparative Government and Politics were studied to examine college course performance and gender differences. It was concluded that students who had received college credit for AP performed as well or better in higher-level college courses in Macroeconomics and…

  18. Advanced Placement® Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report No. 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  19. Advanced Placement[R] Exam-Taking and Performance: Relationships with First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Report 2011-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Packman, Sheryl; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) exam participation and performance on college grades for courses taken in the same subject area as students' AP Exam(s). Students' first-year college subject area grade point averages (SGPAs) were examined in nine subject areas: mathematics, computer science,…

  20. Students' Perceptions of the Social/Emotional Implications of Participation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs. Research Monograph Series. RM09238

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Regan Clark; Hertberg-Davis, Holly; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the researchers explored student perceptions of the social and emotional advantages and disadvantages of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) program participation, differences between the AP and IB programs in those perceptions, and whether or not students report experiencing a "forced-choice…

  1. 2013 Advanced Placement Exam Participation and Performance for Students in Montgomery County Public Schools and Public School Students in the State of Maryland and the Nation. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This memorandum provides data on the participation and performance of Advanced Placement (AP) exams taken by students in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) in the 2012-2013 school year as compared with those by public school students in Maryland and the nation. Generally, the number of AP exams taken by MCPS students in 2013…

  2. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  3. Incorporating a Comprehensive Drama Unit including a Theatre of the Absurd Component within the Advanced Placement English Program for Senior Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konaxis, Antoinette

    This practicum was designed to increase the experiences in the genre of world drama, to further develop student understanding of its evolution and impact on subsequently created drama, and to proffer a diverse collection of drama for senior level students pursuing the Advanced Placement (AP) English literature program. A comprehensive curriculum,…

  4. Examining the Relationship of Content to Gender-Based Performance Differences in Advanced Placement Exams. Research Report No. 2002-12. ETS RR-02-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gary; Kostin, Irene; Morgan, Rick

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the content of the questions in a number of Advanced Placement Examinations and to attempt to identify content that is related to gender-based performance differences. Free-response questions for ten forms of the AP® Exams in U.S. History, European History, Biology, Microeconomics, and Macroeconomics were…

  5. 2014 Advanced Placement Exam Participation and Performance for Students in Montgomery County Public Schools and Public School Students in the State of Maryland and the Nation. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emphasis by Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) on rigorous course taking resulted in MCPS students taking a record-setting 33,662 Advanced Placement (AP) exams in 2014. Additionally, the percentage of AP exams taken by MCPS students who attained scores of 3 or higher (73.9 percent) was 13.0 and 16.7 percentage points…

  6. Performance and Advanced Data Placement Techniques with Ceph's Distributed Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.

    2016-10-01

    The STAR online computing environment is a demanding concentrated multipurpose compute system with the objective to obtain maximum throughput with process concurrency. Motivation for extending the STAR online compute farm from a simple job processing tool for data taking, into a multipurpose resource equipped with a large storage system would lead any dedicated resources to become an extremely efficient and an attractive multi-purpose facility. To achieve this goal, our compute farm is using the Ceph distributed storage system which has proven to be an agile solution due to its effective POSIX interface and excelling its object storage with IO concurrency. With this we have taken our cluster one step further in terms of IO performance by investigating and leveraging new technologies and key features of Ceph. With the acquisition of a 10Gb backbone network we have ensured to eliminate the network as a limitation. With further acquisition of large fast drives (1TB SSDs) we will show how one can customize the data placement options Ceph has to offer such as primary affinity, mounting OSD journals on SSDs, and Cache Tiering along with non-Ceph related local disk caching techniques. We will discuss the latest performance results along with the expected results by using each technique. We hope this paper will serve the community's interest for the Ceph distributed storage solution.

  7. Stereotype Threat? Male and Female Students in Advanced High School Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corra, Mamadi

    Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.

  8. Advanced L2 Learners and Reading Placement: Self-Assessment, CBT, and Subsequent Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research involving advanced second language (L2) learners in the USA [Brantmeier, C., 2001. Second language reading research on passage content and gender: challenges for the intermediate level curriculum, Foreign Language Annals 34, 325-333; Young, D.J., 2003. Workshop on overcoming anxiety in the foreign language classroom.…

  9. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  10. Exploring Interactive and Dynamic Simulations Using a Computer Algebra System in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the use of Mathematica, a computer algebra system (CAS), in a high school chemistry course. Mathematica was used to generate a graph, where a slider controls the value of parameter(s) in the equation; thus, students can visualize the effect of the parameter(s) on the behavior of the system. Also, Mathematica can show the…

  11. Understanding Predictors of Enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) Coursework among Latina/o Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos, Lionel Javier, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the extent to which Latina/o students' perceptions of support from high school teachers and counselors, as well as acculturation, predict enrollment in AP coursework; (b) examine Latina/o students' perceptions of different forms of support that appear to play a role in academic success (Hassinger…

  12. Keyword: Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassuto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The practical goal of graduate education is placement of graduates. But what does "placement" mean? Academics use the word without thinking much about it. "Placement" is a great keyword for the graduate-school enterprise. For one thing, its meaning certainly gives a purpose to graduate education. Furthermore, the word is a portal into the way of…

  13. The Placement of Moral Contents: Priorities and Structures of the Belief System of Teachers and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava

    2003-01-01

    Compared the placement of moral contents in the belief systems of students and teachers in Israel and compared the structures of the belief systems with those outlined by S. Schwartz (1992). Findings for samples of 92 high school teachers, 489 elementary school teachers, 357 high school teachers, and 300 adolescents (Israeli-born and…

  14. The Predictors of Success in Turkish High School Placement Exams: Exam Prep Courses, Perfectionism, Parental Attitudes and Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gülsah; Zabun, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine to what extent the following four variables explain K-8 students' SBS success levels; these variables being attendance to private SBS preperation courses, multidimensional perfectionism, parental attitude types, and test anxiety. SBS is a nationwide, high stake, high school placement test taken by…

  15. Exploring out-of-Home Placement as a Moderator of Help-Seeking Behavior among Adolescents Who Are High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unrau, Yvonne A.; Grinnell, Richard M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated foster or group care placement as a predictor of help-seeking behavior among adolescents who were at high risk for physical and mental health problems. Method: Data from the 1985 to 1986 wave of the Adolescent Health Care Evaluation Study were used to compare three groups of adolescents: (a) 136 that had…

  16. Construction Placement and Hardened Properties of Shotcrete with Highly Functional Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuno, Kunihiro; Ishii, Mitsuhiro; Hashimoto, Chikanori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. has developed the technology to manufacture a brand name "Finash" about 12 years ago, by sorting and classifying coal ash generated in coal fired power plants. "Finash" is highly functional fly ash (HFA) is produced by removing irregular coarse particles. It is important for the production of HFA to minimize the variation in quality of coal ash with sophisticated classification technique and extracting good-quality spherical fine particles. It is now widely utilized as concrete admixture for general civil engineering structures and buildings in Japan. When highly functional fly ash (HFA) is used as shotcrete admixture to substitute for fine aggregate of 100kg/m3, the shotcrete has the advantages of decreasing the amount of dust and rebound during spraying operation, improving the hardened properties of concrete, etc. Therefore, it has been applied in many tunnel construction projects. This paper discusses about the various characteristics such as construction placement, strength, neutralization and dry shrinkage of shotcrete using highly functional fly ash (HFA), using the results that is obtained from spray test in an actual road tunnel.

  17. Projector placement planning for high quality visualizations on real-world colored objects.

    PubMed

    Law, Alvin J; Aliaga, Daniel G; Majumder, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Many visualization applications benefit from displaying content on real-world objects rather than on a traditional display (e.g., a monitor). This type of visualization display is achieved by projecting precisely controlled illumination from multiple projectors onto the real-world colored objects. For such a task, the placement of the projectors is critical in assuring that the desired visualization is possible. Using ad hoc projector placement may cause some appearances to suffer from color shifting due to insufficient projector light radiance being exposed onto the physical surface. This leads to an incorrect appearance and ultimately to a false and potentially misleading visualization. In this paper, we present a framework to discover the optimal position and orientation of the projectors for such projection-based visualization displays. An optimal projector placement should be able to achieve the desired visualization with minimal projector light radiance. When determining optimal projector placement, object visibility, surface reflectance properties, and projector-surface distance and orientation need to be considered. We first formalize a theory for appearance editing image formation and construct a constrained linear system of equations that express when a desired novel appearance or visualization is possible given a geometric and surface reflectance model of the physical surface. Then, we show how to apply this constrained system in an adaptive search to efficiently discover the optimal projector placement which achieves the desired appearance. Constraints can be imposed on the maximum radiance allowed by the projectors and the projectors' placement to support specific goals of various visualization applications. We perform several real-world and simulated appearance edits and visualizations to demonstrate the improvement obtained by our discovered projector placement over ad hoc projector placement.

  18. Optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules for vibration suppression of highly constrained structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloli, Alberto; Ermanni, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    The vibration suppression efficiency of so-called shunted piezoelectric systems is decisively influenced by the number, shape, dimensions and position of the piezoelectric ceramic elements integrated into the structure. This paper presents a procedure based on evolutionary algorithms for optimum placement of piezoelectric ceramic modules on highly constrained lightweight structures. The optimization loop includes the CAD software CATIA V5, the FE package ANSYS and DynOPS, a proprietary software tool able to connect the Evolving Object library with any simulation software that can be started in batch mode. A user-defined piezoelectric shell element is integrated into ANSYS 9.0. The generalized electromechanical coupling coefficient is used as the optimization objective. Position, dimensions, orientation, embedding location in the composite lay-up and wiring of customized patches are determined for optimum vibration suppression under consideration of operational and manufacturing constraints, such as added mass, maximum strain and requirements on the control circuit. A rear wing of a racing car is investigated as the test object for complex, highly constrained geometries.

  19. Traditional Beach Template vs Cross Shore Swash Zone (CSSZ) Placement Methods at Egmont Key, FL: High Silt Content Beneficial Use Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-15

    Munsell Color • Light Attenuation and Turbidity • Sea turtle nesting • Conclusions • Traditional vs. Cross Shore Swash Zone Placement • Acknowledgments...Light Attenuation Long-term Monitoring Dredging 19 Nov. – 28 Dec. Dredging 21 Jan. – 6 Mar. BUILDING STRONG® Sea Turtle Nesting 2015 Traditional...Traditional Placement • Less linear feet of beach impacted for equivalent volume • Reduced environmental Impacts • Turtle nest relocations • Ponding

  20. Low-level versus high-level placement of gold plates in the upper eyelid in patients with facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Tarek A; El-Minawi, Hisham M; El-Shazly, Malak I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lagophthalmos is a condition that results from facial paralysis causing functional as well as esthetic problems. This condition can be treated by a range of techniques, including tarsorrhaphy, facial slings, and canthopexies. Gold plates provide a solution for temporary or permanent lagophthalmos resulting from facial paralysis. This study discusses the use of gold plates in the treatment of lagophthalmos but with the introduction of gold plates in two different positions in the upper lids. Methods: Group 1 (38 eyes) had a low level of placement (2 mm from the lid margin) of gold plates, while Group 2 (23 eyes) had a high level of placement (5 mm from the lid margin). Results: Noticeable bulge was seen in 18.4% of Group 1 eyes compared with 13% in Group 2, and migration of the plate occurred in 2.6% and 0% of eyes in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, as well as ptosis (7.8% and 4.3%) and conjunctival perforation (0% and 4.3%). The degree of improvement of eyelid closure, keratopathy, and visual acuity were the same for both techniques. Conclusion: Placement of gold plates at a higher level could avoid some of the drawbacks of lower level placement of these plates, such as upper eyelid bulge and ptosis, especially given the thinning of the eyelids and orbicularis muscles that occurs in facial palsy. PMID:21760718

  1. Convection-enhanced delivery catheter placements for high-grade gliomas: complications and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Tal; Ram, Zvi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of compounds into brain tumors reportedly circumvents the blood brain barrier. CED intends to increase drug delivery to malignant cells, reaching high local therapeutic concentration and decreasing or eliminating systemic side effects. Clinical experience and published data on catheter placement (CP) surgery are scarce. We propose practical and technical guidelines for planning CED based on our experience. We retrospectively analyzed the medical charts and relevant neuroimages of 25 patients following the insertion of 64 CED catheters. The patients were enrolled in at least one of four clinical trials using CED for treating recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in our institution between 2003-2006. Intra- and postoperative complications related to CP surgery and the difficulties and pitfalls of planning were evaluated. There were 29 CP surgeries. Forty-four peritumoral brain tissue catheters were inserted in 16 CP surgeries following tumor resection in 16 patients, and 20 catheters were placed into the tumor in 13 procedures in 10 patients. The lesions were in or near eloquent brain tissue areas in 13 of all CP surgeries. Complications included increased edema (31%), infection (6.9%), bleeding (6.9%) and seizures (13.8%). Significant neurological deterioration occurred in 4 patients (13.8%). Difficulties in adhering to CP surgery guidelines included lesion site (superficial, mesial temporal lobe, proximity to CSF spaces), proximity to eloquent cortical areas, tissue density that interfered with the trajectory, and technical limitations of stereotactic instruments. CED procedures for high-grade gliomas may be associated with surgical morbidity. Adherence to guidelines might be difficult because of lesion site and complicated by brain and tumor tissue characteristics. This should be considered while planning clinical trials that use convection-based technology.

  2. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  3. Validating the Use of AP® Exam Scores for College Course Placement. Research Report 2013-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Ewing, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) was created to provide access to rigorous, college-level curricula to motivated and prepared high school students. This study evaluated whether the AP Exam scores from the summative exams associated with 10 courses were valid for the placement of students into higher-level college courses in the subject area…

  4. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-12-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  5. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS sub 2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  6. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  7. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  8. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1990-02-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and a bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 W h/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  9. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  10. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R. . Varian Research Center)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  11. COURSE OUTLINE AND TEACHING GUIDE FOR ADVANCED STANDING ENGLISH II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMPSON, PHILLIP

    THE ADVANCED STANDING PROGRAM IN ENGLISH IS DESIGNED TO PREPARE SELECTED STUDENTS FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT CLASSES, WHICH ARE EQUIVALENT OF COLLEGE FRESHMAN ENGLISH, IN HIGH SCHOOL. WHILE KEEPING ADVANCED PLACEMENT NEEDS IN MIND, EMPHASIS IN CURRICULUM IS PLACED ON THE MORE IMPORTANT GOAL OF BETTER COLLEGE PREPARATION IN ENGLISH. THE ADVANCED…

  12. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes.

  13. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  14. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  15. Monitoring Faculty Consultant Performance in the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition Program with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model. Research Report No. 2003-1. ETS RR-03-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Myford, Carol M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, evaluate, and compare the rating behavior of faculty consultants who scored essays written for the Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition (AP® ELC) Exam. Data from the 1999 AP ELC Exam were analyzed using FACETS (Linacre, 1998) and SAS. The faculty consultants were not all…

  16. Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-261 Advanced Extremely High Frequency Satellite (AEHF) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be

  17. Preservice Teachers' Experiences with Advanced Digital Technologies: The Interplay between Technology in a Preservice Classroom and in Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Michael; Ozgun-Koca, Asli; Edwards, Michael Todd

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of 22 preservice teachers enrolled in a first-semester mathematics teaching methods course. Course activities included participation in two separate field experiences in neighboring school districts. The methods class placed considerable emphasis on the use of advanced digital technologies in the teaching and learning…

  18. Feeding Tube Placement in Patients with Advanced Dementia: The Beliefs and Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Helen M.; Shega, Joseph W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the beliefs and practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) among patients with advanced dementia and dysphagia. Method: A survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1,050 medical SLPs. Results: The response rate was 57%, and 326 surveys met…

  19. High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect

    Protsailo, Lesia

    2006-04-20

    Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

  20. Innovative and Efficient Manufacturing Technologies for Highly Advanced Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Birte; Regnet, Martin; Bickelaier, Stefan; Henne, Florian; Sause, Markus G. R.; Schmidt, Thomas; Geiss, Gunter

    2014-06-01

    The currently ongoing development project at MT Aerospace (MTA) deals with a cost efficient manufacturing process for space structures. Thermoplastic fibre placement, which was identified as one of the most forward-looking technologies, promises advantages such as shorter cycle times and a high level of automation. In addition to the manufacturing method, research activities on non-destructive inspection methods and on acoustic emission analysis are performed. The analysis of the components will also be improved using advanced modelling approaches. The capability of the processes and methods will be shown on the basis of a scaled solid rocket motor casing.

  1. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  2. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  3. Advanced high-performance computer system architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, V. I.

    2007-02-01

    Convergence of computer systems and communication technologies are moving to switched high-performance modular system architectures on the basis of high-speed switched interconnections. Multi-core processors become more perspective way to high-performance system, and traditional parallel bus system architectures (VME/VXI, cPCI/PXI) are moving to new higher speed serial switched interconnections. Fundamentals in system architecture development are compact modular component strategy, low-power processor, new serial high-speed interface chips on the board, and high-speed switched fabric for SAN architectures. Overview of advanced modular concepts and new international standards for development high-performance embedded and compact modular systems for real-time applications are described.

  4. Preparing High School Students for Success in Advanced Placement Statistics: An Investigation of Pedagogies and Strategies Used in an Online Advanced Placement Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, James Thomson, III

    2012-01-01

    Research into teaching practices and strategies has been performed separately in AP Statistics and in K-12 online learning (Garfield, 2002; Ferdig, DiPietro, Black & Dawson, 2009). This study seeks combine the two and build on the need for more investigation into online teaching and learning in specific content (Ferdig et al, 2009; DiPietro,…

  5. Validating the Use of ACT Assessment Scores and High School Grades for Remedial Course Placement in College. ACT Research Report Series 89-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    An argument based on the content fit among a college course, the American College Testing Program (ACT) Assessment tests, and students' high school course work is described to justify use of ACT scores and self-reported high school grades for placement of college freshmen in undergraduate remedial education. A utility-based approach to quantifying…

  6. The Interactive Impact of Race and Gender on High School Advanced Course Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corra, Mamadi; Carter, J. Scott; Carter, Shannon K.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction archive are used to assess the joint effect of race and gender on advanced academic (advanced placement and honors) course enrollment within a school district with an open enrollment policy. Using student SAT scores; the authors compare expected levels of advanced course enrollment for…

  7. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area

  8. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area.

  9. Motivation, Achievement, and Advanced Placement Intent of High School Students Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Kittleson, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of social cognitive theory, we examined the motivation of students (14-16 years old) to learn science in their introductory science courses. The students responded to a questionnaire about their intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and self-determination. The students also wrote essays about their motivation, and individual…

  10. High School Choice in New York City: A Report on the School Choices and Placements of Low-Achieving Students. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Corcoran, Sean; Baker-Smith, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices that accompany the full report, "High School Choice in New York City: A Report on the School Choices and Placements of Low-Achieving Students." The appendices include: (1) The Shrinking Pool of Level 1 and Level 2 Students; and (2) Supplemental Tables and Figures. [For the full report, see…

  11. The Effectiveness of the North Carolina Early Mathematics Placement Test in Preparing High School Students for College-Level Introductory Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgoe, Ellen; Brinkley, Jason; Hattingh, Johannes; Bernhardt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the North Carolina Early Mathematics Placement Testing (NC EMPT) Program has provided a low stakes reality check of readiness for college-level mathematics to more than 600,000 high school students statewide. The program strives to help reduce the percentage of incoming college freshmen requiring mathematics…

  12. Considering Practical Uses of Advanced Placement® Information in College Admission. Research Note 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica; Mattern, Krista D.

    2014-01-01

    The Study evaluated the predictive validity of various operationalizations of AP® Exam and course information that could be used to make college admission decisions. The incremental validity of different AP variables, above and beyond traditional admission measures such as SAT® and high school grade point average (HSGPA), in predicting first-year…

  13. Advanced Placement Exam Scores as a Predictor of Performance in Introductory College Biology, Chemistry and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Survey data from 8,594 students in 55 randomly chosen colleges and universities finds that those having passed an AP science exam earn somewhat higher college science grades, but not enough to assume prior mastery. Moreover, half of this performance difference appears to be related to demographics and high school coursework and not to students' AP…

  14. Advanced high temperature thermoelectrics for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, A.; Ewell, R.; Wood, C.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results from a spacecraft system study show that an optimum hot junction temperature is in the range of 1500 K for advanced nuclear reactor technology combined with thermoelectric conversion. Advanced silicon germanium thermoelectric conversion is feasible if hot junction temperatures can be raised roughly 100 C or if gallium phosphide can be used to improve the figure of merit, but the performance is marginal. Two new classes of refractory materials, rare earth sulfides and boron-carbon alloys, are being investigated to improve the specific weight of the generator system. Preliminary data on the sulfides have shown very high figures of merit over short temperature ranges. Both n- and p-type doping have been obtained. Pure boron-carbide may extrapolate to high figure of merit at temperatures well above 1500 K but not lower temperature; n-type conduction has been reported by others, but not yet observed in the JPL program. Inadvertant impurity doping may explain the divergence of results reported.

  15. Standardized Testing Placement and High School GPA as Predictors of Success in Remedial Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if a relationship existed between success in elementary algebra and a set of predictor variables including COMPASS score and high school GPA. Relationships for intermediate algebra and college credit accumulation over three semesters were also examined with COMPASS score and high school GPA…

  16. Advances in high power semiconductor diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Li

    2008-03-01

    High power semiconductor lasers have broad applications in the fields of military and industry. Recent advances in high power semiconductor lasers are reviewed mainly in two aspects: improvements of diode lasers performance and optimization of packaging architectures of diode laser bars. Factors which determine the performance of diode lasers, such as power conversion efficiency, temperature of operation, reliability, wavelength stabilization etc., result from a combination of new semiconductor materials, new diode structures, careful material processing of bars. The latest progress of today's high-power diode lasers at home and abroad is briefly discussed and typical data are presented. The packaging process is of decisive importance for the applicability of high-power diode laser bars, not only technically but also economically. The packaging techniques include the material choosing and the structure optimizing of heat-sinks, the bonding between the array and the heat-sink, the cooling and the fiber coupling, etc. The status of packaging techniques is stressed. There are basically three different diode package architectural options according to the integration grade. Since the package design is dominated by the cooling aspect, different effective cooling techniques are promoted by different package architectures and specific demands. The benefit and utility of each package are strongly dependent upon the fundamental optoelectronic properties of the individual diode laser bars. Factors which influence these properties are outlined and comparisons of packaging approaches for these materials are made. Modularity of package for special application requirements is an important developing tendency for high power diode lasers.

  17. Viability of 3 D Woven Carbon Cloth and Advanced Carbon-Carbon Ribs for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, K. H.; Blosser, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes aerothermodynamic and thermal structural testing that demonstrate the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth and advanced carbon-carbon (ACC) ribs for use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle's shroud and deployed prior to reaching the atmeopheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is a lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than seen with conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient incllude factor-of-ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as the thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerdynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. Arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. Recently completed the thermal structural testing of the cloth attached to a representative ACC rib design is also described. Finally, this paper describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future ADEPT missions and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  18. Advanced High-Definition Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William

    2007-01-01

    A product line of high-definition color video cameras, now under development, offers a superior combination of desirable characteristics, including high frame rates, high resolutions, low power consumption, and compactness. Several of the cameras feature a 3,840 2,160-pixel format with progressive scanning at 30 frames per second. The power consumption of one of these cameras is about 25 W. The size of the camera, excluding the lens assembly, is 2 by 5 by 7 in. (about 5.1 by 12.7 by 17.8 cm). The aforementioned desirable characteristics are attained at relatively low cost, largely by utilizing digital processing in advanced field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to perform all of the many functions (for example, color balance and contrast adjustments) of a professional color video camera. The processing is programmed in VHDL so that application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) can be fabricated directly from the program. ["VHDL" signifies VHSIC Hardware Description Language C, a computing language used by the United States Department of Defense for describing, designing, and simulating very-high-speed integrated circuits (VHSICs).] The image-sensor and FPGA clock frequencies in these cameras have generally been much higher than those used in video cameras designed and manufactured elsewhere. Frequently, the outputs of these cameras are converted to other video-camera formats by use of pre- and post-filters.

  19. Advanced high-bandwidth optical fuzing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony J.; von der Lippe, Christian M.

    2005-10-01

    A robust and compact photonic proximity sensor is developed for optical fuze in munitions applications. The design of the optical fuze employed advanced optoelectronic technologies including high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), the p-i-n or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, SiGe ASIC driver, and miniature optics. The development combines pioneering work and unique expertise at ARDEC, ARL, and Sandia National Laboratories and synergizes the key optoelectronic technologies in components and system designs. This compact sensor will replace conventional costly assemblies based on discrete lasers, photodetectors, and bulky optics and provide a new capability for direct fire applications. It will be mass manufacturable in low cost and simplicity. In addition to the specific applications for gun-fired munitions, numerous civilian uses can be realized by this proximity sensor in automotive, robotics, and aerospace applications. This technology is also applicable to robotic ladar and short-range 3-D imaging.

  20. Course Placement Series: Spotlight on High School Math Course Enrollment. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on math course enrollment patterns throughout high school by following the 2013-14 twelfth…

  1. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  2. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C. Biggers and...Information Desk Mail Stop 148 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681-2199 This page is required and contains approved text that cannot be...changed. NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C

  3. A small perturbation based optimization approach for the frequency placement of high aspect ratio wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsch, Mandy

    Design denotes the transformation of an identified need to its physical embodiment in a traditionally iterative approach of trial and error. Conceptual design plays a prominent role but an almost infinite number of possible solutions at the outset of design necessitates fast evaluations. The corresponding practice of empirical equations and low fidelity analyses becomes obsolete in the light of novel concepts. Ever increasing system complexity and resource scarcity mandate new approaches to adequately capture system characteristics. Contemporary concerns in atmospheric science and homeland security created an operational need for unconventional configurations. Unmanned long endurance flight at high altitudes offers a unique showcase for the exploration of new design spaces and the incidental deficit of conceptual modeling and simulation capabilities. Structural and aerodynamic performance requirements necessitate light weight materials and high aspect ratio wings resulting in distinct structural and aeroelastic response characteristics that stand in close correlation with natural vibration modes. The present research effort evolves around the development of an efficient and accurate optimization algorithm for high aspect ratio wings subject to natural frequency constraints. Foundational corner stones are beam dimensional reduction and modal perturbation redesign. Local and global analyses inherent to the former suggest corresponding levels of local and global optimization. The present approach departs from this suggestion. It introduces local level surrogate models to capacitate a methodology that consists of multi level analyses feeding into a single level optimization. The innovative heart of the new algorithm originates in small perturbation theory. A sequence of small perturbation solutions allows the optimizer to make incremental movements within the design space. It enables a directed search that is free of costly gradients. System matrices are decomposed

  4. New chemistry for the placement of chromium(III)/polymer gels in high-temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, T.P.; Albonico, P.

    1994-11-01

    Coordination chemistry concepts have been used in the development of Cr[sup +3]/polymer solutions that meet the delayed-gelation requirements for in-depth treatment of high-temperature reservoirs. Use of the malonate complex of Cr[sup +3], Cr(malonate)[sub 3], provides gelation delays at elevated temperature much greater than those obtained with either the hydrated Cr[sup +3] ion or Cr(acetate)[sub 3]. Inclusion of additional, uncomplexed malonate ions in the formulations provides a means for further, and predictable, extension of the gelation time. The gelation delays obtained over the temperature range of 90 to 135 C are equal to or greater than those that can be achieved with the best gelation delay technologies described previously. The dependence of the gelation time on temperature, pH, and the Cr[sup +3] and malonate ion concentrations has been investigated. Preliminary results indicate that the thermal decomposition of the delaying ligand, malonate, plays an important role in determining the gelation rate. The use of a Cr[sup +3] complex of relatively low toxicity rather than the carcinogenic Cr[sup +6] ion to control gelation rate is an attractive feature of the new technology.

  5. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  6. Cross-sectional Anatomy of Ilium for Guiding Acetabular Component Placement Using High Hip Center Technique in Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian-Lin; Zuo, Jian-Lin; Liu, Peng; Qin, Yan-Guo; Li, Xue-Zhou; Liu, Tong; Gao, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many clinical studies have been published involving the use of a high hip center (HHC), achieved good follow-up. However, there is a little anatomic guidance in the literature regarding the amount of bone stock available for initial implant coverage in this area of the ilium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thickness and width of the human ilium and related acetabular cup coverage for guiding acetabular component placement in HHC. Methods: A total of 120 normal hips in 60 cases of adult patients from lower extremities computer tomographic angiography Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were chosen for the study. After importing the data to the mimics software, we chose the cross sections every 5-mm increments from the rotational center of the hip to the cephalic of the ilium according the body sagittal axis, then we measured the thickness and width of the ilium for each cross section in axial plane, calculated the cup coverage at each chosen section. Results: At the acetabular dome, the mean thickness and width of the ilium were 49.71 ± 4.88 mm and 38.92 ± 3.67 mm, respectively, whereas at 1 cm above the dome, decreased to 41.35 ± 5.13 and 31.13 ± 3.37 respectively, and 2 cm above the dome, decreased to 31.25 ± 4.04 and 26.65 ± 3.43, respectively. Acetabular cup averaged coverage for 40-, 50-, and 60-mm hemispheric shells, was 100%, 89%, and 44% at the acetabular dome, 100%, 43.7%, and 27.5% for 1 cm above the dome, and 37.5%, 21.9%, and 14.2% for 2 cm above the dome. Conclusions: HHC reconstructions within 1 cm above the acetabular dome will be an acceptable and smaller diameter prosthesis would be better. PMID:26063357

  7. Content Selection in Advanced Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.; Lo, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced high-school courses, such as Advanced Placement (AP) courses in the United States, present a content selection conundrum of major proportions. Judicious content selection is necessary if students are to learn subject matter meaningfully, but the sheer breadth of tested material in these courses promotes nearly the opposite:…

  8. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher

  9. A Placement Advisory Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The primary method of placement at Portland CC (PCC) is the Compass Placement test. For the most part, students are placed correctly, but there are cases when students feel that they have been placed too low. In such cases we use our newly created Placement Advisory Test (PAT) to help us place them appropriately. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. Advances in the Design of High-Performance Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kevin K.

    This thesis tackles challenges in feedback control design for fluid flows, from multiple angles and approaches. It covers three major facets---stability theory, control, and reduced-order modeling---and it investigates three major challenges of these facets: nonlinearity, high dimensionality, and non-normality. The dissertation begins with a discussion of global stability via linearized Navier--Stokes eigendecompositions, including numerical algorithms for this analysis. This section then investigates the global stability of a pipe flow through a T-shaped bifurcation at mid-hundred Reynolds numbers, which exhibits vortex breakdown. The recirculation and sensitivity regions closely coincide, which we explain using an inviscid short-wavelength perturbation theory. We also discuss the stability and receptivity properties of this flow. The second part discusses feedback control design for fluid flows, including optimal actuator and sensor placement. It presents an algorithm that computes the gradient of a control measure with respect to such placements, allowing an efficient gradient-based optimization. The implementation on the linearized Ginzburg--Landau and the Orr--Sommerfeld/Squire models of fluid flow reveals that common methods for placement, such as global mode analysis, are suboptimal. We discuss heuristics, including sensitivity, that may predict optimal placements. The third part covers reduced-order flow modeling. It examines previously unknown properties of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD)---a data-based modeling technique---including the uniqueness of the numerical algorithm and the boundary conditions of DMD-based models. We also propose an "optimized" DMD that produces less spurious decompositions, and gives the user control over the number of output modes. We show examples from the two-dimensional laminar flow over a cylinder. This part also investigates the stability and performance of high dimensional (e.g., fluid) systems in closed-loop with reduced

  11. Screw Placement and Osteoplasty Under Computed Tomographic-Fluoroscopic Guidance in a Case of Advanced Metastatic Destruction of the Iliosacral Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Trumm, Christoph Gregor; Rubenbauer, Bianca; Piltz, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    2011-02-15

    We present a case of combined surgical screw placement and osteoplasty guided by computed tomography-fluoroscopy (CTF) in a 68-year-old man with unilateral osteolytic destruction and a pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint due to a metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The patient experienced intractable lower back pain that was refractory to analgesia. After transarterial particle and coil embolization of the tumor-feeding vessels in the angiography unit, the procedure was performed under general anesthesia by an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologists and trauma surgeons. Under intermittent single-shot CTF, two K wires were inserted into the left iliosacral joint from a lateral transiliac approach at the S1 level followed by two self-tapping surgical screws. Continuous CTF was used for monitoring of the subsequent polymethylmethacrylate injection through two vertebroplasty cannulas for further stabilization of the screw threads within the osteolytic sacral ala. Both the screw placement and cement injection were successful, with no complications occurring during or after the procedure. With additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and opioid medication, the patient reported a marked decrease in his lower back pain and was able to move independently again at the 3-month follow-up assessment. In our patient with intolerable back pain due to tumor destruction and consequent pathological fracture of the iliosacral joint, CTF-guided iliosacral screw placement combined with osteoplasty was successful with respect to joint stabilization and a reduction in the need for analgesic therapy.

  12. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  13. Automated fiber placement: Evolution and current demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Carroll G.; Benson, Vernon M.

    1993-01-01

    The automated fiber placement process has been in development at Hercules since 1980. Fiber placement is being developed specifically for aircraft and other high performance structural applications. Several major milestones have been achieved during process development. These milestones are discussed in this paper. The automated fiber placement process is currently being demonstrated on the NASA ACT program. All demonstration projects to date have focused on fiber placement of transport aircraft fuselage structures. Hercules has worked closely with Boeing and Douglas on these demonstration projects. This paper gives a description of demonstration projects and results achieved.

  14. Lumbar Catheter Placement Using Paramedian Approach Under Fluoroscopic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Khan, Asif A.; Malik, Ahmed A.; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Herial, Nabeel A.; Qureshi, Mushtaq H.; Suri, M. Fareed K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar catheter placement under fluoroscopic guidance may reduce the rate of technical failures and associated complications seen with insertion guided by manually palpable landmarks. Methods We reviewed our experience with 43 attempted lumbar catheter placements using paramedian approach under fluoroscopic guidance and ascertained rates of technical success, and clinical events. Results Among the 43 patients, 18, 1, and 1 patients were on aspirin (with dipyrimadole in 2), clopidogrel, and combination of both, respectively. Lumbar catheter placement was successful in 42 of 43 attempted placements. Floroscopic guidance was critical in three patients; one patient had severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) depletion (empty thecal sac phenomenon) following pituitary surgery leading to no cerebrospinal fluid return despite correct placement confirmation under fluoroscopy. Two patients had spinal needle placement at the junction between epidural and cerebrospinal fluid spaces (junctional position) leading to cerebrospinal fluid return but inability to introduce the lumbar catheter. After confirmation of position by the injection of contrast or radiographic landmarks the needle was advanced by indenting the subcutaneous tissue or reinserting at a spinal level above the first insertion. The lumbar catheter remained in position over a mean period (±standard deviation) of 4.1(±2.3) days. Improvement in hydrocephalus was seen in two patients with intracranial mass lesions. One patient developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the insertion track following removal of catheter and required skin suturing at the site of insertion. Conclusions We observed a high technical success rate with low rate of complications even in patients with intracranial mass lesions, those on ongoing antiplatelet medications or in whom insertion would not be possible guided by manually palpable landmarks. PMID:26958156

  15. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  16. Math Placement in California's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Niu; Adan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Last year, the California Legislature passed a new law--the California Mathematics Placement Act--to address widespread concern over equity in the math placement process. The law is aimed at improving the measurement of student performance in order to move more students successfully through the high school curriculum. In this context, researchers…

  17. Characteristics of Work Placements Valued by Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Barbara; Flatten, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Group Feedback Strategy was used to evaluate data from 73 employers, 18 tutors, 156 students, and 45 graduates involved in work placements in a library and information science program. Respondents showed reasonably high satisfaction for the following characteristics of placements: teamwork experience, assessment of capabilities, training…

  18. Advanced Biology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Larry

    This course in advanced biology is entitled "Advanced Genetics" and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of seven units of study, and 15 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include a review of genetics,…

  19. Multiscale variation-aware techniques for high-performance digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip component placement.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Hu, Shiyan

    2011-03-01

    The invention of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip alleviates the burden of traditional biochemical laboratory procedures which are often very expensive. Device miniaturization and increasing design complexity have mandated a shift in digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip design from traditional manual design to computer-aided design (CAD) methodologies. As an important procedure in the lab-on-a-chip layout CAD, the lab-on-a-chip component placement determines the physical location and the starting time of each operation such that the overall completion time is minimized while satisfying nonoverlapping constraint, resource constraint, and scheduling constraint. In this paper, a multiscale variation-aware optimization technique based on integer linear programming is proposed for the lab-on-a-chip component placement. The simulation results demonstrate that without considering variations, our technique always satisfies the design constraints and largely outperforms the state-of-the-art approach, with up to 65.9% reduction in completion time. When considering variations, the variation-unaware design has the average yield of 2%, while our variation-aware technique always satisfies the yield constraint with only 7.7% completion time increase.

  20. Preoperative Diagnostic Angiogram and Endovascular Aortic Stent Placement for Appleby Resection Candidates: A Novel Surgical Technique in the Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, N.; Pelletier, J. S.; Abraham, C.; Vanounou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body and tail usually presents late and is typically unresectable. The modified Appleby procedure allows resection of pancreatic body carcinoma with celiac axis (CA) invasion. Given that the feasibility of this technique is based on the presence of collateral circulation, it is crucial to confirm the presence of an anatomical and functional collateral system. Methods. We here describe a novel technique used in two patients who were candidates for Appleby resection. We present their clinical scenario, imaging, operative findings, and postoperative course. Results. Both patients had a preoperative angiogram for assessment of anatomical circulation and placement of an endovascular stent to cover the CA. We hypothesize that this new technique allows enhancement of collateral circulation and helps minimize intraoperative blood loss when transecting the CA at its takeoff. Moreover, extra length on the CA margin may be gained, as the artery can be transected at its origin without the need for vascular clamp placement. Conclusion. We propose this novel technique in the preoperative management of patients who are undergoing a modified Appleby procedure. While further experience with this technique is required, we believe that it confers significant advantages to the current standard of care. PMID:26491217

  1. Two-spoke placement optimization under explicit specific absorption rate and power constraints in parallel transmission at ultra-high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, Laura; Massire, Aurélien; Amadon, Alexis; Vignaud, Alexandre; Boulant, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    The spokes method combined with parallel transmission is a promising technique to mitigate the B1+ inhomogeneity at ultra-high field in 2D imaging. To date however, the spokes placement optimization combined with the magnitude least squares pulse design has never been done in direct conjunction with the explicit Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and hardware constraints. In this work, the joint optimization of 2-spoke trajectories and RF subpulse weights is performed under these constraints explicitly and in the small tip angle regime. The problem is first considerably simplified by making the observation that only the vector between the 2 spokes is relevant in the magnitude least squares cost-function, thereby reducing the size of the parameter space and allowing a more exhaustive search. The algorithm starts from a set of initial k-space candidates and performs in parallel for all of them optimizations of the RF subpulse weights and the k-space locations simultaneously, under explicit SAR and power constraints, using an active-set algorithm. The dimensionality of the spoke placement parameter space being low, the RF pulse performance is computed for every location in k-space to study the robustness of the proposed approach with respect to initialization, by looking at the probability to converge towards a possible global minimum. Moreover, the optimization of the spoke placement is repeated with an increased pulse bandwidth in order to investigate the impact of the constraints on the result. Bloch simulations and in vivo T2∗-weighted images acquired at 7 T validate the approach. The algorithm returns simulated normalized root mean square errors systematically smaller than 5% in 10 s.

  2. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  3. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  4. Decreased scapular notching with lateralization and inferior baseplate placement in reverse shoulder arthroplasty with high humeral inclination

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, Brian T.; Zhang, Alan L.; Barry, Jeffery J.; Shin, Edward; Ho, Julianne; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Ma, C. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scapular notching is a radiographic finding of unknown clinical significance following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). The purpose of this study was to determine how baseplate position affects the incidence of scapular notching and measure the clinical outcomes. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that low base plate position on the glenoid and new prosthesis design with a higher humeral inclination angle would decrease the incidence of notching at 2 years follow-up. Materials and methods: A total of 54 patients with an average follow-up of 30 months met inclusion criteria and underwent radiographic analysis of scapular notching and radiographic measures to determine glenoid component placement. Clinical measures including visual analog score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and range of motion (ROM) were prospectively collected. Results: Thirty-nine of the 54 patients had no notching. 7 had Grade 1 notching, 7 had Grade 2 notching, one had Grade 3, and one had Grade 4 notching. Notching was associated with higher placement of the glenoid component as measured by peg-glenoid rim distance and base plate distance. All patients with no evidence of notching at 1-year, continued to have no notching after multi-year follow-up. Clinical outcome measures including ASES scores, ROM, and visual analog pain scores were improved at follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that lower neck-shaft angle and low baseplate positioning led to a low incidence of significant scapular notching as only 6 out of 57 (16%) patients had notching Grade 2 and above. At short-term follow-up, this RTSA results in excellent clinical outcomes and a significantly lower scapular notching rate than traditional techniques. PMID:25258496

  5. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  6. College Mathematics Placement Tests: Student Perceptions of Preparation and Appropriateness of Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Pamela Ann

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of recent high school graduates' college math placement test results indicate that they are not ready for college level math. This study examined the perceptions of recent high school graduates enrolled in developmental math classes to determine their level of satisfaction with their math placement, the relationship of…

  7. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  8. BRAND PLACEMENT AND CONSUMER CHOICE: AN IN-STORE EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior. PMID:20190939

  9. Brand placement and consumer choice: an in-store experiment.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.

  10. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  11. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  12. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  13. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  14. JOINING OF ADVANCED HIGH-TEMPERATURE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Darsell, Jens T.

    2009-05-14

    Various compositions in the Ag-CuOx system are being investigated as potential filler metals for use in air brazing high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and gas concentrators. Prior work has shown that the melting temperature, and therefore the potential operational temperature, of these materials can be increased by alloying with palladium. The current study examines the effects of palladium addition on the joint strength of specimens prepared from yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) bars brazed with three different families of filler metals: Ag-CuO, 5Pd-Ag-CuO, and 15Pd-Ag-CuO. In general it was found that palladium leads to a small-to-moderate decrease in joint strength, particularly in low copper oxide compositions filler metals. However the effect is likely acceptable if a higher temperature air braze filler metal is desired. In addition, a composition was found for each filler metal series in which the joint failure mechanism undergoes a transition, typically from ductile to brittle failure. In each case, this composition corresponds approximately to the silver-rich boundary composition of the liquid miscibility gap in each system at the temperature of brazing.

  15. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  16. Accounting for Advanced High School Coursework in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of accounting for student performance in advanced high school coursework through the adjustment of high school grade point average (HSGPA) while separating out variables that are independently considered in the admission process, e.g., SAT/ACT scores, community affluence, type of…

  17. Enhanced nonlinearity interval mapping scheme for high-performance simulation-optimization of watershed-scale BMP placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Rui; Riverson, John; Liu, Yong; Murphy, Ryan; Sim, Youn

    2015-03-01

    Integrated continuous simulation-optimization models can be effective predictors of a process-based responses for cost-benefit optimization of best management practices (BMPs) selection and placement. However, practical application of simulation-optimization model is computationally prohibitive for large-scale systems. This study proposes an enhanced Nonlinearity Interval Mapping Scheme (NIMS) to solve large-scale watershed simulation-optimization problems several orders of magnitude faster than other commonly used algorithms. An efficient interval response coefficient (IRC) derivation method was incorporated into the NIMS framework to overcome a computational bottleneck. The proposed algorithm was evaluated using a case study watershed in the Los Angeles County Flood Control District. Using a continuous simulation watershed/stream-transport model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC), three nested in-stream compliance points (CP)—each with multiple Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) targets—were selected to derive optimal treatment levels for each of the 28 subwatersheds, so that the TMDL targets at all the CP were met with the lowest possible BMP implementation cost. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and NIMS were both applied and compared. The results showed that the NIMS took 11 iterations (about 11 min) to complete with the resulting optimal solution having a total cost of 67.2 million, while each of the multiple GA executions took 21-38 days to reach near optimal solutions. The best solution obtained among all the GA executions compared had a minimized cost of 67.7 million—marginally higher, but approximately equal to that of the NIMS solution. The results highlight the utility for decision making in large-scale watershed simulation-optimization formulations.

  18. Advanced Tribological Coatings for High Specific Strength Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-29

    Hard Anodised 4 HSSA12 (SHT) Plasma Nitrided 1 HSSA13 (H&G) Plasma Nitrided 2 HSSA14 (SHT) High Temperature Nitrocarburized 1 HSSA15 (H&G) Nitrox 1...HSSA26 ( High Temperature Plasma Nitriding) has recently arrived, and is currently undergoing metallographic examination. The remaining samples are still...Report No 3789/607 Advanced Tribological Coatings For High Specific Strength Alloys, R&D 5876-MS-01 Contract DAJ A45-87-C-0044 5th Interim Report

  19. ESL Placement and Schools

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  20. Fiducial Marker Placement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  1. Gastrostomy tube placement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100125.htm Gastrostomy tube placement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  2. Advanced Course Enrollment and Performance among English Learner Students in Washington State. REL 2017-187

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Havala; Bisht, Biraj; Motamedi, Jason Greenberg

    2016-01-01

    Taking advanced high school courses (for example, honors, Advanced Placement, and dual-credit courses that offer college credits in high school) can help prepare students for postsecondary education and careers. English learner students, however, face unique obstacles to taking advanced courses because they must divide their time between acquiring…

  3. Bridging the Geoscientist Workforce Gap: Advanced High School Geoscience Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Richard William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research was to create a comprehensive evaluation of advanced geoscience education in Pennsylvania public high schools and to ascertain the possible impact of this trend on student perceptions and attitudes towards the geosciences as a legitimate academic subject and possible career option. The study builds…

  4. Advanced Botany (Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Advanced Botany" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of three units of study, and eight behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include plant cells and taxonomy, functions and…

  5. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Carpenter, Joseph A.; Warren, C. D.; Smith, Mark T.

    2008-12-28

    Experiments are continuing to evaluate the feasibility of friction stir spot welding advanced high-strength steels including, DP780, martensitic hot-stamp boron steel, and TRIP steels. Spot weld lap-shear strengths can exceed those required by industry standards such as AWS D8.1.

  6. Advanced High Pressure O2/H2 Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morea, S. F. (Editor); Wu, S. T. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the development of advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen stage combustion rocket engines are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the Space Shuttle main engine. The areas of engine technology discussed include fracture and fatigue in engine components, manufacturing and producibility engineering, materials, bearing technology, structure dynamics, fluid dynamics, and instrumentation technology.

  7. Review of recent technological advances in high power LED packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen S.

    2012-06-01

    High Power LED is poised to replace traditional lighting sources such as Fluorescent, HID, Halogen and conventional incandescent bulbs in many applications. Due to the solid state compact nature of the light source it is inherently rugged and reliable and has been the favored lighting source for most indoor and outdoor applications including many hazardous locations that impact, and safety environments including mining, bridge, Aerospace, Automotive . In order to accelerate this transition many enhancements and advances are taking place to improve on the reliability, and thermal performance of these devices. This paper explores the various improvements and advances made in the packaging of LEDs to enhance their performance

  8. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  9. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  10. A Comparative Study of High School Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment Programs Using a Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Katrina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of whether students who take dual enrollment and/or AP classes have higher ACT test scores compared to a group of their peers that did not take dual enrollment or AP courses. The study also identified the demographic characteristics (ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic status) of students with a 3.0 or…

  11. High Speed, High Accuracy Stage for Advanced Lithography. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    noise and 5nm LSB of our laser interferometer. Zerodur Mounting bar Base expended in this direction Sensor heads Interferometer mirror ...state of the art. Their CORE machine claims an accuracy of 80nm over a 6- inch square field. This machine uses high-speed mirrors to scan multiple...variety of optical paths. If the laboratory is not quiet (e.g. if the interferometer mirror is moving, or if people are talking in the laboratory

  12. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  13. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  14. High resolution computed tomography of advanced composite and ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, R. N.; Klima, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced composite and ceramic materials are being developed for use in many new defense and commercial applications. In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties of these materials, the structural elements must be carefully analyzed and engineered. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of high resolution computed tomography (CT) as a macrostructural analysis tool for advanced composite and ceramic materials. Several samples were scanned using a laboratory high resolution CT scanner. Samples were also destructively analyzed at the locations of the scans and the nondestructive and destructive results were compared. The study provides useful information outlining the strengths and limitations of this technique and the prospects for further research in this area.

  15. Rotor Performance at High Advance Ratio: Theory versus Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2008-01-01

    Five analytical tools have been used to study rotor performance at high advance ratio. One is representative of autogyro rotor theory in 1934 and four are representative of helicopter rotor theory in 2008. The five theories are measured against three sets of well documented, full-scale, isolated rotor performance experiments. The major finding of this study is that the decades spent by many rotorcraft theoreticians to improve prediction of basic rotor aerodynamic performance has paid off. This payoff, illustrated by comparing the CAMRAD II comprehensive code and Wheatley & Bailey theory to H-34 test data, shows that rational rotor lift to drag ratios are now predictable. The 1934 theory predicted L/D ratios as high as 15. CAMRAD II predictions compared well with H-34 test data having L/D ratios more on the order of 7 to 9. However, the detailed examination of the selected codes compared to H-34 test data indicates that not one of the codes can predict to engineering accuracy above an advance ratio of 0.62 the control positions and shaft angle of attack required for a given lift. There is no full-scale rotor performance data available for advance ratios above 1.0 and extrapolation of currently available data to advance ratios on the order of 2.0 is unreasonable despite the needs of future rotorcraft. Therefore, it is recommended that an overly strong full-scale rotor blade set be obtained and tested in a suitable wind tunnel to at least an advance ratio of 2.5. A tail rotor from a Sikorsky CH-53 or other large single rotor helicopter should be adequate for this exploratory experiment.

  16. Advanced Multifunctional Materials for High Speed Combatant Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    3D hybrid fabrics Figure 1. General technical approach for integrated optimized design methodology that leverages recent advances in materials...strain rate dependent urethanes Reinforcement ■ UHPE fibers ■ High performance fibers ■ 2D/ 3D hybrid fabrics Additives ■ Conductive particles (e.g...Plastisol Ink. These mixed inks were determined to be too viscous to be used for screen printer . We also evaluated multiple commercial inks. These were

  17. Advanced Risk Analysis for High-Performing Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    using traditional risk analysis techniques. Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) is one technique that high performers can use to identify and mitigate the risks arising from operational complexity....The operational environment for many types of organizations is changing. Changes in operational environments are driving the need for advanced risk ... analysis techniques. Many types of risk prevalent in today’s operational environments (e.g., event risks, inherited risk) are not readily identified

  18. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Various configurations of high temperature, heat flux sensors were studied to determine their suitability for use in experimental combustor liners of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was determined that embedded thermocouple sensors, laminated sensors, and Gardon gauge sensors, were the most viable candidates. Sensors of all three types were fabricated, calibrated, and endurance tested. All three types of sensors met the fabricability survivability, and accuracy requirements established for their application.

  19. High-power disk lasers: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havrilla, David; Ryba, Tracey; Holzer, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Though the genesis of the disk laser concept dates to the early 90's, the disk laser continues to demonstrate the flexibility and the certain future of a breakthrough technology. On-going increases in power per disk, and improvements in beam quality and efficiency continue to validate the genius of the disk laser concept. As of today, the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over monolithic architectures. With about 2,000 high power disk lasers installations, and a demand upwards of 1,000 lasers per year, the disk laser has proven to be a robust and reliable industrial tool. With advancements in running cost, investment cost and footprint, manufacturers continue to implement disk laser technology with more vigor than ever. This paper will explain recent advances in disk laser technology and process relevant features of the laser, like pump diode arrangement, resonator design and integrated beam guidance. In addition, advances in applications in the thick sheet area and very cost efficient high productivity applications like remote welding, remote cutting and cutting of thin sheets will be discussed.

  20. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  1. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  2. High-temperature corrosion in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-11-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operation at much elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitate development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The present paper characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over a wide temperature range of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials with potential for application in these systems. An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate materials for advanced combustion systems. Several candidate materials have been identified for evaluation. The candidates included advanced metallic alloys, monolithic ceramics, ceramic particulate/ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites, and ceramic whisker/ceramic matrix composites. The materials examined so far included nickel-base superalloys, alumina, stabilized zirconia, different types of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Coupon specimens of several of the materials have been tested in an air environment at 1000, 1200, and 1400{degree}C for 168 h. In addition, specimens were exposed to sodium-sulfate-containing salts at temperatures of 1000 and 1200{degree}C for 168 h. Extensive microstructural analyses were conducted on the exposed specimens to evaluate the corrosion performance of the materials for service in air and fireside environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Additional tests are underway with several of the materials to evaluate their corrosion performance as a function of salt chemistry, alkali vapor concentration, gas chemistry, exposure temperature, and exposure time.

  3. Advances in high throughput DNA sequence data compression.

    PubMed

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and reduction in cost of sequencing have led to exponential growth in high throughput DNA sequence data. This growth has posed challenges such as storage, retrieval, and transmission of sequencing data. Data compression is used to cope with these challenges. Various methods have been developed to compress genomic and sequencing data. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of compression methods for genome and reads compression. Algorithms are categorized as referential or reference free. Experimental results and comparative analysis of various methods for data compression are presented. Finally, key challenges and research directions in DNA sequence data compression are highlighted.

  4. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  5. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4cm{sup 3} have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development.

  6. The American Brachytherapy Society Treatment Recommendations for Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Cervix Part II: High Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Beriwal, Sushil; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Gaffney, David; Hansen, Jorgen; Jones, Ellen; Kirisits, Christian; Thomadsen, Bruce; Erickson, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This report presents the 2011 update to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy guidelines for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in cervical cancer brachytherapy formulated updated guidelines for HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring, ovoids, cylinder or interstitial applicators for locally advanced cervical cancer were revised based on medical evidence in the literature and input of clinical experts in gynecologic brachytherapy. Results The Cervical Cancer Committee for Guideline Development affirms the essential curative role of tandem-based brachytherapy in the management of locally advanced cervical cancer. Proper applicator selection, insertion, and imaging are fundamental aspects of the procedure. Three-dimensional imaging with magnetic resonance or computed tomography or radiographic imaging may be used for treatment planning. Dosimetry must be performed after each insertion prior to treatment delivery. Applicator placement, dose specification and dose fractionation must be documented, quality assurance measures must be performed, and follow-up information must be obtained. A variety of dose/fractionation schedules and methods for integrating brachytherapy with external-beam radiation exist. The recommended tumor dose in 2 Gray (Gy) per fraction radiobiologic equivalence (EQD2) is 80–90 Gy, depending on tumor size at the time of brachytherapy. Dose limits for normal tissues are discussed. Conclusion These guidelines update those of 2000 and provide a comprehensive description of HDR cervical cancer brachytherapy in 2011. PMID:22265437

  7. Entry into the Labor Market: The Preparation and Job Placement of Negro and White Vocational High School Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillsman, Sally Turnbull

    This study is concerned with the role of educational institutions as mechanisms of labor market selection, in particular the role of high schools for terminal graduates. The aspects of this process under primary concern are racial differences in economic achievement generated and sustained by educational institutions in their capacity as…

  8. College Placement in Today's Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the effects of reduced financing on college placement items such as services, staffing, fees, conference attendance, travel, recruitment, and salaries. Placement personnel (N=224) responded to a questionnaire. Results indicated that budgets have generally remained the same. (RC)

  9. An advanced actuator for high-performance slewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Eisenhaure, David; Hockney, Richard

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced momentum exchange actuator for application to spacecraft slewing is described. The particular concept is a magnetically-suspended, magnetically gimballed Control Moment Gyro (CMG). A scissored pair of these devices is sized to provide the torque and angular momentum capacity required to reorient a large spacecraft through large angle maneuvers. The concept described utilizes a composite material rotor to achieve the high momentum and energy densities to minimize system mass, an advanced superconducting magnetic suspension system to minimize system weight and power consumption. The magnetic suspension system is also capable of allowing for large angle gimballing of the rotor, thus eliminating the mass and reliability penalties attendant to conventional gimbals. Descriptions of the various subelement designs are included along with the necessary system sizing formulation and material.

  10. Advanced Synchrotron Techniques at High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Chow, P.; Kono, Y.; Meng, Y.; Park, C.; Popov, D.; Rod, E.; Smith, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, H.

    2012-12-01

    High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is dedicated to advancing cutting-edge, multidisciplinary, high-pressure science and technology using synchrotron radiation at Sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. At HPCAT an array of novel x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques has been integrated with high pressure and extreme temperature instrumentation for studies of structure and materials properties at extreme conditions.. HPCAT consists of four active independent beamlines performing a large range of various experiments at extreme conditions. 16BM-B beamline is dedicated to energy dispersive and white Laue X-ray diffraction. The majority of experiments are performed with a Paris-Edinburgh large volume press (to 7GPa and 2500K) and include amorphous and liquid structure measurement, white beam radiography, elastic sound wave velocity measurement of amorphous solid materials, with viscosity and density measurement of liquid being under development. 16BM-D is a monochromatic diffraction beamline for powder and single crystal diffraction at high pressure and high (resistive heating) / low (cryostats) temperature. The additional capabilities include high-resolution powder diffraction and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The insertion device beamline of HPCAT has two undulators in canted mode (operating independently) and LN cooled Si monochromators capable of providing a large range of energies. 16IDB is a microdiffraction beamline mainly focusing on high-pressure powder and single crystal diffraction in DAC at high temperatures (double-sided laser heating and resistive heating) and low temperature (various cryostats). The modern instrumentation allows high-quality diffraction at megabar pressures from light element, fast experiments with pulsed laser heating, fast dynamic experiments with Pilatus detector, and so on. 16ID-D beamline is dedicated to x-ray scattering and spectroscopy research

  11. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Solozhenko, Vladimir L

    2016-10-20

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN) with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N₂. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc.) are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure-temperature conditions are considered.

  12. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  13. Behaviour of advanced materials impacted by high energy particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Garlasché, M.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N.; Marques dos Santos, S. D.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Boccone, V.

    2013-07-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) are designed to operate in a harsh radioactive environment and are highly loaded from a thermo-structural point of view. Moreover, modern particle accelerators, storing unprecedented energy, may be exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct beam impacts. In this context, impulse has been given to the development of novel materials for advanced thermal management with high thermal shock resistance like metal-diamond and metal-graphite composites on top of refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and copper alloys. This paper presents the results of a first-of-its-kind experiment which exploited 440 GeV proton beams at different intensities to impact samples of the aforementioned materials. Effects of thermally induced shockwaves were acquired via high speed acquisition system including strain gauges, laser Doppler vibrometer and high speed camera. Preliminary information of beam induced damages on materials were also collected. State-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes (like Autodyn®), relying on complex material models including equation of state (EOS), strength and failure models, have been used for the simulation of the experiment. Preliminary results confirm the effectiveness and reliability of these numerical methods when material constitutive models are completely available (W and Cu alloys). For novel composite materials a reverse engineering approach will be used to build appropriate constitutive models, thus allowing a realistic representation of these complex phenomena. These results are of paramount importance for understanding and predicting the response of novel advanced composites to beam impacts in modern particle accelerators.

  14. Job Placement Program. Final Report 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopatcong Borough School District, NJ.

    The Job Placement Program was designed to provide counseling and job placement assistance to work-bound high school seniors as well as information on employment opportunities to all students, whether work or college bound. During the project, members of the senior class at Hopatcong High School in Hopatcong, New Jersey, were surveyed in order to…

  15. High brightness laser systems incorporating advanced laser bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmaier, Stephan; Vethake, Thilo; Gottdiener, Mark; Wunderlin, Jens; Negoita, Viorel; Li, Yufeng; Barnowski, Tobias; Gong, Tim; An, Haiyan; Treusch, Georg

    2013-02-01

    The performance of high power and high brightness systems has been developing and is developing fast. In the multi kW regime both very high spatial and spectral brightness systems are emerging. Also diode laser pumped and direct diode lasers are becoming the standard laser sources for many applications. The pump sources for thin Disk Laser systems at TRUMPF Photonics enabled by high power and efficiency laser bars are becoming a well established standard in the industry with over two thousand 8 kW Disk Laser pumps installed in TruDisk systems at the customer site. These systems have proven to be a robust and reliable industrial tool. A further increase in power and efficiency of the bar can be easily used to scale the TruDisk output power without major changes in the pump source design. This publication will highlight advanced laser systems in the multi kW range for both direct application and solid state laser pumping using specifically tailored diode laser bars for high spatial and/or high spectral brightness. Results using wavelength stabilization techniques suitable for high power CW laser system applications will be presented. These high power and high brightness diode laser systems, fiber coupled or in free space configuration, depending on application or customer need, typically operate in the range of 900 to 1070 nm wavelength.

  16. High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

  17. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-03-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  18. Advanced research and technology program for advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  19. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  20. High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morehead, H.

    1995-10-19

    An outline of the Westinghouse high-efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle is presented. The following topics are discussed: The Westinghouse SOFC pilot manufacturing facility, cell scale-up plan, pressure effects on SOFC power and efficiency, sureCell versus conventional gas turbine plants, sureCell product line for distributed power applications, 20 MW pressurized-SOFC/gas turbine power plant, 10 MW SOFC/CT power plant, sureCell plant concept design requirements, and Westinghouse SOFC market entry.

  1. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  2. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  3. Advanced superposition methods for high speed turbopump vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.; Campany, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The small, high pressure Mark 48 liquid hydrogen turbopump was analyzed and dynamically tested to determine the cause of high speed vibration at an operating speed of 92,400 rpm. This approaches the design point operating speed of 95,000 rpm. The initial dynamic analysis in the design stage and subsequent further analysis of the rotor only dynamics failed to predict the vibration characteristics found during testing. An advanced procedure for dynamics analysis was used in this investigation. The procedure involves developing accurate dynamic models of the rotor assembly and casing assembly by finite element analysis. The dynamically instrumented assemblies are independently rap tested to verify the analytical models. The verified models are then combined by modal superposition techniques to develop a completed turbopump model where dynamic characteristics are determined. The results of the dynamic testing and analysis obtained are presented and methods of moving the high speed vibration characteristics to speeds above the operating range are recommended. Recommendations for use of these advanced dynamic analysis procedures during initial design phases are given.

  4. Current Status of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Qualls, A L; Peretz, Fred J; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cisneros, Anselmo T.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated.

  5. Current status of the advanced high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D. E.; Iias, D.; Quails, A. L.; Peretz, F. J.; Varma, V. K.; Bradley, E. C.; Cisneros, A. T.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. (authors)

  6. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Several NASA-sponsored benefit-cost studies have shown that very substantial benefits can be obtained by increasing material capability for aircraft gas turbines. Prealloyed powder processing holds promise for providing superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. The developement of advanced powder metallurgy disk alloys must be based on a design of optimum processing and heat treating procedures. Materials considered for high temperature application include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, directionally solidified superalloys, ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, materials combining the high strength of a gamma prime strengthened alloy with the elevated temperature strength of an ODS, and composites. Attention is also given to the use of high pressure turbine seals, approaches for promoting environmental protection, and turbine cooling technology.

  7. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  8. Impacted material placement plans

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, M.J.

    1997-01-29

    Impacted material placement plans (IMPP) are documents identifying the essential elements in placing remediation wastes into disposal facilities. Remediation wastes or impacted material(s) are those components used in the construction of the disposal facility exclusive of the liners and caps. The components might include soils, concrete, rubble, debris, and other regulatory approved materials. The IMPP provides the details necessary for interested parties to understand the management and construction practices at the disposal facility. The IMPP should identify the regulatory requirements from applicable DOE Orders, the ROD(s) (where a part of a CERCLA remedy), closure plans, or any other relevant agreements or regulations. Also, how the impacted material will be tracked should be described. Finally, detailed descriptions of what will be placed and how it will be placed should be included. The placement of impacted material into approved on-site disposal facilities (OSDF) is an integral part of gaining regulatory approval. To obtain this approval, a detailed plan (Impacted Material Placement Plan [IMPP]) was developed for the Fernald OSDF. The IMPP provides detailed information for the DOE, site generators, the stakeholders, regulatory community, and the construction subcontractor placing various types of impacted material within the disposal facility.

  9. Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I.

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

  10. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  11. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered. PMID:25053938

  12. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  13. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-08-05

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  14. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-08-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  15. Advanced Rock Drilling Technologies Using High Laser Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckstegge, Frederik; Michel, Theresa; Zimmermann, Maik; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    Drilling through hard rock formations causes high mechanical wear and most often environmental disturbance. For the realization of an Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) power plant a new and efficient method for tunneling utilising laser technology to support mechanical ablation of rock formations will be developed. Laser irradiation of inhomogeneous rock surfaces causes irregular thermal expansion leading to the formation of cracks and splintering as well as melting and slag-formation. This study focuses on the interaction of laser irradiation with calcite, porphyrite and siderite rock formations. A high power disc laser system at 1030nm wavelength is used to investigate the specific energy necessary to remove a unit volume depending on interaction times and applied power. Specific energies have been measured and an increase of fragility and brittleness of the rock surface has been observed.

  16. Development of high viscosity coatings for advanced Space Shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garofalini, S. H.; Banas, R.; Creedon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies for increasing the thermal resistance of high viscosity coatings for silica reusable surface insulation are presented. The coatings are intended for the reentry temperature associated with advanced Space Shuttle applications which will involve aerodynamic shear forces during entry from earth orbits. Coating viscosity was increased by (1) reduction in the concentration of the low viscosity additive B2O3; (2) reduction in the particle size of the constituent powders in coatings; and (3) addition of a high viscosity glass former (GeO2). A coating system was produced by combining the three methods which showed apparent higher viscosity than the current coating, while satisfying all the current Shuttle Orbiter coating requirements.

  17. Stepping Up: Improving Progression in English and Math from High School to College. Student Transcript-Enhanced Placement Study. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Terrence; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    How do we determine if incoming students are ready for college-level work? California's community college system is currently working to address this complex question in a more nuanced, comprehensive, and equitable way. This research brief offers insights that can inform these efforts resulting from the Student Transcript-Enhanced Placement Study…

  18. Standard Transistor Array (STAR). Volume 1: Placement technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. W.; Caroll, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale integration (LSI) technology, the standard transistor array uses a prefabricated understructure of transistors and a comprehensive library of digital logic cells to allow efficient fabrication of semicustom digital LSI circuits. The cell placement technique for this technology involves formation of a one dimensional cell layout and "folding" of the one dimensional placement onto the chip. It was found that, by use of various folding methods, high quality chip layouts can be achieved. Methods developed to measure of the "goodness" of the generated placements include efficient means for estimating channel usage requirements and for via counting. The placement and rating techniques were incorporated into a placement program (CAPSTAR). By means of repetitive use of the folding methods and simple placement improvement strategies, this program provides near optimum placements in a reasonable amount of time. The program was tested on several typical LSI circuits to provide performance comparisons both with respect to input parameters and with respect to the performance of other placement techniques. The results of this testing indicate that near optimum placements can be achieved by use of the procedures incurring severe time penalties.

  19. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  20. South Carolina Job Placement Services Effectiveness Survey. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    A survey was conducted to determine the effectiveness of job placement services provided to secondary vocational students in South Carolina high schools and vocational centers, to identify characteristics of effective placement service programs, and to identify efforts made by schools to overcome sex bias. Survey instruments consisting of a…

  1. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  2. Development of high strength high toughness third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, Codrick John

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS's) are emerging as very important engineering materials for structural applications. These steels have high specific strength and thus will contribute significantly to weight reduction in automotive and other structural component. In this investigation two such low carbon low alloy steels (LCLA) with high silicon content (1.6-2wt %) has been developed. These two steel alloys were subjected to single step and two step austempering in the temperature range of 260-399°C to obtain desired microstructures and mechanical properties. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 2 hours in a molten salt bath. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical metallography. Quantitative analysis was carried out by image analysis technique. The effect of austempering temperature on the mechanical properties of these two alloys was examined. The influence of microstructures on the mechanical properties of alloys was also studied. Austempering heat treatment resulted in fine carbide free bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite microstructure in the samples austempered above Ms temperature, whereas tempered martensite and austenite microstructure was obtained in samples austempered below Ms temperature. Yield strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness were found to increase as the austempering temperature decreases, whereas ductility increases as the austempering temperature increases. Tensile strength in the range of 1276MPa -1658 MPa and the fracture toughness in the range of 80-141MPa√m were obtained in these two steels. Volume fractions of different phases present and their lath sizes are related to the mechanical properties. Austempered samples consisting of mixed microstructure of bainitic ferrite and tempered martensite phases resulted in the exceptional combination of strength and toughness.

  3. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Peretz, Fred J; Qualls, A L

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience with

  4. High-voltage electrical survey advances using UV/IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninedorf, Daniel A.; Stolper, Roel; Hart, Jaco

    2008-03-01

    Technology miniaturization has made new advancements in high voltage electrical surveying possible. A solar-blind ultraviolet image overlaid onto infrared, combined with a solar-blind ultraviolet image and then overlaid onto color visible in the same camera with a weight of 6 pounds provides the comparison images and portability to allow an operator to do on-the-spot analysis and repair priority assignment. The UV-VIS image provides the quickest location and identification. The UV-IR image allows analysis to determine if there is damage and the severity. This can be accomplished in just seconds thru menu selection: before it required two separate cameras. This presentation will provide examples of different images and analysis, with operating time from hand-held, laboratory, vehicle and aerial camera mounts.

  5. Advanced DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, R.; Raggam, H.; Gutjahr, K. H.; Schardt, M.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simple filtering approach that can be applied to digital surface models in order to extract digital terrain models. The method focusses on robustness and computational efficiency and is in particular tailored to filter DSMs that are extracted from satellite stereo images. It represents an evolution of an existing DTM generation method and includes distinct advancement through the integration of multi-directional processing as well as slope dependent filtering, thus denoted "MSD filtering". The DTM generation workflow is fully automatic and requires no user interaction. Exemplary results are presented for a DSM generated from a Pléiades tri-stereo image data set. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations with respect to highly accurate reference LiDAR data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Advances toward high spectral resolution quantum X-ray calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. H.; Kelley, R. L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mccammon, D.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal detectors for X-ray spectroscopy combining high spectral resolution and quantum efficiency have been developed. These microcalorimeters measure the energy released in the absorption of a single photon by sensing the rise in temperature of a small absorbing structure. The ultimate energy resolution of such a device is limited by the thermodynamic power fluctuations in the thermal link between the calorimeter and isothermal bath and can in principle be made as low as 1 eV. The performance of a real device is degraded due to noise contributions such as excess 1/f noise in the thermistor and incomplete conversion of energy into phonons. The authors report some recent advances in thermometry, X-ray absorption and thermalization, fabrication techniques, and detector optimization in the presence of noise. These improvements have resulted in a device with a spectral resolution of 17 eV FWHM, measured at 6 keV.

  7. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  8. High-Performance Computing for Advanced Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu

    2012-07-06

    The power grid is becoming far more complex as a result of the grid evolution meeting an information revolution. Due to the penetration of smart grid technologies, the grid is evolving as an unprecedented speed and the information infrastructure is fundamentally improved with a large number of smart meters and sensors that produce several orders of magnitude larger amounts of data. How to pull data in, perform analysis, and put information out in a real-time manner is a fundamental challenge in smart grid operation and planning. The future power grid requires high performance computing to be one of the foundational technologies in developing the algorithms and tools for the significantly increased complexity. New techniques and computational capabilities are required to meet the demands for higher reliability and better asset utilization, including advanced algorithms and computing hardware for large-scale modeling, simulation, and analysis. This chapter summarizes the computational challenges in smart grid and the need for high performance computing, and present examples of how high performance computing might be used for future smart grid operation and planning.

  9. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10

  10. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  11. Do Grade Weights Promote More Advanced Course-Taking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfenstein, Kristin; Lively, Kit

    2016-01-01

    When calculating class rank, high schools often give additional weight to grades earned in College Board Advanced Placement (AP) courses as an incentive for students to take hard courses. This paper examines changes in student course-taking behavior after an increase in AP grade weights at Texas high schools. We find that raising the magnitude of…

  12. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovicu, Gianfranco; Bottazzi, Mauro; D'Aiuto, Fabio; De Sanctis, Massimo; Dimatteo, Antonella; Santus, Ciro; Valentini, Renzo

    2012-11-01

    Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have a better combination between strength and ductility than conventional HSS, and higher crash resistances are obtained in concomitance with weight reduction of car structural components. These steels have been developed in the last few decades, and their use is rapidly increasing. Notwithstanding, some of their important features have to be still understood and studied in order to completely characterize their service behavior. In particular, the high mechanical resistance of AHSS makes hydrogen-related problems a great concern for this steel grade. This article investigates the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of four AHSS steels. The behavior of one transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), two martensitic with different strength levels, and one hot-stamping steels has been studied using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests on electrochemically hydrogenated notched samples. The embrittlement susceptibility of these AHSS steels has been correlated mainly to their strength level and to their microstructural features. Finally, the hydrogen critical concentrations for HE, established by SSRT tests, have been compared to hydrogen contents absorbed during the painting process of a body in white (BIW) structure, experimentally determined during a real cycle in an industrial plant.

  13. New heat treatment process for advanced high-strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bublíková, D.; Jeníček, Š.; Vorel, I.; Mašek, B.

    2017-02-01

    Today’s advanced steels are required to possess high strength and ductility. It can be achieved by choosing an appropriate steel chemistry which has a substantial effect on the properties obtained by heat treatment. Mechanical properties influenced the presence of retained austenite in the final structure. Steels of this group typically require complicated heat treatment which places great demands on the equipment used. The present paper introduces new procedures aimed at simplifying the heat treatment of high-strength steels with the use of material-technological modelling. Four experimental steels were made and cast, whose main alloying additions were manganese, silicon, chromium, molybdenum and nickel. The steels were treated using the Q-P process with subsequent interrupted quenching. The resulting structure was a mixture of martensite and retained austenite. Strength levels of more than 2000 MPa combined with 10-15 % elongation were obtained. These properties thus offer potential for the manufacture of intricate closed-die forgings with a reduced weight. Intercritical annealing was obtained structure not only on the basis of martensite, but also with certain proportion of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite.

  14. High temperature, harsh environment sensors for advanced power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Credle, S.; Buric, M.; Lewis, R.; Seachman, S.

    2015-05-01

    One mission of the Crosscutting Technology Research program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is to develop a suite of sensors and controls technologies that will ultimately increase efficiencies of existing fossil-fuel fired power plants and enable a new generation of more efficient and lower emission power generation technologies. The program seeks to accomplish this mission through soliciting, managing, and monitoring a broad range of projects both internal and external to the laboratory which span sensor material and device development, energy harvesting and wireless telemetry methodologies, and advanced controls algorithms and approaches. A particular emphasis is placed upon harsh environment sensing for compatibility with high temperature, erosive, corrosive, and highly reducing or oxidizing environments associated with large-scale centralized power generation. An overview of the full sensors and controls portfolio is presented and a selected set of current and recent research successes and on-going projects are highlighted. A more detailed emphasis will be placed on an overview of the current research thrusts and successes of the in-house sensor material and device research efforts that have been established to support the program.

  15. Development of third generation advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Meghan Colleen

    Lightweight duplex steels with combinations of either bainite, acicular ferrite, and austenite or martensite and austenite were investigated as third generation advanced high strength steels targeted for automotive applications. Large additions of manganese (> 13 wt%) and carbon (<0.2wt%) were employed to stabilize the austenite phase. Silicon additions between 1 and 2 wt% were added to suppress cementite formation. Strength and ductility were increased while density was decreased with aluminum additions between 2.4 and 5.5 wt% to the steel. This research addressed the dependence of alloying on microstructures and mechanical behavior for high manganese and aluminum duplex steels that were cast and subsequently hot rolled. Duplex steels with different volume fractions of primary delta-ferrite were used to study the crystallography of austenite fanned during the peritectic reaction. Solute profiles across the peritectic interface showed aluminum segregated near the interface which promoted bainitic ferrite formation. Thermal treatments were used to manipulate the concentration and type of oxides and the ferrite plate density was found to correlate with inclusions of low misfit in steels with austenite grain size of 16.5 microm. A steel with bainite and acicular ferrite produced an ultimate tensile strength of 970 MPa and elongation of 40%. The mechanical prope1iies depended on the strengths and size of the microstructural constituents. Work hardening behavior was examined in a steel exhibiting multiple martensitic transformation induced plasticity (gamma-austenite→epsilon-smartensite→alpha-martensite). A strain hardening exponent as high as 1.4 was observed with ultimate tensile strength and elongation as high as 1,165 MPa and 34%.

  16. Delayed Special Education Placement for Learning Disabilities among Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Jacob; Jasper, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    Prior theory and research suggest that children of immigrants would be at especially high risk for special education placement with learning disabilities. However, their longitudinal special education placement patterns have received scant attention. This study examines temporal patterns of special education placement among children of immigrants,…

  17. Advances in high-throughput and high-efficiency chiral liquid chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan C; Wahab, M Farooq; Armstrong, Daniel W; Breitbach, Zachary S

    2016-10-07

    The need for improved liquid chromatographic chiral separations has led to the advancement of chiral screening techniques as well as the development of new, high efficiency chiral separation methods and stationary phases. This review covers these advancements, which primarily occurred over the last 15 years. High throughput techniques include multi-column screening units, multiple injection sequences, and fast gradient SFC screening. New separation methods and column technologies that aim at high efficiency chiral separations include the use of achiral UHPLC (i.e. sub-2μm) columns for separating derivatized chiral analytes or using chiral additives in the run buffer, UHPLC chiral stationary phases, and superficially porous particle based chiral stationary phases. Finally, the enhancement of chiral separations through these new technologies requires that certain instrumental considerations be made. Future directions in continuing to improve chiral separations are also discussed.

  18. MAPP: A Mathematics Placement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doblin, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    MAPP (A Mathematics Placement Program) uses two COBOL programs to place entering freshmen in mathematics courses which are commensurate with their backgrounds and abilities. Having been used for three years, the program is considered to be a viable alternative to the traditional mathematics placement process. (Author/JKS)

  19. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  20. Improvement of Job Placement Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    The Improvement of Job Placement Services Project was undertaken to examine and strengthen job placement services and programs in the California community colleges. Specific objectives of the project were to: (1) select and convene a 12-member representative advisory committee to oversee project operations working with the California Placement…

  1. Placement and Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Samuel Joseph, Ed.; Wasil, Raymond A., Ed.

    This document contains a compilation of original manuscripts written by competent authorities in the field of job placement services for students. Viewing placement as both a product and an integral part of a developmental process, these papers are divided into the following six topical areas: (1) information, (2) exploration, (3) counseling, (4)…

  2. College Student Personnel Graduate Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Richard M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study reports results of ACPA Commission XII's survey of 101 college student personnel training institutions regarding their graduate placement. Graduates were identified according to degree, race, and sex. Percentages of graduates placed, specialty areas, types of institutions, areas of the country, and time and method of placement were…

  3. Advanced very high resolution radiometer, Mod 2 engineering report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advanced High Resolution Radiometer, Mod 2 (AVHRR/2) is a modification of the original AVHRR (AVHRR/1) to expand the number of channels from four to five and provide additional sensing in the infrared region. A comparison of the spectral regions employed in the two instruments is given. Three of the channels are the same on both instruments. The difference in instruments is in the long wave IR region where a single channel was replaced by two channels. The modification from AVHRR/1 to AVHRR/2 was done with a minimum of changes. The areas of change are highlighted and the modifications by module are summarized. It is seen that the primary changes are in the relay optics and in the cooler. In this development program only two models are involved. The first model, the Optical Test Model was constructed and tested to prove the performance and structural integrity of the optical system and the modified cooler. The second model constructed is the Protoflight. Only the areas of the AVHRR/2 which were modified from the AVHRR/1 design are discussed.

  4. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  5. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  6. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  7. Numerical Design of Drawbeads for Advanced High Strength Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Y. T.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, G. S.

    2010-06-01

    The map for designing the drawbeads used in the stamping dies for advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets is numerically investigated and its application is introduced. The bending limit of AHSS sheet is determined from the extreme R/t's obtained simulating numerically the plane-strain process formed by the cylindrical punches and dies with various radii. In addition, the forming allowance defined by the difference between FLC0 and the strain after passing the drawbead, which is observed by the numerical simulation of drawbead pulling test, is computed. Based on the bending limit and forming allowance, the design map for determining the height, width, and shoulder radius of the drawbead which are key parameters in the drawbead design and depend on the restraining force is constructed by aid of the equivalent drawbead model. A drawbead of the stamping die for forming a channel-typed panel is designed by using the design map, and the formability and springback of the panel to be formed are numerically evaluated, from which the availability of the design map is demonstrated.

  8. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  9. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Composites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band scanner with four to six bands, depending on the model. The AVHRR senses in the visible, near-, middle-, and thermal- infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) in 1978. Since 1989, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been mapping the vegetation condition of the United States and Alaska using satellite information from the AVHRR sensor. The vegetation condition composites, more commonly called greenness maps, are produced every week using the latest information on the growth and condition of the vegetation. One of the most important aspects of USGS greenness mapping is the historical archive of information dating back to 1989. This historical stretch of information has allowed the USGS to determine a 'normal' vegetation condition. As a result, it is possible to compare the current week's vegetation condition with normal vegetation conditions. An above normal condition could indicate wetter or warmer than normal conditions, while a below normal condition could indicate colder or dryer than normal conditions. The interpretation of departure from normal will depend on the season and geography of a region.

  10. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  11. Advances in high-speed low-latency communications for nanopositioning in advanced microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Scott C.

    2012-06-01

    We present a comparison of classical and recently developed communications interfacing technologies relevant to scanned imaging. We adopt an applications perspective, with a focus on interfacing techniques as enablers for enhanced resolution, speed, stability, information density or similar benefits. A wealth of such applications have emerged, ranging from nanoscale-stabilized force microscopy yielding 100X resolution improvement thanks to leveraging the latest in interfacing capabilities, to novel approaches in analog interfacing which improve data density and DAC resolution by several orders of magnitude. Our intent is to provide tools to understand, select and implement advanced interfacing to take applications to the next level. We have entered an era in which new interfacing techniques are enablers, in their own right, for novel imaging techniques. For example, clever leveraging of new interfacing technologies has yielded nanoscale stabilization and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) resolution enhancement. To assist in choosing and implementing interfacing strategies that maximize performance and enable new capabilities, we review available interfaces such as USB2, GPIB and Ethernet against the specific needs of positioning for the scanned-imaging community. We spotlight recent developments such as LabVIEW FPGA, which allows non-specialists to quickly devise custom logic and interfaces of unprecedentedly high performance and parallelism. Notable applications are reviewed, including a clever amalgamation of AFM and optical tweezers and a picometer-scaleaccuracy interferometer devised for ultrafine positioning validation. We note the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), emerging as a high-speed/low-latency instrumentation interface. The utility of instrument-specific parallel (PIO) and TTL sync/trigger (DIO) interfaces is also discussed. Requirements of tracking and autofocus are reviewed against the time-critical needs of typical applications (to avoid, for example

  12. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  13. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  14. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  15. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  16. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  17. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  18. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  19. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  20. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  1. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  2. Computerized Placement Management Software (CPMS): User Manual, Version 3.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This guide is designed to enable the beginner, as well as the advanced user, to understand and use the Computerized Placement Management Software (CPMS). The CPMS is a system for evaluating information about students and recommending their placement into courses best suited for them. It also tracks their progress and maintains their records. The…

  3. Job Placement Regimes in Europe: Trends and Impacts of Changes. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konle-Seidl, Regina; Walwei, Ulrich

    Trends in job placement in Europe and the effects of advances in information and communication technologies on job placement practices were examined through case studies of France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The case studies revealed that the market shares of public employment services (PES) are generally higher than those…

  4. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  5. Kernel-Based Discriminant Techniques for Educational Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Miao-hsiang; Huang, Su-yun; Chang, Yuan-chin

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the problem of educational placement. Several discriminant techniques are applied to a data set from a survey project of science ability. A profile vector for each student consists of five science-educational indicators. The students are intended to be placed into three reference groups: advanced, regular, and remedial.…

  6. Training Special Educators: Sustaining Professional Development in Special School Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly changing demographic due to survival rates from medical advances, the need to strengthen training on SEND is now recognised, and special school placements valued, having been previously marginalised within initial teacher training. Practices developed since 2008 at one university to support progression of trainees to gain advanced…

  7. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  8. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  9. Advances in Reservoir Monitoring Using High Resolution Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasco, D. W.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Tamburini, A.; Fumagalli, A.; Rucci, A.; Falorni, G.

    2009-12-01

    Surface deformation monitoring provides unique data for observing and measuring the performance of producing hydrocarbon reservoirs, for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). To this aim, radar interferometry (InSAR) and, in particular, multi-interferogram Permanent Scatterer (PS) techniques are innovative, valuable and cost-effective tools. Depending on reservoir characteristics and depth, oil or gas production can induce surface subsidence or, in the cases of EOR and CCS, ground heave, potentially triggering fault reactivation and in some cases threatening well integrity. Mapping the surface effects of fault reactivation, due to either fluid extraction or injection, usually requires the availability of hundreds of measurement points per square km with millimeter-level precision, which is time consuming and expensive to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but can be readily obtained with InSAR data. Moreover, more advanced InSAR techniques developed in the last decade are capable of providing millimeter precision, comparable to optical leveling, and a high spatial density of displacement measurements, over long periods of time without need of installing equipment or otherwise accessing the study area. Until recently, a limitation to the application of InSAR was the relatively long revisiting time (24 or 35 days) of the previous generation of C-band satellites (ERS1-2, Envisat, Radarsat). However, a new generation of X-band radar satellites (TerraSAR-X and the COSMO-SkyMed constellation), which have been operational since 2008, are providing significant improvements. TerraSAR-X has a repeat cycle of 11 days while the two sensors of the COSMO-SkyMed constellation have an effective repeat cycle of just 8 days (the third sensor has already been successfully launched and is presently in the calibration phase). With the launch of the fourth satellite of the constellation, COSMO-SkyMed will have a revisiting time of

  10. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  11. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  12. Impact of a Newly Developed Short Double-Balloon Enteroscope on Stent Placement in Patients with Surgically Altered Anatomies

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Kato, Hironari; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A newly developed short double-balloon enteroscope with a working channel enlarged to a diameter of 3.2 mm is a novel innovation in stent placement for patients with surgically altered anatomies. Herein, we report three patients in whom this new scope contributed to an efficient technique and ideal treatment. In the first case, the double guidewire technique was efficient and effective for multiple stent placements. In the second case, covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement, which is the standard treatment for malignant biliary obstruction, could be performed in a technologically sound and safe manner. In the third case, SEMS placement was performed as palliative treatment for malignant afferent-loop obstruction; this procedure could be performed soundly and safely using the through-the-scope technique. The wider working channel of this new scope also facilitates a smoother accessory insertion and high suction performance, which reduces procedure time and stress on endoscopists. Furthermore, this new scope, which has advanced force transmission, adaptive bending, and a smaller turning radius, is expected to be highly successful in both diagnosis and therapy for various digestive diseases in patients with surgically altered anatomies. PMID:28208009

  13. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. VLSI Cells Placement Using the Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, Hacene; Zouaoui, Lamri; Mokhnache, Salah

    2008-06-12

    The artificial neural networks have been studied for several years. Their effectiveness makes it possible to expect high performances. The privileged fields of these techniques remain the recognition and classification. Various applications of optimization are also studied under the angle of the artificial neural networks. They make it possible to apply distributed heuristic algorithms. In this article, a solution to placement problem of the various cells at the time of the realization of an integrated circuit is proposed by using the KOHONEN network.

  15. 34 CFR 300.327 - Educational placements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational placements. 300.327 Section 300.327... Educational Placements Development of Iep § 300.327 Educational placements. Consistent with § 300.501(c), each... makes decisions on the educational placement of their child. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1414(e))...

  16. 34 CFR 300.327 - Educational placements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Educational placements. 300.327 Section 300.327... Educational Placements Development of Iep § 300.327 Educational placements. Consistent with § 300.501(c), each... makes decisions on the educational placement of their child. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1414(e))...

  17. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  18. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  19. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  20. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  1. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  2. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  3. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  4. Advanced Materials for High Temperature, High Performance, Wide Bandgap Power Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Chad B.; McGee, Brad; McPherson, Brice; Stabach, Jennifer; Lollar, Richard; Liederbach, Ross; Passmore, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Advanced packaging materials must be utilized to take full advantage of the benefits of the superior electrical and thermal properties of wide bandgap power devices in the development of next generation power electronics systems. In this manuscript, the use of advanced materials for key packaging processes and components in multi-chip power modules will be discussed. For example, to date, there has been significant development in silver sintering paste as a high temperature die attach material replacement for conventional solder-based attach due to the improved thermal and mechanical characteristics as well as lower processing temperatures. In order to evaluate the bond quality and performance of this material, shear strength, thermal characteristics, and void quality for a number of silver sintering paste materials were analyzed as a die attach alternative to solder. In addition, as high voltage wide bandgap devices shift from engineering samples to commercial components, passivation materials become key in preventing premature breakdown in power modules. High temperature, high dielectric strength potting materials were investigated to be used to encapsulate and passivate components internal to a power module. The breakdown voltage up to 30 kV and corresponding leakage current for these materials as a function of temperature is also presented. Lastly, high temperature plastic housing materials are important for not only discrete devices but also for power modules. As the operational temperature of the device and/or ambient temperature increases, the mechanical strength and dielectric properties are dramatically reduced. Therefore, the electrical characteristics such as breakdown voltage and leakage current as a function of temperature for housing materials are presented.

  5. Advanced packaging technology for high frequency photonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, M.G.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    An advanced packaging concept has been developed for optical devices. This concept allows multiple fibers to be coupled to photonic integrated circuits, with no fiber penetration of the package walls. The principles used to accomplish this concept involves a second-order grating to couple light in or out of the photonic circuit, and a binary optic lens which receives this light and focuses it into a single-mode optical fiber. Design, fabrication and electrical/optical measurements of this packaging concept are described.

  6. Advances in Electromagnetic Modelling through High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, K.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    Under the DOE SciDAC project on Accelerator Science and Technology, a suite of electromagnetic codes has been under development at SLAC that are based on unstructured grids for higher accuracy, and use parallel processing to enable large-scale simulation. The new modeling capability is supported by SciDAC collaborations on meshing, solvers, refinement, optimization and visualization. These advances in computational science are described and the application of the parallel eigensolver Omega3P to the cavity design for the International Linear Collider is discussed.

  7. High-resolution SAR11 ecotype dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site by phylogenetic placement of pyrosequences.

    PubMed

    Vergin, Kevin L; Beszteri, Bánk; Monier, Adam; Thrash, J Cameron; Temperton, Ben; Treusch, Alexander H; Kilpert, Fabian; Worden, Alexandra Z; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are providing longer nucleotide sequence reads that contain more information about phylogenetic relationships. We sought to use this information to understand the evolution and ecology of bacterioplankton at our long-term study site in the Western Sargasso Sea. A bioinformatics pipeline called PhyloAssigner was developed to align pyrosequencing reads to a reference multiple sequence alignment of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and assign them phylogenetic positions in a reference tree using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Here, we used this pipeline to investigate the ecologically important SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria. A combined set of 2.7 million pyrosequencing reads from the 16S rRNA V1-V2 regions, representing 9 years at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, was quality checked and parsed into a comprehensive bacterial tree, yielding 929 036 Alphaproteobacteria reads. Phylogenetic structure within the SAR11 clade was linked to seasonally recurring spatiotemporal patterns. This analysis resolved four new SAR11 ecotypes in addition to five others that had been described previously at BATS. The data support a conclusion reached previously that the SAR11 clade diversified by subdivision of niche space in the ocean water column, but the new data reveal a more complex pattern in which deep branches of the clade diversified repeatedly across depth strata and seasonal regimes. The new data also revealed the presence of an unrecognized clade of Alphaproteobacteria, here named SMA-1 (Sargasso Mesopelagic Alphaproteobacteria, group 1), in the upper mesopelagic zone. The high-resolution phylogenetic analyses performed herein highlight significant, previously unknown, patterns of evolutionary diversification, within perhaps the most widely distributed heterotrophic marine bacterial clade, and strongly links to ecosystem regimes.

  8. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  9. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  10. Parametric instability in the high power era of Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, Terra; Blair, Carl; Kennedy, Ross; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; LIGO Virgo Scientific Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the first direct detections of gravitational waves, Advanced LIGO aims to increase its detection rate during the upcoming science runs through a series of detector improvements, including increased optical power. Higher circulating power increases the likelihood for three-mode parametric instabilities (PIs), in which mechanical modes of the mirrors scatter light into higher-order optical modes in the cavity and the resulting optical modes reinforce the mechanical modes via radiation pressure. Currently, LIGO uses two PI mitigation methods: thermal tuning to change the cavity g-factor and effectively decrease the frequency overlap between mechanical and optical modes, and active damping of mechanical modes with electrostatic actuation. While the combined methods provide stability at the current operating power, there is evidence that these will be insufficient for the next planned power increase; future suppression methods including acoustic mode dampers and dynamic g-factor modulation are discussed.

  11. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with a relatively low intensity (3  ×  1016 W cm-2) allowed the enhancing of the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the ‘ultraclean’ proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as a target. A combination of the specific target composition and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed the enhancing of the yield of alpha particles up to 109 per steradian. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long-laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  12. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  13. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  14. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  15. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  16. Sensor placement optimization in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Tisato, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of optimal sensor placement for a given region and task. An important issue in designing sensor arrays is the appropriate placement of the sensors such that they achieve a predefined goal. There are many problems that could be considered in the placement of multiple sensors. In this work we focus on the four problems identified by Hörster and Lienhart. To solve these problems, we propose an algorithm based on Direct Search, which is able to approach the global optimal solution within reasonable time and memory consumption. The algorithm is experimentally evaluated and the results are presented on two real floorplans. The experimental results show that our DS algorithm is able to improve the results given by the most performing heuristic introduced in. The algorithm is then extended to work also on continuous solution spaces, and 3D problems.

  17. Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1989-07-01

    Recently, a breakthrough was made in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This was done by replacing the CaX2 (X=AlCl4) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A), or BaX2 (type B). The project's goals are to gain a better understanding of the electrochemistry of the advanced systems and to establish their safety and performance. In this phase, the cell performance was improved significantly. An improved C-size A7 type cell delivers 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A rate and room temperature which is 50 percent more than similar size commercial lithium cells have. The SAFT LSH14 lithium-thionyl chloride and the Duracell L028SH lithium-SO2 cells have at this rate only 2.9 and 2.7 Ah respectively. During one year of storage at room temperature the heat generation rate of 150 sq cm C-size A7 type cells decreased to a level of 60 to 70 microwatts. A cell lost 0.3 Ah after this storage period. The effect of several parameters on the corrosion rate of calcium in TC solutions was studied. Preliminary results indicate: SO2 decreases corrosion, there is no stress corrosion due to twisting of Ca foils, the native oxide layer helps in preventing corrosion, Ca foils as received contain only about 90 percent metallic calcium. The role native calcium oxide layer plays depends on the type of electrolyte used.

  18. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  19. Correction of placement error in EBL using model based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Sergey; Borisov, Sergey; Militsin, Vladimir; Komagata, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2016-10-01

    The main source of placement error in maskmaking using electron beam is charging. DISPLACE software provides a method to correct placement errors for any layout, based on a physical model. The charge of a photomask and multiple discharge mechanisms are simulated to find the charge distribution over the mask. The beam deflection is calculated for each location on the mask, creating data for the placement correction. The software considers the mask layout, EBL system setup, resist, and writing order, as well as other factors such as fogging and proximity effects correction. The output of the software is the data for placement correction. Unknown physical parameters such as fogging can be found from calibration experiments. A test layout on a single calibration mask was used to calibrate physical parameters used in the correction model. The extracted model parameters were used to verify the correction. As an ultimate test for the correction, a sophisticated layout was used for verification that was very different from the calibration mask. The placement correction results were predicted by DISPLACE, and the mask was fabricated and measured. A good correlation of the measured and predicted values of the correction all over the mask with the complex pattern confirmed the high accuracy of the charging placement error correction.

  20. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  1. Proceedings: 1986 Workshop on Advanced High-Strength Materials

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has contributed to many in-service failures of high-strength LWR components. In 25 workshop presentations, this report addresses the effects of metallurgical factors, manufacturing processes, design improvements, and installation practices on the resistance of high-strength alloys to SCC.

  2. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  3. Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.

    PubMed

    Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

    2014-09-10

    Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ∼87  km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ∼1.5  μm) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (∼0.5  km) and temporal (typically 30″) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ∼87  km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument.

  4. Advancing the Technology Base for High Temperature Hydrogen Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, Robert C.; Moss, Thomas S.

    1997-12-31

    High purity hydrogen is a critical component for at least two major industrial processes: 1) the refining of conventional steels and raw pig iron into low carbon steels and high purity iron used for high performance magnets in motors, generators, alternators, transformers, and etc.; and 2) refining metallurgical grade silicon to the high- purity, polycrystalline silicon used in fabricating single crystal silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing. In the process of producing low carbon iron products, CO and CO2 impurities prevent efficient removal of the carbon already in the raw iron. In the refining of metallurgical grade silicon, the presence of any impurity above the part-per- million level prevents the ultimate fabrication of the large scale single crystals that are essential to the semiconductor device. In a lesser magnitude role, high quality hydrogen is used in a variety of other processes, including specialty metals refining (e.g., iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, and ruthenium) and R{ampersand}D in areas such as organic synthesis and development of certain types of fuel cells. In all of these applications, a high-temperature hydrogen membrane can provide a method for achieving a very high purity level of hydrogen in a manner that is more economical and/or more rugged than existing techniques.

  5. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  6. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  7. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The fourth reporting period in Phase II (July 1--September 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on gas reburning. The pilot scale tests reported in previous Quarterly Reports QR-2 and QR-3 were continued. The objective was to simulate furnace conditions at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and to improve the process performance. The tests were conducted in EER's Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). During the reporting period, measurements of CO and ammonia emissions were conducted for reburn + SNCR conditions, as well as tests on the effect of sodium on NO{sub x} control efficiency. Exhaust levels of CO remained below 100 ppm in all tests. Prospective process conditions for the full-scale facility have been identified that can provide over 80% NO{sub x} reduction while maintaining ammonia slip below 4 ppm. Addition of sodium resulted in NO{sub x} control improvement of about 7-10 percentage points. The objective of modeling work was to further understand the influence of the mixing process on gas reburning and to identify factors that can increase the effectiveness of NO reduction. Modeling results demonstrated that the main features of gas reburning could be described using a detailed chemical mechanism with one-dimensional representation of mixing.

  8. Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz Vacuum Electronic Radiation Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    Models for Microstrip Computer-Aided Design,” in Microwave Symposium Digest , 1980 IEEE MTT-S International, 1980, p. 407. [2] B.B. Yang, S.L...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0359 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz John Booske UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM...12-2014 Final Technical Performance Report October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2014 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and

  9. Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    nonequilibrium. For example, the plasma transport may transition between rarefied and continuum flow , requiring appropriate models for each case through...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0023 Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics 5a

  10. The Placement Professional as Marketeer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses resistance of helping professions to marketing. Defines human services marketing. Describes forces that are placing human services in an increasingly competitive position. Makes recommendations to enhance the image of career planning and placement services and increase their usage. Concludes that by adopting a marketeer orientation,…

  11. Placement Services: A Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    This self-contained instructional package defines a comprehensive job placement program as a coordinated series of activities involving school-community interaction, staff training and curriculum development resulting in youth being able to obtain and retain satisfying employment. The author and contributors focus their efforts on presenting case…

  12. A Consideration of Placement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Gordon

    This report consists of three sections, the first of which is a discussion of placement testing. It is maintained that the strengths and weaknesses of a tested population cannot be determined by a single composite test--yet, many institutions place students in beginning courses on the basis of such limited information. To assess basic capabilities…

  13. The Ironies of Mandatory Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadden, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that mandatory placement of underprepared students in developmental courses may actually provide the key to opening the door to true academic, vocational, or community success, despite criticism by some that it excludes students and restricts their freedoms. Discusses ethical balances between access, student success and academic…

  14. College Student Personnel Graduate Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packwood, William

    1976-01-01

    ACPA's Commission XII surveyed 103 college student personnel training institutions regarding their graduate placement. Graduates were identified according to degree, sex, and race. Percentages of graduates placed, areas within the college student personnel field, types of institutions, and areas of the country were computed. The discussion…

  15. Advances in solid polymer electrochemical capacitors for high rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Keryn; Gao, Han

    2011-06-01

    All solid electrochemical capacitors (EC) have been demonstrated using proton conducting silicotungstic acid (SiWA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based polymer electrolytes. Graphite electrodes were utilized for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), while RuO2 electrodes were employed as pseudocapacitive electrodes. Both solid EDLC and pseudocapacitors exhibited very high charge/discharge rate capability. Especially for solid EDLC, a charge/discharge rate of 25 V/s and a 10 ms time constant ("factor of merit") were obtained. The rate capability of the solid EC is attributable to thin film thickness, good proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte, and intimate contact between electrode and electrolyte. These results demonstrate promise of polymer electrolytes as enablers of high rate and high performance solid EC devices.

  16. Closeout of Advanced Boron and Metal Loaded High Porosity Carbons.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Eklund; T. C. Mike Chung; Henry C. Foley; Vincent H. Crespi

    2011-05-01

    The Penn State effort explored the development of new high-surface-area materials for hydrogen storage, materials that could offer enhancement in the hydrogen binding energy through a direct chemical modification of the framework in high specific-surface-area platforms. The team chemically substituted boron into the hexagonal sp2 carbon framework, dispersed metal atoms bound to the boro-carbon structure, and generated the theory of novel nanoscale geometries that can enhance storage through chemical frustration, sheet curvature, electron deficiency, large local fields and mixed hybridization states. New boro-carbon materials were synthesized by high temperature plasma, pyrolysis of boron-carbon precursor molecules, and post-synthesis modification of carbons. Hydrogen uptake has been assessed, and several promising leads have been identified, with the requirement to simultaneously optimize total surface area while maintaining the enhanced hydrogen binding energies already demonstrated.

  17. Clinical placements in general practice: relationships between practice nurses and tertiary institutions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kathleen; Halcomb, Elizabeth J; McInnes, Susan

    2013-05-01

    As a practice-based discipline a key component of undergraduate nurse education is clinical practice experience. The quality of clinical experiences has a significant impact on the students' ability to function competently post graduation. The relationship between higher education institutions (HEIs) and health service placement providers impacts upon the quality of clinical placements. In Australia, the growth of primary care nursing and the shortage of acute clinical places has prompted HEIs to explore the placement of students in general practice. Given the increasing attention being paid to non-traditional clinical placements, it is timely to explore how universities are establishing relationships and models of clinical placement. This paper uses qualitative research methods to explore the perspectives of 12 Australian general practice nurses who have experience in facilitating undergraduate clinical placements about the relationships between HEIs and nurses. Findings are presented in the following three themes: (1) Appropriate preparation for placement: They don't know what primary health really means, (2) Seeking greater consultation in the organisation of clinical placements: they've got to do it one way for everyone, and (3) Uncertainty and lack of support: I had no contact with the university. Clinical placements in general practice can be an innovative strategy providing non-traditional, yet high quality, teaching and learning experiences for undergraduate nursing students. To optimise the quality of these placements, however, it is essential that HEIs provide appropriate support to the practice nurses mentoring these students.

  18. Advanced materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A number of refractory semiconductors are under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for application in thermal to electric energy conversion for space power. The main thrust of the program is to improve or develop materials of high figure of merit and, therefore, high conversion efficiencies over a broad temperature range. Materials currently under investigation are represented by silicon-germanium alloys, lanthanum telluride, and boron carbide. The thermoelectric properties of each of these materials, and prospects for their further improvements, are discussed. Continued progress in thermoelectric materials technology can be expected to yield reliable space power systems with double to triple the efficiency of current state of the art systems.

  19. Recent advances in high-speed photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1982-12-01

    Recent progress of some fast high-gain photon detectors using photoemission and secondary emission processes is reviewed and summarized. Specifically, performance characteristics are presented, of the new Amperex XP 2020, RCA 8854, and Hamamatsu R 647-01 conventionally design photomultipliers. Also, characteristics are presented of the ITT F 4129 and Hamamatsu R 1564U extended lifetime microchannel plate photomultipliers as well as certain special made photomultipliers intended for application in positron emission tomography, high energy physics and plasma diagnostic experimental systems. Finally, microchannel plates as photon detectors for ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths are discussed.

  20. Advanced Klystrons for High Efficiency Accelerator Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    This program explored tailoring of RF pulses used to drive accelerator cavities. Simulations indicated that properly shaping the pulse risetime to match accelerator cavity characteristics reduced reflected power and increased total efficiency. Tailoring the pulse requires a high power, gridded, klystron to shape the risetime while also controlling the beam current. The Phase I program generated a preliminary design of a gridded electron gun for a klystron producing 5-10 MW of RF power. This required design of a segmented cathode using Controlled Porosity Reservoir cathodes to limit power deposition on the grid. The program was successful in computationally designing a gun producing a high quality electron beam with grid control. Additional analysis of pulse tailoring indicated that technique would only be useful for cavity drive pulses that were less than approximately 2-3 times the risetime. Otherwise, the efficiency gained during the risetime of the pulse became insignificant when considering the efficiency over the entire pulse. Consequently, it was determined that a Phase II program would not provide sufficient return to justify the cost. Never the less, other applications for a high power gridded gun are currently being pursued. This klystron, for example, would facilitate development inverse Comptom x-ray sources by providing a high repetition rate (10 -100 kHz) RF source.

  1. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  2. Highly-Complex Environmentally-Realistic Mixtures: Challenges and Advances

    EPA Science Inventory

    The difficulties involved in design, conduct, analysis and interpretation of defmed mixtures experiments and use of the resulting data in risk assessment are now wellknown to the toxicology, risk assessment and risk management communities. The arena of highly-complex environment...

  3. Advanced MOSFET technologies for high-speed circuits and EPROM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.T.T.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis, two novel source-side injection EPROM (SI-EPROM) devices capable of 5-volt only, high-speed programming are studied. Both devices are asymmetrical n-channel stacked-gate MOSFETs, each with a short weak gate-control channel region introduced close to the source. Under high gate bias, a strong-channel electric field for hot-electron generation is created in this local region even at a relatively low drain voltage. Furthermore, the gate oxide field in this region is highly favorable for hot-electron injection into the floating-gate. As a results, a programming speed of 10..mu..s at a drain voltage of 5 volts was demonstrated with one of the SI-EPROM devices fabricated. In the second part of the thesis, technology design considerations accompanying MOSFET scaling are studied for high-speed analog circuits and densely packed digital circuits. It is shown that for sub-micron technologies, especially those for CMOS, the drain/source junction capacitances dominate device parasitic capacitances in digital applications. A novel MOS device structure that employs the COO and DOO schemes is described.

  4. Mathematics Placement at the University of Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren Reddy, Alison; Harper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ALEKS-based placement program at the University of Illinois is presented visually in several ways. The placement exam (an ALEKS assessment) contains precise item-specific information and the data show many interesting properties of the student populations of the placement courses, which include Precalculus, Calculus, and Business…

  5. Can Placement Tests Inform Instructional Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony B.; Weir, Cyril J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of placement tests are typically narrowly concerned with their validation as instruments for the efficient grouping of students. They rarely explore the assumption that placement test content can be related to classroom tasks and so inform instructional decisions. This study focuses on a trial version of the Global Placement Test (GPT), a…

  6. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may...

  7. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may...

  8. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may...

  9. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may...

  10. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section 551.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may...

  11. 5 CFR 359.702 - Placement rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Placement rights. 359.702 Section 359.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.702...

  12. 5 CFR 359.702 - Placement rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Placement rights. 359.702 Section 359.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.702...

  13. High performance silicon solar arrays employing advanced structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockey, D. E.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Adams, L.

    1981-01-01

    Specific design features to reduce cell mass, lower panel operating temperatures, and improve power to mass ratios for silicon solar cell arrays in space applications are presented. Because mass constraints limit payload capacity for launch into GEO, graphite/epoxy structures combined with high performance Si cells are needed to deliver a power/mass ratio of 265 W/kg, notably for Solar Electric Propulsion systems, compared with existing level of 65 W/kg. Shallow diffusion and back surface field cell technology have raised cell efficiencies to 15%, with a back emissivity of 1.64. Structural design requirements comprise Shuttle interface compatibility, full ground test capability, low mass, and high stiffness. Three array alternatives are discussed, and the STACBEAM configuration, which consists of a triangular truss and a piston deployer with folding accomplished on simple hinges, provides 0.2 Hz stiffness and achieves the design power/mass goals.

  14. Advanced short haul systems in high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The design requirements, performance, economics, and noise aspects of STOL and VTOL conceptual aircraft developed for short haul air transportation are reviewed, along with the characteristics of areas of high-density annual passenger flow in which the aircraft are intended to operate. It is shown that aircraft of 100 to 200 passenger capacity provide the best return on investment in high density markets. The various STOL propulsive lift concepts have the same general trends with field length; their wing loadings are 20 to 30 pounds per square foot higher than the nonpropulsive lift concepts. A comparison of the aircraft under consideration shows that no one aircraft concept will be optimum for all future operational environments.

  15. Advanced High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) Life Assurance Methodologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    lives (hr) using linear rupture damage model for rupture and HCF of Rene N5 at 1900°F...to determine the applicability of the HCF - Rupture Interaction Model developed for PWA1484 (Section 4.3.4.3) to the single crystal alloy, Rene N5...used in GEAE engines. This effort used historical Rene N5 data at 1900°F. The study examined the influence of rupture damage in high mean stress HCF

  16. High-quality microcutting in silicon by advanced laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallus, E.; Castelli, Paolo

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the potentialities of innovative lasers in microcutting of silicon, one of the most important materials in the field of microelectronics. In recent years, novel laser based micromachining methods have played an increasingly important role in the ongoing miniaturization of consumer electronics. Here, high-quality microcutting in silicon using a "green" laser, whose wavelength is readily absorbed by silicon, is presented.

  17. Overview of NASA's advanced high temperature engine materials technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginty, Carol A.; Gray, Hugh R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's 'HITEMP' program has been charged with development of propulsion systems technologies for next-generation civil and military aircraft, stressing high-temperature/low-density composites. These encompass polymer-matrix composites for fans, ducts, and compressor cases, and intermetallic and metallic alloy matrix composites for applications in turbine disks, blades, and vanes, and ceramic matrix composites for combustors and turbines. An overview is presented of program concerns and achievements to date.

  18. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  19. Advances in high frequency ultrasound separation of particulates from biomass.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Augustin, Mary Ann; Xu, Xin-Qing; Mawson, Raymond; Knoerzer, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the use of high frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) for droplet or cell separation from biomass has emerged beyond the microfluidics scale into the litre to industrial scale applications. The principle for this separation technology relies on the differential positioning of individual droplets or particles across an ultrasonic standing wave field within the reactor and subsequent biomass material predisposition for separation via rapid droplet agglomeration or coalescence into larger entities. Large scale transducers have been characterised with sonochemiluminescence and hydrophones to enable better reactor designs. High frequency enhanced separation technology has been demonstrated at industrial scale for oil recovery in the palm oil industry and at litre scale to assist olive oil, coconut oil and milk fat separation. Other applications include algal cell dewatering and milk fat globule fractionation. Frequency selection depends on the material properties and structure in the biomass mixture. Higher frequencies (1 and 2MHz) have proven preferable for better separation of materials with smaller sized droplets such as milk fat globules. For palm oil and olive oil, separation has been demonstrated within the 400-600kHz region, which has high radical production, without detectable impact on product quality.

  20. The dynamic solar chromosphere: recent advances from high resolution telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Tsiropoula, Georgia

    This review focuses on the solar chromosphere, a very inhomogeneous and dynamic layer that exhibits phenomena on a large range of spatial and temporal scales. High-resolution observa-tions from existing telescopes (DST, SST, DOT), as well as long-duration observations with Hinode's SOT employing lines such as the Ca II infrared lines, the Ca II HK and above all the Hα line reveal an incredibly rich, dynamic and highly structured environment, both in quiet and active regions. The fine-structure chromosphere, is mainly constituted by fibrilar features that connect various parts of active regions or span across network cell interiors. We discuss this highly dynamical solar chromosphere, especially below the magnetic canopy, which is gov-erned by flows reflecting both the complex geometry and dynamics of the magnetic field and the propagation and dissipation of waves in the different atmospheric layers. A comprehensive view of the fine-structure chromosphere requires deep understanding of the physical processes involved, investigation of the intricate link with structures/processes at lower photospheric lev-els and analysis of its impact on the mass and energy transport to higher atmospheric layers through flows resulting from different physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and waves. Furthermore, we assess the challenges facing theory and numerical modelling which require the inclusion of several physical ingredients, such as non-LTE and three-dimensional numerical simulations.

  1. Advances in high-rate uncooled detector fabrication at Raytheon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, S. H.; Kraft, R.; Medrano, A.; Kocian, T.; Bradstreet, D.; Williams, R.; Yang, T.

    2010-04-01

    Over the past two years Raytheon has made a major investment aimed at establishing a high volume uncooled manufacturing capability. This effort has addressed three elements of the uncooled value stream, namely bolometer fabrication, packaging and calibration/test. To facilitate a low cost / high volume source of bolometers Raytheon has formed a partnership with a high volume 200mm commercial silicon wafer fabrication. Over a 12 month period Raytheon has installed 200mm VOx deposition equipment, matched the metrology used on the Raytheon 150mm line, transferred the process flow used to fabricate Raytheon's double layer bolometer process and qualified the product. In this paper we will review the process transfer methodology and bolometer performance. To reduce bolometer packaging cost and increase production rates, Raytheon has implemented an automated packaging line. This line utilizes automated adhesive dispense, component pick and place, wire bonding and solder seal. In this paper we will review the process flow, qualification process and line capacity Calibration and test has traditionally been performed using a number of temperature chambers, with increased throughput being obtained by adding more chambers. This comes at the expense of increased test labor required to feed the chambers and an increased energy and floor space foot print. To avoid these collateral costs, Raytheon has implemented an automated robotic calibration cell capable of performing in excess of 5,000 calibrations a month. In this paper we will provide an overview of the calibration cell along with takt time and throughput data.

  2. Advanced anodes for high-temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, A; Barnett, S; Gorte, R J; Irvine, J T S; McEvoy, A J; Mogensen, M; Singhal, S C; Vohs, J

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells will undoubtedly find widespread use in this new millennium in the conversion of chemical to electrical energy, as they offer very high efficiencies and have unique scalability in electricity-generation applications. The solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is one of the most exciting of these energy technologies; it is an all-ceramic device that operates at temperatures in the range 500-1,000 degrees C. The SOFC offers certain advantages over lower temperature fuel cells, notably its ability to use carbon monoxide as a fuel rather than being poisoned by it, and the availability of high-grade exhaust heat for combined heat and power, or combined cycle gas-turbine applications. Although cost is clearly the most important barrier to widespread SOFC implementation, perhaps the most important technical barriers currently being addressed relate to the electrodes, particularly the fuel electrode or anode. In terms of mitigating global warming, the ability of the SOFC to use commonly available fuels at high efficiency, promises an effective and early reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and hence is one of the lead new technologies for improving the environment. Here, we discuss recent developments of SOFC fuel electrodes that will enable the better use of readily available fuels.

  3. Dry Ribbon for Heated Head Automated Fiber Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce; Marchello, Joseph M.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Johnston, Norman J.; Lamontia, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Ply-by-ply in situ processes involving automated heated head deposition are being developed for fabrication of high performance, high temperature composite structures from low volatile content polymer matrices. This technology requires (1) dry carbon fiber towpreg, (2) consolidation of towpreg to quality, placement-grade unidirectional ribbon or tape, and (3) rapid, in situ, accurate, ply-by-ply robotic placement and consolidation of this material to fabricate a composite structure. In this study, the physical properties of a candidate thermoplastic ribbon, PIXA/IM7, were evaluated and screened for suitability in robotic placement. Specifically, towpreg was prepared from PIXA powder. Various conditions (temperatures) were used to convert the powder-coated towpreg to ribbons with varying degrees of processability. Ribbon within preset specifications was fabricated at 3 temperatures: 390, 400 and 410 C. Ribbon was also produced out-of-spec by purposely overheating the material to a processing temperature of 450 C. Automated placement equipment at Cincinnati Milacron and NASA Langley was used to fabricate laminates from these experimental ribbons. Ribbons were placed at 405 and 450 C by both sets of equipment. Double cantilever beam and wedge peel tests were used to determine the quality of the laminates and, especially, the interlaminar bond formed during the placement process. Ribbon made under conditions expected to be non-optimal (overheated) resulted in poor placeability and composites with weak interlaminar bond strengths, regardless of placement conditions. Ribbon made under conditions expected to be ideal showed good processability and produced well-consolidated laminates. Results were consistent from machine to machine and demonstrated the importance of ribbon quality in heated-head placement of dry material forms. Preliminary screening criteria for the development and evaluation of ribbon from new matrix materials were validated.

  4. Advanced High-Temperature Flexible TPS for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Calomino, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    Typical entry vehicle aeroshells are limited in size by the launch vehicle shroud. Inflatable aerodynamic decelerators allow larger aeroshell diameters for entry vehicles because they are not constrained to the launch vehicle shroud diameter. During launch, the hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) is packed in a stowed configuration. Prior to atmospheric entry, the HIAD is deployed to produce a drag device many times larger than the launch shroud diameter. The large surface area of the inflatable aeroshell provides deceleration of high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. Even for these low ballistic coefficients there is still appreciable heating, requiring the HIAD to employ a thermal protection system (TPS). This TPS must be capable of surviving the heat pulse, and the rigors of fabrication handling, high density packing, deployment, and aerodynamic loading. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of flexible TPS tests and results, conducted over the last three years. This paper also includes an overview of each test facility, the general approach for testing flexible TPS, the thermal analysis methodology and results, and a comparison with 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory, and Panel Test Facility test data. Results are presented for a baseline TPS layup that can withstand a 20 W/cm2 heat flux, silicon carbide (SiC) based TPS layup, and polyimide insulator TPS layup. Recent work has focused on developing material layups expected to survive heat flux loads up to 50 W/cm2 (which is adequate for many potential applications), future work will consider concepts capable of withstanding more than 100 W/cm2 incident radiant heat flux. This paper provides an overview of the experimental setup, material layup configurations, facility conditions, and planned future flexible TPS activities.

  5. Noise exposure reduction of advanced high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Contract NAS1-20090 Task 3 was to investigate the potential for noise reduction that would result from improving the high-lift performance of conventional subsonic transports. The study showed that an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 15 percent would reduce certification noise levels by about 2 EPNdB on approach, 1.5 EPNdB on cutback, and zero EPNdB on sideline. In most cases, noise contour areas would be reduced by 10 to 20 percent.

  6. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  7. CHRONICLE: International forum on advanced high-power lasers and applications (AHPLA '99)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, Yurii V.; Zavestovskaya, I. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Senatsky, Yu V.; Starodub, Aleksandr N.

    2000-05-01

    A review of reports made on the International Forum on Advanced High-Power Lasers and Applications, which was held at the beginning of November 1999 in Osaka (Japan), is presented. Five conferences were held during the forum on High-Power Laser Ablation, High-Power Lasers in Energy Engineering, High-Power Lasers in Civil Engineering and Architecture, High-Power Lasers in Manufacturing, and Advanced High-Power Lasers. The following trends in the field of high-power lasers and their applications were presented: laser fusion, laser applications in space, laser-triggered lightning, laser ablation of materials by short and ultrashort pulses, application of high-power lasers in manufacturing, application of high-power lasers in mining, laser decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear reactors, high-power solid-state and gas lasers, x-ray and free-electron lasers. One can find complete information on the forum in SPIE, vols. 3885-3889.

  8. Recent advances in the study of hyperdeformation at high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusara, Hazem; Afanasjev, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The systematic investigation of hyperdeforation (HD) at high spin in the Z=40-58 part of nuclear chart has been performed in the framework of the cranked relativistic mean field theory. The properties of the HD bands such as quadrupole transition moments Qt, dynamic J^(2) and kinematic J^(1) moments of inertia have been studied. These observables are affected by centrifugal stretching. Our self-consistent calculations suggest that necking degree of freedom should play an important role in some nuclei at hyperdeformation. It is especially pronounced in the proton density distribution due to the repulsive Coulomb force. The density of the HD bands is high in the spin range where they are yrast or close to yrast in the majority of cases. In these cases the observation of discrete HD bands will most likely be impossible because the feeding intensity will be redistributed among many bands, thus, dropping below the observational limit of the experimental facilities. The calculations indicate Cd isotopes as the best candidates for a search of discrete HD bands. The HD configurations become yrast at lower spins in neutron-deficient nuclei than in the ones of the valley of β-stability. [1] W.Koepf and P.Ring, Nucl. Phys. A511, 279(1990), [2] A.V.Afanasjev and H.Abusara (submitted to Physical Review C)

  9. High temperature superconductivity technology for advanced space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.; Myers, Ira T.; Connolly, Denis J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Lewis Research center of the NASA and the Argonne National Laboratory of the Department of Energy joined in a cooperative program to identify and assess high payoff space and aeronautical applications of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). The initial emphasis of this effort was limited, and those space power related applications which were considered included microwave power transmission and magnetic energy storage. The results of these initial studies were encouraging and indicated the need of further studies. A continuing collaborative program with Argonne National Laboratory has been formulated and the Lewis Research Center is presently structuring a program to further evaluate HTSC, identify applications and define the requisite technology development programs for space power systems. This paper discusses some preliminary results of the previous evaluations in the area of space power applications of HTSC which were carried out under the joint NASA-DOE program, the future NASA-Lewis proposed program, its thrusts, and its intended outputs and give general insights on the anticipated impact of HTSC for space power applications of the future.

  10. Advanced Gate Drive for the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Anderson, D.E.; /Oak Ridge

    2009-05-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a next generation H-bridge switch plate [1], a critical component of the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator [2]. As part of that effort, a new IGBT gate driver has been developed. The drivers are an integral part of the switch plate, which are essential to ensuring fault-tolerant, high-performance operation of the modulator. The redesigned driver improves upon the existing gate drive in several ways. The new gate driver has improved fault detection and suppression capabilities; suppression of shoot-through and over-voltage conditions, monitoring of dI/dt and Vce(sat) for fast over-current detection and suppression, and redundant power isolation are some of the added features. In addition, triggering insertion delay is reduced by a factor of four compared to the existing driver. This paper details the design and performance of the new IGBT gate driver. A simplified schematic and description of the construction are included. The operation of the fast over-current detection circuits, active IGBT over-voltage protection circuit, shoot-through prevention circuitry, and control power isolation breakdown detection circuit are discussed.

  11. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  12. Advanced specialty fiber designs for high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guancheng

    The output power of fiber lasers has increased rapidly over the last decade. There are two major limiting factors, namely nonlinear effects and transverse mode instability, prohibiting the power scaling capability of fiber lasers. The nonlinear effects, originating from high optical intensity, primarily limit the peak power scaling. The mode instability, on the other hand, arises from quantum-defect driven heating, causing undesired mode coupling once the power exceeds the threshold and degradation of beam quality. The mode instability has now become the bottleneck for average output power scaling of fiber lasers. Mode area scaling is the most effective way to mitigate nonlinear effects. However, the use of large mode area may increase the tendency to support multiple modes in the core, resulting in lower mode instability threshold. Therefore, it is critical to maintain single mode operation in a large mode area fiber. Sufficient higher order mode suppression can lead to effective single-transverse-mode propagation. In this dissertation, we explore the feasibility of using specialty fiber to construct high power fiber lasers with robust single-mode output. The first type of fiber discussed is the resonantly-enhanced leakage channel fiber. Coherent reflection at the fiber outer boundary can lead to additional confinement especially for highly leaky HOM, leading to lower HOM losses than what are predicted by conventional finite element mothod mode solver considering infinite cladding. In this work, we conducted careful measurements of HOM losses in two leakage channel fibers (LCF) with circular and rounded hexagonal boundary shapes respectively. Impact on HOM losses from coiling, fiber boundary shapes and coating indexes were studied in comparison to simulations. This work demonstrates the limit of the simulation method commonly used in the large-mode-area fiber designs and the need for an improved approach. More importantly, this work also demonstrates that a

  13. Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kesterson, Matt; Connel, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Southward, Robin E.; Working, Dennis; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donovan M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes). This paper presents the initial system modeling studies, including a detailed liquid cooling garment model incorporated into the Wissler human thermal regulatory model, to quantify the necessary improvements in thermal conductivity and garment geometries needed to affect system performance. In addition, preliminary results of thermal conductivity improvements of the polymer components of the liquid cooled ventilation garment are presented. By improving thermal garment performance, major technology drivers will be addressed for lightweight, high thermal conductivity, flexible materials for spacesuits that are strategic technical challenges of the Exploration

  14. Evolution of and projections for automated composite material placement equipment in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarville, Douglas A.

    2009-12-01

    As the commercial aircraft industry attempts to improve airplane fuel efficiency by shifting from aluminum to composites (reinforced plastics), there is a concern that composite processing equipment is not mature enough to meet increasing demand and that delivery delays and loss of high tech jobs could result. The research questions focused on the evolution of composite placement machines, improvement of machine functionality by equipment vendors, and the probability of new inventions helping to avoid production shortfalls. An extensive review of the literature found no studies that addressed these issues. Since the early twentieth century, exploratory case study of pivotal technological advances has been an accepted means of performing historic analysis and furthering understanding of rapidly changing marketplaces and industries. This qualitative case study investigated evolution of automated placement equipment by (a) codifying and mapping patent data (e.g., claims and functionality descriptions), (b) triangulating archival data (i.e., trade literature, vender Web sites, and scholarly texts), and (c) interviewing expert witnesses. An industry-level sensitivity model developed by the author showed that expanding the vendor base and increasing the number of performance enhancing inventions will most likely allow the industry to make the transition from aluminum to composites without schedule delays. This study will promote social change by (a) advancing individual and community knowledge (e.g., teaching modules for students, practitioners, and professional society members) and (b) providing an empirical model that will help in the understanding and projection of next generation composite processing equipment demand and productivity output.

  15. Advanced Liquid-Cooling Garment Using Highly Thermally Conductive Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Tang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This design of the liquid-cooling garment for NASA spacesuits allows the suit to remove metabolic heat from the human body more effectively, thereby increasing comfort and performance while reducing system mass. The garment is also more flexible, with fewer restrictions on body motion, and more effectively transfers thermal energy from the crewmember s body to the external cooling unit. This improves the garment s performance in terms of the maximum environment temperature in which it can keep a crewmember comfortable. The garment uses flexible, highly thermally conductive sheet material (such as graphite), coupled with cooling water lines of improved thermal conductivity to transfer the thermal energy from the body to the liquid cooling lines more effectively. The conductive sheets can be layered differently, depending upon the heat loads, in order to provide flexibility, exceptional in-plane heat transfer, and good through-plane heat transfer. A metal foil, most likely aluminum, can be put between the graphite sheets and the external heat source/sink in order to both maximize through-plane heat transfer at the contact points, and to serve as a protection to the highly conductive sheets. Use of a wicking layer draws excess sweat away from the crewmember s skin and the use of an outer elastic fabric ensures good thermal contact of the highly conductive underlayers with the skin. This allows the current state of the art to be improved by having cooling lines that can be more widely spaced to improve suit flexibility and to reduce weight. Also, cooling liquid does not have to be as cold to achieve the same level of cooling. Specific areas on the human body can easily be targeted for greater or lesser cooling to match human physiology, a warmer external environment can be tolerated, and spatial uniformity of the cooling garment can be improved to reduce vasoconstriction limits. Elements of this innovation can be applied to other embodiments to provide effective heat

  16. Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed

  17. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeff; Schneider, Judy; Walker, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including titanium and its alloys. Thus solid state joining processes, such as friction stir welding (FSWing) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSWing), are being pursued as alternatives to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Unlike the FSWing process where the tool is used to heat the workpiece, TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material prior to stirring thus minimizing the burden on the weld tool and thereby extending its life. This study reports on the initial results of using a hybrid (H)-TSW process to join commercially pure, 1.3cm thick panels of titanium (CP Ti) Grade 2.

  18. The advancement of the high precision stress polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoqiang; Lei, Baiping; Han, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The stress polishing is a kind of large-diameter aspheric machining technology with high efficiency. This paper focuses on the principle, application in the processing of large aspheric mirror, and the domestic and foreign research status of stress polishing, aimed at the problem of insufficient precision of mirror surface deformation calculated by some traditional theories and the problem that the output precision and stability of the support device in stress polishing cannot meet the requirements. The improvement methods from these three aspects are put forward, the characterization method of mirror's elastic deformation in stress polishing, the deformation theory of influence function and the calculation of correction force, the design of actuator's mechanical structure. These improve the precision of stress polishing and provide theoretical basis for the further application of stress polishing in large-diameter aspheric machining.

  19. Advanced high performance vertical hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, vertical, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a vertical piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the present invention will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators.

  20. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  1. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  2. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  3. Advanced Gear Alloys for Ultra High Strength Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Tony; Krantz, Timothy; Sebastian, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Single tooth bending fatigue (STBF) test data of UHS Ferrium C61 and C64 alloys are presented in comparison with historical test data of conventional gear steels (9310 and Pyrowear 53) with comparable statistical analysis methods. Pitting and scoring tests of C61 and C64 are works in progress. Boeing statistical analysis of STBF test data for the four gear steels (C61, C64, 9310 and Pyrowear 53) indicates that the UHS grades exhibit increases in fatigue strength in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime. In the high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime, the UHS steels exhibit better mean fatigue strength endurance limit behavior (particularly as compared to Pyrowear 53). However, due to considerable scatter in the UHS test data, the anticipated overall benefits of the UHS grades in bending fatigue have not been fully demonstrated. Based on all the test data and on Boeing s analysis, C61 has been selected by Boeing as the gear steel for the final ERDS demonstrator test gearboxes. In terms of potential follow-up work, detailed physics-based, micromechanical analysis and modeling of the fatigue data would allow for a better understanding of the causes of the experimental scatter, and of the transition from high-stress LCF (surface-dominated) to low-stress HCF (subsurface-dominated) fatigue failure. Additional STBF test data and failure analysis work, particularly in the HCF regime and around the endurance limit stress, could allow for better statistical confidence and could reduce the observed effects of experimental test scatter. Finally, the need for further optimization of the residual compressive stress profiles of the UHS steels (resulting from carburization and peening) is noted, particularly for the case of the higher hardness C64 material.

  4. Advanced Coatings Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh

    We propose a three-year effort to develop techniques for far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ultraviolet coatings both as reflective optics coatings and as out-of-band-rejection (solar-blind) filters that will have a dramatic effect on the throughput and efficiency of instruments. This is an ideal time to address this problem. On the one hand, exciting new science questions posed in UV and optical realm place exacting demands on instrument capabilities far beyond HST-COS, FUSE, and GALEX with large focal plane arrays and high efficiency requirements. And on the other hand, the development of techniques and process such as atomic layer deposition with its atomically precise capability and nano-engineered materials approach enables us to address the challenging materials issues in the UV where interaction of photons and matter happen in the first few nanometers of the material surface. Aluminum substrates with protective overlayers (typically XFy, where X = Li, Mg, or Ca) have been the workhorse of reflective coatings for ultraviolet and visible instruments; however, they have demonstrated severe limitations. The formation of oxide at the Al-XFy interface and thick protective layers both affect the overall optical performance, leading to diminished reflection at shorter wavelengths. To address these long-standing shortcomings of coatings, we will use our newly developed processes and equipment to produce high-quality single- and multi-layer films of a variety of dielectrics and metals deposited with nano-scale control. JPL s new ALD system affords high uniformity, low oxygen background, good plasma processes, and precise temperature control, which are vital to achieving the large scale, uniform, and ultrathin films that are free of oxygen at interfaces. For example, ALD-grown aluminum can be protected using our newly developed chemistry for ALD magnesium fluoride. Our work will verify that the ALD technique reliably prevents the oxidation of aluminum, and will subsequently be

  5. The Foundation Programme in psychiatry: a qualitative study into the effects of a foundation placement

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Ann; Davies, Sophie; Dogra, Nisha; Perry, Jennifer; Fosker, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method There is a drive to increase the number of psychiatry foundation placements to ensure that training keeps up with the changing health and social care landscape. This qualitative study aimed to explore, by interview, the experiences of 17 doctors who have completed a foundation placement in psychiatry. Results The study highlights the benefits of foundation psychiatry placements and some of their positive and negative aspects. Clinical implications Those developing foundation placements will need to ensure they are of high quality. PMID:27752349

  6. High-temperature behavior of advanced spacecraft TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to develop more efficient, lighter weight, and higher temperature thermal protection systems (TPS) for future reentry space vehicles. The research carried out during this funding period involved the design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and characterization of thermal protection materials to be used on future hypersonic vehicles. This work is important for the prediction of material performance at high temperature and aids in the design of thermal protection systems for a number of programs including programs such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), Pegasus and Pegasus/SWERVE, the Comet Rendezvous and Flyby Vehicle (CRAF), and the Mars mission entry vehicles. Research has been performed in two main areas including development and testing of thermal protection systems (TPS) and computational research. A variety of TPS materials and coatings have been developed during this funding period. Ceramic coatings were developed for flexible insulations as well as for low density ceramic insulators. Chemical vapor deposition processes were established for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. Experimental testing and characterization of these materials has been carried out in the NASA Ames Research Center Thermophysics Facilities and in the Ames time-of-flight mass spectrometer facility. By means of computation, we have been better able to understand the flow structure and properties of the TPS components and to estimate the aerothermal heating, stress, ablation rate, thermal response, and shape change on the surfaces of TPS. In addition, work for the computational surface thermochemistry project has included modification of existing computer codes and creating new codes to model material response and shape change on atmospheric entry vehicles in a variety of environments (e.g., earth and Mars atmospheres).

  7. The link between middle school mathematics course placement and achievement.

    PubMed

    Domina, Thurston

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of eighth graders in United States public schools enrolled in algebra or a more advanced mathematics course doubled between 1990 and 2011. This article uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort data to consider the selection process into advanced middle school mathematics courses and estimate the effects of advanced courses on students' mathematics achievement (n = 6,425; mean age at eighth grade = 13.7). Eighth-grade algebra and geometry course placements are academically selective, but considerable between-school variation exists in students' odds of taking these advanced courses. While analyses indicate that advanced middle school mathematics courses boost student achievement, these effects are most pronounced in content areas closely related to class content and may be contingent on student academic readiness.

  8. Humanitarian engineering placements in our own communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.

    2010-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.

  9. The Effects of a Test-Taking Strategy Intervention for High School Students with Test Anxiety in Advanced Placement Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Doron J.

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the most debilitating and disruptive factors associated with underachievement and failure in schools (Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, & Fadia, 1994; Tobias, 1985). Researchers have suggested that interventions that combine multiple test-anxiety reduction techniques are most effective at reducing test anxiety levels (Ergene,…

  10. Understanding Student Academic Performance Differences in College Based on Advanced Placement College Credits Earned in High School: A Comparison between Honors and Non-Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aquino, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Since their development in the early twentieth century Honors Programs and Colleges within Higher Education serve a variety of functions; from attracting academically talented students to an institution for the purposes of increasing the institutional profile to providing an opportunity for those students to achieve their potential. However, the…

  11. Advances in terahertz spectroscopy of high-T(c) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John Frederick

    Over the past 15 years much effort has been expended in the search for an understanding of the high temperature cuprate superconductors. As yet, however, the underlying mechanism of superconductivity in the cuprates remains undiscovered. In fact, there exists no satisfactory explanation of the normal state out of which the superconductivity arises. One experimental probe, important in investigating both of these phenomena, has been the optical conductivity. A gap exists, however, in the measured spectra of the cuprates in the crucial range 0.1 THz < nu < 1.0 THz, where hv ≈ kBT. The absence of such data prevents a full understanding of the optical conductivity. Using a coherent experimental technique, known as time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, we have measured the conductivity of an important cuprate system, Bi2Sr2CaCu2Og+delta (BSCCO). These measurements cover the frequency range from 0.1--1.0 THz and a wide range of doping delta. These measurements enable a step forward in our understanding of both the superconducting and normal states of BSCCO, as well as the transition between them. In the superconducting state, we find that the conductivity includes an additional contribution beyond the conventional two: the normal fluid (quasiparticles) and the superconducting condensate. We observe a low frequency collective mode (v ≈ 0.3 THz) whose spectral weight varies with temperature proportionally to that of the condensate. The fraction of the condensate spectral weight which is drawn into the collective mode increases greatly with increased with doping. Furthermore, once the collective mode contribution is recognized we are able to extract the transport scattering rate of the quasiparticles, 1/tau. We find 1/tau to vary approximately as kBT/ h below Tc. The transition from the superconducting to the normal state proceeds by the loss of phase coherence of the superconducting order parameter. This process continues to temperatures more than 10 degrees K above the

  12. Effects of Early Acceleration of Students in Mathematics on Taking Advanced Mathematics Coursework in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), students were classified into high-, middle-, and low-ability students. The effects of early acceleration in mathematics on the most advanced mathematics coursework (precalculus and calculus) in high school were examined in each category. Results showed that although early…

  13. High performance fibers for structurally reliable metal and ceramic composites. [advanced gas turbine engine materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Very few of the commercially available high performance fibers with low densities, high Young's moduli, and high tensile strengths possess all the necessary property requirements for providing either metal matrix composites (MMC) or ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with high structural reliability. These requirements are discussed in general and examples are presented of how these property guidelines are influencing fiber evaluation and improvement studies at NASA aimed at developing structurally reliable MMC and CMC for advanced gas turbine engines.

  14. Human foot placement and balance in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Millard, Matthew; Wight, Derek; McPhee, John; Kubica, Eric; Wang, David

    2009-12-01

    Foot placement has long been recognized as the primary mechanism that humans use to restore balance. Many biomechanists have examined where humans place their feet during gait, perturbations, and athletic events. Roboticists have also used foot placement as a means of control but with limited success. Recently, Wight et al. (2008, "Introduction of the Foot Placement Estimator: A Dynamic Measure of Balance for Bipedal Robotics," ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 3, p. 011009) introduced a planar foot placement estimator (FPE) algorithm that will restore balance to a simplified biped that is falling. This study tested the FPE as a candidate function for sagittal plane human-foot-placement (HFP) by recording the kinematics of 14 healthy subjects while they performed ten walking trials at three speeds. The FPE was highly correlated with HFP (rho>or=0.997) and its accuracy varied linearly from 2.6 cm to -8.3 cm as walking speed increased. A sensitivity analysis revealed that assumption violations of the FPE cannot account for the velocity-dependent changes in FPE-HFP error suggesting that this behavior is volitional.

  15. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children. PMID:25299657

  16. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    PubMed

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  17. Post-sialendoscopy ductoplasty by salivary duct stent placements.

    PubMed

    Su, Chin-Hui; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Tseng, Te-Ming; Hung, Shih-Han

    2016-01-01

    With damage to a duct or papilla after sialendoscopy, a stent may be necessary to prevent re-stenosis and for maintaining the salivary duct open after complete sialendoscopy. However factors affecting outcomes and complications after stent placement remain unclear. This study aimed to report preliminary experiences in salivary duct stent placement after sialendoscopy. Data from 35 procedures in 33 patients who received sialendoscopy with salivary duct stent placements at Mackay Memorial Hospital between October 2013 and June 2014 were recorded and compared for clinical data, as well as procedural techniques, findings, and outcomes. In the 35 stent placement procedures, the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used in 27 and the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tubes were used in the remaining eight. When the hypospadias silastic stent tubes were used for stenting, the stent obstruction and irritation rates were higher compared to those who used the Fr. 5 pediatric feeding tube (100 vs. 0 % and 67 vs. 33 %, respectively). None of the stents secured by a 5-0 nylon suture were complicated by dislocation but when the stents were secured by 6-0 nylon sutures, the dislocation rate went as high as 47.4 %. The duration needed for salivary duct stent placement might be potentially shortened to only 2 weeks. If a salivary duct stent is intended to be placed for a certain period before its scheduled removal, a suture strength equivalent or stronger than the 5-0 nylon suture should be considered for stent fixation.

  18. Tokamaks with high-performance resistive magnets: advanced test reactors and prospects for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Scoping studies have been made of tokamak reactors with high performance resistive magnets which maximize advantages gained from high field operation and reduced shielding requirements, and minimize resistive power requirements. High field operation can provide very high values of fusion power density and n tau/sub e/ while the resistive power losses can be kept relatively small. Relatively high values of Q' = Fusion Power/Magnet Resistive Power can be obtained. The use of high field also facilitates operation in the DD-DT advanced fuel mode. The general engineering and operational features of machines with high performance magnets are discussed. Illustrative parameters are given for advanced test reactors and for possible commercial reactors. Commercial applications that are discussed are the production of fissile fuel, electricity generation with and without fissioning blankets and synthetic fuel production.

  19. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  20. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.