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Sample records for advanced proximal neoplasia

  1. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered "average risk." In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the [Formula: see text]-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance.

  2. Invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum may play a role in the carcinogenesis of proximal colon cancer through the serrated neoplasia pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiahui; Chen, Yongyu; Fu, Xiangsheng; Zhou, Xian; Peng, Yan; Shi, Lei; Chen, Ting; Wu, Yaxin

    2016-09-15

    The prevalence of invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) within the serrated neoplasia pathway of the proximal colon has seldom been investigated. We examined the invasive Fn and bacterial biofilms in 35 proximal hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 33 sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs), 48 proximal colorectal cancers (CRCs) and 10 matched metastatic lymph nodes using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Samples of normal mucosa, traditional adenomas (TAs), distal HPs, distal CRCs and matched lymph nodes with or without metastases were used as controls. The prevalence of invasive Fn within proximal HPs (65.7%) and SSAs (78.8%) were significantly higher than that of proximal TAs (28.9%) and distal TAs (24.4%; p < 0.05). Invasive Fn was detected in markedly more proximal CRCs (89.6%) than in distal CRCs (42.2%; p < 0.05). Moreover, invasive Fn was detected in a significantly higher proportion of matched metastatic lymph nodes (100%) than that within nonmetastatic lymph nodes (40.0%; p < 0.001). Bacterial biofilms were found on 52.1% of proximal CRCs, 55.6% of distal CRCs and 48.5% of SSAs. Biofilms were positive for Fn in 47.9% of proximal CRCs, 48.9% of distal CRCs and 27.3% of SSAs. However, the presence of Fn in biofilms was not related to invasive Fn within colorectal tissues (p = 0.415). Invasive Fn may play a role in the carcinogenesis of proximal colon developing via the serrated neoplasia pathway, but might have a less important role in the TA-carcinoma sequence. Bacterial biofilms may not contribute to the invasion of Fn into tumor tissues. PMID:27130618

  3. Invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum may play a role in the carcinogenesis of proximal colon cancer through the serrated neoplasia pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiahui; Chen, Yongyu; Fu, Xiangsheng; Zhou, Xian; Peng, Yan; Shi, Lei; Chen, Ting; Wu, Yaxin

    2016-09-15

    The prevalence of invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) within the serrated neoplasia pathway of the proximal colon has seldom been investigated. We examined the invasive Fn and bacterial biofilms in 35 proximal hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 33 sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs), 48 proximal colorectal cancers (CRCs) and 10 matched metastatic lymph nodes using 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Samples of normal mucosa, traditional adenomas (TAs), distal HPs, distal CRCs and matched lymph nodes with or without metastases were used as controls. The prevalence of invasive Fn within proximal HPs (65.7%) and SSAs (78.8%) were significantly higher than that of proximal TAs (28.9%) and distal TAs (24.4%; p < 0.05). Invasive Fn was detected in markedly more proximal CRCs (89.6%) than in distal CRCs (42.2%; p < 0.05). Moreover, invasive Fn was detected in a significantly higher proportion of matched metastatic lymph nodes (100%) than that within nonmetastatic lymph nodes (40.0%; p < 0.001). Bacterial biofilms were found on 52.1% of proximal CRCs, 55.6% of distal CRCs and 48.5% of SSAs. Biofilms were positive for Fn in 47.9% of proximal CRCs, 48.9% of distal CRCs and 27.3% of SSAs. However, the presence of Fn in biofilms was not related to invasive Fn within colorectal tissues (p = 0.415). Invasive Fn may play a role in the carcinogenesis of proximal colon developing via the serrated neoplasia pathway, but might have a less important role in the TA-carcinoma sequence. Bacterial biofilms may not contribute to the invasion of Fn into tumor tissues.

  4. Prostatic atrophy: its spatial proximity to carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia based on annotation of digital slides.

    PubMed

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Torkko, Kathleen C; Wilson, R Storey; Lucia, M Scott; Bostwick, David G

    2014-01-01

    Whether atrophy is a precursor to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and cancer is controversial. A virtual slide set comprising 48 prostatectomy cases was used to investigate associations among the amounts and spacing of these entities. Foci of atrophy without inflammation (A), atrophy with inflammation (AI), cancer (by patterns), and HGPIN were digitally annotated. Atrophy's proximity to cancer and HGPIN was assessed with two measurements: abutment (touching) or nearness (≤2 μm without touching). Area sums per specimen were computed for A, AI, cancer, and HGPIN. Abutment rates of AI and A foci to cancer were 23% versus 21% (p = NS); for nearness, 29% of AI foci were near to cancer versus 12% of A (P = .0001). Abutment or nearness of A and AI to HGPIN were in the 1.4% to 2.4% range. When A, AI, or HGPIN abutted cancer, it was disproportionately to Gleason grade 3 cancer foci even after adjusting for the lesser frequency of higher-grade cancer foci. Area sums of A, AI, or (A + AI) per specimen showed no correlations with those of HGPIN, and mostly negative ones with area sum and with tumor volume of cancer. In conclusion, atrophy with inflammation showed some preferential spatial association to cancer, although area sums of atrophy with or without inflammation correlated negatively with those of cancer. These divergent spatial associations suggest that atrophy and inflammation in biopsy specimens may have clinical relevance. The frequency of inflammatory atrophy (AI) merging with HGPIN was far less than reported previously, weakening the theory that AI gives rise to HGPIN. PMID:24157066

  5. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the potential of biomarkers to aid in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized and numerous biomarker candidates have been reported in the literature, to date only few molecular markers have been approved for daily clinical use. Methods In order to improve the translation of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from a case–control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. Results After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Transferrin Receptor-1 (TFRC), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), Osteopontin (OPN/SPP1) and cancer antigen 242 (CA242) showed additive effect. This biomarker panel identified CRC patients with a sensitivity of 56% at 90% specificity and thus the performance is sufficiently high to further investigate this combination of five proteins as serological biomarkers for detection of CRC. Furthermore, when applying the indicators to identify early-stage CRC a combination of CEA, TFRC and CA242 resulted in a ROC curve with an area under the curve of 0.861. Conclusions Five plasma protein biomarkers were found to be potential CRC discriminators and three of these were additionally found to be discriminators of early-stage CRC. These explorative data in symptomatic individuals demonstrates the feasibility of the multiplex proximity extension assay for screening of potential serological protein biomarkers and warrants independent analyses in a larger sample cohort, including asymptomatic individuals, to

  6. (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of Fecal Extracts Enables Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Aurelien; Dona, Anthony C; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Tournigand, Christophe; Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Lebaleur, Yann; Sobhani, Iradj; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its etiopathogenesis and earlier diagnosis. Here, we investigated the fecal metabolic phenotype of patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia and controls using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR as well as Wif-1 methylation levels in stools, serum, and urine and correlated to the metabolic profile of each patient. The predictivity of the model was 0.507 (Q(2)Y), and the explained variance was 0.755 (R(2)Y). Patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia demonstrated increased fecal concentrations of four short-chain fatty acids (valerate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and decreased signals relating to β-glucose, glutamine, and glutamate. The predictive accuracy of the multivariate (1)H NMR model was higher than that of the guaiac-fecal occult blood test and the Wif-1 methylation test for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia. Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose. These preliminary results suggest that fecal metabonomics may potentially have a future role in a noninvasive colorectal screening program and may contribute to our understanding of the role of these dysregulated molecules in the cross-talk between the host and its bacterial microbiota.

  7. Advances in small bowel neuroendocrine neoplasia Banck and Small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Banck, Michaela S.; Beutler, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review this review aims at summarizing progress in clinical trials and basic science redefining the diagnosis and treatment of well differentiated small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NET). Recent findings Two clinical trials demonstrated antitumor activity of the long-acting somatostatin analogues octreotide LAR and lanreotide for advanced SI-NET. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus is another treatment option for patients with SI-NET, but awaits definitive proof of benefit in the ongoing RADIANT-4 study. Two whole exome/genome-sequencing studies reported in the past year provided the first genome-wide analysis of large sets of SI-NET at nucleotide resolution. Candidate therapeutically relevant alterations were found to affect SRC, SMAD genes, AURKA, EGFR, HSP90, and PDGFR as well as mutually exclusive amplification of AKT1 or AKT2 and other alterations of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling genes. The gene CDKN1B is inactivated by small insertions/deletions in 8% of patients with SI-NET suggesting cell cycle inhibitors as new candidate drugs for SI-NET. Circulating tumor cells and tumor-derived RNA in the blood are promising clinical tests for SI-NET. Summary Clinical and genomic research may merge in the near future to re-shape clinical trials and to define the ‘personalized’ treatment options for patients with SI-NET. PMID:24441281

  8. Early identification of cervical neoplasia with Raman spectroscopy and advanced methods for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Phillip R. T.; Smith, Daniel D. W.; Mazilu, Michael; Cormack, Iain; Riches, Andrew C.; Herrington, C. Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-02-01

    Early detection of malignant tumours, or their precursor lesions, can dramatically improve patient outcome. High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, infection can lead to the initiation and development of uterine cervical neoplasia. Bearing this in mind the identification of the effects of HPV infection may have clinical value. In this manuscript we investigate the application of Raman microspectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV in cultured cells when compared with normal cells. We also investigate the effect of sample fixation, which is a common clinical practice, on the ability of Raman spectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV. Raman spectra were acquired from Primary Human Keratinocytes (PHK), PHK expressing the E7 gene of HPV 16 (PHK E7) and CaSki cells, an HPV16 containing cervical carcinoma derived cell line. The average Raman spectra display variations, mostly in peaks relating to DNA and proteins, consistent with HPV gene expression and the onset of neoplasia in both live and fixed samples. Principle component analysis was used to objectively discriminate between the cells types giving sensitivities up to 100% for the comparison between PHK and CaSki. These results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between cell lines representing different stages of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore Raman spectroscopy was able to identify cells expressing the HPV 16 E7 gene suggesting the approach may be of value in clinical practice. Finally this technique was also able to detect the effects of the virus in fixed samples demonstrating the compatibility of this technique with current cervical screening methods. However if Raman spectroscopy is to make a significant impact in clinical practice the long acquisition times must be addressed. In this report we examine the potential for beam shaping and advanced to improve the signal to noise ration hence subsequently facilitating a reduction in acquisition time.

  9. Neoplasia: The Second Decade

    PubMed Central

    Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2008-01-01

    This issue marks the end of the 10-year anniversary of Neoplasia where we have seen exciting growth in both number of submitted and published articles in Neoplasia. Neoplasia was first published in 1999. During the past 10 years, Neoplasia has dynamically adapted to the needs of the cancer research community as technologies have advanced. Neoplasia is currently providing access to articles through PubMed Central to continue to facilitate rapid broad-based dissemination of published findings to the scientific community through an Open Access model. This has in part helped Neoplasia to achieve an improved impact factor this past year, demonstrating that the manuscripts published by Neoplasia are of great interest to the overall cancer research community. This past year, Neoplasia received a record number of articles for review and has had a 21% increase in the number of published articles. PMID:19048110

  10. Derivation and validation of a scoring system to stratify the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Imperiale, Thomas F.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Stump, Timothy E.; Glowinski, Elizabeth A.; Ransohoff, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several methods are recommended equally strongly for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk persons. Risk stratification would enable tailoring of screening within this group, with less invasive tests (sigmoidoscopy or occult blood tests) for lower-risk persons and colonoscopy for higher-risk persons. Objective To create a risk index for advanced neoplasia (colorectal cancer and adenomas or serrated polyps ≥1.0 cm, villous histology, or high-grade dysplasia) anywhere in the colorectum, using the most common risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Multiple endoscopy units, primarily in the Midwest. Patients Persons aged 50 to 80 years undergoing initial screening colonoscopy (December 2004 to September 2011). Measurements Derivation and validation of a risk index based on points from regression coefficients for age, sex, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, and family history of colorectal cancer. Results Among 2993 persons in the derivation set, prevalence of advanced neoplasia was 9.4%. Risks for advanced neoplasia in persons at very low, low, intermediate, and high risk were 1.92% (95% CI, 0.63% to 4.43%), 4.88% (CI, 3.79% to 6.18%), 9.93% (CI, 8.09% to 12.0%), and 24.9% (CI, 21.1% to 29.1%), respectively (P < 0.001). Sigmoidoscopy to the descending colon in the low-risk groups would have detected 51 of 70 (73% [CI, 61% to 83%]) advanced neoplasms. Among 1467 persons in the validation set, corresponding risks for advanced neoplasia were 1.65% (CI, 0.20% to 5.84%), 3.31% (CI, 2.08% to 4.97%), 10.9% (CI, 8.26% to 14.1%), and 22.3% (CI, 16.9% to 28.5%), respectively (P < 0.001). Sigmoidoscopy would have detected 21 of 24 (87.5% [CI, 68% to 97%]) advanced neoplasms. Limitations Split-sample validation; results apply to first-time screening. Conclusion This index stratifies risk for advanced neoplasia among average-risk persons by identifying lower-risk groups for which noncolonoscopy strategies may be

  11. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia in First-Degree Relatives with Colorectal Cancer: A Large Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Enrique; Gargallo, Carla; Lanas, Angel; Bujanda, Luis; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Morillas, Juan Diego; Balaguer, Francesc; Muriel, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer than the general population. For this reason, screening guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 5 or 10 y, starting at the age of 40, depending on whether colorectal cancer in the index-case is diagnosed at <60 or ≥60 y, respectively. However, studies on the risk of neoplastic lesions are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of advanced neoplasia (three or more non-advanced adenomas, advanced adenoma, or invasive cancer) in FDR of patients with colorectal cancer compared to average-risk individuals (i.e., asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 y of age with no family history of colorectal cancer). Methods and Findings This cross-sectional analysis includes data from 8,498 individuals undergoing their first lifetime screening colonoscopy between 2006 and 2012 at six Spanish tertiary hospitals. Of these individuals, 3,015 were defined as asymptomatic FDR of patients with colorectal cancer (“familial-risk group”) and 3,038 as asymptomatic with average-risk for colorectal cancer (“average-risk group”). The familial-risk group was stratified as one FDR, with one family member diagnosed with colorectal cancer at ≥60 y (n = 1,884) or at <60 y (n = 831), and as two FDR, with two family members diagnosed with colorectal cancer at any age (n = 300). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for between-group comparisons after adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, and center). Compared with the average-risk group, advanced neoplasia was significantly more prevalent in individuals having two FDR with colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–2.66, p < 0.001), but not in those having one FDR with colorectal cancer diagnosed at ≥60 y (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.83–1.27, p = 0.77) and <60 y (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90–1.58, p = 0.20). After the age of 50 y, men developed advanced

  12. Favorable lifestyle before diagnosis associated with lower risk of screen-detected advanced colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Markus D; de Lange, Thomas; Botteri, Edoardo; Nguyen, Dung-Hong; Evensen, Helge; Steen, Chloé B; Hoff, Geir; Bernklev, Tomm; Hjartåker, Anette; Berstad, Paula

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between adherence to health recommendations and detection of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. METHODS: A total of 14832 women and men were invited to CRC screening, 6959 in the fecal immunochemical test arm and 7873 in the flexible sigmoidoscopy arm. These were also sent a self-reported lifestyle questionnaire to be completed prior to their first CRC screening. A lifestyle score was created to reflect current adherence to healthy behaviors in regard to smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption and food consumption, and ranged from zero (poorest) to six (best). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between the single lifestyle variables and the lifestyle score and the probability of detecting ACN. RESULTS: In all 6315 women and men completed the lifestyle questionnaire, 3323 (53%) in the FIT arm and 2992 (47%) in the FS arm. This was 89% of those who participated in screening. ACN was diagnosed in 311 (5%) participants of which 25 (8%) were diagnosed with CRC. For individuals with a lifestyle score of two, three, four, and five-six, the ORs (95%CI) for the probability of ACN detection were 0.82 (0.45-1.16), 0.43 (0.28-0.73), 0.41 (0.23-0.64), and 0.41 (0.22-0.73), respectively compared to individuals with a lifestyle score of zero-one. Of the single lifestyle factors, adherence to non-smoking and moderate alcohol intake were associated with a decreased probability of ACN detection compared to being a smoker or having a high alcohol intake 0.53 (0.42-0.68) and 0.63 (0.43-0.93) respectively. CONCLUSION: Adopted healthy behaviors were inversely associated with the probability of ACN detection. Lifestyle assessment might be useful for risk stratification in CRC screening. PMID:27468217

  13. New Advances in the Study of the Proximal Point Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroşanu, Gheorghe

    2010-09-01

    Consider in a real Hilbert space H the inexact, Halpern-type, proximal point algorithm xn+1 = αnu+(1-αn)Jβnxn+en, n = 0,1,…, (H—PPA) where u, x∈H are given points, Jβn = (I+βna) for a given maximal monotone operator A, and (en) is the error sequence, under new assumptions on αn∈(0,1) and βn∈(0,1). Several strong convergence results for the H—PPA are presented under the general condition that the error sequence converges strongly to zero, thus improving the classical Rockafellar's summability condition on (‖en‖) that has been extensively used so far for different versions of the proximal point algorithm. Our results extend and improve some recent ones. These results can be applied to approximate minimizers of convex functionals. Convergence rate estimates are established for a sequence approximating the minimum value of such a functional.

  14. Well differentiated follicular thyroid neoplasia: impact of molecular and technological advances on detection, monitoring and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Giannelli, Silvana M; Salameh, Wael A; McPhaul, Laron W

    2011-01-30

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for follicular thyroid cell oncogenesis has been advanced significantly in recent years. Specific genetic alterations and the molecular pathways they affect have been associated with particular histologic subtypes of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and are now being evaluated for their utility as clinical tools with diagnostic, prognostic and even therapeutic relevance. This paper focuses on the most common and clinically relevant genetic alterations shown to be consistently associated with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We review the impact of recent molecular and technological advances on thyroid cancer standard of care and the practice of clinical medicine.

  15. Advances in the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett’s neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chedgy, Fergus J.Q.; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s oesophagus is a well-recognised precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is continuing to rise in the Western world with dismal survival rates. In recent years, efforts have been made to diagnose Barrett’s earlier and improve surveillance techniques in order to pick up cancerous changes earlier. Recent advances in endoscopic therapy for early Barrett’s cancers have shifted the paradigm away from oesophagectomy and have yielded excellent results. PMID:26918175

  16. Validity of APCS score as a risk prediction score for advanced colorectal neoplasia in Chinese asymptomatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Jianyu; Wu, Yongdong; Lu, Di; Zhao, Haiying; Wang, Zhenjie; Xu, Tianming; Yang, Hong; Qian, Jiaming; Li, Jingnan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score is a risk-stratification tool that helps predict the risk for advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian populations, but has not yet been assessed for its validity of use in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to assess the validity of APCS score in asymptomatic Chinese population, and to identify other risk factors associated with ACN. Asymptomatic subjects (N = 1010) who underwent colonoscopy screening between 2012 and 2014 in Beijing were enrolled. APCS scores based on questionnaires were used to stratify subjects into high, moderate, and average-risk tiers. Cochran–Armitage test for trend was used to assess the association between ACN and risk tiers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with ACN as the outcome, adjusting for APCS score, body mass index, alcohol consumption, self-reported diabetes, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as independent variables. The average age was 53.5 (standard deviation 8.4) years. The prevalence of ACN was 4.1% overall, and in the high, moderate, and average-risk tiers, the prevalence was 8.8%, 2.83%, and 1.55%, respectively (P < 0.001). High-risk tier had 3.3 and 6.1-fold increased risk of ACN as compared with those in the moderate and average-risk tiers, respectively. In univariate analysis, high-risk tier, obesity, diabetes, and alcohol consumption were associated with ACN. In multivariate analysis, only high-risk tier was an independent predictor of ACN. The APCS score can effectively identify a subset of asymptomatic Chinese population at high risk for ACN. Further studies are required to identify other risk factors, and the acceptability of the score to the general population will need to be further examined. PMID:27741134

  17. Strategies of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymph node dissection for advanced proximal gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Yue; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Hong, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    For advanced proximal gastric cancer (GC), splenic hilar (No. 10) lymph nodes (LN) are crucial links in lymphatic drainage. According to the 14th edition of the Japanese GC treatment guidelines, a D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for advanced GC, and No. 10 LN should be dissected for advanced proximal GC. In recent years, the preservation of organ function and the use of minimally invasive technology are being accepted by an increasing number of clinicians. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection has become more accepted and is gradually being used in operations. However, because of the complexity of splenic hilar anatomy, mastering the strategies for laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection is critical for successfully completing the operation. PMID:27358672

  18. The discriminatory capability of existing scores to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia: a prospective colonoscopy study of 5,899 screening participants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C. S.; Ching, Jessica Y. L.; Ng, Simpson; Lam, Thomas Y. T.; Luk, Arthur K. C.; Wong, Sunny H.; Ng, Siew C.; Ng, Simon S. M.; Wu, Justin C. Y.; Chan, Francis K. L.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of seven existing risk scoring systems in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia in an asymptomatic Chinese cohort. We prospectively recruited 5,899 Chinese subjects aged 50–70 years in a colonoscopy screening programme(2008–2014). Scoring systems under evaluation included two scoring tools from the US; one each from Spain, Germany, and Poland; the Korean Colorectal Screening(KCS) scores; and the modified Asia Pacific Colorectal Screening(APCS) scores. The c-statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values(PPVs), and negative predictive values(NPVs) of these systems were evaluated. The resources required were estimated based on the Number Needed to Screen(NNS) and the Number Needed to Refer for colonoscopy(NNR). Advanced neoplasia was detected in 364 (6.2%) subjects. The German system referred the least proportion of subjects (11.2%) for colonoscopy, whilst the KCS scoring system referred the highest (27.4%). The c-statistics of all systems ranged from 0.56–0.65, with sensitivities ranging from 0.04–0.44 and specificities from 0.74–0.99. The modified APCS scoring system had the highest c-statistics (0.65, 95% C.I. 0.58–0.72). The NNS (12–19) and NNR (5-10) were similar among the scoring systems. The existing scoring systems have variable capability to predict advanced neoplasia among asymptomatic Chinese subjects, and further external validation should be performed. PMID:26838178

  19. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  20. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  1. Advanced Endovascular Approaches in the Management of Challenging Proximal Aortic Neck Anatomy: Traditional Endografts and the Snorkel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Quatromoni, Jon G.; Orlova, Ksenia; Foley, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in endovascular technology, and access to this technology, have significantly changed the field of vascular surgery. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), in which endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has replaced the traditional open surgical approach in patients with suitable anatomy. However, approximately one-third of patients presenting with AAAs are deemed ineligible for standard EVAR because of anatomic constraints, the majority of which involve the proximal aneurysmal neck. To overcome these challenges, a bevy of endovascular approaches have been developed to either enhance stent graft fixation at the proximal neck or extend the proximal landing zone to allow adequate apposition to the aortic wall and thus aneurysm exclusion. This article is composed of two sections that together address new endovascular approaches for treating aortic aneurysms with difficult proximal neck anatomy. The first section will explore advancements in the traditional EVAR approach for hostile neck anatomy that maximize the use of the native proximal landing zone; the second section will discuss a technique that was developed to extend the native proximal landing zone and maintain perfusion to vital aortic branches using common, off-the-shelf components: the snorkel technique. While the techniques presented differ in terms of approach, the available clinical data, albeit limited, support the notion that they may both have roles in the treatment algorithm for patients with challenging proximal neck anatomy. PMID:26327748

  2. Advanced Endovascular Approaches in the Management of Challenging Proximal Aortic Neck Anatomy: Traditional Endografts and the Snorkel Technique.

    PubMed

    Quatromoni, Jon G; Orlova, Ksenia; Foley, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in endovascular technology, and access to this technology, have significantly changed the field of vascular surgery. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), in which endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has replaced the traditional open surgical approach in patients with suitable anatomy. However, approximately one-third of patients presenting with AAAs are deemed ineligible for standard EVAR because of anatomic constraints, the majority of which involve the proximal aneurysmal neck. To overcome these challenges, a bevy of endovascular approaches have been developed to either enhance stent graft fixation at the proximal neck or extend the proximal landing zone to allow adequate apposition to the aortic wall and thus aneurysm exclusion. This article is composed of two sections that together address new endovascular approaches for treating aortic aneurysms with difficult proximal neck anatomy. The first section will explore advancements in the traditional EVAR approach for hostile neck anatomy that maximize the use of the native proximal landing zone; the second section will discuss a technique that was developed to extend the native proximal landing zone and maintain perfusion to vital aortic branches using common, off-the-shelf components: the snorkel technique. While the techniques presented differ in terms of approach, the available clinical data, albeit limited, support the notion that they may both have roles in the treatment algorithm for patients with challenging proximal neck anatomy.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The 18F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal 18F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy. Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic F-FDG uptake on F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy.Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result.F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  5. Cervical Neoplasia Probe Control

    1997-01-24

    This software, which consists of a main executive and several subroutines, performs control of the optics, image acquisition, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of this image, of an optical based medical instrument that performs fluoresence detection of precancerous lesions (neoplasia) of the human cervix. The hardware portion of this medical instrument is known by the same name Cervical Neoplasia Probe (CNP)

  6. Use of Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System tube in stabilization of proximal humeral endoprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A; Sawan, Hassan; Dandachli, Firas; Turcotte, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review outcomes following usage of the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS®) in shoulder tumors. METHODS: Medical records of nineteen patients (19 shoulders) that underwent tumor excisional procedure and reconstruction with the LARS synthetic fabric, were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Patients’ median age was 58 years old, while the median length of resection was 110 mm (range 60-210 mm). Compared to immediate post-operative radiographs, the prosthesis mean end-point position migrated superiorly at a mean follow up period of 26 mo (P = 0.002). No statistical significant correlations between the prosthesis head size (P = 0.87); the implant stem body length (P = 0.949); and the length of resection (P = 0.125) with the position of the head, were found at last follow up. Two cases of radiological dislocation were noted but only one was clinically symptomatic. A minor superficial wound dehiscence, healed without surgery, occurred. There was no evidence of aseptic loosening either, and no prosthetic failure. CONCLUSION: LARS® use ensured stability of the shoulder following endoprosthetic reconstruction in most patients. PMID:27114934

  7. Advanced transformational analysis applied to e-beam proximity effect correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouch, Eytan; Coifman, Ronald R.; Ma, Jimmy T.; Peckerar, Martin C.; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    1993-06-01

    In this paper we address the problem of dose correction in the data bases consistent with ultra- large-scale integration. It is shown that recent advances in transformation theory provide a natural platform on which to build these dose correctors. Specifically, transformation approaches making use of compactly supported, smooth basis functions are shown to be particularly suitable. This is a natural result of the evolution of mathematically based correctors currently in use. Previous work in Parikh, MacDonald and others employed global transform method to determine the values of 'corrected' dose. In most cases, the mathematical inversion is essentially ill posed, in other words, the exact pattern desired cannot be obtained using a finite Gaussian sum. In this paper a set of smooth basis elements of compact support are employed. The mathematically smooth form of the basis makes it easy to match doses at boundaries without Gibbs phenomenon. Thus the transform field can be partitioned for optimum speed. Consequently, while most transformation complexities are of order N6 (the inversion of an N2 X N2 matrix) where N2 is the number of grid points characterizing the database, we developed an algorithm of complexity N2 log N. A method of dose field bias is employed to stem the requests for negative dose. The heart of the numerical process is essentially based on an adapted fast non-uniform-grid Fourier Transform combined with proper filtering and geometric localization methods. Several examples are given.

  8. High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, David G; Liu, Lina; Brawer, Michael K; Qian, Junqi

    2004-01-01

    High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is considered the most likely precursor of prostatic carcinoma. The only method of detection is biopsy; prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) does not significantly elevate serum prostate-specific antigen concentration and cannot be detected by ultra-sonography. The incidence of PIN in prostate biopsies averages 9% (range, 4%–16%), representing 115,000 new cases of PIN diagnosed each year in United States. PIN has a high predictive value as a marker for adenocarcinoma, and its identification warrants repeated biopsy for concurrent or subsequent invasive carcinoma. Carcinoma will develop in most patients with PIN within 10 years. PIN is associated with progressive abnormalities of phenotype and genotype that are intermediate between normal prostatic epithelium and cancer, indicating impairment of cell differentiation and regulatory control with advancing stages of prostatic carcinogenesis. Androgen deprivation therapy decreases the prevalence and extent of PIN, suggesting that this form of treatment may play a role in chemoprevention. PMID:16985598

  9. Fluorescence detection of esophageal neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Vladimirov, B.; Avramov, L.

    2008-06-01

    White-light endoscopy is well-established and wide used modality. However, despite the many technological advances that have been occurred, conventional endoscopy is suboptimal and usually detects advanced stage lesions. The limitations of standard endoscopy initiate development of spectroscopic techniques, additional to standard endoscopic equipment. One of the most sensitive approaches is fluorescence spectroscopy of gastrointestinal mucosa for neoplasia detection. In the recent study delta-aminolevulinic acid/Protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA/PpIX) is used as fluorescent marker for dysplasia and tumor detection in esophagus. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20 mg/kg weight. Excitation source has max of emission at 405 nm and light is delivered by the standard light guide of the endoscopic equipment. Through endoscopic instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence to microspectrometer. Spectral features observed during endoscopic investigations could be distinct as the next regions: 450-630 nm region, where tissue autofluorescence is observed; 630-710 nm region, where fluorescence of PpIX is clearly pronounced; 530-580 nm region, where minima in the autofluorescence signal are observed, related to reabsorption of blood. The lack of fluorescence peaks in the red spectral area for normal mucosa is an indication for selective accumulation of 5-ALA/PpIX only in abnormal sites Very good correlation between fluorescence signals and histology examination of the lesions investigated is achieved.

  10. Immunohistochemistry of Pancreatic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Baine, Michael J.; Kumar, Sushil; Batra, Surinder K.

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable tool to visualize the distribution and localization of specific cellular components within morphologically preserved tissue sections or cell preparations. It combines the histologic morphology of tissues for detecting the actual antigen distribution, specificity of antibody–antigen interaction for optimal detection, and sensitivity of immunochemical methods for assessing the amount of antigen in tissues. It is routinely used clinically to diagnose type (benign or malignant), stage, and grade of cancer using specific tumor markers. The application of IHC ranges from disease diagnosis and prognosis to drug development and analysis of the pathobiological roles of various molecular players during disease development. Due to better availability of highly specific antibodies and optimal methodologies for performing immunohistochemical studies, IHC is being used at an expanding rate to understand pancreatic tumor biology as well as to study the fate of various molecular markers during the initiation, progression, and metastasis of pancreatic neoplasia. Herein, we describe the detailed protocol for IHC analyses of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia in tissues and fine needle aspirates from both human and mouse samples. PMID:23359148

  11. Quantitative proteomics investigation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng; Chen, Ru; Reimel, Beth Ann; Crispin, David A.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Cooke, Kelly; Coleman, Joshua F.; Lane, Zhaoli; Bronner, Mary P.; Goodlett, David R.; McIntosh, Martin; Traverso, William; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer are usually diagnosed at late stages, when the disease is incurable. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) 3, is believed to be the immediate precursor lesion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and would be an ideal stage to diagnose patients, when intervention and cure are possible and patients are curable. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics to identify dysregulated proteins in PanIN 3 lesions. Altogether, over 200 dysregulated proteins were identified in the PanIN 3 tissues, with a minimum of a 1.75 fold change compared to the proteins in normal pancreas. These dysregulated PanIN 3 proteins play roles in cell motility, the inflammatory response, the blood clotting cascade, the cell cycle and its regulation, and protein degradation. Further network analysis of the proteins identified c-MYC as an important regulatory protein in PanIN 3 lesions. Finally, three of the overexpressed proteins, laminin beta-1, galectin-1, and actinin-4 were validated by IHC analysis. All three of these proteins were overexpressed in the stroma or ductal epithelial cells of advanced PanIN lesions, as well as in pancreatic cancer tissue. Our findings suggest that these three proteins may be useful as biomarkers for advanced PanIN and pancreatic cancer if further validated. The dysregulated proteins identified in this study may assist in the selection of candidates for future development of biomarkers for detecting early and curable pancreatic neoplasia. PMID:19373808

  12. Neoplasia: An Anniversary of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-01-01

    This issue marks the 10th year anniversary of Neoplasia where we have seen exciting growth on the impact that Neoplasia has had on cancer research worldwide. Neoplasia was founded in 1999 at which time manuscripts were accepted through e-mail. In 2000, Neoplasia became the first journal to offer web-based online manuscript submission and peer-review using a custom-designed application JournalSoft. Now, the use of web-based manuscript processing has become an industry standard as it provides authors with a rapid and useful dialog exchange for improving the quality of the science and the overall speed of the review process. Moreover, during the past 10 years, the Internet has experienced a massive growth of a complex global grid of now over an estimated 1.2 billion Internet users which have resulted in a major shift in the medium of scientific communication for scholarly publishing. Neoplasia continues to evolve with the technology and has implemented a rapid time-to-publication schedule to continue dissemination of published cancer research findings quickly to the scientific community.

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  14. Gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia: Vienna revisited.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M F

    2002-07-01

    International consensus meetings in Padova and Vienna have attempted to rationalise the grading and classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia (GEN). With its minor adjustments, the Vienna classification of GEN seeks to be more closely in tune with patient management and it is hoped that it is not seen as fiddling around with terms but as a genuine contribution to patient care.

  15. A novel mask proximity correction software combining accuracy and reduced writing time for the manufacturing of advanced photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, Patrick; Martin, Luc; Browning, Clyde; Farys, Vincent; Sundermann, Frank; Narukawa, Shogo; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya

    2012-06-01

    The new generations of photomasks are seen to bring more and more challenges to the mask manufacturer. Maskshops face two conflicting requirements, namely improving pattern fidelity and reducing or at least maintaining acceptable writing time. These requirements are getting more and more challenging since pattern size continuously shrinks and data volumes continuously grows. Although the classical dose modulation Proximity Effect Correction is able to provide sufficient process control to the mainstream products, an increased number of published and wafer data show that the mask process is becoming a nonnegligible contributor to the 28nm technology yield. We will show in this paper that a novel approach of mask proximity effect correction is able to meet the dual challenge of the new generation of masks. Unlike the classical approach, the technique presented in this paper is based on a concurrent optimization of the dose and geometry of the fractured shots. Adding one more parameter allows providing the best possible compromise between accuracy and writing time since energy latitude can be taken into account as well. This solution is implemented in the Inscale software package from Aselta Nanographics. We have assessed the capability of this technology on several levels of a 28nm technology. On this set, the writing time has been reduced up to 25% without sacrificing the accuracy which at the same time has been improved significantly compared to the existing process. The experiments presented in the paper confirm that a versatile proximity effect correction strategy, combining dose and geometry modulation helps the users to tradeoff between resolution/accuracy and e-beam write time.

  16. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  17. Malignant Neoplasia of the Sex Skin in 2 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beck, Amanda P; Magden, Elizabeth R; Buchl, Stephanie J; Baze, Wallace B

    2016-04-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous malignant neoplasia within the sex skin of aged female chimpanzees. In both cases, the initial presentation resembled nonhealing traumatic wounds to the sex skin, with different degrees of infection, ulceration, and tissue necrosis. Histopathology of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in one case and of adenocarcinoma with metastasis in the other. Advanced age and previous trauma likely contributed to the development of the neoplasias in both cases; long-term sun exposure may also have contributed to the development of the squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, these 2 cases represent the first reports of sex skin neoplasia in chimpanzees. PMID:27053571

  18. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  19. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  20. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  1. Annexin A10 expression in colorectal cancers with emphasis on the serrated neoplasia pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Jung Ho; Rhee, Ye-Young; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kim, Tae-You; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate the utility of Annexin A10 as a surrogate marker of the serrated neoplasia pathway in invasive colorectal cancers (CRCs). METHODS: A total of 1133 primary CRC patients who underwent surgical resection at Seoul National University Hospital between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled. Expression of Annexin A10 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray and paired to our findings on clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of each individual. CpG island methylator phenotype was determined by MethyLight assay and microsatellite instability was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. KRAS and BRAF mutation status was evaluated by direct sequencing and allele-specific PCR. Univariate and stage-specific survival analyses were performed to reveal the prognostic value of Annexin A10 expression. RESULTS: Annexin A10 expression was observed in 66 (5.8%) of the 1133 patients. Annexin A10 expression was more commonly found in females and was associated with proximal location, ulcerative gross type, advanced T category, N category and TNM stage. CRCs with Annexin A10 expression showed an absence of luminal necrosis, luminal serration and mucin production. CRCs with Annexin A10 expression were associated with CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability and BRAF mutation. In survival analysis, Annexin A10 expression was associated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival, especially in stage IV CRCs. CONCLUSION: Annexin A10 expression is associated with poor clinical behavior and can be used a supportive surrogate marker of the serrated neoplasia pathway in invasive CRCs. PMID:26361422

  2. Advanced module for model parameter extraction using global optimization and sensitivity analysis for electron beam proximity effect correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Freitag, Martin; Hohle, Christoph; Tortai, Jean-Hervé; Saib, Mohamed; Schiavone, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    In electron proximity effect correction (PEC), the quality of a correction is highly dependent on the quality of the model. Therefore it is of primary importance to have a reliable methodology to extract the parameters and assess the quality of a model. Among others the model describes how the energy of the electrons spreads out in the target material (via the Point Spread Function, PSF) as well as the influence of the resist process. There are different models available in previous studies, as well as several different approaches to obtain the appropriate value for their parameters. However, those are restricted in terms of complexity, or require a prohibitive number of measurements, which is limited for a certain PSF model. In this work, we propose a straightforward approach to obtain the value of parameters of a PSF. The methodology is general enough to apply for more sophisticated models as well. It focused on improving the three steps of model calibration procedure: First, it is using a good set of calibration patterns. Secondly, it secures the optimization step and avoids falling into a local optimum. And finally the developed method provides an improved analysis of the calibration step, which allows quantifying the quality of the model as well as enabling a comparison of different models. The methodology described in the paper is implemented as specific module in a commercial tool.

  3. New concepts in neoplasia as applied to diagnostic pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Fenoglio-Preiser, C.M.; Weinstein, R.S.; Kaufman, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Cellular Aspects of Neoplasia; Oncogenes and Cancer; Chromosome and Oncogene Rearrangements in Leukemia and Lymphoma; Ionizing Radiation and Neoplasia; and Papillomaviruses and Neoplasia in Man.

  4. Innate immunity gene polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case–control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57–0.83, P = 7.7 × 10–5, adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (ORper T allele = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30–0.55, P = 2.4 × 10− 9) than for adenoma (ORper T allele = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69–1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (ORper T allele = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37–0.69 and ORper T allele = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54–0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. PMID:23803696

  5. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy: Improving neoplasia detection in Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Chedgy, Fergus J Q; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is an important condition given its significant premalignant potential and dismal five-year survival outcomes of advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is therefore suggested that patients with a diagnosis of BE undergo regular surveillance in order to pick up dysplasia at an earlier stage to improve survival. Current “gold-standard” surveillance protocols suggest targeted biopsy of visible lesions followed by four quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm. However, this method of Barrett’s surveillance is fraught with poor endoscopist compliance as the procedures are time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients. There are also significant miss-rates with this technique for the detection of neoplasia as only 13% of early neoplastic lesions appear as visible nodules. Despite improvements in endoscope resolution these problems persist. Chromoendoscopy is an extremely useful adjunct to enhance mucosal visualization and characterization of Barrett’s mucosa. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) is a simple, non-proprietary technique that can significantly improve neoplasia detection rates. This topic highlight summarizes the current evidence base behind AAC for the detection of neoplasia in BE and provides an insight into the direction of travel for further research in this area. PMID:27433088

  6. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy: Improving neoplasia detection in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Chedgy, Fergus J Q; Subramaniam, Sharmila; Kandiah, Kesavan; Thayalasekaran, Sreedhari; Bhandari, Pradeep

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an important condition given its significant premalignant potential and dismal five-year survival outcomes of advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is therefore suggested that patients with a diagnosis of BE undergo regular surveillance in order to pick up dysplasia at an earlier stage to improve survival. Current "gold-standard" surveillance protocols suggest targeted biopsy of visible lesions followed by four quadrant random biopsies every 2 cm. However, this method of Barrett's surveillance is fraught with poor endoscopist compliance as the procedures are time consuming and poorly tolerated by patients. There are also significant miss-rates with this technique for the detection of neoplasia as only 13% of early neoplastic lesions appear as visible nodules. Despite improvements in endoscope resolution these problems persist. Chromoendoscopy is an extremely useful adjunct to enhance mucosal visualization and characterization of Barrett's mucosa. Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) is a simple, non-proprietary technique that can significantly improve neoplasia detection rates. This topic highlight summarizes the current evidence base behind AAC for the detection of neoplasia in BE and provides an insight into the direction of travel for further research in this area. PMID:27433088

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  8. Update on Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is a histologically well-defined precursor to invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. PanINs are remarkably common lesions, particularly in the elderly population. Molecular studies have helped establish the progression of PanIN to invasive cancer, and recently genetically engineered mouse models have been generated that recapitulate the entire spectrum of lesions from precursor to invasive pancreatic cancer. Some PanIN lesions produce lobulocentric atrophy of the pancreatic parenchyma, and, when multifocal, this lobulocentric atrophy may be detectable using currently available imaging techniques such as endoscopic ultrasound. The association of acinar-ductal metaplasia with PanIN lesions has led some to hypothesize that PanINs develop from acinar cells that undergo acinar-ductal metaplasia. PMID:18787611

  9. The prevalence and characteristics of colorectal neoplasia in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Renehan, A G; Bhaskar, P; Painter, J E; O'Dwyer, S T; Haboubi, N; Varma, J; Ball, S G; Shalet, S M

    2000-09-01

    An increased prevalence of colorectal neoplasia has been reported in acromegalic patients, and recommendations have been made for early colonoscopic screening and regular surveillance. This assumption, however, is frequently drawn from studies using selected control populations. To clarify colonoscopic management in these patients, we undertook a 2-center prospective screening colonoscopy study in 122 acromegalics (age range, 25-82 yr). In the absence of ideal age-matched controls, we calculated prevalence rates of occult adenocarcinomas and adenomas in the general population using cumulative data in the published literature from 8 autopsy studies (model 1, n = 3,559) and 4 screening colonoscopy studies (model 2, n= 810), applying linear regression models. Of the 115 patients with complete examinations, adenocarcinomas were discovered in 3 (2.6%), and at least 1 adenoma was found in 11, giving an overall prevalence of neoplasia of 12% (14 of 115). Prevalence rates for age bands 30-40, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+ yr were 0%, 8%, 12%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. Compared with the 2 control models, the prevalence of occult colorectal cancer was not significantly increased (acromegalics vs. models 1 and 2, 2.6% vs. 2.3% and 0.9%), nor was there an increase in the prevalence of adenomas in any age band. Pathological characteristics showed some differences, in that adenomas in acromegalics tended to be right sided (68% vs. 57% and 56%), larger (for > or =10 mm, 27% vs. 13% and 9%), and of advanced histology (for tubulovillous, 27% vs. 4% and 22%). No associations were found between the presence of colonic neoplasia and the duration of disease, total GH exposure, cure status, and serum insulin-like growth factor I. This study has failed to demonstrate an increased prevalence of neoplasia in acromegalic patients compared with the expected prevalence in the general population and questions the need for an aggressive colonoscopic screening policy.

  10. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  11. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  12. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, an ancient disease: new light and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Alazzam, Mo'iad; Tidy, John; Hancock, Barry W; Powers, Hilary

    2010-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is a rare malignancy, which can occur after any type of pregnancy. The incidence varies according to the geographical location and ethnic origin. Although most patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are cured by conventional chemotherapy and surgery, some suffer resistant disease and may die. New therapeutic agents are needed to reduce the toxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and treat those with resistant or refractory disease. Molecular targeted treatment provides an exciting avenue, however, the biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is not well understood. This review briefly summarises the recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis and molecular biology of this group of diseases and sheds light on molecules that could provide potential therapeutic targets.

  13. Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

  14. Neither Neoplasia Nor Tuberculosis, but Francisella

    PubMed Central

    Mambie, Adeline; Wallet, Frédéric; Scherman, Laurine; Armand, Sylvie; Vervelle, Christine; Faure, Karine; Guery, Benoit; Titécat, Marie; Loïez, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Tularaemia is an emerging anthropozoonosis transmitted by contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation, or ingestion. We describe a pulmonary nodule suggesting cancer in a 70-year-old man. Histological analysis excluded neoplasia, and bacteriological culture excluded tuberculosis. Serological testing and PCR Francisella were positive for this hunter patient, then treated by ciprofloxacin with a favourable outcome. PMID:27419157

  15. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  16. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Gargi K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology's role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27800176

  17. Common multigenic activation in different human neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, N; Shaool, D; Harel, J; Wiels, J; Tursz, T

    1983-01-01

    It was previously shown that a common multigenic component, designated as tumor-specific DNA (tsDNA), was transcriptionally active in human lymphoid neoplasias and only slightly active, if at all, in normal lymphoid cells, including the Priess cell line immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus. In the Burkitt lymphoma-derived Raji cell line, tsDNA corresponded to 2500-3000 distinct transcription units, arbitrarily defined as encoding mRNA chains of 1000 kds each. In the present study, radioactive Raji cell tsDNA was isolated by a recycling procedure which eliminates transcribed DNA sequences common to both the Raji cell and the Priess cell, and was used as a probe for homologous transcripts. The major part of this probe could be hybridized to RNAs from all the human neoplasias studied: cultured cell lines derived from leukemias, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas, leukemic cells or solid tumors (sarcomas and carcinomas) recovered from patients. In contrast, only a minor portion of Raji cell tsDNA could be hybridized to RNAs from non-malignant cells, normal human lymphoid cells or fibroblasts grown in culture, fetal and chorioplacental tissues. It is concluded that a common multigenic set is activated in a wide variety of, and perhaps in all, human neoplasias. PMID:6315395

  18. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Potential problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related to the procedure. Frequently Asked Questions If proximal tibial bone graft is taken from my knee, will this prevent me from being able to ...

  19. Endoscopic Treatment of Early Barrett's Neoplasia: Expanding Indications, New Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pech, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy of early Barrett's neoplasia is nowadays the treatment of choice and recommended over surgery in most current guidelines. Recent data suggest radiofrequency ablation of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia when confirmed by an expert pathologist. Endoscopic therapy of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal Barrett's adenocarcinoma consists of two steps: first endoscopic resection of all visible lesions, and second ablation of the remaining flat Barrett's mucosa to reduce the rate of recurrences and metachronous neoplasia. The preferred ablation method is radiofrequency ablation. In case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma with incipient submucosal invasion, endoscopic treatment can be considered curative when there are no further risk factors present. PMID:27573769

  20. Aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Arends, M J; Buckley, C H; Wells, M

    1998-01-01

    Early epidemiological studies of cervical neoplasia suggested a causal relation with sexual activity and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have emerged as prime suspects as venerally transmitted carcinogens. HPVs fall into two broad camps: low risk types, associated with cervical condylomas and CIN 1; and high risk types (mostly 16 and 18), found in 50-80% of CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions, and 90% of cancers. This association with cancer is very strong, with odds ratios of > 15 (often much higher) in case-control studies that are methodologically sound. An infrequently detected third group of intermediate risk type HPVs is associated with all grades of CIN and occasionally with cancers. HPVs have also been detected in a wide range of asymptomatic controls, indicating that other events are required for development of neoplasia such as viral persistence and/or altered expression of viral genes, often following integration of the viral genome. This leaves the two major viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, directly coupled to viral enhancers and promoters, allowing their continued expression after integration. High risk HPV E7 proteins bind and inactivate the Rb protein, whereas E6 proteins bind p53 and direct its rapid degradation. A range of putative cofactors has been implicated in progression: HLA type, immunosuppression, sex steroid hormones, and smoking; most of these cofactors appear to influence progression to CIN 3. The natural history includes progression to CIN 3 in 10% of CIN 1 and 20% of CIN 2 cases, whereas at least 12% of CIN 3 cases progress to invasive carcinoma. Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) often coexists with squamous CIN, and the premalignant potential of high grade CGIN is not in doubt, but the natural history of low grade CGIN remains uncertain. A high proportion of CGIN lesions and adenocarcinomas are HPV positive, and HPV18 has been implicated more in glandular than in squamous lesions. A strong clinical case for the application of HPV

  1. Management of hemopoietic neoplasias during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Paydas, Semra

    2016-08-01

    Hemopoietic neoplasias are unique cancers generally affecting bone marrow, and requires a special attention for disease control and also their complications. When these neoplastic disorders accompany to pregnancy there are many risks both for mother and foetus. Diagnostic difficulties due to the limited use of imaging modalities is essential in pregnant women. On the other hand suboptimal using of the anti-neoplastic drugs and their higher toxicity in mother and foetus must be considered in the management of these neoplastic disorders. Due to the lack of therapeutic guidelines in these cases, team approach is essential and therapy requires to the use the art of medicine. PMID:27283927

  2. Chemoresistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cp, Sudha; M, Sahana

    2014-07-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease of women in reproductive age. It is one of the most chemotherapy responsive and highly curable cancer. It is diagnosed when there is clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and/or hormonal evidence of persistent or relapsed gestational trophoblastic disease. In most instances, it is cured by surgical evacuation of the uterus. If persistent, it is treated with chemotherapy which provides response in >90% of the cases. In the unresponsive persistent cases and if the women has completed her child bearing, hysterectomy is generally recommended. Here, we report a rare case of chemoresistant GTN which was confirmed to be placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) on biopsy.

  3. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Borup, Rehannah; Rossing, Maria; Henao, Ricardo; Yamamoto, Yohei; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian; Winther, Ole; Kiss, Katalin; Christensen, Lise; Høgdall, Estrid; Bennedbaek, Finn; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-09-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FC) and normofollicular adenoma (FA) as well as fetal/microFA (fetal adenoma). Carcinomas were strongly enriched in transcripts encoding proteins involved in DNA replication and mitosis corresponding to increased number of proliferating cells and depleted number of transcripts encoding factors involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. In the latter group, the combined loss of transcripts encoding the nuclear orphan receptors NR4A1 and NR4A3, which were recently shown to play a causal role in hematopoetic neoplasia, was noteworthy. The analysis of differentially expressed transcripts provided a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules originating from different geographical locations and platforms with similar accuracy. We came to the conclusion that down-regulation of factors involved in growth arrest and apoptosis may represent a decisive step in the pathogenesis of FC. Moreover, the described molecular pathways provide an accurate and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. PMID:20668010

  4. Pancreatic paracoccidioidomycosis simulating malignant neoplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Talles Bazeia; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Silva, Giovanni Faria; de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Yamashiro, Fábio da Silva; Franzoni, Letícia de Campos; Sassaki, Lígia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes

    2013-09-14

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by fungus, and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumors in endemic areas. We report a rare case of paracoccidioidomycosis in the pancreas. A 45-year-old man was referred to our institution with a 2-mo history of epigastric abdominal pain that was not diet-related, with night sweating, inappetence, weight loss, jaundice, pruritus, choluria, and acholic feces, without signs of sepsis or palpable tumors. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed a solid mass of approximately 7 cm × 5.5 cm on the pancreas head. Abdominal computerized tomography showed dilation of the biliary tract, an enlarged pancreas (up to 4.5 in the head region), with dilation of the major pancreatic duct. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and the surgical description consisted of a tumor, measuring 7 to 8 cm with a poorly-defined margin, adhering to posterior planes and mesenteric vessels, showing an enlarged bile duct. External drainage of the biliary tract, Roux-en-Y gastroenteroanastomosis, lymph node excision, and biopsies were performed, but malignant neoplasia was not found. Microscopic analysis showed chronic pancreatitis and a granulomatous chronic inflammatory process in the choledochal lymph node. Acid-alcohol resistant bacillus and fungus screening were negative. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas was performed under US guidance. The smear was compatible with infection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We report a rare case of paracoccidioidomycosis simulating a malignant neoplasia in the pancreas head. PMID:24039371

  5. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  6. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  7. RAP1 GTPase Overexpression is Associated with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antonio; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Cançado; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Calzavara-Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Costa, Marcelo Azevedo; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Bonjardim, Claudio Antônio; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2015-01-01

    RAP1 (RAS proximate 1), a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily, is a putative oncogene that is highly expressed in several malignant cell lines and types of cancers, including some types of squamous cell carcinoma. However, the participation of RAP1 in cervical carcinogenesis is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies to determine the association of RAP1 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Standard and quantitative immunohistochemistry assessment of RAP1 expression in fixed tissue was performed on 183 paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies that were classified as normal or non-dysplastic mucosa (NDM) (n = 33); CIN grade 1 (n = 84) and CIN grade 2/3 (n = 66). A gradual increase in RAP1 expression in NDM < CIN 1 < CIN 2/3 (p<0.001) specimens was observed and was in agreement with the histopathologic diagnosis. A progressive increase in the RAP1 expression levels increased the risk of CIN 1 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-10.64] 3.5 fold and the risk of CIN 2/3 (OR = 19.86, 95% CI 6.40-70.79) nearly 20 fold when compared to NDM. In addition, stereotype ordinal regression analysis showed that this progressive increase in RAP1 expression more strongly impacted CIN 2/3 than CIN 1. Our findings suggest that RAP1 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of CIN. PMID:25856570

  8. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  9. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  10. Anal Warts and Anal Intradermal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2011-01-01

    For the last five millennia we have been dealing with the annoyance of verrucas. Anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States and is increasing in incidence. As in other gastrointestinal conditions, HPV infection can lead to a stepwise transition from normal cells to dysplastic cells and then to invasive anal cancer. Knowledge of the natural history of HPV infection, risk factors, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic methods gives us the tools to adequately prevent, evaluate, treat, and counsel our patients. In this review, the authors detail the diagnosis, management, and treatment of anal condyloma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia with a focus on prevention, early detection, and treatment using current data and technology. PMID:22379403

  11. Chemoresistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    M, Sahana

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a disease of women in reproductive age. It is one of the most chemotherapy responsive and highly curable cancer. It is diagnosed when there is clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and/or hormonal evidence of persistent or relapsed gestational trophoblastic disease. In most instances, it is cured by surgical evacuation of the uterus. If persistent, it is treated with chemotherapy which provides response in >90% of the cases. In the unresponsive persistent cases and if the women has completed her child bearing, hysterectomy is generally recommended. Here, we report a rare case of chemoresistant GTN which was confirmed to be placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) on biopsy. PMID:25177610

  12. High Resolution Microendoscopy for Quantitative Diagnosis of Esophageal Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongsuk

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the esophagus account for 3.8% of all cases of cancers, with approximately 482,300 new cases reported in 2008 worldwide. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases will be diagnosed in 2013, and 15,210 deaths are expected. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation therapy, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often at an advanced and incurable stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective methods for early detection of esophageal neoplasia are needed. Here, quantitative classification algorithms for high resolution miscroendoscopic images were developed to distinguish between esophageal neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. A clinical study in 177 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the classification algorithm in collaboration with the Mount Sinai Medical Center in the United States, the First Hospital of Jilin University in China, and the Cancer Institute and Hospital, the Chinese Academy of Medical Science in China. The study reported a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 92%, respectively, in the training set, 87% and 97%, respectively, in the test set, and 84% and 95%, respectively, in an independent validation set. Another clinical study in 31 patients with Barrett's esophagus resulted in a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85%. Finally, a compact, portable version of the high resolution microendoscopy (HRME) device using a consumer-grade camera was developed and a series of biomedical experimental studies were carried out to assess the capability of the device.

  13. Proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  14. In vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by multimodal colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenqi; Qu, Yingjie; Pei, Jiaojiao; Xiao, Linlin; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Smith, Zachary J.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in developing countries. Colposcopy plays an important role in early screening and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we developed a multimodal colposcopy system that combines multispectral reflectance, autofluorescence, and RGB imaging for in vivo detection of CIN, which is capable of dynamically recording multimodal data of the same region of interest (ROI). We studied the optical properties of cervical tissue to determine multi-wavelengths for different imaging modalities. Advanced algorithms based on the second derivative spectrum and the fluorescence intensity were developed to differentiate cervical tissue into two categories: squamous normal (SN) and high grade (HG) dysplasia. In the results, the kinetics of cervical reflectance and autofluorescence characteristics pre and post acetic acid application were observed and analyzed, and the image segmentation revealed good consistency with the gold standard of histopathology. Our pilot study demonstrated the clinical potential of this multimodal colposcopic system for in vivo detection of cervical cancer.

  15. Bulk Topological Proximity Effect.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon; Hughes, Taylor L

    2016-02-26

    Existing proximity effects stem from systems with a local order parameter, such as a local magnetic moment or a local superconducting pairing amplitude. Here, we demonstrate that despite lacking a local order parameter, topological phases also may give rise to a proximity effect of a distinctively inverted nature. We focus on a general construction in which a topological phase is extensively coupled to a second system, and we argue that, in many cases, the inverse topological order will be induced on the second system. To support our arguments, we rigorously establish this "bulk topological proximity effect" for all gapped free-fermion topological phases and representative integrable models of interacting topological phases. We present a terrace construction which illustrates the phenomenological consequences of this proximity effect. Finally, we discuss generalizations beyond our framework, including how intrinsic topological order may also exhibit this effect.

  16. Screening for pancreatic neoplasia in high-risk individuals: who, what, when, how?

    PubMed

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2005-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease. Most symptomatic, clinically detected PCs are advanced and not curable. Indeed, the estimated 5-year survival rate is 4%, which is attributable to late diagnosis and low resection rate. Screening of high-risk individuals and early detection of small PCs and precursor lesions might improve the outcome if curative therapy could be offered in the presymptomatic stage. This article summarizes the available published data and preliminary results and discusses the different approaches to screening for pancreatic neoplasia at 2 university-based programs in the United States.

  17. [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Conte-Devolx, Bernard; Niccoli, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 2 (MEN2) are autosomal dominant inherited multiglandular diseases with familial and individual age-related penetrance and variable expression. The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants. Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation. All patients with MEN2 have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A (MTC+pheochromocytoma+hyperparathyroidism), MEN2B (MTC+pheo), and isolated familial MTC (FMTC). The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment. This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant and with the age of onset and aggressiveness of MTC. Consequently, RET mutational status should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy. PMID:20669560

  18. Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, H. L.; Brenna, E.; Sandvik, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type. PMID:10461363

  19. Locking plates in proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Strohm, P C; Helwig, P; Konrad, G; Südkamp, N P

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that proximal humerus fractures are among the three most frequent fracture types. Epidemiological invetsigations show that in people elder than 60 years the fracture of the proximal humerus is more frequent than fractures of the hip region (17). Over the last decades several techniques have been applied for treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Widely accepted is the initiation of a conservative treatment regimen for undisplaced fractures, however, the standard treatment for displaced fractures, especially three and four part fractures, is still the center of scientific debate. Many different implants have been tested and investigated, thus demonstrating lack of sufficient results. Over the last years the development of angle stable, locking implants started and clinical studies demonstrated encouraging results. In our clinic the locking proximal humerus plate and the PHILOS plate advanced to the implant of choice for treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures. There are still cases of implant failure and humerus head necrosis, but most of these complications were caused by the fracture type and not an implant specific problem. However the overall results with these new implants are encouraging. Key words: locking plates, proximal humerus fracture, humerus, humerus fracture, PHILOS, PHP.

  20. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2013-01-01

    The most common fracture of the foot is a fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal. In general, there are 3 types of fractures involving the proximal fifth metatarsal area, including a proximal diaphyseal stress fracture, a Jones fracture, and an avulsion fracture of the tuberosity. Some fractures of the fifth metatarsal heal without difficulty, whereas some have the potential for nonunion or delayed healing. Each fracture has some variation in the anatomical location on the fifth metatarsal, the mechanism of injury, the radiographic findings, and the treatment plan. Avulsion fractures of the tuberosity often heal without difficulty, yet fractures distal to the area of insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon are prone to nonunion and delayed healing (). Differential diagnosis of a fifth metatarsal midfoot injury includes ankle sprains, midfoot sprains, plantar facial ruptures, peroneus tendon ruptures, and other foot fractures.

  1. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  2. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and RET: from neoplasia to neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, J.; Mulligan, L.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is an inherited cancer syndrome characterised by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), with or without phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. MEN 2 is unusual among cancer syndromes as it is caused by activation of a cellular oncogene, RET. Germline mutations in the gene encoding the RET receptor tyrosine kinase are found in the vast majority of MEN 2 patients and somatic RET mutations are found in a subset of sporadic MTC. Further, there are strong associations of RET mutation genotype and disease phenotype in MEN 2 which have led to predictions of tissue specific requirements and sensitivities to RET activity. Our ability to identify genetically, with high accuracy, subjects with MEN 2 has revolutionised our ability to diagnose, predict, and manage this disease. In the past few years, studies of RET and its normal ligand and downstream interactions and the signalling pathways it activates have clarified our understanding of the roles played by RET in normal cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as in disease. Here, we review the current knowledge of the normal functions of RET and the effects of mutations of this gene in tumorigenesis and in normal development.


Keywords: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2; RET; receptor tyrosine kinase PMID:11073534

  4. Clinical application of magnification endoscopy and narrow-band imaging in the upper gastrointestinal tract: new imaging techniques for detecting and characterizing gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kenshi; Takaki, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Iwashita, Akinori; Anagnostopoulos, George K; Kaye, Philip; Ragunath, Krish

    2008-07-01

    This article introduces one of the most advanced endoscopy imaging techniques, magnification endoscopy with narrow-band imaging. This technique can clearly visualize the microvascular (MV) architecture and microsurface (MS) structure. The application of this technique is quite useful for characterizing the mucosal neoplasia in the hypopharynx, oropharynx, esophagus, and stomach. The key characteristic findings for early carcinomatous lesions are an irregular MV pattern or irregular MS pattern as visualized by this technique. Such a diagnostic system could be applied to the early detection of mucosal neoplasia throughout the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Unusual proximal tibiofibular synostosis.

    PubMed

    Takai, S; Yoshino, N; Hirasawa, Y

    1999-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular synostosis without multiple hereditary exostosis is extremely rare and only 7 cases have been reported in the literature. All of the previously reported cases accompanied deformities such as distal positioning of the proximal tibiofibular joint, leg length discrepancy, bowing of the fibula, and valgus deformity of the knee. The present case of a 24-year-old man had neither a history of trauma nor deformity around the knee. Therefore, it was suggested that this type of synostosis occurred after epiphyseal plate closure. PMID:10741527

  6. [Heredity in renal and prostatic neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Prayer Galetti, T; D'Arrigo, L; De Zorzi, L; Patarnello, T

    1997-09-01

    There is an ever growing report of data supporting the evidence that accumulated genetic changes underlie the development of neoplasia. The paradigma of this multistep process is colon cancer were cancer onset is associated, over decades, with at least seven genetic events. The number of genetic alterations increases moving from adenomatous lesions to colon cancer and, although the genetic alterations occur according to a preferred sequence, the total accumulation of changes rather than their sequential order is responsible of tumor biological behavior. It is noteworthy that, at least for this neoplasia, carcinogenesis appears to arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In some cases mutant suppressor genes appear to exert a phenotypic effect even when present in the heterozygous state thus been non "recessive" at the cellular level. The general features of this model may apply also to renal cell cancer (RCC) and prostate cancer (CaP). Extensive literature exists on the cytogenetic and molecular findings in RCC. Only 2% of RCC are familiar, but molecular genetic studies of these cancers have provided important informations on RCC pathogenesis. As with other cancers, familiar RCC is characterized by an early age of onset and frequent multicentricity. A pathological classification useful in studying these patients subdivide renal cancers in papillary (pRCC) and non papillary (RCC) neoplasms. The most common cause of inherited RCC is the Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterized by retinal and cerebellar hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic cysts and RCC. Over 70% of these patients will develop an RCC by their sixth decade. In 1993 the isolation of the tumor suppressor gene in VHL disease at the level of chromosome 3p25-p26 have lead to a better understanding of RCC. Most missense mutations are associated with high risk of

  7. [Heredity in renal and prostatic neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Prayer Galetti, T; D'Arrigo, L; De Zorzi, L; Patarnello, T

    1997-09-01

    There is an ever growing report of data supporting the evidence that accumulated genetic changes underlie the development of neoplasia. The paradigma of this multistep process is colon cancer were cancer onset is associated, over decades, with at least seven genetic events. The number of genetic alterations increases moving from adenomatous lesions to colon cancer and, although the genetic alterations occur according to a preferred sequence, the total accumulation of changes rather than their sequential order is responsible of tumor biological behavior. It is noteworthy that, at least for this neoplasia, carcinogenesis appears to arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. In some cases mutant suppressor genes appear to exert a phenotypic effect even when present in the heterozygous state thus been non "recessive" at the cellular level. The general features of this model may apply also to renal cell cancer (RCC) and prostate cancer (CaP). Extensive literature exists on the cytogenetic and molecular findings in RCC. Only 2% of RCC are familiar, but molecular genetic studies of these cancers have provided important informations on RCC pathogenesis. As with other cancers, familiar RCC is characterized by an early age of onset and frequent multicentricity. A pathological classification useful in studying these patients subdivide renal cancers in papillary (pRCC) and non papillary (RCC) neoplasms. The most common cause of inherited RCC is the Von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterized by retinal and cerebellar hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas, pancreatic cysts and RCC. Over 70% of these patients will develop an RCC by their sixth decade. In 1993 the isolation of the tumor suppressor gene in VHL disease at the level of chromosome 3p25-p26 have lead to a better understanding of RCC. Most missense mutations are associated with high risk of

  8. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  9. Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Sagoo, Mandeep S.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva. PMID:25447808

  10. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  11. [Hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic neoplasias].

    PubMed

    Wickenhauser, C

    2002-11-01

    Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells have been defined as cells with extensive self-renewal capacity and lympho-hematopoietic differentiation potential. Clonal selection of a stem cell as a first step in the progression to neoplasia can be achieved by an alteration of this self-renewal potency. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the myeloproliferative disorders including acute myeloid leukemias, chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), is based on the assumption that they represent a clonal disorder resulting from transformation of a hematopoietic stem cell. However, when performing methods for determining X-chromosome inactivation in female patients as a clonality marker, a significant minority of the patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph(-)) CMPD and MDS exhibit polyclonal proliferation. The implications of these results are not yet clarified and the lack of a proven target cell impairs the understanding of the underlying molecular defect. In this context, altered response to cytokine stimulation in vitro provides indirect information concerning molecular dysregulation. A subset of patients with MPD present with translocations that facilitate molecular investigation and clonality proof. They nearly always result in rearrangements of at least one transcription factor gene. Most of these fusion genes are constitutively active, sending out continuous proliferative and antiapoptotic signals or activate an overlapping set of signalling pathways. The classical example for a balanced translocation is the t(9;22) bcr-abl aberration in chronic myelogeneous leukemia. Many other karyotypic abnormalities have also been associated with CMPD and MDS and involve deletions of chromosomes 20q, 13q, 1q, 7q and 5q as well as trisomy of 8 and 9. Our increased understanding of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and the molecular basis of regulation of its self-renewal and differentiation bears a direct impact on

  12. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  13. Traumatic proximal tibiofibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Alvarez-Montero, R; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rapariz, J M

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tibiofibular dislocation is an exceptional lesion. Rarer still is its presentation in childhood. We describe the clinical case of a 6-year-old boy, the victim of a road accident. He had a tibiofibular dislocation associated with a metaphyseal fracture of the tibia.

  14. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  15. Development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in chinchilla rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Montelongo Solís, Paola; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Cortés Trujillo, Lucero; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to describe the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in Chinchilla rabbit by administration of estradiol. The study was performed in rabbits distributed into two groups: control and 17 β-estradiol. The determination of histological alterations and POU5F1 and c-kit proteins employed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of this neoplasia was carried out. Testicular descent and complete spermatogenesis were observed in the control group. The protein biomarkers were negative. However, in the rabbits treated with estradiol, the testes remained undescended with the gonocytes undifferentiated to spermatogonia. There were histological lesions owing to germ cell neoplasia in situ and positive to POU5F1 and c-kit proteins. These findings indicate that the chinchilla rabbit is an ideal model to study this neoplasia in which the histological characteristics and biomarkers of the disease could be clearly observed. Using this model we suggested that the persisting gonocytes could be responsible for the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ. PMID:26617392

  16. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease associated neoplasia: A surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A; Lazarev, Mark G; Gearhart, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk is known to increase with longer duration of the disease, family history of CRC, and history of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis of the neoplastic changes associated with IBD is difficult owing to the heterogeneous endoscopic appearance and inter-observer variability of the pathological diagnosis. Screening and surveillance guidelines have been established which aim for early detection of neoplasia. Several surgical options are available for the treatment of IBD-associated neoplasia. Patients’ morbidities, risk factors for CRC, degree and the extent of neoplasia must be considered in choosing the surgical treatment. A multidisciplinary team including the surgeon, gastroenterologist, pathologist, and the patient who has a clear understanding of the nature of their disease is needed to optimize outcomes. PMID:26811640

  18. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Athwal, George S

    2008-10-01

    Open reduction of proximal humeral fractures has the advantage of providing direct control over each fracture fragment and permitting anatomic reduction and fixation with advanced devices. Modern fixed-angle locking plates designed specifically for proximal humerus fractures have allowed the expansion of surgical indications permitting surgeons to address more complicated fractures. Advanced preoperative imaging and fluoroscopy allow a better understanding of fracture patterns and permit the surgeon to use this knowledge intraoperatively. Research is required to further validate fracture classification systems, to develop surgical guidelines for decision making, and to compare the outcomes of the various treatments options for proximal humerus fractures.

  19. Proximal Point Methods Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boikanyo, Oganeditse A.; Moroşanu, Gheorghe

    2011-09-01

    The proximal point methods have been widely used in the last decades to approximate the solutions of nonlinear equations associated with monotone operators. Inspired by the iterative procedure defined by B. Martinet (1970), R.T. Rockafellar introduced in 1976 the so-called proximal point algorithm (PPA) for a general maximal monotone operator. The sequence generated by this iterative method is weakly convergent under appropriate conditions, but not necessarily strongly convergent, as proved by O. Güler (1991). This fact explains the introduction of different modified versions of the PPA which generate strongly convergent sequences under appropriate conditions, including the contraction-PPA defined by H.K. Xu in 2002. Here we discuss Xu's modified PPA as well as some of its generalizations. Special attention is paid to the computational errors, in particular the original Rockafellar summability assumption is replaced by the condition that the error sequence converges to zero strongly.

  20. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2007-03-01

    We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

  1. High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with squamous differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Melissari, M; Beltran, A Lopez; Mazzucchelli, R; Froio, E; Bostwick, D G; Montironi, R

    2006-01-01

    An unusual variant of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with prominent and extensive squamous differentiation is described. The lesion was identified in the transition zone of a 79 year old man with a three year history of increasing urinary obstructive symptoms and a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent simple prostatectomy. Two years after surgery, prostatic biopsies showed atrophy and mild chronic inflammation, with no evidence of malignancy. This unusual intraepithelial lesion seems not to have been described before and may represent a new variant of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) with squamous differentiation. PMID:16567473

  2. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  3. In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

  4. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  5. Proximate Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes. Analyses used may be rapid methods for QC or more accurate but time-consuming official methods. Sample collection and preparation must be considered carefully to ensure analysis of a homogeneous and representative sample, and to obtain accurate results. Estimation methods of moisture content, ash value, crude lipid, total carbohydrates, starch, total free amino acids and total proteins are put together in a lucid manner.

  6. Endocrinopathies in survivors of childhood neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nicole; Chemaitilly, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of survivors of childhood cancers. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the current review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism.

  7. Endocrinopathies in Survivors of Childhood Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicole; Chemaitilly, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of survivors of childhood cancers. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the current review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism. PMID:25295241

  8. Reptile neoplasia at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 1901-2002.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective study of neoplasia in reptiles held at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden was conducted. A total of 3,684 original necropsy reports for the period 1901-2002 were reviewed and revealed 86 cases of neoplasia. Original glass slides or re-cuts from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were examined for confirmation of the original diagnosis. At necropsy, a total of six neoplasms were identified in six of 490 chelonians (1.2%), 22 neoplasms in 19 of 736 lizards (3.0%), and 58 neoplasms in 53 of 1,835 snakes (2.9%). An additional 12 neoplasms were found in biopsies of one turtle and 10 snakes. In the chelonians, all the neoplasms were seen in turtles, four of six tumors were malignant (66%) and no organ predilection was noted. For lizards, the liver was the most commonly affected organ, with 7 of 22 primary neoplasms (31%). Multiple tumor types were identified in three lizards (15%), metastasis occurred in five cases (25%), and malignant tumors were identified in 16 cases (73%). In snakes, the liver was most frequently affected by neoplasia at necropsy, with 13 of 58 primary neoplasms (22%); multiple types of neoplasm were identified in five cases (10%) and metastasis in six (9%); and 42 tumors (80%) were diagnosed as malignant. When biopsies were included for snakes, however, the skin was the most commonly affected organ, with 17 of 69 neoplasms (24%). One of five lizards (20%) and four of six snakes (66%) with metastasis also had a second primary neoplasm. Since 1967, the incidence of lizard neoplasia has increased from 0.7% to 5.9%, and snake neoplasia has increased from 2.6% to 9.3%.

  9. Proximity networks and epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltán; Guclu, Hasan

    2007-05-01

    Disease spread in most biological populations requires the proximity of agents. In populations where the individuals have spatial mobility, the contact graph is generated by the “collision dynamics” of the agents, and thus the evolution of epidemics couples directly to the spatial dynamics of the population. We first briefly review the properties and the methodology of an agent-based simulation (EPISIMS) to model disease spread in realistic urban dynamic contact networks. Using the data generated by this simulation, we introduce the notion of dynamic proximity networks which takes into account the relevant time-scales for disease spread: contact duration, infectivity period, and rate of contact creation. This approach promises to be a good candidate for a unified treatment of epidemic types that are driven by agent collision dynamics. In particular, using a simple model, we show that it can account for the observed qualitative differences between the degree distributions of contact graphs of diseases with short infectivity period (such as air-transmitted diseases) or long infectivity periods (such as HIV).

  10. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaisiam, W.; Laithong, T.; Meekhun, S.; Chaiwathyothin, N.; Thanlarp, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2013-03-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography.

  11. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  12. Association between Cysticercosis and Neoplasia: A Study Based on Autopsy Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Ribeiro, Grace Kelly Naves de Aquino; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2013-01-01

    Chronic infections including the cysticercosis induce inflammatory cells to produce free radicals and synthesize carcinogenic toxins. The cells with genetic mutations proliferate in a disorganized manner, leading to the development of neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the relation between cysticercosis and neoplasia. Patients autopsied were divided into 4 groups: patients with neoplasia and cysticercosis (NC), patients with neoplasia only (NN), patients with cysticercosis only (CC), and patients without neoplasia or cysticercosis (WW). Of 2012 autopsy reports analyzed, 0.4 showed NC. In groups CC and NC, the most common location of the parasite was the brain. There was a predominance of three or more cysticerci in groups NC and CC. In the NC group, all had malignant neoplasms, and was predominance of benign neoplasm in NN group. The digestive system was the most frequent neoplasia. By calculating odds ratio, rate of neoplasia in patients with cysticercosis was 0.74. In conclusion, the demographic profile of patients with cysticercosis and neoplasia is similar to that of patients with cysticercosis alone. The incidence of cysticercosis and neoplasia was greater in older patients suggesting that immunosenescence may contribute to development of neoplasia promoted by cysticercosis. PMID:24288510

  13. [Metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B. Efficiency of medium-term treatment with vandetanib without thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Segura, D; Dupuis, C; Chabre, O; Piolat, C; Durand, C; Plantaz, D

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare cancer during childhood. MTC is sporadic in approximately 80% of cases and hereditary in 20%. When hereditary, it can be associated with other endocrine neoplasias and/or typical nonendocrine diseases, thus configuring the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Children with clinically obvious MTC belong to MEN 2A or 2B families, related to RET mutations. The standard treatment is total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection. However, treatment of advanced MTC has not yet been standardized, even if a new tyrosine kinase inhibitor specific to RET mutation has changed the outcome of such patients. Vandetanib plays a role in the treatment of children with metastatic, locally advanced and nonoperable MTC, with good tolerance. We report the 5-year treatment of an 11-year-old patient, with vandetanib and without thyroid surgery. PMID:27345554

  14. Homozygotes for the autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Falchetti, A.; Tonelli, F. ); Weber, G.; Svensson, A.; Larsson, C. ); Castello, R.; Furlani, L.; Scappaticci, S.; Fraccaro, M.

    1993-12-01

    Families in which both parents are heterozygotes for the same autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome are extremely unusual. Recently, the authors had the unique opportunity to evaluate three symptomatic siblings from the union between two unrelated individuals affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). When the three siblings and their parents and relatives were genotyped for 12 markers tightly linked to the MEN1 locus, at 11q13, two of the siblings were found to be homozygotes, and one a heterozygote, for MEN1. With regard to the MEN1 syndrome, no phenotypic differences were observed between the two homozygotes and the heterozygotes. However, the two homozygotes showed unexplained infertility, which was not the case for any of the heterozygotes. Thus, MEN1 appears to be a disease with complete dominance, and the presence of two MEN1 alleles with mutations of the type that occur constitutionally may be insufficient for tumor development. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Analysis of pattern density on process proximity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunwook; Lo, Fred; Yang, Tien-Chu; Yang, Ta-Hong; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2007-03-01

    The challenges of ever-smaller CD (Critical Dimension) budget for advanced memory product requires tight ACLV (Across-Chip Line-width Variation) control. In addition to the lithographic MOPC (Model-based Optical Proximity Correction) for DCD (photo CD) control, the process correction for etch proximity effect can no longer be ignored. To meet on our requirement on final CD accuracy for critical layer, a set of test pattern, that represents memory array in one of our critical layers, has been generated for both photo and etch process characterizations. Through the combination of different pattern-coverage areas in the test mask and wafer map design, various local (chip-level) pattern densities of 40%~70% and global (wafer-level) pattern densities of 35%~65% were achieved for optical and etch proximity study. The key contributors to the process proximity effect were identified and voluminous data has been extracted from the memory block like patterns for statistical analysis. The photo and etch proximity effects were hence modeled as function of memory block separation, local pattern density as well as global pattern density. Finally, the respective photo and etch proximity effects through model-based proximity correction and rule-based proximity correction were applied in a multi-step flow to products.

  16. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. )

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  17. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  18. Slow progression of periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Moozar, Kouros L; Madlensky, Lisa; Berk, Terri; Gallinger, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Variable endoscopic surveillance protocols and treatment strategies have been proposed for periampullary neoplasia in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), primarily because of the lack of long-term, prospective natural history data. A total of 115 patients with FAP were followed prospectively for 10 years with periodic side-viewing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by a single surgeon. The appearance of the duodenum was classified as stages 1 to 5. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance for age comparisons between stage groupings and Kaplan-Meier analysis for the lifetime risks of having a particular stage of duodenal polyposis. Eighty-seven patients had multiple endoscopies over an average of 6.6 years. Thirty-three subjects had a change in stage, within an average time of 3.9 years at an average age of 41 years. The risk of having stage 3 or 4 duodenal neoplasia increased exponentially after the age of 40. The degree of dysplasia did not correlate with stage at initial classification. Progression of neoplasia in the duodenum of patients with FAP is slow. The severity of duodenal polyposis increases with age and is not influenced by the initial stage. The average time for progression of adenoma to carcinoma is likely long. PMID:12504221

  19. Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P A; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A; Crum, Christopher P; Mutter, George L

    2009-02-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial

  20. Squamous Morules Are Functionally Inert Elements of Premalignant Endometrial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P. A.; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A.; Crum, Christopher P.; Mutter, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had followup clinical data (average followup: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. Even

  1. Hirayama Disease with Proximal Involvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinil; Kim, Yuntae; Kim, Sooa; Oh, Kiyoung

    2016-10-01

    Hirayama disease is a slowly progressing benign motor neuron disease that affects the distal upper limb. A 29-year-old man visited the hospital with a 1-year history of weakened left proximal upper limb. He was diagnosed with Hirayama disease 9 years ago, while there was no further progression of the muscle weakness afterward. Atrophy and weakness was detected in proximal upper limb muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Needle electromyography showed abnormal findings in proximal upper limb muscles. Our patient had Hirayama disease involving the proximal portion through secondary progression. Clinical manifestation and accurate electromyography may be useful for diagnosis. Rare cases with progression patterns as described here are helpful and have clinical meaning for clinicians. PMID:27550499

  2. Hirayama Disease with Proximal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hirayama disease is a slowly progressing benign motor neuron disease that affects the distal upper limb. A 29-year-old man visited the hospital with a 1-year history of weakened left proximal upper limb. He was diagnosed with Hirayama disease 9 years ago, while there was no further progression of the muscle weakness afterward. Atrophy and weakness was detected in proximal upper limb muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Needle electromyography showed abnormal findings in proximal upper limb muscles. Our patient had Hirayama disease involving the proximal portion through secondary progression. Clinical manifestation and accurate electromyography may be useful for diagnosis. Rare cases with progression patterns as described here are helpful and have clinical meaning for clinicians. PMID:27550499

  3. Tools for proximal soil sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal soil sensing (i.e. near-surface geophysical methods) are used to study soil phenomena across spatial scales. Geophysical methods exploit contrasts in physical properties (dielectric permittivity, apparent electrical conductivity or resistivity, magnetic susceptibility) to indirectly measur...

  4. [Anesthesiologic peculiarities in bilateral pheochromocytoma and suspected multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Hack, G; Mihanovic, N; Helpap, B

    1985-10-01

    Based on a case report with surgical removal of bilateral giant phaeochromocytomas with heredofamilial affliction and suspicion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN-II syndrome) and of malignancy, the anaesthetic implications are discussed in a patient inadvertently not prepared by antiadrenergic treatment. It is pointed out that in MEN II syndrome, a combination of phaeochromocytoma and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, surgical removal of the phaeochromocytoma merits utmost priority before thyreoidectomy. The most important laboratory parameters in the diagnosis of MEN II syndrome are pre- and postoperative determinations of calcitonin and carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA).

  5. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. PMID:27329491

  6. [New challenges to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H

    2016-07-01

    Due to the progress of intracavitary afterloading technology and dosage of brachytherapy, a similar dose distribution as that of cervical conization can be achieved and can be applied to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), it is called "afterloading conization" . Being adjusted the radioactive source movement and weight, low exposure doses to the ovary, endometrium and vagina can be assured. So a high quality of life after treatment could be maintained and overcomes the shortcomings of cervical conization and hysterectomy, such as anesthesia, bleeding, over or insufficient treatment, early ovarian ageing and operative complications. PMID:27531273

  7. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early Barrett’s neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maximilien; Cao, Dalhia Thao; Beuvon, Frédéric; Leblanc, Sarah; Terris, Benoit; Camus, Marine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The possible benefit of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early neoplasia arising in Barrett’s esophagus remains controversial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ESD for the treatment of early Barrett’s neoplasia. Methods All consecutive patients undergoing ESD for the resection of a visible lesion in a Barrett’s esophagus, either suspicious of submucosal infiltration or exceeding 10 mm in size, between February 2012 and January 2015 were prospectively included. The primary endpoint was the rate of curative resection of carcinoma, defined as histologically complete resection of adenocarcinomas without poor histoprognostic factors. Results Thirty-five patients (36 lesions) with a mean age of 66.2 ± 12 years, a mean ASA score of 2.1 ± 0.7, and a mean C4M6 Barrett’s segment were included. The mean procedure time was 191 ± 79 mn, and the mean size of the resected specimen was 51.3 ± 23 mm. En bloc resection rate was 89%. Lesions were 12 ± 15 mm in size, and 81% (29/36) were invasive adenocarcinomas, six of which with submucosal invasion. Although R0 resection of carcinoma was 72.4%, the curative resection rate was 66% (19/29). After a mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 9 months, 16 (45.7%) patients had required additional treatment, among whom nine underwent surgical resection, and seven further endoscopic treatments. Metachronous lesions or recurrence of cancer developed during the follow-up period in 17.2% of the patients. The overall complication rate was 16.7%, including 8.3% perforations, all conservatively managed, and no bleeding. The 30-day mortality was 0%. Conclusion In this early experience, ESD yielded a moderate curative resection rate in Barrett’s neoplasia. At present, improvements are needed if ESD is to replace piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection in the management of Barrett’s neoplasia. PMID:27087948

  8. [Amplifying right colectomy: place in the treatment of obstructive proximal left colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Gramática, L; Lada, P E; Mercado Luna, A; Badra, R; Bono, D; Gramática, L

    1999-01-01

    The results obtained about nineteen (19) patients operated by left colon cancer with variable grade obstruction have been analysed. Seventeen (17) patients operated due to obstructive left colon cancer situated: five (5) in distal transverse colon, other five (5) at splenic flexure and seven (7) in proximal descending colon but three of them with right synchronic neoplasias. The remaining two (2) that showed a cancer located at splenic flexure and the other one in proximal descending colon were reoperated three weeks later than a transverse colostomy had been performed owing to an obstructive condition. One patient had to be reoperated because a generalised peritonitis from a fistula with partial disruption on end to end ileo-colic anastomosis. Exteriorization of both ends was carried out with favourable evolution and subsequent reanastomosis. An exteriorized patient by splenic flexure cancer also had to be drained ten days later for a retroperitoneal abscess through a percutaneous puncture and a lesion grade 1 in lower pole of spleen was resolved with electrofulguration. No patient has showed invalidating diarrhea and all themselves have been stabilised with two or three stools daily about two month after surgery. Amplifying right colectomy is a safe procedure with low surgical morbimortality and take privileged place in the treatment of the patients undergoing synchronical neoplasias and/or carcinomas associated with polyps, specially in all those cases when a variable grade of obstruction have occurred.

  9. Cytomorphology and PCNA expression pattern in bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Cerastoderma edule with haemic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Carella, Francesca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; De Vico, Gionata

    2013-07-01

    Haemic neoplasia (HN) is a pathologic condition reported in several bivalve species in different geographic areas. In this study we describe the cytomorphological features and the proliferative behaviour, assessed by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), of HN in common cockle Cerastoderma edule and Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovicialis. In mussels the presence of at least 5 types of atypical haemocytes was detected, including A- and B-type cells, previously described in M. edulis and Mytilus sp., with predominance of A-type cells in early phases of the disease and B-type cells in more advanced stages. PCNA immunostaining was positive for 97 to 100% of the neoplastic cells, with both cytoplasmic (A cells) and nuclear patterns (B cells). Conversely, in C. edule there was no distinctive morphological cell sub-population, and staining atypical haemocytes with PCNA (range 93 to 100%) showed nuclear expression in early phases of disease and cytoplasmic expression in more advanced stages. The above findings suggest distinct histo-pathogenetic pathways for HN in mussels and common cockles.

  10. Cytomorphology and PCNA expression pattern in bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Cerastoderma edule with haemic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Carella, Francesca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; De Vico, Gionata

    2013-07-01

    Haemic neoplasia (HN) is a pathologic condition reported in several bivalve species in different geographic areas. In this study we describe the cytomorphological features and the proliferative behaviour, assessed by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), of HN in common cockle Cerastoderma edule and Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovicialis. In mussels the presence of at least 5 types of atypical haemocytes was detected, including A- and B-type cells, previously described in M. edulis and Mytilus sp., with predominance of A-type cells in early phases of the disease and B-type cells in more advanced stages. PCNA immunostaining was positive for 97 to 100% of the neoplastic cells, with both cytoplasmic (A cells) and nuclear patterns (B cells). Conversely, in C. edule there was no distinctive morphological cell sub-population, and staining atypical haemocytes with PCNA (range 93 to 100%) showed nuclear expression in early phases of disease and cytoplasmic expression in more advanced stages. The above findings suggest distinct histo-pathogenetic pathways for HN in mussels and common cockles. PMID:23836773

  11. The Role of MicroRNAs in Myeloproliferative Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Shaban; Azizi, Seyed Ghader; Soleimani, Masoud; Farshi, Yadollah; Kashani Khatib, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    MiRs are 17-25 nucleotide non-coding RNAs. These RNAs target approximately 80% of protein coding mRNAs. MiRs control gene expression and altered expression of them affects the development of cancer. MiRs can function as tumor suppressor via down-regulation of proto-oncogenes and may function as oncogenes by suppressing tumor suppressors. Myeloproliferative neoplasias (formerly known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders) form a class of hematologic malignancies demonstrating the expansion of stem cells in one or more hematopoietic cell lines. CML results from an acquired translocation known as BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome). JAK2V617F mutation is present in over 95% of PV, 55% of ET and 65% of PMF cases. Aberrant expression of miR is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasias, pathogenesis, disease progress and response to treatment. MiRs can also be potential therapeutic targets. CML is mainly treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib. In addition, altered function of miRs may be used as a prognostic factor in treatment. Resistance to Imatinib is currently a major clinical problem. The role of a number of miRs has been demonstrated in this resistance. Changing expression pattern of miRs can be effective in response to treatment and inhibition of drug resistance. In this paper, we set out to evaluate the effect of miRs in pathogenesis and treatment of MPN. PMID:27489593

  12. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  13. The Role of MicroRNAs in Myeloproliferative Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Shaban; Azizi, Seyed Ghader; Soleimani, Masoud; Farshi, Yadollah; Kashani Khatib, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    MiRs are 17-25 nucleotide non-coding RNAs. These RNAs target approximately 80% of protein coding mRNAs. MiRs control gene expression and altered expression of them affects the development of cancer. MiRs can function as tumor suppressor via down-regulation of proto-oncogenes and may function as oncogenes by suppressing tumor suppressors. Myeloproliferative neoplasias (formerly known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders) form a class of hematologic malignancies demonstrating the expansion of stem cells in one or more hematopoietic cell lines. CML results from an acquired translocation known as BCR-ABL (Philadelphia chromosome). JAK2V617F mutation is present in over 95% of PV, 55% of ET and 65% of PMF cases. Aberrant expression of miR is associated with myeloproliferative neoplasias, pathogenesis, disease progress and response to treatment. MiRs can also be potential therapeutic targets. CML is mainly treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as Imatinib. In addition, altered function of miRs may be used as a prognostic factor in treatment. Resistance to Imatinib is currently a major clinical problem. The role of a number of miRs has been demonstrated in this resistance. Changing expression pattern of miRs can be effective in response to treatment and inhibition of drug resistance. In this paper, we set out to evaluate the effect of miRs in pathogenesis and treatment of MPN. PMID:27489593

  14. [Management of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Taxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Proximal ureteral stone less than 4-6mm may initially be treated by surveillance. Generally, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the first line treatment for proximal ureteral stones, specially for stones less than 1cm. For stones greater than 1cm, the results of ureteroscopy (URS) are better than the results of ESWL and in these cases URS may be an option. In case of failure of ESWL, URS can be proposed. URS can be the first line treatment in case of severe ureteral obstruction with no urinary infection. Proximal ureteroscopy must be careful because severe complications are not infrequent. Open surgery has very rare indication. Metabolic check-up and annually follow-up with at least a renal imaging at three months are recommended.

  15. Proximal Rectus Femoris Avulsion Repair.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Arbeloa-Gutierrez, Lucas; Chahla, Jorge; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Proximal rectus femoris tendon avulsions are rare and occur mostly in male athletes. Currently, the standard of care for complete tendinous avulsions of the direct arm of the rectus femoris is nonoperative treatment. However, surgical repair may be considered in high-level athletes who have a high demand for repetitive hip flexion performed in an explosive manner or in patients in whom nonoperative treatment has failed. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the method for surgical repair of the proximal direct arm of the rectus femoris to its origin at the anterior inferior iliac spine using suture anchors. PMID:27656376

  16. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    ) corresponding to some neoplasia is higher (1.334+/-0.072) than those for healthy skin (1.091+/-0.082). A significant difference between the fractal dimensions of neoplasia and healhty skin (>0.001) was registered. The FD of microtopography maps (FDm) can also distinguish between healthy and malignant tissue in general (2.277+/-0.070 to 2.309+/-0.040), but not discriminate the different types of skin neoplasias. The combination of the rugometric evaluation and fractal geometry characterization provides valuable information about the malignity of skin lesions and type of lesion.

  17. The riddle of hepatic neoplasia in brown bullheads from relatively unpolluted waters in New York State.

    PubMed

    Spitsbergen, J M; Wolfe, M J

    1995-01-01

    Since 1985, pathologists at Cornell University have investigated the causes of lesions in freshwater fish throughout New York waters in order to clarify possible impairment of fish health by environmental contaminants. Fishermen and biologists alerted us to several relatively protected reservoirs and ponds in which we have found no evidence of elevated levels of anthropogenic environmental contaminants but in which up to 100% of brown bullheads exhibited skin neoplasia. Complete necropsies and histologic study revealed that over 30% of mature brown bullheads from some of these sites had benign or malignant hepatocellular or biliary liver neoplasia. Up to 50% of brown bullheads had benign or malignant liver neoplasia in other relatively unpolluted waters with no evidence of skin neoplasia in bullheads. Multiple samplings of brown bullheads from several of these sites have revealed puzzling variability in the prevalence of skin, liver, and other neoplasia in these fish populations. The cause of these striking epizootics of neoplasia in brown bullheads in unpolluted waters in New York State remains unclear. We hypothesize that natural carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds formed in aquatic sediments or radon from geologic formations may contribute to epizootic fish neoplasia in New York waters. PMID:8772257

  18. Myeloid Neoplasias: What Molecular Analyses Are Telling Us

    PubMed Central

    Gutiyama, Luciana M.; Coutinho, Diego F.; Lipkin, Marina V.; Zalcberg, Ilana R.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of hematological disorders at diagnosis and followup have been most valuable for guiding therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Genetic and epigenetic alterations detected by different procedures have been associated to different cancer types and are considered important indicators for disease classification, differential diagnosis, prognosis, response, and individualization of therapy. The search for new biomarkers has been revolutionized by high-throughput technologies. At this point, it seems that we have overcome technological barriers, but we are still far from sorting the biological puzzle. Evidence based on translational research is required for validating novel genetic and epigenetic markers for routine clinical practice. We herein discuss the importance of genetic abnormalities and their molecular pathways in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms. We also discuss how novel genomic abnormalities may interact and reassess concepts and classifications of myeloid neoplasias. PMID:23056961

  19. Atypical clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Bogdan; Okopień, Bogusław

    2009-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by a genetic predisposition to develop a variety of neuroendocrine tumors and hormone excess syndromes. The major components of MEN1 are hyperparathyroidism due to multiple parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia, duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenomas, most often producing prolactin. Physicians' inadequate knowledge of this clinical entity and sometimes its atypical presentation result in a probable significant underdiagnosis of MEN1. This describes the case of a 65-year-old female in whom primary hyperparathyroidism, limited to only one parathyroid gland, was preceded by acromegaly that was diagnosed 23 years earlier. This case shows that MEN1 manifests itself even in older groups and hyperparathyroidism may not be the first symptom of this syndrome. Therefore, we believe that all subjects who, regardless of age, gender and initial manifestation present with whichever the major symptom should be followed up regularly for the early detection of MEN1. PMID:19514648

  20. Gallbladder Papillary Neoplasia Associated With Intrahepatic Carcinoma and Pancreaticobiliary Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Vivian; Roda, Rodrigo; Pedrosa, Moises Salgado

    2012-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is a rare tumor of the gallbladder. Papillary mucinous lesions of the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary tract (BT- IPMN) have been recognized. However the gallbladder is not included, except for the diffuse papillomatosis, where the sequence biliary papillomatosis to papillary carcinoma is proposed. We report a simultaneous case of gallbladder papillary neoplasia and intrahepatic duct carcinoma in situ associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM). We proposed that double location, in our case, is more likely explained by a diffuse biliopancreatic tree disease leading to synchronous tumors arising in amenable duct. It was verified absence of continuity between gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct site of involvement, absence of lymph node metastasis or venous involvement. This case report supports the concept of a proliferative and neoplastic process involving simultaneously the biliary tree and gallbladder associated with PBM.

  1. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, C.; Jarosz, H.; Calandra, D.; McCall, A.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1987-06-01

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently.

  2. Is bacterial vaginosis associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Boyle, D C M; Barton, S E; Uthayakumar, S; Hay, P E; Pollock, J W; Steer, P J; Smith, J R

    2003-01-01

    Previous research has produced conflicting results regarding the association of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). These studies have been weakened in their conclusions mainly by failure to adequately control for the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One proposed mechanism suggesting that carcinogenic nitrosamines acting either independently or via human papilloma virus (HPV) has not been fully tested previously. We undertook a prospective, case-controlled, cross-sectional study where the presence of STIs, in particular human papillomavirus (HPV) which is known to be associated with the development of CIN, was controlled for. Women with BV were not found to have CIN more frequently than women with normal vaginal flora and the quantities of nitrosamines produced by women with BV did not differ significantly from women without BV. We thus found that BV is not associated with CIN. PMID:12657117

  3. A Metastatic Ovarian Angiosarcoma Mimicking Hematologic Neoplasia at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaiolla, Rafael Dezen; Duarte, Ívison Xavier; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms of vascular endothelial origin with a high metastatic rate and poor prognosis. Involvement of the bone marrow by the angiosarcoma is exceedingly uncommon, and there have only been a few cases reported in the literature to date. Clinical manifestations and common laboratory findings of bone marrow involvement can mimic other more common bone marrow-replacing neoplasias such as lymphomas and acute leukemia. A definitive diagnosis is difficult to make from cytologic material, probably due to an associated bone marrow fibrosis, and requires bone marrow trephine biopsy with an immunohistochemical profile. Here we had the opportunity to study a case of metastatic angiosarcoma with positive cytologic findings and an unusual presentation that challenged its primary diagnosis. PMID:24847252

  4. Photodynamic therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) high grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Belotto, Renata; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-02-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the precursor of invasive cervical cancer and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors. PDT is based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells that will generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species upon illumination, inducing the death of abnormal tissue and PDT with less damaging to normal tissues than surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy and seems to be a promising alternative procedure for CIN treatment. The CIN high grades (II and III) presents potential indications for PDT due the success of PDT for CIN low grade treatment. The patients with CIN high grade that were treated with new clinic protocol shows lesion regression to CIN low grade 60 days after the treatment. The new clinical protocol using for treatment of CIN high grade shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  5. Driven shielding capacitive proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); McConnell, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A capacitive proximity sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage as and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect the field lines away from a grounded robot arm towards an intruding object, thus dramatically increasing the sensor's range and sensitivity.

  6. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  7. Uterine arteriovenous malformations following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Touhami, Omar; Gregoire, Jean; Noel, Patricia; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Plante, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare condition. It can be associated with chronic vaginal bleeding or life-threatening heavy bleeding, even after complete resolution of the tumor following chemotherapy. This analysis aimed to perform an extensive systematic review highlighting clinical symptoms, imaging, management and prognosis of this rare complication of GTN. We also describe an additional case of uterine AVM following GTN. We conducted a literature search using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library to analyze the clinical data of 49 published cases of uterine AVM following GTN. Median age of the women diagnosed with AVM was 29 years (range 15-49). Median gravidity was 2 (range 1-8) and 50% of women were nulligravida. Complete molar pregnancy was the most common initial gestational trophoblastic diagnosis (48%). Overall, 44 patients (88%) were symptomatic and presented with chronic or acute abnormal vaginal bleeding. Only 3 patients had an undetectable HCG level at the time of uterine AVM diagnosis. Hypo-echoic space in the myometrium is the most relevant finding on ultrasonography but the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of AVMs is angiographic examination. Uterine artery embolization was the most common treatment option performed in 82% of the patients and was successful in controlling the bleeding in 85% of cases. We identified 20 pregnancies after successful embolization of uterine AVM following a GTN and 90% of them were successful. Because of the risk of life-threatening heavy bleeding, the diagnosis of uterine AVM should always be considered in patients with a history of recurrent unexplained vaginal bleeding after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Angiographic embolization is successful in the majority of cases and does not appear to compromise future pregnancy.

  8. [VULVAR INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA--TERMINOLOGY, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2015-01-01

    The term vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) was introduced for first time in 1986 year from the International Society for the Study of Vulvar Disease (ISSVD). With this term are denoted precancer vulvar conditions. According to a classification dated 1986 depending on the degree of affection of multilayered squamous epithelial vulvar precancerous lesion are subdivided into three groups: VINI, VIN2 and VIN3. Subsequently VIN1 is determinate as a lesion which there isn't oncogenic potential. These types of changes often are result from irritation or viral infection which leads to benign condylomata acuminate. Compare to lesions with VIN require histological signs for high grade intraepithelial neoplasia as nuclear pleomorphism, increased mitotic activity, atypical mitotic activity and disordered architecture of squamous cells epithelium. These fundamental morphologic characterizations lead to revision and subsequent change of the current classification. In 2004 ISSVD changed the classification. It included lesions like VIN2 and VIN3, but they are subdivided in two groups: the usual type VIN and the differentiated VIN. They have different etiology, morphology, oncogenic potential and prognosis. The usual type VIN is associated with infection of high risk types of human papilloma virus and is a more frequently met form of VIN. A very good prognosis is characteristic for it. The differentiated VIN is met in postmenopausal women of about 70 with frequency of about 2-5%. It originated from vulvar dermatosis like lichen scierosus and there is a high oncogenic potential and worse prognosis. The treatment of VIN may be surgical and by medicines. The frequency of recurrences after treatment is 30-50% which required frequently follows up. The aim of this literature review is to introduce present terminological classification of VIN, as well as basic clinical, diagnostically and curative methods in treat of the both types of this precancerous.

  9. Development of a reactive stroma associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in EAF2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laura E; Ai, Junkui; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Wang, Yujuan; Wang, Dan; Eisermann, Kurtis; Rigatti, Lora H; O'Malley, Katherine J; Ma, Hei M; Wang, Xinhui; Dar, Javid A; Parwani, Anil V; Simons, Brian W; Ittman, Michael M; Li, Luyuan; Davies, Benjamin J; Wang, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) is an androgen-responsive tumor suppressor frequently deleted in advanced prostate cancer that functions as a transcription elongation factor of RNA Pol II through interaction with the ELL family proteins. EAF2 knockout mice on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background developed late-onset lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell lymphoma and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In order to further characterize the role of EAF2 in the development of prostatic defects, the effects of EAF2 loss were compared in different murine strains. In the current study, aged EAF2(-/-) mice on both the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ backgrounds exhibited mPIN lesions as previously reported on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background. In contrast to the 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J mixed genetic background, the mPIN lesions in C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ EAF2(-/-) mice were associated with stromal defects characteristic of a reactive stroma and a statistically significant increase in prostate microvessel density. Stromal inflammation and increased microvessel density was evident in EAF2-deficient mice on a pure C57BL/6J background at an early age and preceded the development of the histologic epithelial hyperplasia and neoplasia found in the prostates of older EAF2(-/-) animals. Mice deficient in EAF2 had an increased recovery rate and a decreased overall response to the effects of androgen deprivation. EAF2 expression in human cancer was significantly down-regulated and microvessel density was significantly increased compared to matched normal prostate tissue; furthermore EAF2 expression was negatively correlated with microvessel density. These results suggest that the EAF2 knockout mouse on the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ genetic backgrounds provides a model of PIN lesions associated with an altered prostate microvasculature and reactive stromal compartment corresponding to that reported in human prostate tumors.

  10. Treatment of Hostile Proximal Necks During Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Tulio Pinho; Bernardes, Rodrigo de Castro; Procopio, Ricardo Jayme; Leite, Jose Oyama; Dardik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a therapy that continues to evolve rapidly as advances in technology are incorporated into new generations of devices and surgical practice. Although EVAR has emerged as a safe and effective treatment for patients with favorable anatomy, treatment of patients with unfavorable anatomy remains controversial and is still an off-label indication for endovascular treatment with some current stent-grafts. The proximal neck of the aneurysm remains the most hostile anatomic barrier to successful endovascular repair with long-term durability. Open surgery for unfavorable necks is still considered the gold standard treatment in contemporary practice, despite the increased mortality and morbidity attributed to suprarenal cross-clamping, particularly in high-risk patients. Evolving technology may overcome the obstacles preventing endovascular treatment of unfavorable proximal neck anatomy; current approaches include purely endovascular as well as hybrid approaches, and generally include strategies that either extend the length of the short neck, move the proximal neck more proximally, or keep the short neck intact. These approaches include the use of debranching techniques, banding, chimneys, fenestrated and branched devices, filling the sac with endobags, endoanchors, and other novel devices. These newer-generation devices appear to have promising short- and midterm results. However, lack of good evidence of efficacy with long-term results for these newer approaches still precludes wide dissemination of endovascular solutions for the hostile proximal neck. PMID:26798712

  11. Treatment of Hostile Proximal Necks During Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Tulio Pinho; Bernardes, Rodrigo de Castro; Procopio, Ricardo Jayme; Leite, Jose Oyama; Dardik, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a therapy that continues to evolve rapidly as advances in technology are incorporated into new generations of devices and surgical practice. Although EVAR has emerged as a safe and effective treatment for patients with favorable anatomy, treatment of patients with unfavorable anatomy remains controversial and is still an off-label indication for endovascular treatment with some current stent-grafts. The proximal neck of the aneurysm remains the most hostile anatomic barrier to successful endovascular repair with long-term durability. Open surgery for unfavorable necks is still considered the gold standard treatment in contemporary practice, despite the increased mortality and morbidity attributed to suprarenal cross-clamping, particularly in high-risk patients. Evolving technology may overcome the obstacles preventing endovascular treatment of unfavorable proximal neck anatomy; current approaches include purely endovascular as well as hybrid approaches, and generally include strategies that either extend the length of the short neck, move the proximal neck more proximally, or keep the short neck intact. These approaches include the use of debranching techniques, banding, chimneys, fenestrated and branched devices, filling the sac with endobags, endoanchors, and other novel devices. These newer-generation devices appear to have promising short- and midterm results. However, lack of good evidence of efficacy with long-term results for these newer approaches still precludes wide dissemination of endovascular solutions for the hostile proximal neck.

  12. Foot anomalies and proximal symphalangism.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lauren; McCaul, Janet; Irwin, Greg J; Huntley, James S

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of a 2-week-old girl born at term (by vaginal delivery and without antenatal or perinatal events) who was referred as having "bilateral talipes and bilateral proximal symphalangism of little and ring fingers." The "talipes" was atypical with marked equinus and varus, but no cavus or adductus of the midfoot. Her mother had both symphalangism (absence of proximal interphalangeal joints) of middle, ring, and little fingers bilaterally and fixed pes planus with a rigid fixed hindfoot-and these deformities had also been present from birth. The maternal grandmother was similarly affected. However, the neonatal subject has an unaffected older sibling; maternal siblings are also unaffected. The three affected people did not have other obvious musculoskeletal abnormalities. Because of the coalitions, the child's atypical talipes was managed by a modified Kite's procedure. Symphalangism-coalition syndromes may be associated with conductive deafness because of fusion of the auditory ossicles.

  13. Fractures of the proximal humerus.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-10-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate. The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles Neer and the AO/OTA classification. Since the late 1980's it has been known that intra- and inter-observer variation was high within the two systems. I conducted a series of observer studies to qualify the disagreement further and to study to what extent improvement of agreement could be obtained. No clinically significant differences in observer agreement were found at different levels of clinical experience, by reducing the number of categories, or by adding high quality radiographs, CT or 3D CT scans. A consistently low agreement on the Neer classification within and between untrained orthopaedic doctors was found. However, we also found that inter-observer agreement on treatment recommendation was higher than the agreement on the Neer classification. In a randomized trial we found that agreement could improve significantly by training of doctors, especially among specialists. However, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis or reverse arthroplasty in complex fractures patterns. No randomized trials or well-conducted comparative studies were identified. High failure rates suggest that the use of these

  14. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is of the sensor. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt's configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna.

  15. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-11-10

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is disclosed. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt`s configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna. 5 figs.

  16. Plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Martetschläger, Frank; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Weier, Michael; Sandmann, Gunther; Ahrens, Philipp; Braun, Karl; Elser, Florian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures is controversial. Few data exist concerning the influence of the surgical approach on the outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate fixation through a deltopectoral vs an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. Of 86 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 were available for follow-up examination. Thirty-three patients were treated through a deltopectoral approach and 37 through an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. In all cases, open reduction and internal fixation with a PHILOS locking plate (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) was performed. Clinical follow-up included evaluation of pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. Constant score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score were assessed. A clinical neurological examination of the axillary nerve was also performed. Consolidation, reduction, and appearance of head necrosis were evaluated radiographically. After a mean follow-up of 33 months, Constant scores, DASH scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed no significant differences between the groups. Clinical neurologic examination of the axillary nerve revealed no obvious damage to the nerve in either group. Deltopectoral and anterolateral detoid-splitting approaches for plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures are safe and provide similar clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the approach can be chosen according to surgeon preference.

  17. An efficient strategy for gene mapping using multipoint linkage analysis: exclusion of the multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) locus from chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Farrer, L A; Goodfellow, P J; Lamarche, C M; Franjkovic, I; Myers, S; White, B N; Holden, J J; Kidd, J R; Simpson, N E; Kidd, K K

    1987-04-01

    Members of four families in which multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) is segregating were typed for seven DNA markers and one red cell enzyme marker on chromosome 13. Close linkage was excluded between the MEN2A locus and each marker locus tested. By means of multipoint analysis and the genetic map of chromosome 13 developed by Leppert et al., MEN2A was excluded from any position between the most proximal marker locus (D13S6) and the most distal marker locus (D13S3) and from within 12 cMorgans outside these two loci, respectively. However, the support of exclusion within an interval was diminished under the assumption of a substantially larger genetic map in females. The strategy of multipoint analysis, which excluded between 1.5 and 2.0 times more chromosome 13 than did two-point analysis, demonstrates the utility of linkage maps in mapping disease genes. PMID:2883889

  18. The Spatial Predilection for Early Esophageal Squamous Cell Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, I.-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lee, Ching-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasias (ESCNs) are easily missed with conventional white-light endoscopy. This study aimed to assess whether early ESCNs have a spatial predilection and the patterns of recurrence after endoscopic treatment. We analyzed the circumferential and longitudinal location of early ESCNs, as well as their correlations with exposure to carcinogens in a cohort of 162 subjects with 248 early ESCNs; 219 of which were identified by screening and 29 by surveillance endoscopy. The circumferential location was identified using a clock-face orientation, and the longitudinal location was identified according to the distance from the incisor. The most common circumferential and longitudinal distributions of the early ESCNs were found in the 6 to 9 o’clock quadrant (38.5%) and at 26 to 30 cm from the incisor (41.3%), respectively. A total of 163 lesions (75%) were located in the lower hemisphere arc, and 149 (68.4%) were located at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor. One hundred eleven (51%) early ESCNs were centered within the “hot zone” (i.e., lower hemisphere arc of the esophagus at 26 to 35 cm from the incisor), which comprised 20% of the esophageal area. Exposure to alcohol, betel nut, or cigarette was risk factors for the development of early ESCNs in the lower hemisphere. After complete endoscopic treatment, the mean annual incidence of metachronous tumors was 10%. In addition, 43% of the metachronous recurrent neoplasias developed within the “hot zone.” Cox regression analysis revealed that the index tumor within the hot zone (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–8.68; P = 0.02) and the presence of numerous Lugol-voiding lesions in the esophageal background mucosa were independent predictors for metachronous recurrence (HR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.36–15.56; P = 0.01). We identified a hot zone that may be used to enhance the detection of early ESCNs during endoscopic screening and surveillance

  19. Sinonasal Neoplasia – Clinicopathological Profile And Importance of Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sarawagi, Radha; Raghuwanshi, Sameer; Yadav, Pankaj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasal cavity and Paranasal sinus malignancies are very rare, in which maxillary sinus is the commonest, followed by ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinus. Computed Tomography (CT) & Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) play a key role in diagnosis, staging and management of paranasal sinuses and nasal pathologies. Multiplanar imaging in CT helps better imaging of critical anatomical areas. Aim of our study was to study the incidence, clinical features, CT features and its importance in the management of sinonasal neoplasms. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital of MP, India. Consecutive 40 histologically proven cases of sinonasal neoplasia who visited the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Radiotherapy are included in our study. Demography and clinical features were recorded. Cases of nasal and paranasal sinus masses diagnosed on CT attending ENT and Radiotherapy OPD or admitted in the Radiotherapy ward forms the material of this study. This included patients of both sexes and all ages. Histopathological examination was asked to confirm the diagnosis made on CT. Results There were total 40 cases of sinonasal neoplasia among which 24 were benign. Almost all the benign cases were seen in the age group <40 y with mean age of 20 y and most of the malignant cases were seen in the age group above 40 y with mean age of 55 y. In our study we found male preponderance with male female ratio of 4:1 in both benign and malignant conditions. The commonest presenting symptoms of the patients with sinonasal masses in our study was nasal obstruction (75%) and nasal discharge (67.5%) followed by nasal mass (65%), epistaxis (62.5%) and headache (60%). Angiofibroma and papilloma were the commonest benign lesions. Commonest malignant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma. Of the malignant Sinonasal tumours studied in our series, maxillary sinus was involved in 13, ethmoid sinuses and nasal cavity in 10 cases each, and frontal

  20. Proximate and polyphenolic characterization of cranberry pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proximate composition and identification and quantification of polyphenolic compounds in dried cranberry pomace were determined. Proximate analysis was conducted based on AOAC methods for moisture, protein, fat, and ash. Total carbohydrates were determined by the difference method. Polyphenolic ...

  1. Description of a new monoclonal antibody, FC-2.15, reactive with human breast cancer and other human neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Mordoh, J; Leis, S; Bravo, A I; Podhajcer, O L; Ballare, C; Capurro, M; Kairiyama, C; Bover, L

    1994-01-01

    FC-2.15 is an IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) obtained by immunizing Balb/c mice with tumor epithelial cells from a human undifferentiated primary breast carcinoma. FC-2.15 reacts with 93.9% (31/33) of human breast primary tumors, independently of their histology and hormone receptor content. Moreover, FC-2.15 reacts with 79.6 +/- 13.8% (mean +/- SD) of total breast malignant tumor cells and with 88.7 +/- 9.9% of proliferating tumor cells. It recognizes other neoplasia such as colon cancer, squamous carcinoma and melanoma. Among the normal tissues examined, strong cross-reactivity was found with kidney proximal convolute tubules, bone marrow myeloid progeny, peripheral granulocytes and large bowel epithelium. Through Western blots, FC-2.15 recognizes three major bands of Mr 160 kDa, 130 kDa and 115 kDa in membrane extracts of MCF-7 cells grown in nude mice and of human breast carcinoma and three major bands of 250 kDa, 185 kDa and 105 kDa in membrane extracts of peripheral granulocytes. This MAb mediates complement- cytotoxicity against malignant cells, reducing the clonogenic capacity of breast primary tumor cells and MCF-7 cells to 35.6 +/- 41.2% and 11.7 +/- 4.8% of control values respectively, whereas that of normal bone marrow cells is not affected (104.7 +/- 17.4%).

  2. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  3. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-08-07

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  4. Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as genetic models of induced neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Walter, R B; Kazianis, S

    2001-01-01

    Fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfishes and swordtails) are small, internally fertilizing, livebearing, and derived from freshwater habitats in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Scientists have used these fishes in cancer research studies for more than 70 yr. The genus is presently composed of 22 species that are quite divergent in their external morphology. Most cancer studies using Xiphophorus use hybrids, which can be easily produced by artificial insemination. Phenotypic traits, such as macromelanophore pigment patterns, are often drastically altered as a result of lack of gene regulation within hybrid fishes. These fish can develop large exophytic melanomas as a result of upregulated expression of these pigment patterns. Because backcross hybrid fish are susceptible to the development of melanoma and other neoplasms, they can be subjected to potentially deleterious chemical and physical agents. It is thus possible to use gene mapping and cloning methodologies to identify and characterize oncogenes and tumor suppressors implicated in spontaneous or induced neoplasia. This article reviews the history of cancer research using Xiphophorus and recent developments regarding DNA repair capabilities, mapping, and cloning of candidate genes involved in neoplastic phenotypes. The particular genetic complexity of melanoma in these fishes is analyzed and reviewed. PMID:11581522

  5. Laboratory management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: proposing a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Herfs, Michael; Crum, Christopher P

    2013-03-01

    Since the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 in early 80s, the link between HPV and cervical cancer has been established with certainty, a function of the discovery and cloning of a range of HPV types associated with both cancer precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN) and carcinomas and extensive epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and experimental data. These accumulated results have culminated in new paradigms of cancer prevention through screening and triage. Despite this, the management of women with CIN is still suboptimal and the overtreatment of these conditions still occurs, largely due to the lack of clarity regarding which precancerous lesions are most likely to progress in grade. Recently, a discrete population of cuboidal cells was discovered at the cervical squamocolumnar junction, the anatomic site where the large majority of HPV-related (pre)neoplastic lesions develop. These cells seem to be embryonic in nature and participate both in benign metaplasias and the initial phase of precancer development. This review summarizes the historical evolution of precursor management, assesses the potential role of this and other discoveries in segregating lower from higher-risk precursors, and examines their potential impact on the management of women with real or potential cervical cancer precursors.

  6. Committee Opinion No. 675 Summary: Management of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. Although spontaneous regression has been reported, VIN should be considered a premalignant condition. Immunization with the quadrivalent or 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine, which is effective against human papillomavirus genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18, and 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively, has been shown to decrease the risk of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (VIN usual type) and should be recommended for girls aged 11-12 years with catch-up through age 26 years if not vaccinated in the target age. There are no screening strategies for the prevention of vulvar cancer through early detection of vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type). Detection is limited to visual assessment with confirmation by histopathology when needed. Treatment is recommended for all women with vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type). Because of the potential for occult invasion, wide local excision should be performed if cancer is suspected, even if biopsies show vulvar HSIL. When occult invasion is not a concern, vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type) can be treated with excision, laser ablation, or topical imiquimod (off-label use). Given the relatively slow rate of progression, women with a complete response to therapy and no new lesions at follow-up visits scheduled 6 months and 12 months after initial treatment should be monitored by visual inspection of the vulva annually thereafter. PMID:27661648

  7. Committee Opinion No.675: Management of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. Although spontaneous regression has been reported, VIN should be considered a premalignant condition. Immunization with the quadrivalent or 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine, which is effective against human papillomavirus genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18, and 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively, has been shown to decrease the risk of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (VIN usual type) and should be recommended for girls aged 11-12 years with catch-up through age 26 years if not vaccinated in the target age. There are no screening strategies for the prevention of vulvar cancer through early detection of vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type). Detection is limited to visual assessment with confirmation by histopathology when needed. Treatment is recommended for all women with vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type). Because of the potential for occult invasion, wide local excision should be performed if cancer is suspected, even if biopsies show vulvar HSIL. When occult invasion is not a concern, vulvar HSIL (VIN usual type) can be treated with excision, laser ablation, or topical imiquimod (off-label use). Given the relatively slow rate of progression, women with a complete response to therapy and no new lesions at follow-up visits scheduled 6 months and 12 months after initial treatment should be monitored by visual inspection of the vulva annually thereafter. PMID:27661656

  8. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  9. Brain metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: review of pertinent literature.

    PubMed

    Piura, E; Piura, B

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is rare with about 222 cases documented in the literature and an incidence of about 11% in living GTN patients. Brain metastasis from GTN was part of a disseminated disease in 90% of patients, single metastases in the brain - 80% and located in the cerebrum - 90%. Brain metastasis was the only manifestation of metastatic GTN in 11.3% of patients, appeared synchronously with metastatic GTN in other sites of the body - 30.6% and was diagnosed from 0.3 to 60 months after diagnosis of metastatic GTN in other sites (most often in the lung) - 58.1%. Overall, 83.9% of patients with brain metastases from GTN had also lung metastases from GTN. Brain metastases from GTN showed a greater tendency to be hemorrhagic compared to brain metastases from other primaries. In patients with brain metastases from GTN, the best outcome was achieved with multimodal therapy including craniotomy, whole brain radiotherapy, and EP-EMA or EMA-CO chemotherapy. Nonetheless, brain metastasis from GTN is a grave disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis of about 12 months.

  10. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  11. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T E; van Belle, G; LoGerfo, J P

    1987-08-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship.

  12. Proximal Biceps in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    The proximal long head of the biceps tendon and its attachment at the superior glenoid tubercle and labrum are subject to a spectrum of disorders in overhead athletes. Biceps disorders are commonly characterized by intermittent anterior or deep-seated shoulder pain exacerbated by activity. Diagnosis is reached via various physical examination maneuvers; MRI can be uncertain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, targeted ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections, and supervised physical therapy are the mainstays of nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment, which remains controversial, provides reliable pain relief, restoration of function for activities of daily living, and low complication rates, but return to play can be unpredictable.

  13. Biomass proximate analysis using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2013-07-01

    This work proposes a 25 min-last thermogravimetric method as a tool to determine biomass sample's proximate analysis data (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents) just by direct measure of weight changes on each sample's TG chart. Compared with international standards commonly used to that aim, TG is a faster and easier to develop technique. Obtained results were satisfactory, with AEE under 6% for moisture and volatile matter, close to 10% for fixed carbon determination and AAD of 1.6 points for ash content.

  14. The HTV Proximity Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) as an unmanned logistic support vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS). The HTV, which is launched by the H-IIA rocket, transports both pressurized and un-pressurized cargoes to the ISS, reloads disposal items from the ISS and performs destructive reentry over ocean area. NASDA plans the first flight of HTV in 2005 for demonstration. The HTV will contribute the ISS assembly and logistic re-supply operations with international commonality. For unmanned vehicle operation, communication link is critical with commanding and control, especially in proximity region to the ISS. As for the HTV operation, NASDA is developing dedicated communication system installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the ISS, which is called the Proximity Communication System (PROX). The HTV receives commands and transmits telemetry data through the PROX in its proximity operation to the ISS. To achieve this, the PROX can communicate with the HTV on its nominal trajectory within 23km of the ISS. Especially within 3km of the ISS, the PROX has capability to perform omni-directional communication to the HTV. The PROX also has GPS receiver and send GPS data to the HTV to support the HTV navigation for relative GPS navigation used in "far" range (500m away from the ISS). In addition to the above fundamental functions, the PROX has a capability of range and range-rate measurement between the ISS and the HTV by the pseudo noise (PN) code epoch and the Doppler shift frequency. This provides a reference data independent of "main" navigation methods (rendezvous sensor navigation or GPS navigation) of the HTV. The PROX also assists the ISS crew with its commanding device, called the Hardware Command Panel (HCP), to issue time-dependent safety-related critical commands for HTV berthing/un-berthing operation. When a failure occurs somewhere on "communication path" from the PROX Base Band

  15. A Possible New Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Mutation in a Patient with a Prototypic Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Buzzola, Rino; Kurukulasuriya, Lilamani Romayne; Touza, Mariana; Litofsky, Norman S.; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 syndrome is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. These tumors include pheochromocytoma, adrenal cortical and neuroendocrine tumors including (bronchopulmonary, thymic, gastric), lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas, and meningiomas. MEN-4 is very rare and has been characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumors in association with tumors of the adrenals, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Summary We report the case of a 40-year-old male without significant family history of endocrine disease who was found to have primary hyperparathyroidism, a pituitary tumor causing acromegaly, thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cysts. We posit that this represents a new version of MEN-4. While renal tumors (angiomyolipoma) have been reported as part of the MEN-4 phenotype, to our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the association of MEN-1 and/or MEN-4 phenotype with this unique constellation of tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. Interestingly, this patient tested negative (DNA sequencing/deletion) for MEN-1 (menin), MEN-4 (CDKN1B) and VHL genes. Key Message Thus, while this case has clinical characteristics consistent with either MEN-1 or MEN-4, it may represent a unique genetic variant. PMID:26989398

  16. Proximal bodies in hypersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Deiterding, Ralf; Laurence, Stuart J; Hornung, Hans G

    2007-01-01

    Hypersonic flows involving two or more bodies travelling in close proximity to one another are encountered in several important situations, both natural and man-made. The present work seeks to investigate one aspect of the resulting flow problem by exploring the forces experienced by a secondary body when it is within the domain of influence of a primary body travelling at hypersonic speeds. An analytical methodology based on the blast wave analogy is developed and used to predict the secondary force coefficients for simple geometries in both two and three dimensions. When the secondary body is entirely inside the primary shocked region, the nature of the lateral force coefficient is found to depend strongly on the relative size of the two bodies. For two spheres, the methodology predicts that the secondary body will experience an exclusively attractive lateral force if the secondary diameter is larger than one-sixth the primary diameter. The analytical results are compared with those from numerical simulations and reasonable agreement is observed if an appropriate normalization for the lateral displacement is used. Results from a series of experiments in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are also presented and compared with perfect-gas numerical simulations, with good agreement. A new force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities, enabling the experimental simulation of the proximal bodies problem, is described. This technique provides two independent means of measurement, and the agreement observed between the two gives a further degree of confidence in the results obtained.

  17. Protein Neighbors and Proximity Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Johanna S.; Li, Xue-Wen; Perrett, Sarah; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Within cells, proteins can co-assemble into functionally integrated and spatially restricted multicomponent complexes. Often, the affinities between individual proteins are relatively weak, and proteins within such clusters may interact only indirectly with many of their other protein neighbors. This makes proteomic characterization difficult using methods such as immunoprecipitation or cross-linking. Recently, several groups have described the use of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling reagents that covalently tag the neighbors of a targeted protein with a small molecule such as fluorescein or biotin. The modified proteins can then be isolated by standard pulldown methods and identified by mass spectrometry. Here we will describe the techniques as well as their similarities and differences. We discuss their applications both to study protein assemblies and to provide a new way for characterizing organelle proteomes. We stress the importance of proteomic quantitation and independent target validation in such experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that there are biophysical and cell-biological principles that dictate the appropriateness of enzyme-catalyzed proximity labeling methods to address particular biological questions of interest. PMID:26355100

  18. Effect of Sulindac and Erlotinib vs Placebo on Duodenal Neoplasia in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Samadder, N. Jewel; Neklason, Deborah W.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Byrne, Kathryn R.; Kanth, Priyanka; Samowitz, Wade; Jones, David; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Done, Michelle W.; Berry, Therese; Jasperson, Kory; Pappas, Lisa; Smith, Laurel; Sample, Danielle; Davis, Rian; Topham, Matthew K.; Lynch, Patrick; Strait, Elena; McKinnon, Wendy; Burt, Randall W.; Kuwada, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at markedly increased risk for duodenal polyps and cancer. Surgical and endoscopic management of duodenal neoplasia is difficult and chemoprevention has not been successful. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a combination of sulindac and erlotinib on duodenal adenoma regression in patients with FAP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 92 participants with FAP, conducted from July 2010 through June 2014 at Huntsman Cancer Institute in Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERVENTIONS Participants with FAP were randomized to sulindac (150 mg) twice daily and erlotinib (75 mg) daily (n = 46) vs placebo (n = 46) for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The total number and diameter of polyps in the proximal duodenum were mapped at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was change in total polyp burden at 6 months. Polyp burden was calculated as the sum of the diameters of polyps. The secondary outcomes were change in total duodenal polyp count, change in duodenal polyp burden or count stratified by genotype and initial polyp burden, and percentage of change from baseline in duodenal polyp burden. RESULTS Ninety-two participants (mean age, 41 years [range, 24–55]; women, 56 [61%]) were randomized when the trial was stopped by the external data and safety monitoring board because the second preplanned interim analysis met the prespecified stopping rule for superiority. Grade 1 and 2 adverse events were more common in the sulindac-erlotinib group, with an acne-like rash observed in 87% of participants receiving treatment and 20% of participants receiving placebo (P < .001). Only 2 participants experienced grade 3 adverse events. OutcomeBaseline6-moFollow-upMedianChangeBetween-GroupDifference (95% CI)PValueMedian Duodenal Polyp Burden, mmSulindac-erlotinib29.019.5−8.5−19.0 (−32.0 to −10.9)<.001Placebo23.031.08.0Median Duodenal Polyp Count, No

  19. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  20. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  1. Oncogenic association of specific human papillomavirus types with cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, A T; Temple, G F; Kurman, R J; Jenson, A B; Lancaster, W D

    1987-10-01

    Molecular hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from 190 cervical biopsy specimens from women in the United States, Brazil, and Peru revealed viral sequences in 2 (9%) of 23 biopsy specimens of normal mature squamous epithelium, 7 (44%) of 16 biopsy specimens of metaplastic squamous epithelia, 60 (77%) of 78 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 57 (89%) of 64 invasive squamous carcinomas, and 8 (89%) of 9 endocervical adenocarcinomas. HPV typing by DNA hybridization revealed HPV 6 and HPV 11 sequences in metaplastic squamous epithelia, CIN I, and CIN II, but not in CIN III lesions or invasive carcinomas. HPV 16 was detected in metaplastic epithelium and in nearly half of the invasive squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. It was present in 31% of CIN lesions, increasing in frequency with the severity of CIN from 20% of CIN I to 50% of CIN III. HPV 16 showed a striking difference in geographic distribution, being detected in 36% of the carcinomas from the United States compared to 64% of the carcinomas from Brazil and Peru. HPV 18 was found in metaplastic epithelia and in 17% of carcinomas but in only 1% of CIN lesions. HPV 31 was not found in metaplastic epithelium but was present in 6% of carcinomas and in 18% of CIN lesions. In addition, a group of uncharacterized HPVs, not corresponding to any of the probes used, was found in 5% of normal and metaplastic epithelia and in 18% of CIN and 19% of invasive cancers. These results suggest that individual HPV types that infect the cervix have varying degrees of oncogenic association. HPV 6 and HPV 11 appear to have very little oncogenic association, HPV 31 has low oncogenic association, and HPV 16 and HPV 18 have high oncogenic association. PMID:2821311

  2. Current treatment options for management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    Anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of Human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with Human immunodeficiency virus. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor of anal cancer, is identified by clinicians providing care for patients with anorectal disease, and is increasingly being identified during screening of immunosuppressed patients for anal dysplasia. The traditional treatment for HGAIN has been excision of macroscopic disease with margins. This approach is effective for patients with small unifocal HGAIN lesions. Patients with extensive multifocal HGAIN frequently have recurrence of HGAIN after excision, and may have postoperative complications of anal stenosis or fecal incontinence. This led to the suggestion by some that treatment for HGAIN should be delayed until patients developed anal cancer. Alternative approaches in identification and treatment have been developed to treat patients with multifocal or extensive HGAIN lesions. High-resolution anoscopy combines magnification with anoscopy and is being used to identify HGAIN and determine treatment margins. HGAIN can then be ablated with a number of modalities, including infrared coagulation, CO2 laser, and electrocautery. These methods for HGAIN ablation can be performed with local anesthesia on outpatients and are relatively well tolerated. High-resolution anoscopy-directed HGAIN ablation is evolving into a standard approach for initial treatment and then subsequent monitoring of a disease which should be expected to be recurrent. Another treatment approach for HGAIN is topical treatment, principally with 5-fluorouracil or imiquimod. Topical therapies have the advantage of being nonsurgical and are well suited for treating widespread multifocal disease. Topical treatments have the disadvantage of requiring extended treatment courses and causing a symptomatic

  3. Association between folate status and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, W; Hao, M; Wang, Y; Feng, N; Wang, Z; Wang, W; Wang, J; Ding, L

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To investigate the effect of folate status on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV). Subjects/Methods: We evaluated 20 000 sexually active women aged <65 years in Yangqu County by using a questionnaire; the subjects were also screened using the ThinPrep cytologic test (TCT). Patients with abnormal TCT results (other than glandular cell abnormalities) who were willing to provide informed consent were further diagnosed using colposcopy and histopathological examination. We investigated 247 cases of low-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 125 cases of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 877 controls. A 24-item food frequency questionnaire was filled out by the investigator to estimate the consumption of dietary folate. Positivity for hrHPV from residual exfoliated cervical cells was tested; serum folate was also measured. Results: The hrHPV infection rate in HSIL patients (77.6%) was higher than that in LSIL (33.2%) and control (32.0%) patients. Dietary folate intakes in controls, LSIL and HSIL were 306.9±176.6, 321.8±168.0 and 314.7±193.8 μg/kcal, respectively. The levels of serum folate in controls, LSIL and HSIL were 18.2±7.9, 15.9±7.1 and 14.3±7.5 nmol/l, respectively. Increased CIN correlated with higher rates of hrHPV infection and lower levels of serum folate. Conclusions: Low levels of serum folate may increase the risk of CIN progression. Furthermore, potential synergy may exist between low serum folate levels and hrHPV infection to promote CIN development. PMID:27026426

  4. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7838348

  5. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-07-16

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  6. Cushing’s Syndrome in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, William F.; Varghese, Sarah; Marx, Stephen J.; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Cushing’s syndrome (CS) from endogenous hypercortisolism can result from pituitary, adrenal, or other endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the range of presentations of CS in a large series of MEN1 patients. Design Retrospective review of NIH Clinical Center inpatient records over an approximately 40 year period. Patients 19 patients (8 males, 11 females) with CS and MEN1. Measurements Biochemical, imaging, surgical, and pathological findings. Results An etiology was determined for 14 of the 19 patients with CS and MEN1: 11 (79%) had Cushing’s disease (CD) and three (21%) had ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal tumors, frequencies indistinguishable from sporadic CS. Three of 11 MEN1 patients with CD (27%) had additional non-ACTH secreting pituitary microadenomas identified at surgery, an incidence 10-fold higher than in sporadic CD. Ninety-one percent of MEN1 patients with CD were cured after surgery. Two of three MEN1 patients with ACTH-independent CS (67%) had adrenocortical carcinoma. One patient with adrenal cancer and another with adrenal adenoma were cured by unilateral adrenalectomy. No case of ectopic ACTH secretion was identified in our patient cohort. The etiology of CS could not be defined in five patients; in three of these, hypercortisolism appeared to resolve spontaneously. Conclusions The tumor multiplicity of MEN1 can be reflected in the anterior pituitary, MEN1-associated ACTH-independent CS may be associated with aggressive adrenocortical disease, and an etiology for CS in MEN1 may be elusive in a substantial minority of patients. PMID:21916912

  7. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF PHARYNGEAL NEOPLASIA IN 25 DOGS.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Gregorio; Zotti, Alessandro; Alberti, Monica; Rossi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumors in dogs, however little information is available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. The purpose of this multicentric, retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the CT findings in a sample of dogs with pathologically confirmed pharyngeal neoplasia and determine whether any CT features allowed differentiation of tumor type. Location of lesions, size and shape, margins, relationship with surrounding structures and vessels, attenuation characteristics and enhancement pattern, regional lymph node changes, and presence of metastasis were recorded by three observers (1 DECVDI). The effect of final diagnosis on each CT feature was tested. A total of 25 dogs were included: 15 with carcinomas, five sarcomas, four melanomas, and one lymphoma. The oropharynx and laryngopharynx were more frequently involved. Among tumor groups, lesions were of similar size, irregularly shaped, had ill-defined margins, and had moderate-to-marked heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Lysis of hyoid bones was recorded in two carcinomas and infiltration of the lingual artery occurred in one case. Marked medial retropharyngeal lymphoadenomegaly was recorded in 11 of 14 carcinomas, in all sarcomas and in two of four melanomas. The single lymphoma case showed ill-defined thickening of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal wall with retropharyngeal and mandibular lymphadenomegaly. Lung metastases were found in two of five sarcomas and two of four melanomas. Findings from the current study did not support the hypothesis that CT features could be used to predict pharyngeal tumor type in dogs. However, CT was helpful for determining mass extension, lymph node involvement, and distant metastatic spread. PMID:26173553

  9. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia disease progression is associated with increased vaginal microbiome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, A.; MacIntyre, D. A.; Lee, Y. S.; Smith, A.; Marchesi, J. R.; Lehne, B.; Bhatia, R.; Lyons, D.; Paraskevaidis, E.; Li, J. V.; Holmes, E.; Nicholson, J. K.; Bennett, P. R.; Kyrgiou, M.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. Although evidence suggests that the vaginal microbiome plays a functional role in the persistence or regression of HPV infections, this has yet to be described in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). We hypothesised that increasing microbiome diversity is associated with increasing CIN severity. llumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterise the vaginal microbiota of women with low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL; n = 52), high-grade (HSIL; n = 92), invasive cervical cancer (ICC; n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 20). Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed an increased prevalence of microbiomes characterised by high-diversity and low levels of Lactobacillus spp. (community state type-CST IV) with increasing disease severity, irrespective of HPV status (Normal = 2/20,10%; LSIL = 11/52,21%; HSIL = 25/92,27%; ICC = 2/5,40%). Increasing disease severity was associated with decreasing relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. The vaginal microbiome in HSIL was characterised by higher levels of Sneathia sanguinegens (P < 0.01), Anaerococcus tetradius (P < 0.05) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (P < 0.05) and lower levels of Lactobacillus jensenii (P < 0.01) compared to LSIL. Our results suggest advancing CIN disease severity is associated with increasing vaginal microbiota diversity and may be involved in regulating viral persistence and disease progression. PMID:26574055

  10. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia disease progression is associated with increased vaginal microbiome diversity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; MacIntyre, D A; Lee, Y S; Smith, A; Marchesi, J R; Lehne, B; Bhatia, R; Lyons, D; Paraskevaidis, E; Li, J V; Holmes, E; Nicholson, J K; Bennett, P R; Kyrgiou, M

    2015-11-17

    Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. Although evidence suggests that the vaginal microbiome plays a functional role in the persistence or regression of HPV infections, this has yet to be described in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). We hypothesised that increasing microbiome diversity is associated with increasing CIN severity. llumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to characterise the vaginal microbiota of women with low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL; n = 52), high-grade (HSIL; n = 92), invasive cervical cancer (ICC; n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 20). Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed an increased prevalence of microbiomes characterised by high-diversity and low levels of Lactobacillus spp. (community state type-CST IV) with increasing disease severity, irrespective of HPV status (Normal = 2/20,10%; LSIL = 11/52,21%; HSIL = 25/92,27%; ICC = 2/5,40%). Increasing disease severity was associated with decreasing relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. The vaginal microbiome in HSIL was characterised by higher levels of Sneathia sanguinegens (P < 0.01), Anaerococcus tetradius (P < 0.05) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (P < 0.05) and lower levels of Lactobacillus jensenii (P < 0.01) compared to LSIL. Our results suggest advancing CIN disease severity is associated with increasing vaginal microbiota diversity and may be involved in regulating viral persistence and disease progression.

  11. How big is this neoplasia? live colonoscopic size measurement using the Infocus-Breakpoint.

    PubMed

    Chadebecq, F; Tilmant, C; Bartoli, A

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the reference medical examination for early diagnosis and treatment of colonic diseases. This minimally invasive technique allows endoscopists to explore the colon cavity and remove neoplasias - abnormal growths of tissue - which may develop into malignant tumors. The size, shape and appearance of a neoplasia are essential cues for diagnostic. However, the size is difficult to estimate because the absolute scale of the observed tissue is not directly conveyed in the 2D colonoscopic images. An erroneous size estimate may lead to inappropriate treatment. There currently exist no solutions to reproducible neoplasia size measurement adapted to colonoscopy. We propose a colonoscopic size measurement system for neoplasias. By using a simple planar geometry, the key technical problem is reduced to resolving scale. Our core contribution is introducing the Infocus-Breakpoint (IB) that allows us to resolve scale from a regular colonoscopic video. We define the IB as the lower limit of the colonoscope's depth of field. The IB corresponds to a precise colonoscope to tissue distance, called the reference depth, which we calibrate preoperatively. We detect the IB intraoperatively thanks to two novel modules: deformable Blur-Estimating Tracking (BET) and Blur-Model Fitting (BMF). With our system, the endoscopist may interactively measure the length and area of a neoplasia in a 2D colonoscopic image directly. Our system needs no hardware modification to standard monocular colonoscopes, yet reaching a size measurement accuracy of the order of a millimeter, as shown on several phantom and patient datasets.

  12. Combining large area fluorescence with multiphoton microscopy for improved detection of oral epithelial neoplasia (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; McCammon, Susan; Resto, Vicente; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia representing the complex microstructural organization of mucosa, potentially providing high specificity for detection of neoplasia, but is limited by small imaging area. Large area fluorescence methods on the other hand show high sensitivity appropriate for screening but are hampered by low specificity. In this study, we apply MPAM-SHGM following guidance from large area fluorescence, by either autofluorescence or a targeted metabolic fluorophore, as a potentially clinically viable approach for detection of oral neoplasia. Sites of high neoplastic potentially were identified by large area red/green autofluorescence or by a fluorescently labelled deoxy-glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-D-glucose (2-NBDG) to highlight areas of high glucose uptake across the buccal pouch of a hamster model for OSCC. Follow-up MPAM-SHGM was conducted on regions of interests (ROIs) to assess whether microscopy would reveal microscopic features associated with neoplasia to confirm or exclude large area fluorescence findings. Parameters for analysis included cytologic metrics, 3D epithelial connective tissue interface metrics (MPAM-SHGM) and intensity of fluorescence (widefield). Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology and graded by a pathologist. A small sample of human ex vivo tissues were also imaged. A generalized linear model combining image metrics from large area fluorescence and volumetric MPAM-SHGM indicated the ability to delineate normal and inflammation from neoplasia.

  13. Association of Intrauterine Device (IUD) and Cervical Neoplasia - A Study in a Poor Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Oguanuo, Theophilus Chimezie; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a contraceptive method used by women of reproductive age group. However, there are conflicting reports on the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. These controversies may further hamper the poor uptake of modern contraception in Nigeria. Aim This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the association between IUD and cervical neoplasia. Materials and Methods This was a case control study in which Pap smear results of 156 participants on IUD were compared with those of 156 non-users of modern contraception. The participants who were found to have abnormal cervical smear cytology results were further subjected to colposcopy. Biopsy specimens for histology were collected from the participants with obvious cervical lesions or those with suspicious lesions on colposcopy. The results were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Results Seven (4.5%) and 2(1.3%) of participants using IUD had Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN 2 respectively. Also, 5(3.2%) and 1(0.6%) of non-users of modern contraception had CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. The prevalence of cervical neoplasia among all the participants was 4.8%. Although, the proportion of women who had CIN was more among participants using IUD than non-users of modern contraception, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion There was no significant association between IUD and cervical neoplasia in this study. PMID:27504358

  14. Proximity effect correction sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepka, Alex; Zimmermann, Rainer; Hoppe, Wolfgang; Schulz, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Determining the quality of a proximity effect correction (PEC) is often done via 1-dimensional measurements such as: CD deviations from target, corner rounding, or line-end shortening. An alternative approach would compare the entire perimeter of the exposed shape and its original design. Unfortunately, this is not a viable solution as there is a practical limit to the number of metrology measurements that can be done in a reasonable amount of time. In this paper we make use of simulated results and introduce a method which may be considered complementary to the standard way of PEC qualification. It compares simulated contours with the target layout via a Boolean XOR operation with the area of the XOR differences providing a direct measure of how close a corrected layout approximates the target.

  15. Proximity and emergency department use

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Patrick; Courteau, Josiane; Vanasse, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if geographic proximity to an emergency department (ED) is related to ED use in a metropolitan population of patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Setting The census metropolitan area of Montreal, Que. Participants Cohort of 99 400 patients with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia in 2007 without a history of cardiovascular disease. Each patient was spatially referred to 1 of 5857 dissemination areas (DAs). Main outcome measures Annual number of visits to an ED with respect to the distance between the centroid of a patient’s DA and the closest ED, controlling for age, sex, comorbidities, and neighbourhood immigration, social, and material characteristics. Multilevel logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to determine if the proximity to the closest ED was related to ED use, frequent ED use (≥ 4 visits in a year), and number of ED visits. Results A total of 25 889 (26.0%) patients in the cohort visited an ED at least once during a 1-year period, among which 4563 (4.6%) were frequent users with at least 4 visits. These frequent users were responsible for 28 249 (45.5%) of all 62 021 visits to EDs. The distance between a DA and its closest ED was significantly and negatively correlated with ED use (P < .001), even after controlling for confounding variables. Patients living in a DA close to an ED were also more likely to be frequent users, but the extent of use among them (range from 4 to 82 ED visits) was not related to the distance to the closest ED. Conclusion These results suggest that patients at risk of cardiovascular disease living in a metropolitan area are more likely to seek a medical encounter at the ED if they live closer to it. PMID:26505061

  16. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

  17. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  18. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  19. RETROSPECTIVE EVALUATION OF CASES OF NEOPLASIA IN A CAPTIVE POPULATION OF EGYPTIAN FRUIT BATS (ROUSETTUS AEGYPTIACUS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Burrough, Eric R; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Lehmkuhl, Aaron; Madson, Darin; Patterson, Abby J; Yaeger, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Reports of neoplasia in Chiroptera species are rare. (6, 10) This retrospective study describes five types of neoplasia identified within a captive population of male Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) housed in a zoo from 2004 through November of 2014. Tumor types identified include fibrosarcoma, cutaneous lymphoma, benign focal bronchioloalveolar neoplasm, anaplastic sarcoma, and sebaceous epithelioma. To the author's knowledge, aside from a recent report of focal brochioloalveolar adenoma, (8) these tumor types have not previously been described in the Rousettus species, nor in chiropterans in general. Based upon these findings and other recent publications regarding R. aegyptiacus, neoplasia does appear to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in captive members of this megachiropterid species. PMID:26056887

  20. Human exploration of near Earth Asteroids: Architecture of proximity operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Takahashi, Yu; Zimmer, Aline K.; Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Reijneveld, Johannes P. J.; Dunlop, Kathryn L.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper outlines the strategic approach to realize a human mission to an asteroid, focusing specifically on the proximity operations. The risks and challenges posed by asteroid surfaces to in-situ investigations force the proximity operations to be done by the intermediary of robotic explorers. In this architecture, a precursor is sent years in advance to a potential target asteroids. Its main goals are the characterization of the gravity field and of the surface behavior. If the target is found suitable, the manned mission then proceeds. With their main spacecraft stationed on a stable orbit around the asteroid, the astronauts are transported to the surface via a small, unpressurized spacecraft. Hovering a few meters above the surface, they deploy and command small robotic landers that perform scientific operations at the surface.

  1. A Surviving Child With Complete Proximal Tracheal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Haight, Ken; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Shokeir, Mohamed

    1984-01-01

    An infant was born with an unusual combination of primitive foregut anomalies consisting of complete proximal tracheal atresia, proximal esophageal atresia and distal tracheoesophageal fistula. Before the birth, the family physician suspected an anomaly of the upper airway or esophageal occlusion on the basis of hydramnios evident at the thirty-third to thirty-fourth week of gestation, and earlier amniocentesis which indicated a normal level of α-fetoprotein. He consulted the hospital obstetrics and neonatology departments, which were thus prepared to deal with a potential airway problem at the birth. At birth, prompt airway management, including tracheostomy, prevented anoxic damage to the child. Features which should alert the physician to tracheal obstruction include antenatal polyhydramnios; severe respiratory distress without an audible cry and palpable distal trachea in the newborn; and failure to advance the endotracheal tube beyond the infant's vocal cords. PMID:21279046

  2. Development of a Novel Scoring System for Predicting the Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a novel scoring system to screen subjects who have a high risk for colorectal neoplasia. Study Design and Setting We retrospectively analyzed 1061 subjects undergoing total colonoscopy (TCS) for the first time at Gihoku Kosei Hospital. The characteristics and habits of the subjects were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk score was established according to each odds ratio of the individual risk factors, and the correlations between the sum of the risk scores and the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia for each individual were evaluated. Results Age 45–59 (risk score: 2 points) and ≥60 (3 points), male gender (1 point), and habitual alcohol consumption ≥21g daily (1 point) were extracted as the significant risk factors for colorectal neoplasia. When the risk groups were determined by summing up these risk scores, the prevalence rates of colorectal neoplasia were 8.8% for the low risk group (0–2 points), 30.5% for the low-moderate risk group (3 points), 39.1% for the high-moderate risk group (4 points), and 57.6% for the high risk group (5 points). In comparison with the low risk group, the odds ratio of the low-moderate risk, the high-moderate risk, and the high risk groups were 4.6, 6.7, and 14.1 folds, respectively. Conclusion Our scoring system, which linearly correlates with the prevalence rate of colorectal neoplasia, may be an effective tool for screening the subjects who have a high risk for colorectal neoplasia. These subjects, therefore, should be recommended to undergo TCS. PMID:27284907

  3. Common Inflammatory Disorders and Neoplasia of the Ileal Pouch: A Review of Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Collinsworth, Amy L.; Liu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard restorative procedure after proctocolectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy. The ileal pouch is susceptible to a variety of insults including mechanical injury, ischemia, fecal stasis, and infectious agents. In addition, the development of recurrent and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and neoplasia may occur in the ileal pouch. Although clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic examination can diagnose many ileal pouch diseases, histologic examination plays an essential role in diagnosis and management, particularly in cases with antibiotic refractory chronic pouchitis and pouch neoplasia. PMID:27785322

  4. Depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy for noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Richard Alan

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx account for more than 7,500 deaths each year in the United States alone. Major advances have been made in the management of oral cancer through the combined use of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, improving the quality of life for many patients; however, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective, noninvasive methods for early diagnosis of oral neoplasia are needed. Here a method is presented to noninvasively evaluate oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (DSOS). A ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe was developed to enable preferential targeting of different depth regions in the oral mucosa. Clinical studies of the diagnostic performance of DSOS in 157 subjects were carried out in collaboration with the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. An overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 89% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue relative to histopathology. Based on these results a compact, portable version of the clinical DSOS device with real-time automated diagnostic capability was developed. The portable device was tested in 47 subjects and a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue. The diagnostic potential of multimodal platforms incorporating DSOS was explored through two pilot studies. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with widefield imaging was carried out in 29 oral cancer patients, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 69%. Widefield imaging and spectroscopy performed slightly better in combination than each method performed independently. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with the optical contrast agents 2-NBDG, EGF-Alexa 647, and proflavine was carried out in resected tissue

  5. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  6. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  7. Proximal Priority Laser Therapy: PPLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2004-09-01

    The author has, in the past, classified treatment methods for pain geometrically as point, line, two-dimensional, three-dimensional treatment and has used these over the years. However as a practitioner of western medicine, the author originally treated pain only directed at the painful site, and encountered cases where local treatment did not suffice. The author proved with SPECT and the Rand Phantom that treating the neck which is the midpoint of the brain, the center of the nervous system and the heart, the center of circulation, increased cerebral blood flow and also that laser emitted to neck will reach the spinal chord no matter from where on the neck the laser is emitted. From such research and 25 years of clinical experience, the author has created an anatomy based, systemic treatment method called the Proximal Priority Laser Therapy (PPLT) where not only the cerebral cortex, spinal chord and peripheral nerves are treated but also the tracts of blood vessels and lymph ducts are treated as well. Treatment method and cases are presented herein.

  8. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  9. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection.

    PubMed

    Overvliet, Krista E; Krampe, Ralf Th; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection.

  10. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  11. [Robot-assisted coelioscopic proximal tubal reanastomosis].

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, M; Roulot, A; Fay, S; Ayoubi, J-M

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of robot-assisted coelioscopic proximal tubal reanastomosis after proximal tubal ligature. Patients were aged 43 and 34 years respectively and had previously undergone proximal tubal ligation by coagulation section at 37 years of age for the first patient, and by Filshie clip at 24 years for the second one. Both had regular menstrual cycles and their ovarian reserve was good. Their partners were presenting with normal sperm criteria. Proximal tubal reanastomosis was carried out in September 2010 by robotic coelioscopy with five extramucous vicryl 5-0 stitches on each tube and positive blue testing. Total durations of the interventions were 200 and 220minutes respectively. Postoperative outcomes were simple and patients had spontaneous pregnancy at 4 and 2.5 months respectively. Both pregnancies show normal progress currently. This is a contribution to literature data meant to determine the role of robotics in proximal tubal reanastomosis. PMID:22521989

  12. Thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Teh, B T; Zedenius, J; Kytölä, S; Skogseid, B; Trotter, J; Choplin, H; Twigg, S; Farnebo, F; Giraud, S; Cameron, D; Robinson, B; Calender, A; Larsson, C; Salmela, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical, pathologic, and genetic features of thymic carcinoids in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and to study means for detection and prevention of this tumor in patients with MEN1. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Thymic carcinoid is a rare malignancy, with approximately 150 cases reported to date. It may be associated with MEN1 and carries a poor prognosis, with no effective treatment. Its underlying etiology is unknown. METHODS: Ten patients with MEN1 from eight families with anterior mediastinal tumors were included in a case series study at tertiary referring hospitals. Clinicopathologic studies were done on these patients, with a review of the literature. Mutation analysis was performed on the MEN1 gene in families with clusterings of the tumor to look for genotype-phenotype correlation. Loss of heterozygosity was studied in seven cases to look for genetic abnormalities. RESULTS: Histologic studies of all tumors were consistent with the diagnosis of thymic carcinoid. Clustering of this tumor was found in some of the families-three pairs of brothers and three families with first- or second-degree relatives who had thymic carcinoid. All patients described here were men, with a mean age at detection of 44 years (range 31 to 66). Most of the patients had chest pain or were asymptomatic; none had Cushing's or carcinoid syndrome. All tumors were detected by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest. The results of octreoscans performed in three patients were all positive. Histopathologic studies were consistent with the diagnosis of thymic carcinoid and did not stain for ACTH. Mutation analysis of the families with clustering revealed mutations in different exons/introns of the MEN1 gene. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies of seven tumors did not show LOH in the MEN1 region, but two tumors showed LOH in the 1p region. CONCLUSIONS: MEN1-related thymic carcinoids constitute approximately 25

  13. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason T; Doshi, Mehul H; Gortes, Francisco J; Levi, Joe U; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome. PMID:27257458

  14. Folate-genetics and colorectal neoplasia: What we know and need to know next

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolism of folate involves a complex network of polymorphic enzymes that may explain a proportion of the risk associated with colorectal neoplasia. Over 60 observational studies primarily in non-Hispanic White populations have been conducted on selected genetic variants in specific genes, MTH...

  15. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocíticas crónicas o juveniles, y la LMC atípica.

  16. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias. This summary contains information about the MEN1 gene, the RET gene, genetic testing, and clinical interventions. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have a hereditary medullary thyroid cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  17. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  18. Local recurrence of pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tramunt, Blandine; Buffet, Alexandre; Grunenwald, Solange; Vezzosi, Delphine; Bennet, Antoine; Huyghe, Eric; Zerdoud, Slimane; Caron, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), an inverted physiological ratio between urinary normetanephrines and metanephrines is an early marker of recurrence in epinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma, and 131I MIBG treatment appears to be a useful therapeutic option in order to avoid multiple invasive surgical procedures in pheochromocytomatosis.

  19. THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALO METHANES (THMs) IN THE DRINKING WATER
    Christopher Sistrunk and Tony DeAngelo, North Carolina Central University and US Environmental Protection Agency
    The THMs are the most widely distributed and the most co...

  20. Brain metastasis from pheochromocytoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Rainero, I; Savi, L; Rivoiro, C; Pinessi, L

    2001-12-01

    Neurological involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is uncommon. Notalgia paresthetica (pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes) is the neurological symptom more frequently described in patients with MEN 2A. The authors report the unusual case of a MEN 2A patient with a brain metastasis from a pheochromocytoma. PMID:11677427

  1. Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anne; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Development of human gonads is a sex-dimorphic process which evolved to produce sex-specific types of germ cells. The process of gonadal sex differentiation is directed by the action of the somatic cells and ultimately results in germ cells differentiating to become functional gametes through spermatogenesis or oogenesis. This tightly controlled process depends on the proper sequential expression of many genes and signalling pathways. Disturbances of this process can be manifested as a large spectrum of disorders, ranging from severe disorders of sex development (DSD) to - in the genetic male - mild reproductive problems within the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), with large overlap between the syndromes. These disorders carry an increased but variable risk of germ cell neoplasia. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia associated with gonadal dysgenesis, especially in individuals with 46,XY DSD. We summarise knowledge concerning development and sex differentiation of human gonads, with focus on sex-dimorphic steps of germ cell maturation, including meiosis. We also briefly outline the histopathology of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and gonadoblastoma (GDB), which are essentially the same precursor lesion but with different morphological structure dependent upon the masculinisation of the somatic niche. To assess the risk of germ cell neoplasia in different types of DSD, we have performed a PubMed search and provide here a synthesis of the evidence from studies published since 2006. We present a model for pathogenesis of GCNIS/GDB in TDS/DSD, with the risk of malignancy determined by the presence of the testis-inducing Y chromosome and the degree of masculinisation. The associations between phenotype and the risk of neoplasia are likely further modulated in each individual by the constellation of the gene polymorphisms and environmental factors.

  2. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers in Macao.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Thazin; Yip, Yuk-Ching; Ngai, Karry L K; Vong, Heong-Ting; Wong, Sio-In; Ho, Wendy C S; Batalha, Sellma L S C; Chan, Paul K S

    2010-09-01

    Macao is a densely populated city situated in East Asia where a relatively high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 52 and 58 has been reported in women with invasive cervical cancer. To provide data for a population-specific estimation on the impact of HPV vaccines, paraffin-embedded tissues collected from women with invasive cervical cancer or cervical intrapeitheilal neoplasia grade 2 or 3 confirmed histologically were examined for HPV using the INNO-LiPa kit. Of the 35 HPV-positive patients with invasive cancer, one HPV type was detected in 68.6%, and 31.4% were co-infected with more than one HPV type. Overall, HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 54 were the most common types found respectively in 57.1%, 17%, 11.4%, and 8.5% of patients with invasive cervical cancer. Among the 59 HPV-positive patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, 55.9% hardbored one HPV type, and 44.1% had co-infections. The common HPV types found included HPV 16 (52.5%), HPV 52 (23.7%), HPV 58 (18.7%), and HPV 33 (17%). Although HPV 11 (a low-risk type) was also found commonly in invasive cervical cancers (14.3%) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (15.3%), the fact that they all existed as co-infections with another high-risk type suggested HPV 11 was not the cause of the lesion. The current vaccines targeting HPV 16/18 are expected to cover 62.9-74.3% of invasive cervical cancers and 32.2-55.9% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 in Macao. Widespread HPV vaccination is expected to reduce substantially the disease burden associated with cervical neoplasia in Macao.

  3. Incidence of Microscopically Positive Proximal Margins in Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhihong; Shen, Lizong

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the incidence and risk factors of microscopically positive proximal margins in Chinese patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. Methods The medical records of 483 patients, who underwent surgical treatment with curative intent for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction in a single high-volume tertiary medical center, were reviewed. Demographic, radiographic, endoscopic, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were evaluated. All proximal margins were re-evaluated by two experienced pathologists, and a positive proximal margin was defined as the microscopic presence of invasive tumor cells seen at the esophageal transaction margin submitted en face on final paraffin sections. Results The incidence of positive proximal margins was 23.81% in this series. Siewert type, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node involvement, presence of vascular or lymphatic invasion, and presence of perineural invasion were significantly associated with positive proximal margins. On multivariate analysis, the presence of vascular or lymphatic invasion and advanced-stage disease were independent risk factors for positive proximal margins in patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. Conclusion Residual cancer at proximal resection margins remains a major issue for the surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction in China. PMID:24505353

  4. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  5. Prevalence of rotator cuff tears in operative proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Choo, Andrew; Sobol, Garret; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Getz, Charles; Abboud, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Proximal humerus fractures and rotator cuff tears have been shown to have increasing rates with advancing age, theoretically leading to significant overlap in the 2 pathologies. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, associated factors, and effect on treatment of rotator cuff tears in surgically treated proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had surgery for a proximal humerus fracture from January 2007 to June 2012 in the shoulder department of a large academic institution. Patient demographics, the presence and management of rotator cuff tears, and surgical factors were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were associated with rotator cuff tears. This study reviewed 349 fractures in 345 patients. Of these, 30 (8.6%) had concomitant rotator cuff tears. Those with a rotator cuff tear were older (average age, 68.7 vs 63.1 years), were more likely to have had a dislocation (40% vs 12.5%), and were more likely to have undergone subsequent arthroscopic repair or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty than those without a rotator cuff tear. Most (22 of 30) were treated with suture repair at the time of surgery, but 5 patients underwent reverse total shoulder arthroplasty based primarily on the intraoperative finding of a significant rotator cuff tear. A concomitant rotator cuff tear in association with a proximal humerus fracture is relatively common. Rotator cuff tears are associated with older patients and those with a fracture-dislocation. In rare cases, these cases may require the availability of a reverse shoulder prosthesis. PMID:25361372

  6. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  7. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  8. Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model.

    PubMed

    Ru, Peng; Steele, Robert; Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Phillips, Nancy; Ray, Ratna B

    2011-12-01

    Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among American men. Earlier diagnosis increases survival rate in patients. However, treatments for advanced disease are limited to hormone ablation techniques and palliative care. Thus, new methods of treatment and prevention are necessary for inhibiting disease progression to a hormone refractory state. One of the approaches to control prostate cancer is prevention through diet, which inhibits one or more neoplastic events and reduces the cancer risk. For centuries, Ayurveda has recommended the use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) as a functional food to prevent and treat human health related issues. In this study, we have initially used human prostate cancer cells, PC3 and LNCaP, as an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of bitter melon extract (BME) as an anticancer agent. We observed that prostate cancer cells treated with BME accumulate during the S phase of the cell cycle and modulate cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p21 expression. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with BME enhanced Bax expression and induced PARP cleavage. Oral gavage of BME, as a dietary compound, delayed the progression to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) mice (31%). Prostate tissue from BME-fed mice displayed approximately 51% reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. Together, our results suggest for the first time that oral administration of BME inhibits prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice by interfering cell-cycle progression and proliferation. PMID:21911444

  9. Fast optical proximity correction: analytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioiri, Satomi; Tanabe, Hiroyoshi

    1995-05-01

    In automating optical proximity correction, calculation speed becomes important. In this paper we present a novel method for calculating proximity corrected features analytically. The calculation will take only several times the amount it takes to calculate intensity of one point on wafer. Therefore, the calculation will become extremely faster than conventional repetitive aerial image calculations. This method is applied to a simple periodic pattern. The simulated results show great improvement on linearity after correction and have proved the effectiveness of this analytical method.

  10. [Proximity, intimacy and promiscuity in care].

    PubMed

    Flicourt, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    Lying at the heart of the intimacy of the other person, the nature of care supposes that the caregiver identifies the components resulting from the proximity and the invasion of the patient's personal space, where perceptions and representations give rise to reactive emotions and behaviour. Between modesty and nudity, proximity and promiscuity, caregivers have to adjust their approach of proper care, limiting the risks of intrusion. PMID:26043630

  11. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  12. Maturation of rat proximal tubule chloride permeability.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michel; Quigley, Raymond

    2005-12-01

    We have previously shown that neonate rabbit tubules have a lower chloride permeability but comparable mannitol permeability compared with adult proximal tubules. The surprising finding of lower chloride permeability in neonate proximals compared with adults impacts net chloride transport in this segment, which reabsorbs 60% of the filtered chloride in adults. However, this maturational difference in chloride permeability may not be applicable to other species. The present in vitro microperfusion study directly examined the chloride and mannitol permeability using in vitro perfused rat proximal tubules during postnatal maturation. Whereas there was no maturational change in mannitol permeability, chloride permeability was 6.3 +/- 1.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in neonate rat proximal convoluted tubule and 16.1 +/- 2.3 x 10(-5) cm/s in adult rat proximal convoluted tubule (P < 0.01). There was also a maturational increase in chloride permeability in the rat proximal straight tubule (5.1 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s vs. 9.3 +/- 0.6 x 10(-5) cm/s, P < 0.01). There was no maturational change in bicarbonate-to-chloride permeabilities (P(HCO3)/P(Cl)) in the rat proximal straight tubules (PST) and proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) or in the sodium-to-chloride permeability (P(Na)/P(Cl)) in the proximal straight tubule; however, there was a significant maturational decrease in proximal convoluted tubule P(Na)/P(Cl) with postnatal development (1.31 +/- 0.12 in neonates vs. 0.75 +/- 0.06 in adults, P < 0.001). There was no difference in the transepithelial resistance measured by current injection and cable analysis in the PCT, but there was a maturational decrease in the PST (7.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.6 +/- 0.1 ohms x cm2, P < 0.05). These studies demonstrate there are maturational changes in the rat paracellular pathway that impact net NaCl transport during development. PMID:16051720

  13. Circulating Cytokines and Nitric Oxide are Involved in the Inhibition of Neutrophil Migration in Patients with Uterine Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Douglas Côbo; Fernandes, Paulo Cesar; Cruvinel, João Celso Garcia; Nomelini, Isabela Destro; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins

    2012-01-01

    Aim To verify if patients with cervical neoplasia produce mediators that reduce leukocyte function. Methods Control neutrophils incubated with normal serum or serum from pre-invasive or invasive neoplasia patients were assayed for chemotaxis. Mediators were assayed in serum and in leukocyte supernatants. Experiments were also performed in random patients after surgery. Results Neutrophils incubated with patient sera, but not normal sera, failed to migrate towards the chemoattractants. In invasive neoplasia compared to controls, IL-6 and IL-8, and IL-10 and TNF-α were elevated in serum and in neutrophil supernatants, respectively. Nitrite levels were elevated in mononuclear cell supernatants from patients than controls. After surgery, serum cytokine levels were reduced, mainly in pre-invasive patients. Neutrophils treated with serum from pre-invasive patients undergone surgery had restored migration. Conclusion Patients with cervical neoplasia produce mediators, predominantly induced by tumor cells, able to impair the inflammatory response at very early stages of disease. PMID:22693424

  14. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II: a combined surgical and genetic approach to treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Partington, M W; Ghent, W R; Sears, E V; Simpson, N E

    1981-01-01

    A family with multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II living in southeastern Ontario is described. Twenty individuals are known to have had medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma or both, the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia. type II is strongly suspected in five other individuals in the earlier generations. In this family the diseases seems to be transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. A screening program set up for the family in 1977 has in 2 years identified four asymptomatic individuals (three with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and one with this carcinoma and a pheochromocytoma). The family background, clinical picture, treatment and some of the problems of the screening program are described. PMID:7214269

  16. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia by dietary soy sauce

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, H.; Storkson, J.M.; Nagahara, A.; Pariza, M.W. )

    1991-03-15

    Japanese-style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) contains anticarcinogenic activity. ICR mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing shoyu. 2 wks later a regimen consisting of 2 doses (p.o.) of benzo(a)pyrene per wk for 4 wks was begun, to initiate forestomach neoplasia. 23 wks later the animals were sacrificed, forestomach neoplasms counted and histologically confirmed. Shoyu produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in neoplasms, which appeared maximal when shoyu was present at 20% of the diet. Exposure to nitrite neither enhanced nor diminished the anticarcinogenic effect. Shoyu was found to contain antioxidant activity which may be related to the observed anticarcinogenic effect. Surprisingly mouse forestomach ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was induced by shoyu, due in part to high sodium chloride content. Since ODC induction appears to be an early and possibly obligatory event in tumor promotion, the inhibition of neoplasia by shoyu probably occurs at a later step.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  18. Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in the Management of Esophageal Neoplasia: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Wang, Kenneth K.; Prasad, Ganapathy A

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection has expanded the role of the gastroenterologist in the management of esophageal neoplasia from screening and diagnosis to staging and endoscopic treatment. Its rise to prominence is a reflection of the long identified need to obtain histological information regarding depth of invasion and neoplastic margins during therapy that previously could not be achieved with ablative techniques. The resultant improvement in diagnosis and staging has allowed for better selection of patients for endoscopic therapy who may be spared invasive surgery. The clinical indications, endoscopic techniques, outcomes and complications in the management of esophageal neoplasia are reviewed in this manuscript. Training requirements to achieve proficiency in EMR as well as potential quality measures to assess competence are also proposed in this review. PMID:20541628

  19. Abraham Lincoln's marfanoid mother: the earliest known case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B?

    PubMed

    Sotos, John G

    2012-07-01

    The nature and cause of President Abraham Lincoln's unusual physical features have long been debated, with the greatest attention directed at two monogenic disorders of the transforming growth factor β system: Marfan syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. The present report examines newly discovered phenotypic information about Lincoln's biological mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and concludes that (a) Lincoln's mother was skeletally marfanoid, (b) the President and his mother were highly concordant for the presence of numerous facial features found in various transforming growth factor β disorders, and (c) Lincoln's mother, like her son, had hypotonic skeletal muscles, resulting in myopathic facies and 'pseudodepression'. These conclusions establish that mother and son had the same monogenic autosomal dominant marfanoid disorder. A description of Nancy Hanks Lincoln as coarse-featured, and a little-known statement that a wasting disease contributed to her death at age 34, lends support to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B hypothesis.

  20. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.

  1. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids. PMID:19110704

  2. Cloning and characterization of neoplasia-related genes in flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-04-01

    Bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia (DN) are the most important diseases affecting cultured flat oysters Ostrea edulis in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous research using suppresive substraction hybridisation that had been performed addressing the molecular basis of DN as well as the induction and development of the disease in oysters, yielded the whole open reading frame of nine genes: XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, C1qTNF, RPA3, SAP18, p23, ubiquitin and ferritin. These nine genes were characterized in this study. The phylogenetic relationships for each gene were studied using minimum-evolution methods. Quantitative-PCR assays were also developed to analyse the modulation of the expression of these genes by bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia. Gene expression profiles were studied in haemolymph cells and in various organs (gill, gonad, mantle and digestive gland) of oysters affected by bonamiosis, disseminated neoplasia, both diseases and in non-affected oysters (control). The expression of XBP-1, NDPk, RPA3, SAP18 and ferritin increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with heavy bonamiosis. The expression of C1qTNF; SAP18 and p23 increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with DN. The expression of XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, RPA3 and p23 significantly increased in haemolymph cells of oysters affected by both diseases. There were changes in the expression of a number of genes in different organs depeding on disease stage: RACK expression increased in gills of oysters with bonamiosis, XBP-1 increased in mantle and digestive organs of oysters with light DN and RPA3 expression increased in gonads of oysters with heavy bonamiosis and heavy neoplasia. PMID:24560728

  3. Notalgia Paresthetica and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome 2A: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Francisco; Feito, Marta; Albizuri, Fátima; Beato, María; De Lucas, Raúl

    2016-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is characterized by a hyperpigmented macular pruritic skin lesion most commonly localized unilaterally in the middle and upper back region. This condition has been reported in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (MEN 2A) in several families; it rarely affects children and it may serve as an early marker of MEN 2A. We report a 9-year-old girl diagnosed with MEN 2A and notalgia paresthetica. PMID:27396529

  4. Clonal Evolution in Two Patients with Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoreticular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M.; Thorburn, Marigold J.; Gibbs, W. N.; Brooks, S. E. H.; Hanchard, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two cases are described, one with proven lymphosarcoma and doubtful autoimmune disease, and the second with the reverse situation, in which circulating abnormal mononuclear cells showed PHA responsiveness and an abnormal chromosomal constitution (clonal evolution). These findings are discussed in the light of previous cytogenetic studies of lymphoreticular neoplasia and autoimmune disease and the relationship between these two conditions. ImagesFigs. 2-3Fig. 9Fig. 4Figs. 6-7Figs. 1,5Fig. 8 PMID:4393772

  5. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis: Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaewon

    2016-01-01

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common radiographic finding after long spinal fusion. A number of studies on the causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of PJK have been conducted. However, no clear definition of PJK has been established. In this paper, we aimed to clarify the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of PJK by reviewing relevant papers that have been published to date. A literature search was conducted on PubMed using "proximal junctional", "proximal junctional kyphosis", and "proximal junctional failure" as search keywords. Only studies that were published in English were included in this study. The incidence of PJK ranges from 5% to 46%, and it has been reported that 66% of cases occur 3 months after surgery and approximately 80% occur within 18 months. A number of studies have reported that there is no significantly different clinical outcome between PJK patients and non-PJK patients. One study showed that PJK patients expressed more pain than non-PJK patients. However, recent studies focused on proximal junctional failure (PJF), which is accepted as a severe form of PJK. PJF showed significant adverse impact in clinical aspect such as pain, neurologic deficit, ambulatory difficulties, and social isolation. Numerous previous studies have identified various risk factors and reported on the treatment and prevention of PJK. Based on these studies, we determined the clinical significance and impact of PJK. In addition, it is important to find a strategic approach to the proper treatment of PJK. PMID:27340542

  6. Turner syndrome and meningioma: support for a possible increased risk of neoplasia in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pier, Danielle B; Nunes, Fabio P; Plotkin, Scott R; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Kim, James C; Shih, Helen A; Brastianos, Priscilla; Lin, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Neoplasia is uncommon in Turner syndrome, although there is some evidence that brain tumors are more common in Turner syndrome patients than in the general population. We describe a woman with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a meningioma, in whom a second neoplasia, basal cell carcinomas of the scalp and nose, developed five years later in the absence of therapeutic radiation. Together with 7 cases of Turner syndrome with meningioma from a population-based survey in the United Kingdom, and 3 other isolated cases in the literature, we review this small number of patients for evidence of risk factors related to Turner syndrome, such as associated structural anomalies or prior treatment. We performed histological and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of 22q (NF2 locus) analyses of the meningeal tumor to search for possible molecular determinants. We are not able to prove causation between these two entities, but suggest that neoplasia may be a rare associated medical problem in Turner syndrome. Additional case reports and extension of population-based studies are needed.

  7. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  8. Recessive transmission of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Andreas; Walch, Axel; Piotrowska, Kamilla; Rosemann, Michael; Schäffer, Ekkehard; Weber, Karin; Timper, Andreas; Wildner, Gerhild; Graw, Jochen; Höfler, Heinz; Atkinson, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    We describe a novel hereditary cancer syndrome in the rat that is transmitted by a recessive gene mutation. Animals exhibiting the mutant phenotype develop multiple neuroendocrine malignancies within the first year of life. The endocrine neoplasia is characterized by bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, bilateral medullary thyroid cell neoplasia, bilateral parathyroid hyperplasia, and pituitary adenoma. The appearance of neoplastic disease is preceded by the development of bilateral juvenile cataracts. Although the spectrum of affected tissues is reminiscent of human forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), no germ-line mutations were detected in the Ret or Menin genes that are responsible for the dominantly inherited MEN syndromes in humans. Segregation studies in F1 and F2 crosses yielded frequencies of affected animals entirely consistent with a recessive autosomal mode of inheritance. The lack of the phenotype in F1 animals effectively excludes a germ-line tumor suppressor gene mutation as the causal event. The absence of mutation of known MEN genes and the unique constellation of affected tissues, plus the recessive mode of inheritance, lead us to conclude that the mutation of an as yet unknown gene is responsible for this syndrome of inherited neuroendocrine cancer.

  9. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of colorectal neoplasia located on the suture line of anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Horii, Joichiro; Uraoka, Toshio; Goto, Osamu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Yahagi, Naohisa

    2014-08-01

    Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can remove gastrointestinal neoplasia even with severe fibrosis into the submucosa, the safety and efficacy of ESD for colorectal neoplasia (CRN) located on the suture line of anastomosis (SLA) has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ESD for CRN located on the SLA, performed by a highly skilled endoscopist. Three consecutive patients with CRN located on the SLA were treated with ESD. In all cases, ESD was safely performed without any adverse events. The median tumor size of the resected CRN was 30 mm (range 12-75 mm) and the median procedure time was 150 min (range 50-150 min). Curative resection was achieved in two cases without local recurrence during a 12-month observation period. In one case, the CRN were resected in an almost en bloc fashion, but a decision was made to spare the edge of the CRN that was directly on the SLA in order to avoid delayed perforation, and this edge was instead removed with hemostatic forceps. Although the surveillance colonoscopy revealed a small residual neoplasia, it was curatively treated by endoscopically. In all cases, ESD managed to avoid the need for repetitive surgery. This case series suggests the feasibility of ESD performed by a highly skilled endoscopist as a curative treatment for the CRN located on the SLA.

  10. Identifying constituent spectra sources in multispectral images to quantify and locate cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin C.; Bambot, Shabbir

    2011-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been shown to be an effective method for detecting neoplasia. Guided Therapeutics has developed LightTouch, a non invasive device that uses a combination of reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for identifying early cancer of the human cervix. The combination of the multispectral information from the two spectroscopic modalities has been shown to be an effective method to screen for cervical cancer. There has however been a relative paucity of work in identifying the individual spectral components that contribute to the measured fluorescence and reflectance spectra. This work aims to identify the constituent source spectra and their concentrations. We used non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) numerical methods to decompose the mixed multispectral data into the constituent spectra and their corresponding concentrations. NNMF is an iterative approach that factorizes the measured data into non-negative factors. The factors are chosen to minimize the root-mean-squared residual error. NNMF has shown promise for feature extraction and identification in the fields of text mining and spectral data analysis. Since both the constituent source spectra and their corresponding concentrations are assumed to be non-negative by nature NNMF is a reasonable approach to deconvolve the measured multispectral data. Supervised learning methods were then used to determine which of the constituent spectra sources best predict the amount of neoplasia. The constituent spectra sources found to best predict neoplasia were then compared with spectra of known biological chromophores.

  11. Proximity assays for sensitive quantification of proteins.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Christina; Ruff, David; Kirvell, Sara; Johnson, Gemma; Dhillon, Harvinder S; Bustin, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    Proximity assays are immunohistochemical tools that utilise two or more DNA-tagged aptamers or antibodies binding in close proximity to the same protein or protein complex. Amplification by PCR or isothermal methods and hybridisation of a labelled probe to its DNA target generates a signal that enables sensitive and robust detection of proteins, protein modifications or protein-protein interactions. Assays can be carried out in homogeneous or solid phase formats and in situ assays can visualise single protein molecules or complexes with high spatial accuracy. These properties highlight the potential of proximity assays in research, diagnostic, pharmacological and many other applications that require sensitive, specific and accurate assessments of protein expression. PMID:27077033

  12. Proximity assays for sensitive quantification of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Christina; Ruff, David; Kirvell, Sara; Johnson, Gemma; Dhillon, Harvinder S.; Bustin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Proximity assays are immunohistochemical tools that utilise two or more DNA-tagged aptamers or antibodies binding in close proximity to the same protein or protein complex. Amplification by PCR or isothermal methods and hybridisation of a labelled probe to its DNA target generates a signal that enables sensitive and robust detection of proteins, protein modifications or protein–protein interactions. Assays can be carried out in homogeneous or solid phase formats and in situ assays can visualise single protein molecules or complexes with high spatial accuracy. These properties highlight the potential of proximity assays in research, diagnostic, pharmacological and many other applications that require sensitive, specific and accurate assessments of protein expression. PMID:27077033

  13. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  14. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type resected by combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET).

    PubMed

    Kato, Motohiko; Uraoka, Toshio; Isobe, Yoh; Abe, Keiichiro; Hirata, Tetsu; Takada, Yoshiaki; Wada, Michiko; Takatori, Yusaku; Takabayashi, Kaoru; Fujiyama, Yoichi; Sekiya, Kousuke; Kawaguchi, Yoshiki; Sukeda, Aoi; Shiraishi, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    A male in his eighties attended our hospital for further evaluation of gastric cancer. A gastroscopy revealed a whitish flat elevated lesion (Paris, 0-IIa) of 15 mm in diameter on the greater curvature of the proximal fornix. The preoperative diagnosis was intra-mucosal differentiated gastric cancer, and a novel therapeutic approach, combination of laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches to neoplasia with non-exposure technique (CLEAN-NET) was applied and the lesion was resected in a single piece without any complications. Histopathological findings revealed atypical glandular epithelium proliferated in the mucosa and shallow layer (300 μm) of submucosa. These cells stained positive for pepsinogen-I and the final diagnosis was gastric cancer of fundic gland type (GAFT). There was no lymph-vascular involvement and free horizontal and vertical margins were confirmed. CLEAN-NET could be a therapeutic option for GAFT at low risk of lymph node metastasis because it prevents excess wall defect and exposure of cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity.

  15. Existence and convergence of best proximity points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, A. Anthony; Veeramani, P.

    2006-11-01

    Consider a self map T defined on the union of two subsets A and B of a metric space and satisfying T(A)[subset of or equal to]B and T(B)[subset of or equal to]A. We give some contraction type existence results for a best proximity point, that is, a point x such that d(x,Tx)=dist(A,B). We also give an algorithm to find a best proximity point for the map T in the setting of a uniformly convex Banach space.

  16. Correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases and colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ying; Wang, Min; Lin, Ying-Min; Wu, Dong; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Gao, Lang; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yin, Teng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric diseases and colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: Patients included in this study underwent a colonoscopy and esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) along with histopathological measurement between March 2012 and March 2015 at Qi-Lu Hospital of Shandong University, who also had results of H. pylori detection. A total of 233 cases were selected. Demographic data, H. pylori infection status (including results of rapid urease tests and gastric mucosa pathological examinations) and histopathological examination results of gastric and colorectal mucosa were gathered and analyzed. The statistical analysis focused on the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms among patients with various histopathological categories of the stomach. ORs and their 95%CI were calculated to describe the strengths of the associations. RESULTS: The incidence rates of colorectal adenoma without high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIEN) (OR = 2.400, 95%CI: 0.969-5.941), adenoma with HGIEN (5.333, 1.025-27.758) and adenocarcinoma (1.455, 0.382-5.543) were all higher for patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis than for those in the control group. The incidence rate of colorectal adenoma with HGIEN (3.218, 0.767-13.509) was higher in patients with intestinal metaplasia than in the control group, while the incidence rates of adenoma without HGIEN (0.874, 0.414-1.845) and adenocarcinoma (0.376, 0.096-1.470) were lower in the intestinal metaplasia group than in the control group. The incidence rate of colorectal adenoma without HGIEN (3.111, 1.248-7.753) was significantly higher in the gastric intraepithelial neoplasia group than in the control group, while the rates of adenoma with HGIEN (1.481, 0.138-15.941) and adenocarcinoma (2.020, 0.561-7.272) were higher in the gastric intraepithelial neoplasia group. Incidence rates of colorectal adenoma without HGIEN (1.067, 0.264-4.314), adenoma with HGIEN (2.667, 0

  17. Calcium Intake and Ion Transporter Genetic Polymorphisms Interact in Human Colorectal Neoplasia Risk in a 2-Phase Study123

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiangzhu; Liang, Ji; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Ness, Reid M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Chen, Zhi; Li, Guoliang; Wiese, Dawn; Zhang, Bing; Smalley, Walter E.; Edwards, Todd L.; Giovannucci, Edward; Zheng, Wei; Dai, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The kidney-specific sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) protein encoded by solute carrier family 12 member 1 (SLC12A1) is the direct downstream effector of the inward-rectifier potassium channel (ROMK) encoded by potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1 (KCNJ1), both of which are critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidney. Objective: We hypothesized that polymorphisms in KCNJ1, SLC12A1, and 7 other genes may modify the association between calcium intake and colorectal neoplasia risk. Methods: We conducted a 2-phase study in 1336 cases and 2891 controls from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study. Results: In phase I, we identified 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly interacted with calcium intake in adenoma risk. In phase II, rs2855798 in KCNJ1 was replicated. In combined analysis of phases I and II, the P values for interactions between calcium intake and rs2855798 were 1 × 10−4 for all adenoma and 5 × 10−3 for multiple/advanced adenoma. The highest calcium intake was not associated with risk among those with no variant allele but was significantly associated with a 41% reduced adenoma risk among those who carried at least 1 variant allele in KCNJ1. The corresponding reduction in risk of multiple or advanced adenomas was 52% among those with at least 1 variant allele. The P values for interactions between calcium intake and combined SNPs from the KCNJ1 and SLC12A1 genes were 7.5 × 10−5 for adenoma and 9.9 × 10−5 for multiple/advanced adenoma. The highest calcium intake was not associated with risk among those with nonvariant alleles in 2 genes but was significantly associated with a 34% reduced adenoma risk among those who carried a variant allele in 1 of the genes. The corresponding reduction in risk of multiple or advanced adenomas was 64% among those with variant alleles in both genes. Conclusion: These findings, if confirmed, will be critical for the development of personalized

  18. From hyperplasia to frank breast neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. Immunoprevention.

    PubMed

    Corocleanu, M

    1995-01-01

    There is strong evidence that in advanced cases of breast fibrocystic disease, the risk of cancer is elevated. Cyclic breast glandular hyperplasia is commonly associated with mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease. The administration of progestins, antiestrogens and/or local progesteron, results in some cases in a desensibilisation, accompanied by loss in responsiveness to hormonal therapy. Out of 167 patients (pts) suffering from mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease with positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTHS) reactions to a pharmaceutical Placenta Suspension (PS), when injected intradermally, in 87 pts. who failed to respond to hormonal therapy, a vaccine preparade from PS admixed with an adjuvant (BCG), was administrated in one intradermal injection (0.1). In all the pts. recruited into the study, a complete remission of the symptoms occurred and in the majority of cases lasted throughout the 12 month follow-up period. The essential factor of relative hyper-estrinism, initiates breast epithelial hyperplasia and also increases stromal ground substance, which has the propensity to fibrous reorganisation. A true or relative hypoxia results, as a consequence of connective tissue sclerosis and epithelial thickness, constituting a supplementary factor for further epithelial proliferation. The risk of gene faults is greater when hypoxia operates at cell viability level and for long enough duration. Within the frame of persistent multicellular proliferative potential, a basic shift in energy metabolism is accompanied by appearance of fetal isoenzymes and of membrane glycoproteins, that induces a host immunological reaction (emphasised by PS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556289

  19. [Global analysis strategies. Toward the genetic management of neoplasias].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A; Salcedo, M

    2001-01-01

    Biomedical research in oncological diseases, particularly focused on the study and understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular transformation, is opening new possibilities for the development of new and more efficient strategies for diagnosis and treatment. The generation and practical application of the results derived from molecular genetic studies in cancer, has evolved in parallel with the development of technological tools that allow us to get a global vision of diverse cellular processes, both in the normal and pathological states. This combination of basic research and technological application, has created methodologies that allow us to analyze the three principal levels of Molecular Genetics, the Genome (DNA, archive of the genetic information), the Transcriptome (RNA, expression of the genetic information), and finally, the Proteome (proteins, functional aspect of the genetic information). The vast amount of information obtained due to these advancements has begun to modify our fundamental vision about oncological diseases, and together with the traditional analytic tools, they hold the promise of changing the ways we classify, detect, diagnose and treat cancer. In this review, we present some of this methods for global genetic analysis, involving the three levels of genetic organization: the genome, with the Human Genome Project, comparative genomic hybridization and chromosome painting; the Transcriptome, with Serial analysis of Gene Expression and DNA microarrays; and the proteome, with bidimensional protein electrophoresis and antibody-microarrays. In each case, together with a brief description of the method, we also present the impact of every one of them on the study and management of neoplastic diseases.

  20. Pulse compression grating fabrication by diffractive proximity photolithography.

    PubMed

    Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Fuchs, Frank; Harzendorf, Torsten; Zeitner, Uwe D

    2014-02-15

    We report about a newly devised throughput-scalable fabrication method for high-quality periodic submicron structures. The process is demonstrated for optical transmission gratings in fused silica with a period of 800 nm (1250  lines/mm) to be used in laser pulse compression. The technology is based on an innovative advancement of i-line proximity photolithography performed in a mask aligner. The aerial image is encoded in a rigorously optimized electron-beam-written three-level phase mask which is illuminated by an adapted multipole configuration of incidence angles. In comparison to conventional proximity lithography, the process enables a significantly higher resolution while maintaining a good depth of focus--in contrast to lithography based on direct Talbot-imaging. Details about the grating fabrication process and characterization of fabricated pulse compression grating wafers are presented. The gratings show a diffraction efficiency of 97% at a wavelength of 1030 nm and a wavefront error comparable to gratings fabricated by electron-beam lithography.

  1. Biomarkers of human colonic cell growth are influenced differently by a history of colonic neoplasia and the consumption of acarbose.

    PubMed

    Weaver, G A; Tangel, C T; Krause, J A; Parfitt, M M; Stragand, J J; Jenkins, P L; Erb, T A; Davidson, R H; Alpern, H D; Guiney, W B; Higgins, P J

    2000-11-01

    The nutritional effects of butyrate on the colonic mucosa and studies of transformed cells suggest that butyrate has anti-colon cancer effects. If butyrate has antineoplastic effects, mucosal growth contrasts between normal subjects and those with a history of colonic neoplasia would parallel changes in growth characteristics caused by butyrate in a colon neoplasia population. To test this hypothesis, rectal biopsies from a survey of colonoscopy patients (n = 50) with and without a history of colonic neoplasia (controls) were compared. Similarly, rectal biopsies were compared from subjects (n = 44) with a colon neoplasia history in an acarbose-placebo crossover trial. Control subjects in the colonoscopy survey had higher bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake than subjects with a history of neoplasia (P = 0.05). The control subjects also had a higher correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). Both findings were paralleled by acarbose use. Acarbose augmented BrdU uptake (P = 0.0001) and improved the correlation of BrdU and Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.013). Acarbose also augmented fecal butyrate (P = 0.0001), which was positively correlated with Ki-67 labeling (P = 0.003). p52 antigen had an earlier pattern of crypt distribution in subjects with a history of colon neoplasia but was not affected by acarbose use. Lewis-Y antigen was expressed earlier in the crypt with acarbose but had similar expression in the colonoscopy survey groups. The use of acarbose to enhance fecal butyrate concentration produced mucosal changes paralleling the findings in control subjects as opposed to those with neoplasia, supporting the concept of an antineoplastic role for butyrate.

  2. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  3. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  4. [Novel treatment possibilities for proximal caries].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Fejerskov, Ole; Paris, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    So far approaches for caries treatment follow a dichotomized scheme: Non invasive options of primary and secondary prevention are contrasted to invasive treatment of caries lesions. Depending on the treatment philosophy of dentists and dental schools an early or late invasive treatment threshold is recommended. Sealing of proximal lesions as done in pit and fissures has only been established in some dental schools, so far. Moreover, infiltration of the enamel part of lesions could close the gap between preventive and invasive measures. Most of these novel treatment options for proximal surfaces are currently in the last stages of product development. With respect to the good clinical results of proximal sealing with conventional sealants, this regimen seems already be recommendable to hamper further lesion progression in clinical practice. Caries infiltration of lesions situated on proximal and other smooth surfaces might even be a more promising approach, if clinical studies corroborate the recent in vitro findings. All these novel limited invasive strategies might be suitable to complete the current dichotomized way of caries treatment.

  5. Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Norio; Toujigamori, Manabu; Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Inomata, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no standardized method of reconstruction in laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We present a novel technique of reconstruction with a long, narrow gastric tube in LPG for early gastric cancer (EGC). Methods: During the laparoscopic procedure, the upper part of the stomach is fully mobilized with perigastric and suprapancreatic lymphadenectomy, and then the abdominal esophagus is transected. After a minilaparotomy is created, the entire stomach is pulled outside. A long, narrow gastric tube (20 cm long, 3 cm wide) is created with a linear stapler. The proximal part of the gastric tube is formed into a cobra head shape for esophagogastric tube anastomosis, which is then performed with a 45-mm linear stapler under laparoscopic view. The end of the esophagus is fixed on the gastric tube to prevent postoperative esophageal reflux. Results: Thirteen patients with early proximal gastric cancer underwent the procedure. The mean operative time was 283 min, and median blood loss was 63 ml. There were no conversions to open surgery, and no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: This new technique of reconstruction after LPG is simple and feasible. The procedure has the potential of becoming a standard reconstruction technique after LPG for proximal EGC. PMID:27547027

  6. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  7. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    SciTech Connect

    Kaskel, F.J.; Kumar, A.M.; Lockhart, E.A.; Evan, A.; Spitzer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of (/sup 3/H)inulin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (/sup 14/C)creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of (/sup 14/C)mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  9. Anomalous magnetization reversal due to proximity effect of antiphase boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofin, R. G. S.; Wu, Han-Chun; Shvets, I. V.

    2011-12-01

    Here we report anomalous double switching hysteresis loop and high coercivity (˜0.1 T) in Fe3O4(110) thin films. Our analytical model based on spin chains confined within small antiphase boundary domains (APBDs) suggests a significant proximity effect of antiferromagnetic antiphase boundaries (APBs). Furthermore, the calculated domain size (D) follows the well-known scaling relation D=Ct. The results suggest that the interface exchange coupling between neighboring magnetic domains through antiferromagnetic APBs is responsible for the double switching hysteresis. Our findings could help advance the studies of anomalous properties of magnetic materials originating from growth defects. This effect can be utilized for the tunability of exchange bias in devices.

  10. Bioprinting of 3D Convoluted Renal Proximal Tubules on Perfusable Chips

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Kolesky, David B.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Herrmann, Jessica; Obuobi, Humphrey; Moisan, Annie; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen. These engineered 3D proximal tubules on chip exhibit significantly enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties relative to the same cells grown on 2D controls with or without perfusion. Upon introducing the nephrotoxin, Cyclosporine A, the epithelial barrier is disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. Our bioprinting method provides a new route for programmably fabricating advanced human kidney tissue models on demand. PMID:27725720

  11. Bioprinting of 3D Convoluted Renal Proximal Tubules on Perfusable Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Kolesky, David B.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Herrmann, Jessica; Obuobi, Humphrey; Moisan, Annie; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen. These engineered 3D proximal tubules on chip exhibit significantly enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties relative to the same cells grown on 2D controls with or without perfusion. Upon introducing the nephrotoxin, Cyclosporine A, the epithelial barrier is disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. Our bioprinting method provides a new route for programmably fabricating advanced human kidney tissue models on demand.

  12. Modular video endoscopy for in vivo cross-polarized and vital-dye fluorescence imaging of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Pierce, Mark C.; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Flores, Raja M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2013-02-01

    A modular video endoscope is developed and tested to allow imaging in different modalities. This system incorporates white light imaging (WLI), cross-polarized imaging (CPI), and vital-dye fluorescence imaging (VFI), using interchangeable filter modules. CPI and VFI are novel endoscopic modalities that probe mucosal features associated with Barrett's neoplasia. CPI enhances vasculature, while VFI enhances glandular architecture. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the integration of these modalities by imaging areas of Barrett's metaplasia and neoplasia in an esophagectomy specimen. We verify that those key image features are also observed during an in vivo surveillance procedure. CPI images demonstrate improved visualization of branching blood vessels associated with neoplasia. VFI images show glandular architecture with increased glandular effacement associated with neoplasia. Results suggests that important pathologic features seen in CPI and VFI are not visible during standard endoscopic white light imaging, and thus the modalities may be useful in future in vivo studies for discriminating neoplasia from Barrett's metaplasia. We further demonstrate that the integrated WLI/CPI/VFI endoscope is compatible with complementary high-resolution endomicroscopy techniques such as the high-resolution microendoscope, potentially enabling two-step ("red-flag" widefield plus confirmatory high-resolution imaging) protocols to be enhanced.

  13. PDX-1 is a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer, insulinoma and islet neoplasia using a novel RNA interference platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-He; Rao, Donald D; Nemunaitis, John; Senzer, Neil; Zhou, Guisheng; Dawson, David; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Wang, Zhaohui; Gibbs, Richard; Norman, Michael; Templeton, Nancy S; Demayo, Francesco J; O'Malley, Bert; Sanchez, Robbi; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) is a transcription factor that regulates insulin expression and islet maintenance in the adult pancreas. Our recent studies demonstrate that PDX-1 is an oncogene for pancreatic cancer and is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that PDX-1 is a therapeutic target for both hormonal symptoms and tumor volume in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, insulinoma and islet neoplasia. Immunohistochemistry of human pancreatic and islet neoplasia specimens revealed marked PDX-1 overexpression, suggesting PDX-1 as a "drugable" target within these diseases. To do so, a novel RNA interference effector platform, bifunctional shRNA(PDX-1), was developed and studied in mouse and human cell lines as well as in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, insulinoma and islet neoplasia. Systemic delivery of bi-shRNA(humanPDX-1) lipoplexes resulted in marked reduction of tumor volume and improved survival in a human pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model. bi-shRNA(mousePDX-1) lipoplexes prevented death from hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia in an insulinoma mouse model. shRNA(mousePDX-1) lipoplexes reversed hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia in an immune-competent mouse model of islet neoplasia. PDX-1 was overexpressed in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and nesidioblastosis. These data demonstrate that PDX-1 RNAi therapy controls hormonal symptoms and tumor volume in mouse models of pancreatic cancer, insulinoma and islet neoplasia, therefore, PDX-1 is a potential therapeutic target for these pancreatic diseases.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of in vivo vital-dye fluorescence endoscopic imaging for the detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thekkek, Nadhi; Lee, Michelle H.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-05-01

    Current imaging tools are associated with inconsistent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Optical imaging has shown promise in improving the classification of neoplasia in vivo. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether in vivo vital dye fluorescence imaging (VFI) has the potential to improve the accuracy of early-detection of Barrett's-associated neoplasia. In vivo endoscopic VFI images were collected from 65 sites in 14 patients with confirmed Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplasia, or esophageal adenocarcinoma using a modular video endoscope and a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME). Qualitative image features were compared to histology; VFI and HRME images show changes in glandular structure associated with neoplastic progression. Quantitative image features in VFI images were identified for objective image classification of metaplasia and neoplasia, and a diagnostic algorithm was developed using leave-one-out cross validation. Three image features extracted from VFI images were used to classify tissue as neoplastic or not with a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 77.6% (AUC=0.878). A multimodal approach incorporating VFI and HRME imaging can delineate epithelial changes present in Barrett's-associated neoplasia. Quantitative analysis of VFI images may provide a means for objective interpretation of BE during surveillance.

  15. Long-Term Results after Proximal Thoracic Aortic Redo Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Czerny, Martin; Barchichat, Ilan; Meszaros, Katharina; Sodeck, Gottfried H.; Weber, Alberto; Reineke, David; Englberger, Lars; Schönhoff, Florian; Kadner, Alexander; Jenni, Hansjörg; Schmidli, Jürg; Carrel, Thierry P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate early and mid-term results in patients undergoing proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery. Methods We analyzed 60 patients (median age 60 years, median logistic EuroSCORE 40) who underwent proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery between January 2005 and April 2012. Outcome and risk factors were analyzed. Results In hospital mortality was 13%, perioperative neurologic injury was 7%. Fifty percent of patients underwent redo surgery in an urgent or emergency setting. In 65%, partial or total arch replacement with or without conventional or frozen elephant trunk extension was performed. The preoperative logistic EuroSCORE I confirmed to be a reliable predictor of adverse outcome- (ROC 0.786, 95%CI 0.64–0.93) as did the new EuroSCORE II model: ROC 0.882 95%CI 0.78–0.98. Extensive individual logistic EuroSCORE I levels more than 67 showed an OR of 7.01, 95%CI 1.43–34.27. A EuroSCORE II larger than 28 showed an OR of 4.44 (95%CI 1.4–14.06). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a critical preoperative state (OR 7.96, 95%CI 1.51–38.79) but not advanced age (OR 2.46, 95%CI 0.48–12.66) as the strongest independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Median follow-up was 23 months (1–52 months). One year and five year actuarial survival rates were 83% and 69% respectively. Freedom from reoperation during follow-up was 100%. Conclusions Despite a substantial early attrition rate in patients presenting with a critical preoperative state, proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery provides excellent early and mid-term results. Higher EuroSCORE I and II levels and a critical preoperative state but not advanced age are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. As a consequence, age alone should no longer be regarded as a contraindication for surgical treatment in this particular group of patients. PMID:23469220

  16. A profile of cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia at a large tertiary centre in dubai.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Tasneem H; Badawi, Faiza

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To study (1) the prevalence of different types of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) in the local and nonlocal population of women at Al Wasl Hospital, a tertiary level referral centre for northern Emirates, (2) the safety of cervical preparation before uterine evacuation, (3) the role of repeat uterine evacuation in curing these cases, and (4) the percentage of cases ultimately requiring chemotherapy. Material and Methods. Retrospective analysis of case records of 35 women with diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were managed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Al Wasl Hospital, over a 2-year period between January 2007 to December 2008. Results. 35 cases of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were seen in a 2-year period (January 2007 to December 2008) at Al Wasl Hospital, with 7000 deliveries per year, prevalence being 1 in 400 live births. 60% cases were local Arabs. Histopathology revealed complete mole in 13 cases, partial mole in 17 cases, hydropic degeneration of villi in 4 cases, and no identifiable tissue in 1 case. No cases of choriocarcinoma or placental site trophoblastic tumour were seen during the study period. 34% cases received cervical preparation with prostaglandins prior to surgical curettage. Complications were minor. 62% were cured by primary suction curettage, 12% after second (repeat) uterine evacuation, and 25% needed single drug chemotherapy. 8% cases defaulted after primary evacuation and were lost to followup. Conclusions. Prevalence of GTN in the local Arab population is similar to other Asian populations. The majority of cases are cured by simple suction uterine curettage. Cervical preparation with prostaglandins should be done in selected cases to avoid perforation during evacuation. Second (repeat) uterine evacuation can be curative in some cases with strict selection criteria and avoid the need for chemotherapy. Regional registry of cases is needed to estimate the true incidence of this

  17. Minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 has an important role in the invasion of papillary urothelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, BINGXIN; WANG, XIAOYING; YANG, JINGYAN; ZHOU, CHENGJUN; MENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) and determine its association with tumor proliferation and invasion in pathological tumor (pT)a and pT1 papillary urothelial neoplasia. The MCM7, MCM3 and Ki67 proteins were detected in 154 cases of urothelial neoplasia using immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of MCM7 significantly increased (P<0.001) as the pathological stage and grade progressed between inverted papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), pTa tumor and pT1 tumor. However, no statistically significant difference in MCM7 staining was observed between low-grade pTa tumors and PUNLMP (P=0.2294). In contrast to MCM7, MCM3 was highly expressed in all stages of urothelial neoplasia, with no statistically significant differences observed between the tumor types (P=0.2993, 0.3885 and 0.8489 for pTa tumors, PUNLMP and inverted papiloma, respectively). Furthermore, MCM7 expression was elevated with increased tumor grade and was positively correlated with Ki67 expression (rs=0.9106, P<0.001). However, MCM3 expression was not correlated with MCM7 or Ki67 expression (rs=0.0734, P=0.3657 and rs=0.0638, P=0.4318, respectively). In conclusion, MCM7 overexpression may simultaneously promote tumor proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, it may be a reliable marker for the pathological differential diagnosis of pTa and pT1 papillary urothelial neoplasms; therefore, MCM7 expression may be used to predict tumor prognosis and behavior. PMID:26622601

  18. Fatal Cases of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in a National Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center in Dakar Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Mamour; Ndiaye-Gueye, Mame Diarra; Kane Gueye, Serigne Modou; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze deaths after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the factors of treatment failure. Methods: This is a retrospective study in Aristide Le Dantec teaching Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. We took into account socio-epidemiological characteristics of patients, initial diagnosis, time between uterine evacuation and admission, time to onset of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), treatment received (deadlines, protocols), difficulties experienced in the diagnosis and the initiation of treatment and survival. Results: In total, 1044 patients were admitted during the study period; 164 cases of GTN were diagnosed (15.7%); and 21 deaths occurred leading to a specific lethality of 12.8%. The average age was 30 years. Almost all patients (n = 18; 85.7%) had low income or no income. Eight out of 21 patients (38.1%) were seen in our department after GTN onset. The mean time to onset of GTN of all patients was 22.1 weeks. For 66.6%, histology was not available; the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole was made on the clinical history and sonographic features and GTN on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) evolution and ultrasound findings. None of the patients had regular chemotherapy due to financial reasons. Patients who died within 3 months after diagnosis had metastatic tumors (7 of 21). All these women had resistance to treatment or progressed after three courses of chemotherapy. Ten of the 12 women with high-risk GTN were not treated with multi-agent chemotherapy (EMA-CO) for purely financial reasons. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The high incidence and mortality require a profound reorganization of our health system and a high awareness of practitioners to refer to time or to declare all suspected cases of hydatidiform mole or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  19. Fatal Cases of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in a National Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center in Dakar Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Mamour; Ndiaye-Gueye, Mame Diarra; Kane Gueye, Serigne Modou; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze deaths after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and to determine the factors of treatment failure. Methods: This is a retrospective study in Aristide Le Dantec teaching Hospital in Dakar, Senegal, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. We took into account socio-epidemiological characteristics of patients, initial diagnosis, time between uterine evacuation and admission, time to onset of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), treatment received (deadlines, protocols), difficulties experienced in the diagnosis and the initiation of treatment and survival. Results: In total, 1044 patients were admitted during the study period; 164 cases of GTN were diagnosed (15.7%); and 21 deaths occurred leading to a specific lethality of 12.8%. The average age was 30 years. Almost all patients (n = 18; 85.7%) had low income or no income. Eight out of 21 patients (38.1%) were seen in our department after GTN onset. The mean time to onset of GTN of all patients was 22.1 weeks. For 66.6%, histology was not available; the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole was made on the clinical history and sonographic features and GTN on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) evolution and ultrasound findings. None of the patients had regular chemotherapy due to financial reasons. Patients who died within 3 months after diagnosis had metastatic tumors (7 of 21). All these women had resistance to treatment or progressed after three courses of chemotherapy. Ten of the 12 women with high-risk GTN were not treated with multi-agent chemotherapy (EMA-CO) for purely financial reasons. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The high incidence and mortality require a profound reorganization of our health system and a high awareness of practitioners to refer to time or to declare all suspected cases of hydatidiform mole or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:27622010

  20. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 10-month-old child with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B].

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Døssing, Helle; Bender, Lars; Godballe, Christian

    2014-01-27

    In infants at risk of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) the American Thyroid Association recommends genetic testing as soon as possible after birth and that thyroidectomy should be performed in MEN2B RET-mutation positive individuals as soon as possible and if possible within the first year of life. We present a ten-month-old girl with MEN2B who had prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical specimen showed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and prophylactic thyroidectomy in MEN2B patients. PMID:27498810

  1. Prospective evaluation of a portable depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy device to identify oral neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Richard A.; Gao, Wen; Stepanek, Vanda M. T.; Le, Tao T.; Bhattar, Vijayashree S.; Williams, Michelle D.; Wu, Jessica K.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A portable, depth-sensitive clinical spectroscopy device for noninvasive early diagnosis of oral cancer is described. We carried out a pilot study to evaluate the ability of the device to identify oral neoplasia using a previously developed diagnostic algorithm. A total of 79 oral sites in 33 subjects, including 28 patients with oral lesions and 5 healthy volunteers, were measured and analyzed. Measurements of 54 nonkeratinized oral sites yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.90. Measurements of 25 keratinized oral sites yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83. PMID:21326639

  2. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A Genetically Diverse Group of Familial Tumor Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, M Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is a familial cancer syndrome characterized by neuroendocrine tumors. The syndrome encompasses four major subtypes: MEN1, MEN2A, MEN2B, and MEN4. MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, MEN2A and MEN2B are caused by mutations in RET, and MEN4 is caused by mutations in CDKNB1. All are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, but de novo cases do arise. While all subtypes are associated with neuroendocrine tumors, each has characteristic organ involvement. Identifying patients with the syndrome can aid in proper screening and treatment. PMID:27617149

  3. c-Myc Oncoprotein: A Dual Pathogenic Role in Neoplasia and Cardiovascular Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Claudio; Lerman, Lilach O; de Nigris, Filomena; Sica, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of evidence indicates that c-Myc can play a pivotal role both in neoplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, alterations of the basal machinery of the cell and perturbations of c-Myc-dependent signaling network are involved in the pathogenesis of certain cardiovascular disorders. Down-regulation of c-Myc induced by intervention with antioxidants or by antisense technology may protect the integrity of the arterial wall as well as neoplastic tissues. Further intervention studies are necessary to investigate the effects of tissue-specific block of c-Myc overexpression in the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11988837

  4. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José A; Hernández-Figueroa, Jorge; Huerta-García, Gloria; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jorge; Pichardo-Farfán, Miguel; Manjarrez-Tellez, Bulmaro; Ramírez-Mendoza, Pablo; Gaytan-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-11-01

    Neoplasia is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV patients. The prevalence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. We screened 94 HIV-infected MSM patients. We found high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in six of the patients. The calculated prevalence of HSIL was 6.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.9-13.2). The study and implementation of screening programs for high-risk groups is a priority.

  5. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the proximal nail fold.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    An 18-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a firm 0.5 mm nodule, pink-red in color, with a yellow hue and some telangiectases on the surface, localized on the right thumbnail. The nodule involved all of the proximal nail fold and covered the proximal third of the nail. Pathology showed a dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes, some of which had foamy nuclei, and multinucleated Touton giant cells. The lesion progressively decreased in size and had completely disappeared after 3 years. Periodic follow-up was important not only to monitor evolution of the juvenile xanthogranuloma, but also to avoid excessive growth of the lesion with possible definitive nail matrix damage.

  6. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    PubMed Central

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despite routine post-operative skeletal traction in all cases and careful soft tissue interposition. One case showed significant heterotopic ossification which restricted prolonged sitting. This patient needed some occasional medication for pain. PMID:12180614

  7. Children's memory and proximity to violence.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Nader, K

    1989-03-01

    The study examined 133 school-age children's memory of a sniper attack at their elementary school. Researchers analyzed the role that spatial representation, memory markers, inner plans of action, and strategies of recall played in the memory process. In recalling the event, exposed children reduced their degree of life threat, while nonexposed children increased their proximity to the violence. Clinical and forensic implications are discussed.

  8. Endoscopic proximal hamstring repair and ischial bursectomy.

    PubMed

    Dierckman, Brian D; Guanche, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996

  9. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

  10. Proximal tibial fracture following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Krause, Heike; Dunleavy, Kim

    2011-09-01

    The patient was a 74-year-old man, with a history of total knee arthoplasty 14 years earlier, after having sustained a pathological fracture of the proximal diaphysis of the left tibia following a fall. Given the unstable nature of the fracture and the severe osteolysis noted below the total knee arthroplasty, surgical management 1 day after the fall entailed packing cancellous bone graft into the defect and realigning the fracture. PMID:21885911

  11. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  12. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  13. Bilateral Brodie's abscess at the proximal tibia.

    PubMed

    Buldu, Halil; Bilen, Fikri Erkal; Eralp, Levent; Kocaoglu, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis, which typically involves the metaphyses of the long tubular bones, particularly in the tibia. The diagnosis is usually made incidentally, as there are no accompanying symptoms or laboratory studies. Bilateral involvement at the proximal tibia is unusual. However, orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of this entity, as it may present without symptoms. Checking the contralateral limb for concomitant Brodie's abscess is recommended.

  14. Human proximal tubule cells form functional microtissues.

    PubMed

    Prange, Jenny A; Bieri, Manuela; Segerer, Stephan; Burger, Charlotte; Kaech, Andres; Moritz, Wolfgang; Devuyst, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial cells lining the proximal tubules of the kidney mediate complex transport processes and are particularly vulnerable to drug toxicity. Drug toxicity studies are classically based on two-dimensional cultures of immortalized proximal tubular cells. Such immortalized cells are dedifferentiated, and lose transport properties (including saturable endocytic uptake) encountered in vivo. Generating differentiated, organotypic human microtissues would potentially alleviate these limitations and facilitate drug toxicity studies. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of kidney microtissues from immortalized (HK-2) and primary (HRPTEpiC) human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under well-defined conditions. Microtissue cultures were done in hanging drop GravityPLUS™ culture plates and were characterized for morphology, proliferation and differentiation markers, and by monitoring the endocytic uptake of albumin. Kidney microtissues were successfully obtained by co-culturing HK-2 or HRPTEpiC cells with fibroblasts. The HK-2 microtissues formed highly proliferative, but dedifferentiated microtissues within 10 days of culture, while co-culture with fibroblasts yielded spherical structures already after 2 days. Low passage HRPTEpiC microtissues (mono- and co-culture) were less proliferative and expressed tissue-specific differentiation markers. Electron microscopy evidenced epithelial differentiation markers including microvilli, tight junctions, endosomes, and lysosomes in the co-cultured HRPTEpiC microtissues. The co-cultured HRPTEpiC microtissues showed specific uptake of albumin that could be inhibited by cadmium and gentamycin. In conclusion, we established a reliable hanging drop protocol to obtain functional kidney microtissues with proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. These microtissues could be used for high-throughput drug and toxicology screenings, with endocytosis as a functional readout. PMID:26676951

  15. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice.

  16. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults

    PubMed Central

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-01-01

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes. PMID:25405098

  17. Trajectories in Close Proximity to Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft motion in close proximity to irregularly shaped, rotating bodies such as asteroids presents a unique dynamical environment as compared to most space missions. There are several fundamental novelties in this environment that spacecraft must deal with. These include the possibility of orbital instabilities that can act over very short time spans (on the order of hours for some systems), possible non-uniform rotation of the central gravity field, divergence of traditional gravity field representations when close to the asteroid surface, dominance of perturbing forces, an extremely large asteroid model parameter space that must be prepared for in the absence of reliable information, and the possibility of employing new and novel trajectory control techniques such as hovering and repeated landings on the asteroid surface. An overview of how these novelties impact the space of feasible close proximity operations and how different asteroid model properties will affect their implementation is given. In so doing, four fundamental types of close proximity operations will be defined. Listed in order of increasing technical difficulty these are: (1) close, stable orbits; (2) low-altitude flyovers; (3) landing trajectories; and (4) hovering trajectories. The feasibility and difficulty of implementing these operations will vary as a function of the asteroid shape, size, density, and rotation properties, and as a function of the spacecraft navigation capability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Management of proximal humerus fractures in adults.

    PubMed

    Vachtsevanos, Leonidas; Hayden, Lydia; Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios

    2014-11-18

    The majority of proximal humerus fractures are low-energy osteoporotic injuries in the elderly and their incidence is increasing in the light of an ageing population. The diversity of fracture patterns encountered renders objective classification of prognostic value challenging. Non-operative management has been associated with good functional outcomes in stable, minimally displaced and certain types of displaced fractures. Absolute indications for surgery are infrequent and comprise compound, pathological, multi-fragmentary head-splitting fractures and fracture dislocations, as well as those associated with neurovascular injury. A constantly expanding range of reconstructive and replacement options however has been extending the indications for surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures. As a result, management decisions are becoming increasingly complicated, in an attempt to provide the best possible treatment for each individual patient, that will successfully address their specific fracture configuration, comorbidities and functional expectations. Our aim was to review the management options available for the full range of proximal humerus fractures in adults, along with their specific advantages, disadvantages and outcomes.

  19. Proximal myopathy: diagnostic approach and initial management.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Ernest; Wimalaratna, Sunil

    2013-08-01

    Proximal myopathy presents as symmetrical weakness of proximal upper and/or lower limbs. There is a broad range of underlying causes including drugs, alcohol, thyroid disease, osteomalacia, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), hereditary myopathies, malignancy, infections and sarcoidosis. Clinical assessment should aim to distinguish proximal myopathy from other conditions that can present similarly, identify patients who need prompt attention, like those with cardiac, respiratory or pharyngeal muscle involvement, and determine underlying cause of myopathy. Initial evaluation should include simple tests, like creatine kinase, thyroid function and (25)OH vitamin D levels, but further evaluation including neurophysiological studies, muscle imaging and muscle biopsy should be considered for patients in whom no toxic, metabolic or endocrine cause is found, and in those with clinical features suggestive of inflammatory or hereditary myopathy. Additionally, screening for malignancy and testing for anti-Jo1 antibody is indicated for selected patients with IIM. Management depends on underlying cause, and includes measures, such as removal of offending agent, correction of endocrine or metabolic problem, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy for IIM, and physical therapy, rehabilitation and genetic counselling for muscular dystrophies.

  20. Salicylate-induced proximal tubular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Kakaidi, Varvara; Bairaktari, Eleni; Elisaf, Moses

    2007-09-01

    We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who was admitted to our clinic for drug poisoning. Twelve hours after the ingestion of 25 tablets of aspirin (12.5 g of acetylsalicylic acid), the patient had a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction characterized by glucosuria (in the face of normal serum glucose levels), proteinuria, and uric acid wasting. Further characterization of the tubular dysfunction using high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the urine showed a pattern consistent with proximal tubular injury. An important characteristic of the salicylate-induced proximal tubular dysfunction in our patient was its rapid reversibility. A trend toward normalization of fractional excretion values of electrolytes was observed 2 days after ingestion. Determination of serum and urine metabolites and spectroscopy of urine 15 days later showed no evidence of tubular dysfunction. The mechanisms potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of salicylate-induced Fanconi syndrome are discussed and a brief review of the relevant literature is provided. PMID:17720526

  1. Links between soil modelling and proximal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitkenhead, Matt; McBratney, Alex; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-04-01

    Proximal sensing of soils can provide valuable information for soil modelling, by providing baseline data and validating model predictions through direct observation of soil characteristics. A wide range of soil parameters can be estimated using proximal sensing of soils (PSS), often simultaneously using single hand-held systems, of which there are many types. The benefits for soil modelling include direct observation of modelled parameters, rapid assessment in field conditions and digital data acquisition, making the transfer of information to soil models relatively straightforward. This is an active area of development, with research into improved methods of field-based capture of soil parameters directly relevant for soil modelling. A number of challenges exist, including the removal of or accounting for the effects of field conditions (e.g. soil moisture and structure), and the development of libraries of data that will allow calibration models to be produced. We present an overview of PSS as it relates to soil modelling, including equipment types, calibration approaches, cloud-based processing, soil parameters and processes estimated using PSS, and opportunities and challenges for the future. We also identify and discuss the possibilities for integration of modelling and proximal sensing within precision agriculture/precision land management.

  2. Gene teams with relaxed proximity constraint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Yang, Jiong

    2005-01-01

    Functionally related genes co-evolve, probably due to the strong selection pressure in evolution. Thus we expect that they are present in multiple genomes. Physical proximity among genes, known as gene team, is a very useful concept to discover functionally related genes in multiple genomes. However, there are also many gene sets that do not preserve physical proximity. In this paper, we generalized the gene team model, that looks for gene clusters in a physically clustered form, to multiple genome cases with relaxed constraint. We propose a novel hybrid pattern model that combines the set and the sequential pattern models. Our model searches for gene clusters with and/or without physical proximity constraint. This model is implemented and tested with 97 genomes (120 replicons). The result was analyzed to show the usefulness of our model. Especially, analysis of gene clusters that belong to B. subtilis and E. coli demonstrated that our model predicted many experimentally verified operons and functionally related clusters. Our program is fast enough to provide a sevice on the web at http://platcom. informatics.indiana.edu/platcom/. Users can select any combination of 97 genomes to predict gene teams.

  3. Optical system for proximity operations in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Huan-Zhang

    2008-12-01

    Satellite serving offers a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing launching and operating costs. Proximity operations are necessary for purpose of satellite serving. As the primary measurement system, optical system can provide the information of relative navigation in near field. The paper has two main contributions. Firstly, we summarize use of optical systems for guidance and navigation in the missions of proximity operations in aerospace. Their characteristics vary from the manned missions, which are performed by astronauts on-orbit, through semi-autonomous missions, wherein human operators on the ground segment issue high level directives and sensor-guided systems on the space segment guide the execution, to the full-autonomous missions, which are executed using unmanned space robotic systems. It comes to light that future space operations will be more autonomous. Secondly, we present a concept and framework of a vision system for satellite proximity operations, which is semi-autonomous and can treat with uncooperative satellites. The vision system uses visible and infrared sensors synchronously to acquire images, which solves the problem of data integrity introduced by ambient illumination and direct sunlight for visible sensor. The vision system uses natural features on the satellite surfaces instead of artificial markers for its operation, computes relative motion and structure of the target, and tracks features in image sequences. Selected algorithms of the system have been characterized in ground environment; they are undergoing systematic sets of adaptation for space.

  4. Influence of disseminated neoplasia, trematode infections and gametogenesis on surfacing and mortality in the cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E; O'Riordan, R M; Kelly, T C; Culloty, S C

    2012-02-17

    Cerastoderma edule is a widely distributed bivalve mollusc, commercially exploited throughout Europe and is also an important food source for birds and crustaceans. Recently, mass surfacing and mortalities of cockles have been observed and reported at sites in Ireland and elsewhere, particularly in the summer months. One such site is Flaxfort Strand, Courtmacsherry Bay, County Cork, Ireland, an important feeding area used by many seabirds during the summer months. For the past few years large numbers of surfaced cockles have been observed at the site in a moribund condition. Samples of cockles from this area were collected over the summer months and their health status assessed. Cockles that had surfaced (moribund) and those still buried in the sediment were quantified and screened: sex, gonadal maturity and size class of cockles were also determined. Disseminated neoplasia and trematodes were observed in screened cockles. The most significant finding during the study was that mortalities and surfacing of cockles was related to a greater incidence of disseminated neoplasia. No neoplasia was observed in the smallest and largest size classes. There was a significantly higher prevalence of neoplasia in moribund cockles than in buried cockles, whereas in both groups a similar concentration of trematode metacercariae was observed in the screened tissues. Also, most of the cockles that had surfaced were either in the process of spawning or were spent. Overall a much larger percentage of moribund cockles exhibited both trematode infections plus neoplasia compared with buried cockles. A combination of the presence of neoplasia and trematodes, along with stress related to spawning, may immunocompromise the cockless, causing the animals to surface and become moribund.

  5. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Margie Lee; Cooper, Harry Stanley; Chang, Wen-Chi Lee

    2007-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) - induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both characterize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflammation and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic administration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological features that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen (azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1- methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a preventable disease.

  6. Implementation of a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy increases the neoplasia detection rate: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Luis Alberto; Cassella, Federico; Wonaga, Andrés; Arnao Dellamea, Gloria; Di Paola, Leandro; Ubeira Salim, Rodrigo; Fernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopists worldwide have been encouraged to report quality indicators in order to evaluate their performance. We aimed to determine whether a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy results in better rates of neoplasia detection. Patients and methods: This is a prospective study set in a private endoscopy center. From May 2009 to March 2010, we evaluated 1573 consecutive colonoscopies (group 1). After the implementation of a quality program, from February 2011 to January 2012, we prospectively evaluated 1583 colonoscopies (group 2). Our quality-enhancing intervention consisted of instructing both patients and endoscopists. We measured the cecal intubation rate and the neoplasia detection rate. Overall neoplasias, high-risk adenomas, carcinomas, right colon adenomas, and adenomas detected in screening studies were analyzed. Results: Cecal intubation was documented in 1384 cases from group 1 (88 %) and 1534 from group 2 (96.9 %) (P < 0.0001). The neoplasia detection rates in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: neoplasias 288 (18.3 %) and 427 (27 %) (P < 0.0001), high-risk adenomas 76 (4.8 %) and 142 (9 %) (P < 0.0001), carcinomas 16 (1 %) and 21 (1.3 %) (P = 0.52), right colon adenomas 112 (7.1 %) and 154 (9.7 %) (P = 0.01), and adenomas 141 (16.5 %) and 233 (28 %) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Implementation of a quality program improves the neoplasia detection rate. Because of the small number of cancerous lesions found in both groups, we were unable to identify differences in the carcinoma detection rate. PMID:26793787

  7. Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269C>A With Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liu, Wen-Chi; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2016-10-01

    Cervical neoplasia is one of the most prevalent malignant neoplasms worldwide. Ribonucleotide reductase 1 (RRM1) is thought to play an essential role in modulating the development and progression of cervical neoplasia. Two novel genetic polymorphisms, RRM1 -756T>C and -269 C>A, are significantly correlated with RRM1 expression. Some epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic variants play a crucial role in susceptibility to cervical cancer. The present study aimed to identify the genetic polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269 C>A in patients with cervical neoplasia and healthy controls. In total, 493 subjects, comprising 324 healthy controls and 169 patients with cervical neoplasia, were enrolled for this study. The allelic discrimination of the RRM1 -756T>C (rs11030918) and -269C>A (rs12806698) polymorphisms was assessed using the ABI StepOne™ real-time polymerase chain reaction system and analyzed using Software Design Specification (SDS), Version 3.0, software with TaqMan assays. The risk of cervical cancer was examined, revealing adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.25 [0.51, 3.08] and 1.09 [0.43, 2.78] for individuals with CC alleles of RRM1 -756T>C and for individuals with AA alleles of RRM1 -269C>A genetic polymorphisms, respectively, compared to individuals with wild-type RRM1 genetic polymorphisms. No significant genetic interaction effect was observed in susceptibility to cervical neoplasia, and no association was found between genetic polymorphisms and clinical statuses of invasive cervical cancer. The genetic polymorphisms RRM1 -756T>C and -269C>A may not be a factor for susceptibility to cervical neoplasia.

  8. Diagnosis of Retrobulbar Round Cell Neoplasia in a Macaroni Penguin ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) Through Use of Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rose, Michelle; Desjardins, Danielle R; Agnew, Dalen W

    2015-03-01

    A 25-year-old female macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) was diagnosed with exophthalmos secondary to retrobulbar neoplasia through use of computed tomography (CT). Histopathologic examination of the mass supported a diagnosis of malignant round cell neoplasia. Immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling was applied to determine cell origin; the neoplastic cells did not label with T-cell marker CD3 or B-cell marker BLA.36 and could not be further characterized. The scleral ossicles precluded evaluation of the retrobulbar space by ultrasonography; therefore, CT scanning is recommended for examination of intraorbital structures in penguin and other avian species.

  9. Evidence of retroviral etiology for disseminated neoplasia in cockles (Cerastoderma edule).

    PubMed

    Romalde, Jesús L; Luz Vilariño, M; Beaz, Roxana; Rodríguez, José M; Díaz, Seila; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María J

    2007-02-01

    Epizootiologic outbreaks of disseminated neoplasia have been reported in association with massive mortalities of various bivalve species. In cockles, Cerastoderma edule, this pathological condition was described in Ireland and France. Since 1997, different populations affected by this pathology have been detected in Galicia (NW Spain). Transmission electron microscopy allowed the visualization of virus-like particles in neoplastic cells, resembling a retrovirus-like agent. To confirm this hypothesis, we used a commercial kit for detection and quantification of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, based on the use of bromo-deoxyuridine triphosphate (BrdUTP) and a BrdU binding antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. In addition, we developed a product-enhanced RT assay using RNA of hepatitis A virus as a template. These two assays showed positive RT activity in 90.9 and 81.8% of samples, respectively, from cockles displaying disseminated neoplasia as determined by light microscopy. These results strongly support the hypothesis of retroviral etiology for this pathological condition.

  10. Lower motor neuron degeneration and familial predisposition to colonic neoplasia in two adult siblings.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P J; Ince, P G; Slade, J; Burn, J; Cartlidge, N E

    1991-11-01

    A previously unreported association between a familial predisposition to colonic neoplasia and familial adult onset lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration is reported. Two brothers presented at the ages of 53 and 44 years with multiple colonic adenomata and invasive colonic carcinoma respectively. Subsequently both developed a virtually identical pattern of motor neuron disease of progressive muscular atrophy type. At presentation both had LMN weakness affecting predominantly the upper limb and neck muscles. The disease progressed rapidly to involve the lower limb and bulbar musculature and both brothers died after a 15 month course. Necropsy was performed on one brother and showed pathological changes confined to the LMNs with no evidence of involvement of the pyramidal tracts or motor cortex. The combination of these diseases in two brothers may be of importance in the search for genes responsible for familial motor neuron disorders. It is suggested that a genomic search should be directed initially to the vicinity of known colon neoplasia genes, particularly 5q, 17q and 18q.

  11. Progression of naive intraepithelial neoplasia genome to aggressive squamous cell carcinoma genome of uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; Baek, In-Pyo; Lee, Sung Hak; Lee, Ah Won; Hur, Soo Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is considered a neoplasia, its genomic alterations remain unknown. For this, we performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of three CINs, a microinvasive carcinoma (MIC) and four cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCC). Both total mutation and driver mutation numbers of the CINs were significantly fewer than those of the MIC/CSCCs (P = 0.036 and P = 0.018, respectively). Importantly, PIK3CA was altered in all MIC/CSCCs by either mutation or amplification, but not in CINs. The CINs harbored significantly lower numbers of copy number alterations (CNAs) than the MIC/CSCCs as well (P = 0.036). Pathway analysis predicted that the MIC/CSCCs were enriched with cancer-related signalings such as cell adhesion, mTOR signaling pathway and cell migration that were depleted in the CINs. The mutation-based estimation of evolutionary ages identified that CIN genomes were younger than MIC/CSCC genomes. The data indicate that CIN genomes harbor unfixed mutations in addition to human papilloma virus infection but require additional driver hits such as PIK3CA, TP53, STK11 and MAPK1 mutations for CSCC progression. Taken together, our data may explain the long latency from CIN to CSCC progression and provide useful information for molecular diagnosis of CIN and CSCC. PMID:25738363

  12. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles

    PubMed Central

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F.; Owens, Scott R.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35 days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity. PMID:25483425

  13. Loss of adipose triglyceride lipase is associated with human cancer and induces mouse pulmonary neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Pichler, Martin; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Haybaeck, Johannes; Jahn, Stephan W; Lackner, Carolin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Popper, Helmut; Schauer, Silvia; Nusshold, Elisa; Kindt, Alida S D; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Speicher, Michael R; Haemmerle, Guenther; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Vesely, Paul W; Hoefler, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Understanding cancer metabolism is instrumental to devise innovative therapeutic approaches. Anabolic metabolism, including the induction of lipogenic enzymes, is a key feature of proliferating cells. Here, we report a novel tumor suppressive function for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate limiting enzyme in the triglyceride hydrolysis cascade.In immunohistochemical analysis, non-small cell lung cancers, pancreatic adenocarcinoma as well as leiomyosarcoma showed significantly reduced levels of ATGL protein compared to corresponding normal tissues. The ATGL gene was frequently deleted in various forms of cancers. Low levels of ATGL mRNA correlated with significantly reduced survival in patients with ovarian, breast, gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. Remarkably, pulmonary neoplasia including invasive adenocarcinoma developed spontaneously in mice lacking ATGL pointing to an important role for this lipase in controlling tumor development.Loss of ATGL, as detected in several forms of human cancer, induces spontaneous development of pulmonary neoplasia in a mouse model. Our results, therefore, suggest a novel tumor suppressor function for ATGL and contribute to the understanding of cancer metabolism. We propose to evaluate loss of ATGL protein expression for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. Finally, modulation of the lipolytic pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of human cancer.

  14. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  15. Risk for gastric neoplasias in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: A critical reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias. PMID:22493541

  16. Hyperspectral wide gap second derivative analysis for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Chaojian; Chang, Shufang; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique has been used for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. However, the clinical outcome of this technique is suboptimal owing to multiple limitations such as nonuniform illumination, high-cost and bulky setup, and time-consuming data acquisition and processing. To overcome these limitations, we acquired the hyperspectral data cube in a wavelength ranging from 600 to 800 nm and processed it by a wide gap second derivative analysis method. This method effectively reduced the image artifacts caused by nonuniform illumination and background absorption. Furthermore, with second derivative analysis, only three specific wavelengths (620, 696, and 772 nm) are needed for tissue classification with optimal separability. Clinical feasibility of the proposed image analysis and classification method was tested in a clinical trial where cervical hyperspectral images from three patients were used for classification analysis. Our proposed method successfully classified the cervix tissue into three categories of normal, inflammation and high-grade lesion. These classification results were coincident with those by an experienced gynecology oncologist after applying acetic acid. Our preliminary clinical study has demonstrated the technical feasibility for in vivo and noninvasive detection of cervical neoplasia without acetic acid. Further clinical research is needed in order to establish a large-scale diagnostic database and optimize the tissue classification technique.

  17. Clinical value of tumor doubling estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C E; Talpos, G B; Block, M A; Norum, R A; Lloyd, R V; Tashjian, A H

    1984-12-01

    Experience with children with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb has emphasized that medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in MEN IIb is more aggressive than in MEN IIa. Earlier ages of onset and apparently more rapid growth of MTC in MEN IIb suggest that these tumors have earlier ages of conversion to malignant states and/or shorter doubling times. The age at which a hyperplastic C cell becomes a malignant cell and the true doubling time cannot be estimated presently. Maximum volume-doubling times of 35 and 75 days (21 to 26 doublings) were calculated from tumor size and age at operation in five patients with MEN IIb aged 2 to 5 years. Calculations in 20 patients with MEN IIa revealed maximum doubling times of 110 to 440 days, with ages ranging from 7 to 29 years and number of doubling ranging from 18 to 38. Positive provocative calcitonin tests in two adult patients with MEN IIa after 10 to 11 years of repeated negative tests suggest a minimum doubling time of 190 to 210 days. Such experience emphasizes that negative stimulated calcitonin tests less than 11 years after operation do not provide assurance of cures for MTC in MEN IIa although negative tests after more than 5 years for MEN IIb are encouraging. Calculations of volume doublings accounting for various-sized tumors are compatible with Knudson's two-mutational-event theory on the initiation of neoplasia.

  18. Loss of adipose triglyceride lipase is associated with human cancer and induces mouse pulmonary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Pichler, Martin; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Haybaeck, Johannes; Jahn, Stephan W.; Lackner, Carolin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Popper, Helmut; Schauer, Silvia; Nusshold, Elisa; Kindt, Alida S. D.; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Speicher, Michael R.; Haemmerle, Guenther; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Vesely, Paul W.; Hoefler, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Understanding cancer metabolism is instrumental to devise innovative therapeutic approaches. Anabolic metabolism, including the induction of lipogenic enzymes, is a key feature of proliferating cells. Here, we report a novel tumor suppressive function for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate limiting enzyme in the triglyceride hydrolysis cascade. In immunohistochemical analysis, non-small cell lung cancers, pancreatic adenocarcinoma as well as leiomyosarcoma showed significantly reduced levels of ATGL protein compared to corresponding normal tissues. The ATGL gene was frequently deleted in various forms of cancers. Low levels of ATGL mRNA correlated with significantly reduced survival in patients with ovarian, breast, gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. Remarkably, pulmonary neoplasia including invasive adenocarcinoma developed spontaneously in mice lacking ATGL pointing to an important role for this lipase in controlling tumor development. Loss of ATGL, as detected in several forms of human cancer, induces spontaneous development of pulmonary neoplasia in a mouse model. Our results, therefore, suggest a novel tumor suppressor function for ATGL and contribute to the understanding of cancer metabolism. We propose to evaluate loss of ATGL protein expression for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. Finally, modulation of the lipolytic pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of human cancer. PMID:27213586

  19. Survey of neoplasia in red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), 1992-2002, in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

    2007-06-01

    An increase in the proportion of cases with neoplasia observed in a collection of captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) when compared with historical records and the paucity of reported neoplasms in kangaroos in the literature prompted a 10-yr review of all red kangaroo necropsies. Individual necropsy, medical, and inventory records for all kangaroos at the Kansas City Zoo were reviewed for the period 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2002. Two squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, two mammary gland adenocarcinomas, a multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma, and one submucosal pyloric lipoma were diagnosed in six of 28 kangaroo deaths. Three neoplasms were diagnosed antemortem. Four of the six neoplasms were considered malignant, and all four had metastasized. The mean age at death was 11 yr. All six animals with neoplasms were female; however, the exhibit population was composed solely of females. Only 11 cases of neoplasia in red kangaroos have been reported in the literature. On the basis of these cases and a review of the literature, the most commonly observed neoplasms in red kangaroos are mammary gland adenocarcinomas and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Common denominators were not identified in these cases, although chronic gingivitis could have been a contributing factor in the development of the oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  20. Assessment of a custom-built Raman spectroscopic probe for diagnosis of early oesophageal neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almond, L. Max; Hutchings, Jo; Kendall, Catherine; Day, John C. C.; Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Shepherd, Neil A.; Barr, Hugh; Stone, Nick

    2012-08-01

    We evaluate the potential of a custom-built fiber-optic Raman probe, suitable for in vivo use, to differentiate between benign, metaplastic (Barrett's oesophagus), and neoplastic (dysplastic and malignant) oesophageal tissue ex vivo on short timescales. We measured 337 Raman spectra (λex=830 nm Pex=60 mW t=1 s) using a confocal probe from fresh (298) and snap-frozen (39) oesophageal tissue collected during surgery or endoscopy from 28 patients. Spectra were correlated with histopathology and used to construct a multivariate classification model which was tested using leave one tissue site out cross-validation in order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the probe system. The Raman probe system was able to differentiate, when tested with leave one site out cross-validation, between normal squamous oesophagus, Barrett's oesophagus and neoplasia with sensitivities of (838% to 6%) and specificities of (89% to 99%). Analysis of a two group model to differentiate Barrett's oesophagus and neoplasia demonstrated a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 87% for classification of neoplastic disease. This fiber-optic Raman system can provide rapid, objective, and accurate diagnosis of oesophageal pathology ex vivo. The confocal design of this probe enables superficial mucosal abnormalities (metaplasia and dysplasia) to be classified in clinically applicable timescales paving the way for an in vivo trial.

  1. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia), when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer. PMID:22958276

  2. Survey of neoplasia in red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), 1992-2002, in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

    2007-06-01

    An increase in the proportion of cases with neoplasia observed in a collection of captive red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) when compared with historical records and the paucity of reported neoplasms in kangaroos in the literature prompted a 10-yr review of all red kangaroo necropsies. Individual necropsy, medical, and inventory records for all kangaroos at the Kansas City Zoo were reviewed for the period 1 January 1992 to 31 December 2002. Two squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, two mammary gland adenocarcinomas, a multicentric T-cell lymphosarcoma, and one submucosal pyloric lipoma were diagnosed in six of 28 kangaroo deaths. Three neoplasms were diagnosed antemortem. Four of the six neoplasms were considered malignant, and all four had metastasized. The mean age at death was 11 yr. All six animals with neoplasms were female; however, the exhibit population was composed solely of females. Only 11 cases of neoplasia in red kangaroos have been reported in the literature. On the basis of these cases and a review of the literature, the most commonly observed neoplasms in red kangaroos are mammary gland adenocarcinomas and oral squamous cell carcinomas. Common denominators were not identified in these cases, although chronic gingivitis could have been a contributing factor in the development of the oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:17679506

  3. Risk for gastric neoplasias in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis: a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-03-28

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias.

  4. Clinical value of tumor doubling estimations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type II.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C E; Talpos, G B; Block, M A; Norum, R A; Lloyd, R V; Tashjian, A H

    1984-12-01

    Experience with children with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb has emphasized that medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in MEN IIb is more aggressive than in MEN IIa. Earlier ages of onset and apparently more rapid growth of MTC in MEN IIb suggest that these tumors have earlier ages of conversion to malignant states and/or shorter doubling times. The age at which a hyperplastic C cell becomes a malignant cell and the true doubling time cannot be estimated presently. Maximum volume-doubling times of 35 and 75 days (21 to 26 doublings) were calculated from tumor size and age at operation in five patients with MEN IIb aged 2 to 5 years. Calculations in 20 patients with MEN IIa revealed maximum doubling times of 110 to 440 days, with ages ranging from 7 to 29 years and number of doubling ranging from 18 to 38. Positive provocative calcitonin tests in two adult patients with MEN IIa after 10 to 11 years of repeated negative tests suggest a minimum doubling time of 190 to 210 days. Such experience emphasizes that negative stimulated calcitonin tests less than 11 years after operation do not provide assurance of cures for MTC in MEN IIa although negative tests after more than 5 years for MEN IIb are encouraging. Calculations of volume doublings accounting for various-sized tumors are compatible with Knudson's two-mutational-event theory on the initiation of neoplasia. PMID:6150555

  5. Risk factors for conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tulvatana, W; Bhattarakosol, P; Sansopha, L; Sipiyarak, W; Kowitdamrong, E; Paisuntornsug, T; Karnsawai, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and solar elastosis as the risk factors for conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia (CSCN). Methods: 30 consecutive pathological specimens, ranging from conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, carcinoma in situ, to invasive squamous cell carcinoma were retrieved from tissue archives. 30 controls were disease free conjunctiva from age and sex matched patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction. Two masked pathologists studied haematoxylin and eosin stains on paraffin embedded conjunctival tissues. Elastic stain for solar elastosis was blindly interpreted in comparison with negative and positive controls. HPV infection was studied by polymerase chain reaction and dot hybridisation. Results: The mean age of CSCN patients was 54.9 years. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Solar elastosis was seen in 53.3% of CSCN and in 3.3% of controls with an odds ratio of 16.0 (95% CI, 2.49 to 670.96; p value = 0.0003). HPV DNA were not detected in any of the specimens. Conclusion: Solar elastosis is much more frequently found in CSCN cases than in their matched controls and is a risk factor for CSCN. These data are insufficient to conclude that HPV infection is a risk factor for CSCN. PMID:12642297

  6. Analytical parametrization of fusion barriers using proximity potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-06-01

    Using the three versions of proximity potentials, namely proximity 1977, proximity 1988, and proximity 2000, we present a pocket formula for fusion barrier heights and positions. This was achieved by analyzing as many as 400 reactions with mass between 15 and 296. Our parametrized formula can reproduced the exact barrier heights and positions within an accuracy of ±1%. A comparison with the experimental data is also in good agreement.

  7. Volar plate arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a review of ten years' experience.

    PubMed

    Eaton, R G; Malerich, M M

    1980-05-01

    In 10 years 24 patients had a volar plate advancement arthroplasty for acute or chronic fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangal joint. Seven were done within 6 weeks of injury, 17 at 6 weeks to 2 years following injury. Final ranges of motion averaged 95 degrees for the former and 78 degrees for the latter group. Radiographs frequently demonstrated a marked remodeling of the disrupted contour of the joint surface of the middle phalanx.

  8. Proximity and Interactive Learning in University-Firm Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether proximity is always necessary for interactive learning, as proposed by recent European innovation theory. Recent research has provided a refined conceptualization of proximity, but there is little empirically-based knowledge about the actual role that proximity plays in relationships intended to foster…

  9. Canine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Prier, J. E.; Brodey, R. S.

    1963-01-01

    The authors review current knowledge of spontaneous neoplasms in the dog. The prevalence of certain types of canine tumour has been studied, and comparisons have been made with the occurrence of similar neoplasms in man. Where there are appropriate analogies between the two species, the dog with spontaneous tumours can be used for studies that are not practicable in man. Nutritional and morphological studies have been done on cells cultured from canine tumours. Some consistency has been demonstrated in the morphology of cultures of different tumours of the same type. Nutritional studies with the transmissible venereal sarcoma of the dog have shown the cells to be subject to a growth-repressing effect by SH-containing amino-acids. Attempts to transmit tumours to other dogs or other species have generally been unsuccessful. A transplantable tumour developed in a mouse injected with non-cellular material from a canine thyroid carcinoma, but it is not certain that the tumour was induced. Cell-culture studies have shown that some tumours yield a factor that is cytopathogenic for normal cells, but none has been shown capable of inducing neoplasms in vivo. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:14058226

  10. Scintillation proximity assay using polymeric membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is typically used to quantify electron emitting isotopes. In LSC, radioactive samples are dissolved in an organic fluor solution (scintillation cocktail) to ensure that the label is close enough to the fluor molecules to be detected. Although efficient, scintillation cocktail is neither specific or selective for samples labeled with the same radioisotope. Scintillation cocktail is flammable posing significant health risks to the user and is expensive to purchase and discard. Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) is a radioanalytical technique where only those radiochemical entities (RCE's) bound to fluor containing matrices are detected. Only bound RCE's are in close enough proximity the entrapped fluor molecules to induce scintillations. Unbound radioligands are too far removed from the fluor molecules to be detected. The research in this dissertation focused on the development and evaluation of fluor-containing membranes (scintillation proximity membranes, SP membranes) to be used for specific radioanalytical techniques without using scintillation cocktail. Polysulfone and PVC SP membranes prepared in our laboratory were investigated for radioimmunossay (RIA) where only bound radioligand is detected, thereby eliminating the separation step impeding the automation of RIA. These SP membranes performed RIA where the results were nearly identical to commercial SP microbeads. SP membranes functionalized with quaternary ammonium hydroxide moieties were able to trap and quantify [sup 14]CO[sub 2] without using liquid scintillation cocktail. RCE's bound in the pore structure of SP membranes are intimate with the entrapped fluor providing the geometry needed for high detection efficiencies. Absorbent SP membranes were used in radiation surveys and were shown to be as effective as conventional survey techniques using filter paper and scintillation cocktail.

  11. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R

    2009-12-01

    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  12. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  13. Characterization of glucose transport by cultured rabbit kidney proximal convoluted and proximal straight tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Pedro L; Trifillis, Anna; Ruegg, Charles E; Kane, Andrew S

    2002-04-01

    Rabbit kidney proximal convoluted tubule (RPCT) and proximal straight tubule (RPST) cells were independently isolated and cultured. The kinetics of the sodium-dependent glucose transport was characterized by determining the uptake of the glucose analog alpha-methylglucopyranoside. Cell culture and assay conditions used in these experiments were based on previous experiments conducted on the renal cell line derived from the whole kidney of the Yorkshire pig (LLC-PK1). Results indicated the presence of two distinct sodium-dependent glucose transporters in rabbit renal cells: a relatively high-capacity, low-affinity transporter (V(max) = 2.28 +/- 0.099 nmoles/mg protein min, Km = 4.1 +/- 0.27 mM) in RPCT cells and a low-capacity, high-affinity transporter (V(max) = 0.45 +/- 0.076 nmoles/mg protein min, K(m) = 1.7 +/- 0.43 mM) in RPST cells. A relatively high-capacity, low-affinity transporter (V(max) = 1.68 +/- 0.215 nmoles/mg protein min, Km = 4.9 +/- 0.23 mM) was characterized in LLC-PK1 cells. Phlorizin inhibited the uptake of alpha-methylglucopyranoside in proximal convoluted, proximal straight, and LLC-PK1 cells by 90, 50, and 90%, respectively. Sodium-dependent glucose transport in all three cell types was specific for hexoses. These data are consistent with the kinetic heterogeneity of sodium-dependent glucose transport in the S1-S2 and S3 segments of the mammalian renal proximal tubule. The RPCT-RPST cultured cell model is novel, and this is the first report of sodium-dependent glucose transport characterization in primary cultures of proximal straight tubule cells. Our results support the use of cultured monolayers of RPCT and RPST cells as a model system to evaluate segment-specific differences in these renal cell types.

  14. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  15. Ewing's sarcoma of proximal humeral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Heydar Ali; Niknejad, Mohammad Taghi; Mohajeri, Shiva

    2015-02-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors of childhood. The tumor is almost always metaphyseal or diaphyseal, within long bones. In children, lesions of the epiphysis are often benign, with the most common diagnosis being chondroblastoma. Rarely, 1%-2% of Ewing sarcomas may involve epiphysis. We present a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the proximal humeral epiphysis in a 13-year-old boy. This case adds to previously reported cases of epiphyseal Ewing sarcoma and suggests that the diagnosis should be considered for pediatric epiphyseal lesions. PMID:25644805

  16. Fractures of the proximal humeral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Flores, J; Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Lopez-Mondejar, J A; Ocete-Guzman, J G; Amaya-Alarcón, S

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with marked displacement of a fracture of the proximal humeral epiphysis have been treated with closed or open reduction and fixation by Kirschner wires. At an average follow-up of 6.8 years there have been good functional results in almost all patients (91.1), with better results in patients under 13 years of age particularly with less residual displacement or angulation. Since there is a greater occurrence of residual deformity and symmetria and limitation of motion in older patients, a more aggressive approach to correct the initial displacement and angulation is warranted in those over the age of 13 years.

  17. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  18. Proximal monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Amir, D; Magora, A; Vatine, J J

    1987-07-01

    A 30-year-old patient of Central European origin, suffering from monomelic amyotrophy, is presented. The disease was characterized by proximal weakness of one upper limb, mainly of the shoulder girdle, accompanied by atrophy. The electrodiagnostic examination revealed signs of partial denervation in the presence of normal motor and sensory conduction. The disease, which is probably of the anterior horn cells, had a benign course and good prognosis, as evident from repeated examinations during a follow-up of eight years. PMID:3606370

  19. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Takesian, Fernando Hovaguim; Bezerra, Luiz Eduardo Pimentel; Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Júnior, Antonio Carlos Tenor; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature. PMID:27069878

  20. Hypercalcemia of advanced chronic liver disease: a forgotten clinical entity!

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Farooqui, Khalid Jamal; Bansal, Beena; Wasir, Jasjeet Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypercalcemia caused by advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) without hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported and poorly understood condition. We are reporting two cases of advanced CLD who developed hypercalcemia in the course of the disease. This diagnosis of exclusion was made only after meticulous ruling out of all causes of hypercalcemia. The unique feature of this type of hypercalcemia is its transient nature that may or may not require treatment. This clinical condition in patients with CLD should be kept in mind while evaluating the cause of hypercalcemia in them. PMID:27252737

  1. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocítica crónica o juvenil y la LMC atípica.

  2. Pituitary prolactinoma, pancreatic glucagonomas, and aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma: a suggested variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    PubMed

    Gould, E; Albores-Saavedra, J; Shuman, J

    1987-12-01

    A case of a pituitary prolactinoma, pancreatic glucagonoma, and an aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma coexisting in a 65-year-old man is reported. This case may represent a sporadic variant of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type I first manifested by hyperaldosteronism.

  3. Cervical Neoplasia-Related Factors and Decreased Prevalence of Uterine Fibroids among a Cohort of African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristen R.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between cervical neoplasia and uterine fibroids is corroborated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data from an ongoing prospective study of fibroid development. Setting Detroit, Michigan area. Patients(s) Self-reported data on abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment were obtained from 1,008 African-American women ages 23-34 with no previous fibroid diagnosis and no reported history of HPV vaccination. Presence of fibroids was assessed at a standardized ultrasound examination. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The association between the 3 cervical neoplasia-related variables and presence of fibroids was evaluated with logistic regression to estimate age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Result(s) Of the analysis sample, 46%, 29% and 14% reported a prior abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment, respectively. Twenty-five percent had fibroids at ultrasound. Those reporting cervical treatment had a 39% [aOR: 0.61, 95%CI (0.38-0.96)] reduction in fibroid risk. Weak non-significant associations were found for abnormal Pap smear and colposcopy. Conclusion(s) Although a protective-type association of cervical neoplasia with uterine fibroids seems counter intuitive, a causal pathway is possible, and the findings are consistent with two prior studies. Further investigation is needed on the relationship between fibroids and cervical neoplasia and HPV-related mechanisms. PMID:24268705

  4. Comparing Benign and Malignant Neoplasia and DSB Induction for Low-and High-LET Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Fredric; (Eric) Tang, Moon-Shong; Wu, Feng

    One-and 2-stage models based on DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) have been developed to describe the dose and LET dependence of cancer induction in rat skin exposed to the Bragg plateau of several ion beams or electron radiation. Data are presented showing that carcinomas (malignant) and fibromas (benign) are induced differently by low and high LET radiation. DSBs are subject to complex repair processes, including homologous and non-homologous end joining, that slowly eliminate broken chromosome ends but at the expense of elevating genomic instability that increases the risk of neoplasia. In this formulation the initial molecular lesion in radiation carcinogenesis is assumed to be a DNA double strand break (DSB). The 2-event model assumes that pairs of DSBs join to create cellular genomic instability that eventually progresses to malignancy. The 1-event model assumes that joining is insignificant but that unrepaired DSBs remain and are sufficiently destabilizing to produce low-grade neoplasias. The respective expected relationships between neoplasia yield (Y), radiation dose (D) and LET (L) are: Y(D) = CLD + BD2 (A) for 2-events and Y(D) = CLD (B) for 1-event. Respective B and C values have been evaluated empirically for carcinomas, fibromas and DSBs, the latter via the -H2Ax technique in surrogate keratinocytes, for several types of radiations, including, 40Ar ions, 56Fe ions, 20Ne ions, protons, electrons and x-rays. Fibromas outnumber carcinomas by about 6:1 but are more sensitive than carcinomas to the cytolethal effect of the radiations. The 2-event model agrees well with carcinoma yields in rat skin but fails to model fibromas correctly. Instead the fibroma yields best fitted with the 1-event model for the high LET ion radiations, but at very low LET (electron radiation), an empirical D3 component becomes apparent which is not currently incorporated into the theoretical model. At higher LET values, the D3 component was not detected. The overall results are

  5. Carbon nanotube proximity influences rice DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katti, Dinesh R.; Sharma, Anurag; Pradhan, Shashindra Man; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2015-07-01

    The uptake of carbon nanotubes (CNT) influences the output of plants, potentially through interactions between the DNA and CNTs. However, little is known about the changes in the plant DNA due to CNT proximity. We report changes in rice plant DNA in the proximity of single walled CNT (SWCNT) using molecular dynamics simulations. The DNA experiences breaking and forming of hydrogen bonds due to unzipping of Watson-Crick (WC) nucleobase pairs and wrapping onto SWCNT. The number of hydrogen bonds between water and DNA nucleobases decreases due to the presence of SWCNT. A higher number of guanine-cytosine (Gua-Cyt) WC hydrogen bonds break as compared to adenine-thymine (Ade-Thy), which suggests that Gua and Cyt bases play a dominant role in DNA-SWCNT interactions. We also find that changes to non-WC nucleobase pairs and van der Waals attractive interactions between WC nucleobase pairs and SWCNT cause significant changes in the conformation of the DNA.

  6. Testing simple indices of habitat proximity.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Rachael; Dushoff, Jonathan; Crone, Elizabeth E; Schultz, Cheryl B; Budny, Robert V; Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2005-06-01

    Simple measures of habitat proximity made primarily on the basis of land cover are widely used in the ecological literature to infer habitat connectivity, or the potential for animal movement among resource patches. However, such indices rarely have been tested against observations of animal movement or against more detailed biological models. We developed a priori expectations as to the types of study systems and organisms for which various habitat proximity indices would be best suited. We then used data from three study systems and four species to test which, if any, of the indices were good predictors of population-level responses. Our a priori expectations about index performance were not upheld. The indices that consider both habitat area and distance from the focal patch were highly correlated with each other, suggesting that they do index similar quantities. However, none of the indices performed well in predicting population response variables. The results suggest that the pattern of habitat cover alone may be insufficient to predict the process of animal movement.

  7. Fast proximity algorithm for MAP ECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Krol, Andrzej; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-03-01

    We arrived at the fixed-point formulation of the total variation maximum a posteriori (MAP) regularized emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem and we proposed an iterative alternating scheme to numerically calculate the fixed point. We theoretically proved that our algorithm converges to unique solutions. Because the obtained algorithm exhibits slow convergence speed, we further developed the proximity algorithm in the transformed image space, i.e. the preconditioned proximity algorithm. We used the bias-noise curve method to select optimal regularization hyperparameters for both our algorithm and expectation maximization with total variation regularization (EM-TV). We showed in the numerical experiments that our proposed algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioner, outperformed conventional EM-TV algorithm in many critical aspects, such as comparatively very low noise and bias for Shepp-Logan phantom. This has major ramification for nuclear medicine because clinical implementation of our preconditioned fixed-point algorithms might result in very significant radiation dose reduction in the medical applications of emission tomography.

  8. Proximal intentional neglect: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, M; Shuren, J; Heilman, K M

    1994-01-01

    Although neglect has been demonstrated in the horizontal, vertical, and radial planes of space and has been attributed to sensory-attentional, motor-intentional, and representational deficits, motor intentional neglect in the radial plane has not been previously described. A patient who had a right parietal infarct was tested with a modified cancellation task that uses a fixed window, thereby controlling attentional demands and allowing one to dissociate between intentional and representational neglect. This patient showed proximal (radial) intentional neglect (a failure to move towards or in proximal space). Unlike controls whose search times decreased with increasing window size, our patient showed no change in search time as a function of window size. This pattern of behaviour suggests that the patient's search strategy does not incorporate factors such as the relation between a fixed target space and a variably sized aperture, but rather was based on the allocation of a certain amount of resources for a fixed period of time after which, regardless of performance, the patient would stop searching. PMID:7964818

  9. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  10. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    SciTech Connect

    Fosco, Cesar D.; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2012-08-15

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

  11. Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

    2012-05-01

    The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

  12. Obesity and Supermarket Access: Proximity or Price?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. Methods. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Results. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = 0.19, 0.63) Conclusions. Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another. PMID:22698052

  13. Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations without fractures.

    PubMed

    Vicar, A J

    1988-02-01

    Injuries to the proximal interphalangeal joint are extremely common. An understanding of the complex anatomy of this joint is essential for diagnosis and treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint sprains and dislocations. Lateral injuries are among the commonest injuries in the hand. These are often stable after reduction, requiring only closed treatment. Occasionally, however, the collateral ligament can be trapped in the joint and require open reduction. Dorsal dislocations represent the most common dislocation in the hand. These, too, are usually stable after reduction and can be treated by closed methods. On occasion, however, these dislocations will be open or irreducible by closed means, requiring surgical intervention and repair of damaged structures. Complex rotary dislocations are exactly that: complex. An exact understanding of the damaged structures and causes of irreducibility frequently makes this an injury often requiring open reduction and selective repair of damaged soft tissue structures. Fortunately, prompt diagnosis, reduction, and institution of appropriate treatment can usually afford the patient good function after these injuries. It must be noted that stiffness is more common than instability, and active range-of-motion exercises instituted at the proper time are essential. These joints will often remain permanently thicker after injury in spite of optimal care, and tenderness and soreness with use may persist for 6 to 12 months.

  14. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response showed association with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Sobrinho, Juçara Maria; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Fugueiredo-Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luis Otávio Z; Pitta, Denise R; Campos, Elisabete A; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal infections may affect susceptibility to and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and chronic inflammation has been linked to carcinogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory response (IR) with the severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-infected women. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09/11 primers and genotyping was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay in 211 cervical samples from women submitted to excision of the transformation zone. The bacterial flora was assessed in Papanicolaou stained smears, and positivity for BV was defined as ≥ 20% of clue cells. Present inflammatory response was defined as ≥ 30 neutrophils per field at 1000× magnification. Age higher than 29 years (OR:1.91 95% CI 1.06-3.45), infections by the types 16 and/or 18 (OR:1.92 95% CI 1.06-3.47), single or multiple infections associated with types 16 and/or 18 (OR: 1.92 CI 95% 1.06-3.47), BV (OR: 3.54 95% CI 1.62-7.73) and IR (OR: 6.33 95% CI 3.06-13.07) were associated with severity of cervical neoplasia (CIN 2 or worse diagnoses), while not smoking showed a protective effect (OR: 0.51 95% CI 0.26-0.98). After controlling for confounding factors, BV(OR: 3.90 95% CI 1.64-9.29) and IR (OR: 6.43 95% CI 2.92-14.15) maintained their association with the severity of cervical neoplasia. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response were independently associated with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women, which seems to suggest that the microenvironment would relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia. PMID:26644228

  15. [Combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal endomicroscopy for gastric neoplasia detection].

    PubMed

    Shuleshova, A G; Zav'ialov, M O; Ul'ianov, D N; Kanareĭtseva, T D

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy (CCLE) for detection of gastric neoplasia in 103 patients is presented in the article. It was described the main principles of catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy by using of Cellvizio-system ("Mauna Kea Technologies", France). All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy before catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy. Such modes as HRE-endoscopy, NBI-endoscopy and Zoom-endoscopy were used. It was revealed different neoplastic changes of stomach mucous coat and early cancer forms of stomach in 185 cases. It was noted expediency and high informational content of CCLE which leads to detect the foci of intestinal metaplasia by colonic type, foci of dysplasia and early cancer of stomach mucous coat. The role of conventional morphological study for verification of changes detected with CCLE was shown.

  16. [Combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal endomicroscopy for gastric neoplasia detection].

    PubMed

    Shuleshova, A G; Zav'ialov, M O; Ul'ianov, D N; Kanareĭtseva, T D

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of combined endoscopic diagnostics with catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy (CCLE) for detection of gastric neoplasia in 103 patients is presented in the article. It was described the main principles of catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy by using of Cellvizio-system ("Mauna Kea Technologies", France). All patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy before catheter confocal laser endomicroscopy. Such modes as HRE-endoscopy, NBI-endoscopy and Zoom-endoscopy were used. It was revealed different neoplastic changes of stomach mucous coat and early cancer forms of stomach in 185 cases. It was noted expediency and high informational content of CCLE which leads to detect the foci of intestinal metaplasia by colonic type, foci of dysplasia and early cancer of stomach mucous coat. The role of conventional morphological study for verification of changes detected with CCLE was shown. PMID:25327669

  17. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  18. The management of recurrent and drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).

    PubMed

    Newlands, E S

    2003-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) comprises a spectrum of disease from low-risk disease which can be cured with simple relatively non-toxic treatment, to extremely aggressive tumours which require specialized management. The prognostic variables in patients with GTN are different from those in other gynaecological malignancies, and the major adverse prognostic variables include long interval from antecedent pregnancy, high concentrations of the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotrophin, metastases in brain and liver and failure of prior treatment. Patients who relapse after their prior treatment can also be categorized into different risk groups. Salvage treatment can vary from single agent actinomycin D to combination chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery. With appropriate management, the majority of patients can achieve long-term remission and, in most cases, preserve fertility. The late side-effects of more intensive treatment are a small risk of inducing second tumours and also of bringing forward the age of menopause.

  19. Current concepts in the diagnosis and pathobiology of intraepithelial neoplasia: A review by organ system.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Bishop, Justin A; Argani, Pedram; Cuda, Jonathan D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Hruban, Ralph H; Netto, George J; Stoler, Mark H; Taube, Janis M; Vang, Russell; Westra, William H; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE In this report, a team of surgical pathologists has provided a review of intraepithelial neoplasia in a host of (but not all) anatomic sites of interest to colleagues in various medical specialties, namely, uterine cervix, ovary, breast, lung, head and neck, skin, prostate, bladder, pancreas, and esophagus. There is more experience with more readily accessible sites (such as the uterine cervix and skin) than with other anatomic sites, and the lack of uniform terminology, together with divergent biology in various sites, makes it difficult to paint a unifying, relevant portrait. The authors' aim was to provide a framework from which to move forward as we care for patients with such precancerous lesions. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:408-436. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27270763

  20. No clinical predictors of intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive patients with external condilomata acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Giacaman, Paula; Martínez, María José; Chnaiderman, Jonas; Ampuero, Sandra; Santander, Ester; Ramis, Claudia; Sazunic, Ivo; Garmendia, María Luisa; Gómez, Orietta

    2011-01-01

    To identify clinical parameters in association with human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes and histopathology diagnosis in HIV-positive patients with external condylomata acuminata (ECA), 400 Chilean HIV-positive patients were included in the study. Forty-seven patients presented ECA. Clinical parameters and socio demographic data were recorded. Histopathology study and HPV linear array genotyping assay were performed. Intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) grade 2 or 3 was found in 8.5% of patients, associated to HPV-16. Patients were mainly single, MSM, with history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), multiple sexual partners, receiving antiretroviral therapy and with recurrent lesions. All ECA were mainly perianal, grey or pink colored, exophytic with less than two years evolution. No clinical parameter could predict the development of high grade IEN in HIV patients with ECA. It seems necessary to perform biopsy and genotype all HIV positive patients with ECA. PMID:21799573

  1. Radiation Sensitivity of New Zealand Black Mice and the Development of Autoimmune Disease and Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Jane I.; Siegel, Benjamin V.

    1971-01-01

    Young New Zealand Black (NZB) mice manifested extremely high resistance to the lethal effects of acute exposures to ionizing radiation, with a dose necessary to kill 50% of the animals within 30 days, LD50(30), of 964 roentgens (R) at 30 days of age and of 856 R for 90-day-old mice. In contrast, Coombs' positive 9-month-old NZB mice (with low primary immune response) were highly susceptible (LD50(30) = 543 R), possibly because of anemia-stimulated erythropoiesis leading to a depletion of stem cells. The radiation resistance of young NZB mice, combined with previous observations of their immunologic hyper-responsiveness, support the concept that NZB mice possess an unusually large pool of hematopoietic stem cells, an abnormality which may predispose them to the development of autoimmune disease and neoplasia. PMID:5276282

  2. Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia requires rigorous exclusion of colonic neoplasia and endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Beeching, N J; Christmas, T I; Ellis-Pegler, R B; Nicholson, G I

    1985-08-01

    Twelve patients presented to the hospitals of the Auckland Hospital Board with bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus bovis in the years 1979-84. Ten had endocarditis, affecting homograft valves in two cases and the tricuspid valve in one case. Of nine patients who underwent investigation of the large bowel, only one did not have a colorectal tumour. Three had colonic adenocarcinoma and three had colorectal villous adenoma. Two, including a patient with acute hepatic failure from alcoholic cirrhosis, had colonic adenomata. Colonoscopy provided a tissue diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia despite negative radiological studies in three patients. Bacteraemia due to S. bovis should prompt rigorous investigation to exclude both endocarditis and tumours of the large bowel.

  3. Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Neoplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Lisa; Pimenta, Jeanne M.; Poole, Charles; Jenkins, David

    2008-01-01

    Detection of persistent cervical carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is used as a marker for cervical cancer risk in clinical trials. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between persistent HPV DNA and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and invasive cervical cancer (together designated CIN2-3/HSIL+) to evaluate the robustness of HPV persistence for clinical use. MEDLINE and Current Contents were searched through January 30, 2006. Relative risks (RRs) were stratified by HPV comparison group. Of 2,035 abstracts, 41 studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Over 22,500 women were included in calculation of RRs for persistent HPV DNA detection and cervical neoplasia. RRs ranged from 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5) to 813.0 (95% confidence interval: 168.2, 3,229.2) for CIN2-3/HSIL+ versus 12 months), wider testing intervals, CIN2-3/HSIL+, and use of an HPV-negative reference group were consistently associated with higher RRs. Thus, HPV persistence was consistently and strongly associated with CIN2-3/HSIL+, despite wide variation in definitions and study methods. The magnitude of association varied by duration of persistence and testing interval. Precise definition and standardization of HPV testing, sampling procedure, and test interval are needed for reliable clinical testing. These findings validate HPV persistence as a clinical marker and endpoint. PMID:18483125

  4. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  5. Human papillomavirus genotypes and their association with cervical neoplasia in a cohort of Western Australian women.

    PubMed

    Brestovac, Brian; Harnett, Gerry B; Smith, David W; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Frost, Felicity A

    2005-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be the cause of almost all cervical cancers. The genotypes have been classified into high and low risk types according to their oncogenic potential. However, data for many of the genotypes are limited and some (HPV-26, 53, and 66) have no agreed status. A study was undertaken to determine the HPV genotype distribution in women of Western Australia and the association with cervical neoplasia. Liquid based cervical samples from a cohort of 282 Western Australian women were tested for HPV DNA by PCR followed by DNA sequencing to determine HPV genotypes. HPV-53 and HPV-16 were the most common genotypes found in this population. In addition 86 archived liquid based cervical samples from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1-3 (CIN 1-3) were tested for HPV DNA. Also 32 archived paraffin biopsy samples from women with squamous cell carcinoma were also tested. HPV-16 was the most common genotype found in these samples. Of the cohort of Western Australian women tested, 27% were found to contain HPV and approximately half of these contained known high-risk HPV genotypes, but only 30% of these were types 16 or 18. The data from this study indicate that HPV-53 is not oncogenic based on an R value and odds ratio (OR) of zero. The data also suggest that HPV-73 may be oncogenic, while HPV-66 is unlikely to be. Two high-risk HPV genotypes that are associated with the Asian region (HPV-52 and HPV-58) were found in Western Australian women suggesting a possible epidemiological link between women in these countries.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II and III with Photolon.

    PubMed

    Istomin, Y P; Lapzevich, T P; Chalau, V N; Shliakhtsin, S V; Trukhachova, T V

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to test in clinics a previously developed novel organ-saving approach for the treatment of CIN using PDT with the photosensitizer Photolon applied in women of a childbearing age with CIN II and III. A total number of 112 patients aged 35.2+/-1.6 with morphologically proven diagnosis of CIN II and III were enrolled into the study. All 112 patients had been observed at least during 1-year follow-up period after PDT. Among them 53 patients (44.1%) were subjected to a dynamic observation for less than 2 years; 29 patients (24.1%) were under the observation for less than 3 years; 13 patients (10.8%) - for 3-4 years and 17 women - for more than 4 years. A complete response represented by the complete regression of neoplastic lesions, which was proved by the results of morphological examinations, was revealed in 104 (92.8%) of treated women. In 3 months after treatment a complete eradication of the HPV infection was proven by PCR-analysis in 47 (53.4%) from 88 patients who have been infected with HPV of a highly oncogenic strains before PDT. PDT with Photolon is an alternative approach for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia which can be recommended for women of childbearing age. The simplicity of the procedure as well as its' high therapeutic efficacy defines the reasonability of its' introduction into the clinical practice as a new organ-saving method for the treatment of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  7. The association of uterine cervical microbiota with an increased risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, H Y; Kim, B-S; Seo, S-S; Kong, J-S; Lee, J-K; Park, S-Y; Hong, K-M; Kim, H-K; Kim, M K

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested potential roles of the microbiome in cervicovaginal diseases. However, there has been no report on the cervical microbiome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to identify the cervical microbiota of Korean women and assess the association between the cervical microbiota and CIN, and to determine the combined effect of the microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) on the risk of CIN. The cervical microbiota of 70 women with CIN and 50 control women was analysed using pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene. The associations between specific microbial patterns or abundance of specific microbiota and CIN risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were calculated. The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria and TM7 were predominant in the microbiota and four distinct community types were observed in all women. A high score of the pattern characterized by predominance of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners with a minority of Lactobacillus crispatus had a higher CIN risk (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.73-19.4) and abundance of A. vaginae had a higher CIN risk (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.61-27.2). The synergistic effect of a high score of this microbial pattern and oncogenic HPV was observed (OR 34.1, 95% CI 4.95-284.5; RERI/S, 15.9/1.93). A predominance of A. vaginae, G. vaginalis and L. iners with a concomitant paucity of L. crispatus in the cervical microbiota was associated with CIN risk, suggesting that bacterial dysbiosis and its combination with oncogenic HPV may be a risk factor for cervical neoplasia.

  8. Effectiveness of systematic alphanumeric coded endoscopy for diagnosis of gastric intraepithelial neoplasia in a low socioeconomic population

    PubMed Central

    Machaca Quea, Nancy Roxana; Emura, Fabian; Barreda Bolaños, Fernando; Salvador Arias, Yuliana; Arévalo Suárez, Fernando Antonio; Piscoya Rivera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: In the Western world, gastric cancer (GC) usually presents at an advanced stage, carrying a high mortality rate. Studies have reported that 14 % to 26 % of GCs are missed at endoscopy up to 3 years before diagnosis. Systematic Alphanumeric Coded Endoscopy (SACE) has been proposed to improve quality of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) by facilitating a complete examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This prospective cross-sectional study was designed to determine the frequency of gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) by using the SACE approach in cohort of patients from low socioeconomic level. It also used non-targeted biopsies to evaluate the frequency of premalignant conditions. Patients and methods: A total of 601 consecutive asymptomatic or dyspeptic patients were enrolled between January 2013 and November 2014 at the Huacho regional hospital in Peru. The SACE method proposed by Emura et al, which divides the stomach into 5 regions and 21 areas, was routinely used for diagnosis. Biopsy samples were obtained from any endoscopically detected focal lesion. To evaluate gastric premalignant conditions, 4 non-targeted biopsies were taken. Results: A total of 573 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 57 years, and the female:male ratio was 1.9 : 1. In all cases, complete photo-documentation of the 21 gastric areas was achieved. The overall rate of detection of GIN was 2.8 %. Low-grade displasia, high-grade dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma were found in 13 (2.3 %), 2 (0.3 %), and 1 (0.2 %) of the patients, respectively. The prevalence of at least 1 premalignant condition was 31 %, and helicobacter pylori infection was found in 57 % of patients. Conclusions: Using the SACE approach and with proper training, we have reported herein a high frequency of GIN in patients from a low socioeconomic status. Gastric cancer detection can be improved in a Western endoscopy setting when SACE, as a screening method, is

  9. Experiential benefits, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a national scenic trail.

    PubMed

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M; Stein, Taylor V

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  10. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  11. Ecology: the proximate cause of frog declines?

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Ines; Simoncelli, Francesca; Fagotti, Anna; Pascolini, Rita

    2007-05-31

    Pounds et al. argue that global warming contributes to amphibian declines by encouraging outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Although our findings agree with the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, this pathogen is probably not the only proximate factor in such cases: in the Trasimeno Lake area of Umbria in central Italy, for example, the water frog Rana lessonae first declined in the late 1990s, yet chytridiomycosis was not observed until 2003 (refs 5, 6). Here we show that the chytrid was common there throughout 1999-2002, in a previously unknown form that did not cause disease. We therefore think that the focus by Pounds et al. on a single pathogen is hard to justify because the host-parasite ecology is at present so poorly understood.

  12. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are included by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  13. Parallel Proximity Detection for Computer Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Wieland, Frederick P. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a system for performing proximity detection in computer simulations on parallel processing architectures utilizing a distribution list which includes movers and sensor coverages which check in and out of grids. Each mover maintains a list of sensors that detect the mover's motion as the mover and sensor coverages check in and out of the grids. Fuzzy grids are includes by fuzzy resolution parameters to allow movers and sensor coverages to check in and out of grids without computing exact grid crossings. The movers check in and out of grids while moving sensors periodically inform the grids of their coverage. In addition, a lookahead function is also included for providing a generalized capability without making any limiting assumptions about the particular application to which it is applied. The lookahead function is initiated so that risk-free synchronization strategies never roll back grid events. The lookahead function adds fixed delays as events are scheduled for objects on other nodes.

  14. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. PMID:22664943

  15. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state.

  16. Novel superconducting proximized heterostructures for ultrafast photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, G. P.; Parlato, L.; Marrocco, N.; Pagliarulo, V.; Peluso, G.; Barone, A.; Tafuri, F.; Uccio, U. Scotti di; Miletto, F.; Radovic, M.; Pan, D.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-11-01

    Weak ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) proximity bilayers have been fabricated and characterized for basic physics studies concerning the ultrafast carrier dynamics in layered materials. The normalized reflectivity change (Δ R/ R) as a function of the time delay between the pump and the probe laser beams has been measured in F/S heterostructures formed by a low critical temperature superconductor (Nb) with a NiCu overlayer, and a high Tc superconductor (YBCO) covered by Au/NiCu and manganite (LSMO) overlayers. The attention is mainly focused to the investigation of nonequilibrium excitation dynamics inside different bilayers in the low temperature region. The presence of the weak ferromagnetic overlayer produces faster optical relaxation times with respect to sole superconducting films. The results are promising in view of potential applications as ultrafast kinetic inductance superconducting photodetectors as confirmed by preliminary time-resolved photoimpedance experiments on both Nb and NiCu(21 nm)/Nb(70 nm) samples.

  17. Protein structure alignment beyond spatial proximity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Ma, Jianzhu; Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is a fundamental problem in computational structure biology. Many programs have been developed for automatic protein structure alignment, but most of them align two protein structures purely based upon geometric similarity without considering evolutionary and functional relationship. As such, these programs may generate structure alignments which are not very biologically meaningful from the evolutionary perspective. This paper presents a novel method DeepAlign for automatic pairwise protein structure alignment. DeepAlign aligns two protein structures using not only spatial proximity of equivalent residues (after rigid-body superposition), but also evolutionary relationship and hydrogen-bonding similarity. Experimental results show that DeepAlign can generate structure alignments much more consistent with manually-curated alignments than other automatic tools especially when proteins under consideration are remote homologs. These results imply that in addition to geometric similarity, evolutionary information and hydrogen-bonding similarity are essential to aligning two protein structures.

  18. Proximity to mining industry and cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; García-Pérez, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Boldo, Elena; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-10-01

    Mining installations are releasing toxic substances into the environment which could pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity. We sought to investigate whether there might be excess cancer-related mortality in populations residing in towns lying in the vicinity of Spanish mining industries governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation, according to the type of extraction method used. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer, across the period 1997 through 2006. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Poisson regression models, using the Bayesian conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè and Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations for Bayesian inference, were used: to analyze risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around mining installations; effect of type of industrial activity; and to conduct individual analyses within a 50-kilometer radius of each installation. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) of colorectal cancer (1.097, 1.041-1.157), lung cancer (1.066, 1.009-1.126) specifically related with proximity to opencast coal mining, bladder cancer (1.106, 1.016-1.203) and leukemia (1.093, 1.003-1.191) related with other opencast mining installations, was detected among the overall population in the vicinity of mining installations. Other tumors also associated in the stratified analysis by type of mine, were: thyroid, gallbladder and liver cancers (underground coal installations); brain cancer (opencast coal mining); stomach cancer (coal and other opencast mining installations); and myeloma (underground mining installations). The results suggested an association between risk of dying due to digestive, respiratory, hematologic and thyroid cancers and proximity to Spanish mining

  19. Proximal hypospadias: we aren’t always keeping our promises

    PubMed Central

    Long, Christopher J.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias surgery is a humbling art form. The evolution of surgical techniques has made distal hypospadias outcomes favorable, but recent publications suggest that our complication rates for proximal hypospadias are much higher than previously reported. To explain these shortcomings, we examine the literature and focus on the lack of standardized documentation, the subsequent inability to objectify the severity of the phenotype, and the underestimation of complications due to lack of long-term follow up. The variability in surgical technique and the fact that the literature abounds with small case series from single institutions also limits our ability to compare outcomes. We believe that the use of standardized and scored phenotype assessments from diagnosis through the extended postoperative period will allow for improved scientific assessment of outcomes. This will facilitate multi-institution collaboration and tabulation of outcomes, allowing rapid data accumulation and assessment for this rare disorder. As surgeons, we must follow boys through puberty into adulthood and must honestly report our results in order to advance our surgical approach to this complicated problem. PMID:27746897

  20. Fixation of proximal humeral prostheses and rotational micromotion.

    PubMed

    Harris, T E; Jobe, C M; Dai, Q G

    2000-01-01

    Twenty pairs of cadaveric humeri were used to compare the rotational stability of proximal humeral prostheses fixed by proximal cementation with the stability offered by press fit or full cementation. For each proximally cemented specimen, only the upper portion of the prosthesis was coated with cement. For the fully cemented specimens, a cement restrictor was used just distal to the prosthesis, and a finger-packing technique was used to fill the proximal humeral medullary canal. Torque was applied to the Morse taper of the prostheses, and rotational micromotion was measured at the level of the osteotomy. In each of 11 pairs of cadaveric humeri, one side was press fit and the contralateral side was proximally cemented; in each of 9 pairs, proximal cementation was compared with full cementation. Proximally cemented prostheses' micromotion was significantly less than that of press-fit prostheses (P = .0016). There was no difference in micromotion between proximal cementation and full cementation (P = .82). Proximal cementation increased initial fixation over press fit. Full cementation did not increase rotational stability.

  1. Vaccination Rates are Associated With Functional Proximity But Not Base Proximity of Vaccination Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David I.; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Routine annual influenza vaccinations are recommended for persons 6 months of age and older, but less than half of US adults get vaccinated. Many employers offer employees free influenza vaccinations at workplace clinics, but even then take-up is low. Objective: To determine whether employees are significantly more likely to get vaccinated if they have a higher probability of walking by the clinic for reasons other than vaccination. Method: We obtained data from an employer with a free workplace influenza vaccination clinic. Using each employee’s building entry/exit swipe card data, we test whether functional proximity—the likelihood that the employee walks by the clinic for reasons other than vaccination—predicts whether the employee gets vaccinated at the clinic. We also test whether base proximity—the inverse of walking distance from the employee’s desk to the clinic—predicts vaccination probability. Participants: A total of 1801 employees of a health benefits administrator that held a free workplace influenza vaccination clinic. Results: A 2 SD increase in functional proximity is associated with a 6.4 percentage point increase in the probability of vaccination (total vaccination rate at company=40%), even though the average employee’s desk is only 166 meters from the clinic. Base proximity does not predict vaccination probability. Conclusions and Relevance: Minor changes in the environment can have substantial effects on the probability of vaccination. If these results generalize, health systems should emphasize functional proximity over base proximity when locating preventive health services. PMID:27177295

  2. Loss of tubular creatinine secretion as the only sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction in light chain proximal tubulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stehlé, Thomas; Vignon, Marguerite; Flamant, Martin; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Rabant, Marion; Rodenas, Anita; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Arnulf, Bertrand; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is a rare disease, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions of light chain (usually kappa) immunoglobulins. Clinical presentation is usually a Fanconi syndrome. The proximal tubular dysfunction can be incomplete, and exceptional cases of LCPT without any tubular dysfunction have even been described. Here, we report a case of LCPT in which the only sign of proximal tubulopathy is the absence of secretion of creatinine, as assessed by the simultaneous measurement of renal clearance of creatinine and 51CrEDTA. The loss of tubular creatinine secretion as a sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction ought to be identified in patients with light chain proximal tubulopathy as it leads to a clinically relevant underestimation of GFR by the creatinine-derived equations. The prevalence and prognostic significance of this particular proximal tubular damage in LCPT remain to be determined. PMID:27367983

  3. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-02-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  4. Situating the Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George E., II; Ketterer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Social constructivist theory has advanced the notion that distance education is inferior, because effective learning is thought to require immersion in a cognitive apprenticeship under the guidance of a mentor. Effective learning is said to be situated in activity, context, and culture as a collaboration in a community of practice. Administrators…

  5. Usefulness of analysis of p53 alteration and observation of surface microstructure for diagnosis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fujii, S; Fujimori, T; Chiba, T

    2003-03-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have a higher incidence of colorectal cancer. UC-associated colorectal cancer is thought to develop in patients with preexisting UC-associated dysplasia. It is crucial to diagnose UC-associated dysplasia and early stage of cancer in patients with long-standing UC for the purpose of treatment of UC-associated neoplasia. However, it is difficult to detect UC-associated dysplasia and the early stage of cancer endoscopically, and to discriminate these neoplasias from inflammatory regenerative epithelium pathologically. The aim of this study was to clarify whether observation of the surface microstructure could aid in the detection of UC-associated neopalsia, and whether analysis of genetic alterations could be used to discriminate between UC-associated neoplasia and inflammatory regenerative epithelium. Tissue samples were obtained from colectomy specimens from eight cases of UC-associated neoplasia. We examined the surface microstructure of these tissues using stereomicroscopy. We also investigated mutation of K-ras codon 12 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and alteration of the p53 gene, using immunohistochemistry and PCR-single stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The surface microstructure of UC-associated neoplasia revealed a packed distribution of oval and/or, club-shaped and/or, branch-shaped pits and a villous appearance. Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein occurred in 59.5% of UC-associated neoplasia. Mutations of the p53 exon 5-8 were detected in 95.2% of UC-associated neoplasia, and these mutations were detected in 92.9% of UC-associated neoplasia that showed negative p53 immunohistochemical staining. Mutations of the p53 exon 5-8 in regenerative epithelium occurred infrequently. The K-ras mutation rate in UC-associated neoplasia was 7.4%. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry and PCR-SSCP analysis of p53 would be useful tools for pathological discrimination

  6. Proximal Blade Twist Feedback Control for Heliogyro Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sarah Mitchell

    mode is on the order of 0.005%, meaning there is almost no inherent damping in the blade. Next, the proximal blade twist feedback control design was successful in overcoming friction in the root actuator and added damping to the blade. The damping ratio for the lowest frequency torsional mode was increased from 0.001% to 0.09%, which is a significant amount for a heliogyro spacecraft. Finally, the camera sensor used for the proximal differential twist measurement proved to be feasible and quantization from these measurements only decreased the damping ratio to 0.075%. This research provides the first indication that a physically realizable blade root controller can deal with friction in an effective way, thus taking a step towards advancing the technology readiness level of the heliogyro spacecraft.

  7. Effects of focus difference of nested and isolated features for scanner proximity matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, GuoXiang; Ackmann, Paul; Koh, Huifeng; Richter, Frank; Ruhm, Matthias; Busch, Jens; Chen, Norman; Kurth, Karin; Leschok, Andre; Lim, Chin Teong

    2013-04-01

    Assuming that all exposure tools on which a certain production reticle is being used are from same type and configuration it can be expected that the performance of the reticle should be independent from the exposing machines. When planning or performing arrangements for process transfer between different production sites or capacity expansion within one site performing a proximity matching between different exposure tools is a common activity. One of the objectives of a robust optical proximity correction (OPC) model is to simulate the process variation. Normally, the wafer critical dimension (CD) calibration of an OPC model is applied for one specific scanner first. In order to enhance the tolerance of the OPC model so called fingerprints of different scanners should be matched as closely as possible. Some examples of features for fingerprint test patterns are "critical dimension through pitch" (CDTP), "inverse CDTP", "tipto-tip" and "linearity patterns", and CD difference of disposition structures. All of them should also be matched as tightly as possible in order to reduce the process variation and to strengthen the tolerance of an OPC model. However, the focus difference between nested and isolated features which is directly influenced by different exposure tools and reticle layers will have an effect on the proximity matching of some patterns such as inverse CDTP and uniformly distributed disposition structures. In this manuscript the effects of focus differences between nested and isolated features for scanner proximity matching will be demonstrated. Moreover, the results for several scanners and different mask layers using advanced binary mask blank material will also be investigated. Even if some parts of the proximity features are closely enough to each other different parity proximity patterns will be affected by the focus difference between dense and isolated features. Because the focus difference between isolated and dense features is dependent on the

  8. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    An interactive, graphical proximity operations planning system was developed which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in the dynamic multispacecraft environment about the space station. Maneuvering takes place in, as well as out of, the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of relative orbital motion trajectories and complex operational constraints, which are both time varying and highly dependent on the mission scenario. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relative constraints in an easily interpretable, graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of the space station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the station's orbital plane. The operator has control over two modes of operation: (1) a viewing system mode, which enables him or her to explore the spatial situation about the space station and thus choose and frame in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way-points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory which complies with all operational constraints. Through a graphical interactive process, the operator will continue to modify the trajectory design until all operational constraints are met. The effectiveness of this display format in complex trajectory design is presently being evaluated in an ongoing experimental program.

  9. Anatomic Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibiofibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Warner, Brent T; Moulton, Samuel G; Cram, Tyler R; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) instability can be easily missed or confused for other, more common lateral knee pathologies such as meniscal tears, fibular collateral ligament injury, biceps femoris pathology, or iliotibial band syndrome. Because of this confusion, some authors believe that PTFJ instability is more common than initially appreciated. Patients with PTFJ subluxation may have no history of inciting trauma or injury, and it is not uncommon for these patients to have bilateral symptoms and generalized ligamentous laxity. Currently, the optimal surgical treatment for patients with chronic PTFJ instability is unknown. Historically, a variety of surgical treatments have been reported. Initially, joint arthrodesis and fibular head resection were recommended. More recently, temporary screw fixation, nonanatomic reconstruction with strips of the biceps femoris tendon or iliotibial band, and reconstruction with free hamstring autograft have been described. The purpose of this report is to present our surgical technique for treatment of chronic PTFJ instability using an anatomic reconstruction of the posterior ligamentous structures of the PTFJ with a semitendinosus autograft. PMID:27274455

  10. Proximity Resonance and Localized Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The collective excitation of conduction electrons in subwavelength nanostructures is known as Localized Surface Plasmon(LSP)[1]. Such plasmon modes has been intensively studied using noble nanoparticles . More recently, the possibility of building terahertz metamaterials supporting such LSP modes has been explored in graphene microribbons and microdisks. Unlike Surface Plasmon Polaritons(SPPs) at metal-insulator interface, LSP can be directly excited by light illumination and holds promise for applications in ultrasensitive biosensing, nano-optical tweezers and improved photovoltaic devices. In this paper, we consider the interaction of two LSPs in the weak coupling regime and show how an effect similar to the proximity resonance in the quantum scattering theory) gives rise to an asymmetric(quadrupole) mode with increased damping rate. The existence of this asymmetric mode relies on a small phase retardation between the two LSPs. This phase retardation, though small, is key to both increased damping rate for the asymmetric mode and reduced damping rate for the symmetric mode. When this small phase retardation is removed by changing the polarization of the exciting light,we show that the asymmetric mode can not be excited and the symmetric mode shows increased damping.

  11. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    An interactive graphical proximity operations planning system was developed, which allows on-site design of efficient, complex, multiburn maneuvers in a dynamic multispacecraft environment. Maneuvering takes place in and out of the orbital plane. The difficulty in planning such missions results from the unusual and counterintuitive character of orbital dynamics and complex time-varying operational constraints. This difficulty is greatly overcome by visualizing the relative trajectories and the relevant constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format, which provides the operator with immediate feedback on design actions. The display shows a perspective bird's-eye view of a Space Station and co-orbiting spacecraft on the background of the Station's orbital plane. The operator has control over the two modes of operation: a viewing system mode, which enables the exporation of the spatial situation about the Space Station and thus the ability to choose and zoom in on areas of interest; and a trajectory design mode, which allows the interactive editing of a series of way points and maneuvering burns to obtain a trajectory that complies with all operational constraints. A first version of this display was completed. An experimental program is planned in which operators will carry out a series of design missions which vary in complexity and constraints.

  12. Effects of thrust reversing in ground proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, P. B.; Hughes, R. V.

    1987-01-01

    The changes in stability and control characteristics encountered by a thrust reversing aircraft during its final approach, landing, and ground roll are described. These changes include a strong pitch-up accompanied by the loss of horizontal tail and aileron control effectiveness. The magnitude of reverser induced changes in ground effect are much larger than corresponding changes in free air. Some unexpected unsteady motions exhibited in wind tunnel by an aircraft model with reversers operating in ground proximity are also described. The cause of this oscillatory behavior was determined to be an unsteady interaction between the wall jets formed by impingement of reverser jets on the ground and the on-coming free stream. Time histories of rolling moments measured by the wind tunnel balance or support system were removed and frequencies were scaled by Strouhal number to full scale. Corrected time series were used to simulate the motion of a fighter aircraft with thrust reversers in ground effect. The simulation predicted large roll angles and nose down attitude at touchdown. Some phenomena of jet attachment to solid surfaces are discussed and areas for future research are recommended.

  13. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  14. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  15. Scintillation Proximity Assay of Arginine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Xie, Nan; Feng, You; Zheng, Y. George

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of arginine residues, catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), is one important protein post-translational modification involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. A fast and effective assay for PRMT can provide valuable information for dissecting the biological functions of PRMTs, as well as for screening small-molecule inhibitors of arginine methylation. Currently, among the methods used for PRMT activity measurement, many contain laborious separation procedures, which restrict the applications of these assays for high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery. The authors report here a mix-and-measure method to measure PRMT activity based on the principle of scintillation proximity assay (SPA). In this assay, 3H-AdoMet was used as methyl donor, and biotin-modified histone H4 peptide served as a methylation substrate. Following the methylation reaction catalyzed by PRMTs, streptavidin-coated SPA beads were added to the reaction solution, and SPA signals were detected by a MicroBeta scintillation counter. No separation step is needed, which simplifies the assay procedure and greatly enhances the assay speed. Particularly, the miniaturization and robustness suggest that this method is suited for HTS of PRMT inhibitors. PMID:21821785

  16. Dynamic proximity of spatio-temporal sequences.

    PubMed

    Horn, David; Dror, Gideon; Quenet, Brigitte

    2004-09-01

    Recurrent networks can generate spatio-temporal neural sequences of very large cycles, having an apparent random behavior. Nonetheless a proximity measure between these sequences may be defined through comparison of the synaptic weight matrices that generate them. Following the dynamic neural filter (DNF) formalism we demonstrate this concept by comparing teacher and student recurrent networks of binary neurons. We show that large sequences, providing a training set well exceeding the Cover limit, allow for good determination of the synaptic matrices. Alternatively, assuming the matrices to be known, very fast determination of the biases can be achieved. Thus, a spatio-temporal sequence may be regarded as spatio-temporal encoding of the bias vector. We introduce a linear support vector machine (SVM) variant of the DNF in order to specify an optimal weight matrix. This approach allows us to deal with noise. Spatio-temporal sequences generated by different DNFs with the same number of neurons may be compared by calculating correlations of the synaptic matrices of the reconstructed DNFs. Other types of spatio-temporal sequences need the introduction of hidden neurons, and/or the use of a kernel variant of the SVM approach. The latter is being defined as a recurrent support vector network (RSVN).

  17. Proximate and elemental analysis of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J T

    1982-11-01

    The Nutrient Surveillance Branch has been conducting a survey of infant formula products for Fiscal Year 1981. Each product has been carefully analyzed and the results compared to the label declaration and the minimum-maximum limits specified by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Nutrition (CON/AAP). Proximate and elemental analyses were made. Protein, fat, ash, and total solids (moisture) were determined by AOAC methods. Osmolality, density, and fatty acids (linoleic) were also determined. Carbohydrates were calculated by difference and caloric content was calculated by using the general Atwater factors. Elemental analysis for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, and K were performed by induction coupled plasma absorption spectroscopy. Chloride was assayed by potentiometric titration with AgNO3. A summary of the findings from the infant formula survey have been compared with CON/AAP recommendations. In general, there were only a few exceptions where the label claims and the CON/AAP requirements were not met. However, in none of these cases was the difference considered to be of public health significance.

  18. Proximity Navigation of Highly Constrained Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarritt, S.; Swartwout, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bandit is a 3-kg automated spacecraft in development at Washington University in St. Louis. Bandit's primary mission is to demonstrate proximity navigation, including docking, around a 25-kg student-built host spacecraft. However, because of extreme constraints in mass, power and volume, traditional sensing and actuation methods are not available. In particular, Bandit carries only 8 fixed-magnitude cold-gas thrusters to control its 6 DOF motion. Bandit lacks true inertial sensing, and the ability to sense position relative to the host has error bounds that approach the size of the Bandit itself. Some of the navigation problems are addressed through an extremely robust, error-tolerant soft dock. In addition, we have identified a control methodology that performs well in this constrained environment: behavior-based velocity potential functions, which use a minimum-seeking method similar to Lyapunov functions. We have also adapted the discrete Kalman filter for use on Bandit for position estimation and have developed a similar measurement vs. propagation weighting algorithm for attitude estimation. This paper provides an overview of Bandit and describes the control and estimation approach. Results using our 6DOF flight simulator are provided, demonstrating that these methods show promise for flight use.

  19. Differential Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Veena, Uppala; Kaliki, Swathi; Kethiri, Abhinav Reddy; Sangwan, Virender S; Ali, Mohammed Hasnat; Naik, Milind N; Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasm (OSSN) is the neoplasia arising from the conjunctiva, cornea and limbus. OSSN ranges from mild, moderate, severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recent findings on cancer stem cells theory indicate that population of stem-like cell as in neoplasia determines its heterogeneity and complexity leading to varying tumor development of metastatic behavior and recurrence. Cancer stem cell markers are not much explored in the cases of OSSN. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the expression of stem cells using stem cell markers mainly p63, ABCG2, c-KIT (CD117) and CD44 in OSSN tissue, which could have prognostic significance. The present study tries for the first time to explore expression of these stem markers in the cases of OSSN. These cases are subdivided into two groups. One group comprises of carcinoma in situ (n = 6) and the second group comprises of invasive carcinoma (n = 6). The mean age at presentation was 52 years; with 53 years for CIS group and 52 years for SCC group. From each group section from the paraffin block were taken for the IHC staining of p63, c-Kit, ABCG2 and CD44. Our experiments show high expression of P63 and CD44 in the cases of CIN and SCC. Both CIS and SCC displayed positive staining with p63, with more than 80% cells staining positive. However minimal expression of c-kit in both CIN and SCC. But surprisingly we got high expression of ABCG2 in cases of carcinoma in situ as compared to that of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. More than 50% of cells showed CD44 positivity in both CIS and SCC groups. Our results show for the first time that these four stem cells especially the limbal epithelium stem cells play a vital role in the genesis of OSSN but we need to explore more cases before establishing its clinical and biological significance. PMID:27584160

  20. Differential Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Veena, Uppala; Kaliki, Swathi; Kethiri, Abhinav Reddy; Sangwan, Virender S.; Ali, Mohammed Hasnat; Naik, Milind N.; Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasm (OSSN) is the neoplasia arising from the conjunctiva, cornea and limbus. OSSN ranges from mild, moderate, severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recent findings on cancer stem cells theory indicate that population of stem-like cell as in neoplasia determines its heterogeneity and complexity leading to varying tumor development of metastatic behavior and recurrence. Cancer stem cell markers are not much explored in the cases of OSSN. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the expression of stem cells using stem cell markers mainly p63, ABCG2, c-KIT (CD117) and CD44 in OSSN tissue, which could have prognostic significance. The present study tries for the first time to explore expression of these stem markers in the cases of OSSN. These cases are subdivided into two groups. One group comprises of carcinoma in situ (n = 6) and the second group comprises of invasive carcinoma (n = 6). The mean age at presentation was 52 years; with 53 years for CIS group and 52 years for SCC group. From each group section from the paraffin block were taken for the IHC staining of p63, c-Kit, ABCG2 and CD44. Our experiments show high expression of P63 and CD44 in the cases of CIN and SCC. Both CIS and SCC displayed positive staining with p63, with more than 80% cells staining positive. However minimal expression of c-kit in both CIN and SCC. But surprisingly we got high expression of ABCG2 in cases of carcinoma in situ as compared to that of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. More than 50% of cells showed CD44 positivity in both CIS and SCC groups. Our results show for the first time that these four stem cells especially the limbal epithelium stem cells play a vital role in the genesis of OSSN but we need to explore more cases before establishing its clinical and biological significance. PMID:27584160

  1. Evaluation of fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations in cats with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and cats with gastrointestinal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kathrin F; Broussard, John D; Ruaux, Craig G; Suchodolski, Jan S; Williams, David A; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gastrointestinal lymphoma are common disorders in cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, a marker of gastrointestinal protein loss, in cats with histopathological evidence of gastrointestinal inflammation or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal and serum samples were obtained from 20 cats with chronic gastrointestinal disease in which endoscopic biopsies were performed. Two groups of cats were assembled based on histopathology: Group A (n = 8), mild to moderate IBD; Group B (n = 12), severe IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin, cobalamin, folate, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity were determined. Nineteen of the 20 diseased cats had elevated fecal α(1)-PI concentrations, ranging from 1.9 to 233.6 μg/g compared to 20 healthy control cats (normal range: ≤1.6 μg/g). Fecal α(1)-PI concentrations were statistically significantly different between healthy cats and cats of Group A (median: 3.9 μg/g, range: 1.3-9.2 μg/g, P < 0.001) or cats of Group B (median: 20.6 μg/g, 4.3-233.6 μg/g; P < 0.001), and between cats of Groups A and B (P < 0.01). Hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypocobalaminemia were detected in 88%, 83%, and 56% of the diseased cats, respectively. This study suggests that increased fecal α(1)-PI concentrations in association with low serum albumin and total protein concentrations may be a common finding in cats with IBD or gastrointestinal neoplasia. Furthermore, fecal α(1)-PI concentrations appear to be higher in cats with severe IBD or confirmed gastrointestinal neoplasia when compared to cats with mild to moderate IBD. PMID:23231864

  2. Proximate and ultimate causes of punishment and strong reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-02-01

    While admirable, Guala's discussion of reciprocity suffers from a confusion between proximate causes (psychological mechanisms triggering behaviour) and ultimate causes (evolved function of those psychological mechanisms). Because much work on "strong reciprocity" commits this error, I clarify the difference between proximate and ultimate causes of cooperation and punishment. I also caution against hasty rejections of "wide readings" of experimental evidence.

  3. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy can target neoplasia not detected by conventional endoscopic measures in long segment Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Arvind J.; George, Benley J.; Berkowitz, Joshua; Sejpal, Divyesh V.; McKinley, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Methods and study aims: The incidence of esophageal cancer is rising despite increased surveillance efforts. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) is a new endoscopic imaging tool that can allow for targeted biopsy of neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. We report a series of 6 patients with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus ( > 3 cm), who underwent a session of endoscopy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy, after a separate prior session of standard high-definition endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) and random biopsies that did not reveal neoplasia. In all six patients, the first endoscopy was the index endoscopy diagnosing the Barrett’s esophagus. All VLE exams were performed within 6 months of the previous endoscopy. In five patients, VLE-targeted biopsy resulted in upstaged disease/diagnosed dysplasia that then qualified the patient for endoscopic ablation therapy. In one patient, VLE localized a focus of intramucosal cancer that allowed for curative endoscopic mucosal resection. This case series shows that endoscopy with VLE can target neoplasia that cannot be localized by high-definition endoscopy with NBI and random biopsies. PMID:27004250

  4. Molecular interactions between albumin and proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J

    1998-01-01

    In glomerular diseases the filtration of excess proteins into the proximal tubule, together with their subsequent reabsorption may represent an important pathological mechanism underlying progressive renal scarring. The most prominent protein in glomerular filtrate, albumin, is reabsorbed by receptor-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubular cells. It binds both to scavenger-type receptors and to megalin in the proximal tubule. Some of these receptors appear to be shared with other cell types, particularly endothelial cells. The endocytic uptake of albumin is subjected to complex hormonal and enzymatic regulation. In addition to being reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, albumin may act as a signalling molecule in these cells, and may induce the expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. Modulation of the interaction of albumin with proximal tubular cells may eventually prove to be of therapeutic importance in the treatment of renal diseases. PMID:9807019

  5. Mechanisms of albumin uptake by proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N

    2001-01-01

    The likely role of albumin in the induction tubulo-interstitial injury in proteinuria has stimulated considerable interest in the entry of albumin into the proximal tubule and its subsequent uptake by proximal tubular cells. Currently, there is considerable controversy over the degree of glomerular permeability to albumin. After filtration, however, albumin binds to megalin and cubulin, two giant receptors in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Albumin is subsequently re-absorbed by proximal tubular cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process subject to complex regulation. The interaction of albumin with proximal tubule cells also leads to the generation of intracellular signals. The understanding of these pathways may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of renal scarring in proteinuria. PMID:11158855

  6. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  7. Coupled water transport by rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Giebisch, G; Unwin, R; Weinstein, A M

    1991-12-01

    Simultaneous microperfusion of proximal tubules and peritubular capillaries in kidneys of rats anesthetized with Inactin was used to examine water reabsorption by this epithelium. Osmolality of the luminal solution was varied with changes in NaCl concentration and by the addition of raffinose. Capillary perfusates contained either low (2 g/dl) or high (16 g/dl) concentrations of albumin. We used low-bicarbonate perfusates for both lumen and capillary so that we might apply the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of transport for a single solute (NaCl) to interpret our observations. Linear regression with the volume flux equation Jv = -Lp delta II - Lp sigma delta C + Jav (where Jv is volume flux, Lp is hydraulic conductance, delta II is oncotic force, sigma is osmotic reflection coefficient, delta C is salt concentration difference, and Jav is the component of Jv not attributed to transepithelial hydrostatic or osmotic forces) revealed a tubule water permeability (Pf = 0.11 +/- 0.01 cm/s) and a sigma (0.74 +/- 0.08) in agreement with previous determinations. These transport parameters were unaffected by changes in peritubular protein. We also found that Jav was substantial, approximately three-fourths of the rate of isotonic transport under these perfusion conditions. Further, this component of water transport nearly doubled with the transition from low- to high-protein peritubular capillary perfusion. When expressed as a capacity for water reabsorption against an osmotic gradient, the salt concentration differences required to null volume flux were 13.2 +/- 2.4 and 29.4 +/- 4.0 mosmol/kgH2O under low and high peritubular protein. Our data suggest that this protein effect is, most likely, an increase in solute transport by the tubule epithelial cells. PMID:1750518

  8. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A.

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  9. Incisal margin condition after LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Xiufeang; Xu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between incisal condition after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) operation for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and prognosis. A study of high-risk incisal margin positive cases was also performed. We compared the differences in the prognosis of the 1-year follow-up visit in the 120 CIN patients admitted to the hospital during the period from April 2013 to April 2014. A total of 43 cases of positive incisal margin (35.8%), and 77 negative cases were included in the study. The differences in age, course of disease, and CIN level between the two groups showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). In the positive group, the positive ratio was significantly higher than that of the negative group (P<0.05). The positive incisal margin showed a significant positive correlation with human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity (r=0.327, P=0.035). The condition of most patients with positive incisal margin and HPV was critical, which was followed by positive incisal margin and negative HPV. The patients with the best prognosis were those with significant negative incisal margin as well as HPV (P<0.05). In conclusion, the positive incisal margin after LEEP operation was associated with relapse of the disease. Thus, considering the HPV test into consideration is valuable for the prognosis of the disease. PMID:27446314

  10. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers in cervical tissue by in vivo light scattering.

    PubMed

    Mourant, Judith R; Bocklage, Thérese J; Powers, Tamara M; Greene, Heather M; Dorin, Maxine H; Waxman, Alan G; Zsemlye, Meggan M; Smith, Harriet O

    2009-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of in vivo elastic light scattering measurements to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) 2/3 and cancers in women undergoing colposcopy and to determine the effects of patient characteristics such as menstrual status on the elastic light scattering spectroscopic measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A fiber optic probe was used to measure light transport in the cervical epithelium of patients undergoing colposcopy. Spectroscopic results from 151 patients were compared with histopathology of the measured and biopsied sites. A method of classifying the measured sites into two clinically relevant categories was developed and tested using five-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Statistically significant effects by age at diagnosis, menopausal status, timing of the menstrual cycle, and oral contraceptive use were identified, and adjustments based upon these measurements were incorporated in the classification algorithm. A sensitivity of 77±5% and a specificity of 62±2% were obtained for separating CIN 2/3 and cancer from other pathologies and normal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of both menstrual status and age should be taken into account in the algorithm for classifying tissue sites based on elastic light scattering spectroscopy. When this is done, elastic light scattering spectroscopy shows good potential for real-time diagnosis of cervical tissue at colposcopy. Guiding biopsy location is one potential near-term clinical application area, while facilitating "see and treat" protocols is a longer term goal. Improvements in accuracy are essential. PMID:20694193

  11. How significant is the association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of colorectal neoplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Ngo, Ondrej; Vojtechova, Gabriela; Majek, Ondrej; Minarikova, Petra; Brogyuk, Nagyija; Bunganic, Bohus; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rising in developed countries. The association between these two diseases has been widely studied and reported. Less evidence is available about the relationship between MS and CRC precancerous lesions (adenomatous polyps, adenomas). The aim of this paper is to present an overview of our scientific understanding of that topic and its implication in clinical practice. One of the principal goals of current CRC secondary prevention efforts is to detect and remove the precancerous lesions in individuals with an average CRC risk to prevent the development of invasive cancer. MS is not currently considered a high-risk CRC factor and is therefore not included in the guidelines of organized screening programs. However, in light of growing scientific evidence, the approach to patients with MS should be changed. Metabolic risk factors for the development of adenomas and cancers are the same - obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, the key issue in the near future is the development of a simple scoring system, easy to use in clinical practice, which would identify individuals with high metabolic risk of colorectal neoplasia and would be used for individual CRC secondary prevention strategies. Currently, such scoring systems have been published based on Asian (Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening Score; APCS) and Polish populations.

  12. How significant is the association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of colorectal neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Ngo, Ondrej; Vojtechova, Gabriela; Majek, Ondrej; Minarikova, Petra; Brogyuk, Nagyija; Bunganic, Bohus; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-09-28

    The incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rising in developed countries. The association between these two diseases has been widely studied and reported. Less evidence is available about the relationship between MS and CRC precancerous lesions (adenomatous polyps, adenomas). The aim of this paper is to present an overview of our scientific understanding of that topic and its implication in clinical practice. One of the principal goals of current CRC secondary prevention efforts is to detect and remove the precancerous lesions in individuals with an average CRC risk to prevent the development of invasive cancer. MS is not currently considered a high-risk CRC factor and is therefore not included in the guidelines of organized screening programs. However, in light of growing scientific evidence, the approach to patients with MS should be changed. Metabolic risk factors for the development of adenomas and cancers are the same - obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, the key issue in the near future is the development of a simple scoring system, easy to use in clinical practice, which would identify individuals with high metabolic risk of colorectal neoplasia and would be used for individual CRC secondary prevention strategies. Currently, such scoring systems have been published based on Asian (Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening Score; APCS) and Polish populations. PMID:27688652

  13. Grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using spatial frequency for optical histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    It is important to detect cervical dysplasia, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN). CIN is the potentially premalignant and abnormal squamous cells on surface of cervix. In this study, the spatial frequency spectra of pre-cancer cervical tissues are used to detect differences among different grades of human cervical tissues. Seven sets of thick tissue sections of human cervix of normal, CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3 tissues are studied. The confocal microscope images of the stromal region of normal and CIN human tissues were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to generate the spatial spectra. It is observed that higher frequency components exist in CIN tissues than those in normal tissue, as well as those in higher grade CIN tissue than those in lower grade CIN tissue. The width of the spatial frequency of different types of tissues is used to create a criterion for CIN grading by training a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The results show that the randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of precancer in cervical tissue can be recognized by fingerprints of the spatial frequency. The efficacy of spatial frequency analysis for CIN grading is evaluated as excellent since high AUC (area under the ROC curve), sensitivity and specificity are obtained by the statistics study. This works lays the foundation of using spatial frequency spectra for a histology evaluation.

  14. Disseminated neoplasia causes changes in ploidy and apoptosis frequency in cockles Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Villalba, A; Insua, A; Soudant, P; Fernández-Tajes, J; Méndez, J; Carballal, M J

    2013-07-01

    A proliferative disease, usually referred as disseminated neoplasia (DN), shows high prevalence in some cockle Cerastoderma edule beds of Galicia (NW Spain). Chromosome counts, examination of chromosome morphology, DNA quantification by flow cytometry and estimation of apoptosis frequency by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry were performed in cockles with different DN severity. Metaphases obtained from gills of DN-affected cockles displayed a chromosome number ranging from 41 to 145, while normal number is 38; changes in chromosome morphology were also evident, with numerous microchromosomes occurring. Haemolymph flow cytometry analysis revealed difference in DNA content between healthy and DN-affected cockles. Aneuploid peaks ranged from 1.3n to 8.9n. Apoptosis frequency was determined on histological sections (TUNEL assay) and haemolymph samples (flow cytometry). Both techniques revealed neoplastic cells in apoptosis. The higher DN severity, the lower the percentage of apoptotic cells. According to flow cytometry results, the negative association between DN severity and apoptosis frequency only affected the neoplastic cells, whereas DN did not significantly affect the percentage of apoptotic hyalinocytes or apoptotic granulocytes.

  15. Disseminated neoplasia in cockles Cerastoderma edule: ultrastructural characterisation and effects on haemolymph cell parameters.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Seila; Renault, Tristan; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús

    2011-09-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN) has been detected in cockles from various beds in Galicia (NW Spain). A study was performed to characterise cockle neoplastic cell ultrastructure and to evaluate the effect of this disease at different severity stages on various haemolymph cell parameters. Examination of cockle neoplastic cells with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed round shapes and a lack of pseudopods, a high nucleus:cytoplasm diameter ratio, Golgi complexes, abundant mitochondria, ribosomes, and numerous endoplasmic reticulum tubes and electron-lucent vesicles. Various haemolymph cell parameters (cell mortality, non-specific esterase and lysosome biovolume, reactive oxygen intermediates [ROI] production, phagocytosis ability, intracellular Ca2+ and actin levels) were compared between DN severity categories by flow cytometry; haemocyte mortality, non-specific esterase activities and lysosome biovolume were found to be higher with increasing DN severity. The phagocytic ability of neoplastic cells was sharply reduced with regard to haemocytes. The cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ level was higher and actin content lower in haemolymph cells of diseased cockles compared to unaffected ones. A significant increase in ROI production was detected in later stages of disease progression.

  16. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  17. The incidence and histological characteristics of intratubular germ cell neoplasia in postpubertal cryptorchid testis

    PubMed Central

    Ryang, Seung Hoon; Jung, Jae Hung; Eom, Minseob; Song, Jae Mann; Chung, Hyun Chul; Chae, Yunbyung; Lee, Chang Min

    2015-01-01

    Purpose It is well known that testicular germ cell tumors arise with increased frequency in patients with cryptorchidism. In addition, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion to testicular germ cell tumor. Approximately 50% of patients with ITGCN will develop an invasive of testicular germ cell tumors within 5 years. Therefore, we evaluated that the incidence of ITGCN in postpubertal cryptorchidism. Materials and Methods Between January 2002 and August 2012, orchiectomy specimens from 31 postpubertalpatients (aged 12 or over) with cryptorchid testis were reviewed. The specimens were evaluated for ITGCN using immunohistochemical stains of placental-like alkaline phosphatase and Oct 3/4 with routine hematoxylin-eosin stain. Additionally, the degree of spermatogenesis was assessed using the Johnsen score. Results Mean age was 34 years (range, 17 to 74 years) at surgery. All patients were diagnosed as unilateral cryptorchidism. One patient (3.2%) of 20-year-old had ITGCN in surgical specimen with all positive markers. Histological assessment of spermatogenesis showed that mean Johnsen score was 3.42 (range, 1 to 9). Majority of patients (27 of 31) presented impaired spermatogenesis with low Johnsen score lesser than 5. Conclusions Considering the risk of malignancy and low spermatogenesis, we should perform immunohistochemical stains and discuss preventative orchiectomy for the postpubertal cryptorchidism. PMID:26175870

  18. SCRIB expression is deregulated in human prostate cancer, and its deficiency in mice promotes prostate neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Helen B.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Dow, Lukas E.; Ryan, Andrew; Tennstedt, Pierre; Bogani, Debora; Elsum, Imogen; Greenfield, Andy; Tuveson, David A.; Simon, Ronald; Humbert, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of cellular polarity is a hallmark of epithelial cancers, raising the possibility that regulators of polarity have a role in suppressing tumorigenesis. The Scribble complex is one of at least three interacting protein complexes that have a critical role in establishing and maintaining epithelial polarity. In human colorectal, breast, and endometrial cancers, expression of the Scribble complex member SCRIB is often mislocalized and deregulated. Here, we report that Scrib is indispensable for prostate homeostasis in mice. Scrib heterozygosity initiated prostate hyperplasia, while targeted biallelic Scrib loss predisposed mice to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Mechanistically, Scrib was shown to negatively regulate the MAPK cascade to suppress tumorigenesis. Further analysis revealed that prostate-specific loss of Scrib in mice combined with expression of an oncogenic Kras mutation promoted the progression of prostate cancer that recapitulated the human disease. The clinical significance of the work in mice was highlighted by our observation that SCRIB deregulation strongly correlated with poor survival in human prostate cancer. These data suggest that the polarity network could provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21965329

  19. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Presenting as Hypoglycemia due to Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwal Rim; Shim, Young Seok; Lee, Hae Sang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) mutation is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. The incidence of insulinoma in MEN is relatively uncommon, and there have been a few cases of MEN manifested with insulinoma as the first symptom in children. We experienced a 9-year-old girl having a familial MEN1 mutation. She complained of dizziness, occasional palpitation, weakness, hunger, sweating, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure that lasted for 5 minutes early in the morning. At first, she was only diagnosed with insulinoma by abdominal magnetic resonance images of a 1.3 x 1.5 cm mass in the pancreas and high insulin levels in blood of the hepatic vein, but after her father was diagnosed with MEN1. We found she had familial MEN1 mutation, and she recovered hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after enucleation of the mass. Therefore, the early genetic identification of MEN1 mutation is considerable for children with at least one manifestation. PMID:27247513

  20. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Presenting as Hypoglycemia due to Insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Jeong, Hwal Rim; Shim, Young Seok; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) mutation is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet, and anterior pituitary tumors. The incidence of insulinoma in MEN is relatively uncommon, and there have been a few cases of MEN manifested with insulinoma as the first symptom in children. We experienced a 9-year-old girl having a familial MEN1 mutation. She complained of dizziness, occasional palpitation, weakness, hunger, sweating, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure that lasted for 5 minutes early in the morning. At first, she was only diagnosed with insulinoma by abdominal magnetic resonance images of a 1.3 x 1.5 cm mass in the pancreas and high insulin levels in blood of the hepatic vein, but after her father was diagnosed with MEN1. We found she had familial MEN1 mutation, and she recovered hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after enucleation of the mass. Therefore, the early genetic identification of MEN1 mutation is considerable for children with at least one manifestation. PMID:27247513

  1. In vivo Diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using 337-nm- Excited Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, N.; Mitchell, M. F.; Mahadevan, A.; Warren, S.; Thomsen, S.; Silva, E.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1994-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence at 337-nm excitation was used in vivo to differentiate neoplastic [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)], nonneoplastic abnormal (inflammation and human papilloma viral infection), and normal cervical tissues. A colposcope (low-magnification microscope used to view the cervix with reflected light) was used to identify 66 normal and 49 abnormal (5 inflammation, 21 human papilloma virus infection, and 23 CIN) sites on the cervix in 28 patients. These sites were then interrogated spectroscopically. A two-stage algorithm was developed to diagnose CIN. The first stage differentiated histologically abnormal tissues from colposcopically normal tissues with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 92%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. The second stage differentiated preneoplastic and neoplastic tissues from nonneoplastic abnormal tissues with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 87%, 73%, and 74%, respectively. Spectroscopic differences were consistent with a decrease in the absolute contribution of collagen fluorescence, an increase in the absolute contribution of oxyhemoglobin attenuation, and an increase in the relative contribution of reduced nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] fluorescence as tissue progresses from normal to abnormal in the same patient. These results suggest that in vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of the cervix can be used to diagnose CIN at colposcopy.

  2. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are associated with opportunistic infection in patients with thymic neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Zaman, Rifat; Kristosturyan, Ervand; Rajan, Arun; Ding, Li; Ching, Kathryn H.; Berman, Arlene; Oliveira, Joao B.; Hsu, Amy P.; Klimavicz, Caitlin M.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Holland, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with thymic malignancy have high rates of autoimmunity leading to a variety of autoimmune diseases, most commonly myasthenia gravis caused by anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. High rates of autoantibodies to cytokines have also been described, although prevalence, spectrum, and functionality of these anti-cytokine autoantibodies are poorly defined. To better understand the presence and function of anti-cytokine autoantibodies, we created a luciferase immunoprecipitation system panel to search for autoantibodies against 39 different cytokines and examined plasma from controls (n = 30) and patients with thymic neoplasia (n = 17). In this screen, our patients showed statistically elevated, but highly heterogeneous immunoreactivity against 16 of the 39 cytokines. Some patients showed autoantibodies to multiple cytokines. Functional testing proved that autoantibodies directed against interferon-α, interferon-β, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and IL-17A had biologic blocking activity in vitro. All patients with opportunistic infection showed multiple anti-cytokine autoantibodies (range 3-11), suggesting that anti-cytokine autoantibodies may be important in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections in patients with thymic malignancy. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00001355. PMID:20716769

  3. Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    No, Jae Hong; Jo, Hoenil; Kim, Su-Hyeong; Park, In-Ae; Kang, Daehee; Lee, Chae Hyeong; Han, Seung-Su; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Kang, Soon-Beom; Song, Yong-Sang

    2009-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are important factors for cancer invasion and metastasis, degrading the extracellular matrix. They are also associated with angiogenesis. Angiogenic phenotype is another feature of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, their associations with the progression of low-grade CIN to high-grade CIN are unexplored. We investigated whether these proteolytic enzyme expressions correlate with the progression of CIN. A total of 39 paraffin-embedded specimens from 10 patients with CIN grade 1, nine with CIN grade 2, and 20 with CIN grade 3 were assessed immunohistochemically by specific antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA. MMP-9 expression was higher in CIN 3 lesions (47.4%) than in CIN 1 (22.2%) and CIN 2 (20.2%) lesions, although the difference failed to reach statistical significance. The expression level of uPA and MMP-2 was not associated with the grade of CIN lesions. Interestingly, we found a significant association between expressions of uPA and MMP-2 (P= 0.028). Our results suggest that MMP-9 might play a role in the progression of CIN.

  4. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: genetic study of a large family].

    PubMed

    Orellana, C; Palasí, R; Martínez, F; Ponce, J L; Gil Sanz, J; Sancho Fornos, S; Prieto, F

    1999-03-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is an inherited disorder characterised by the predisposition of the cells from parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas and adenohypophysis to develop neoplasms. We report the genetic study of an extended family with at least 8 affected patients and 10 putative carriers of a mutation in MEN-1 gene. One intragenic (Asp418 GAC-->GAT), and five flanking markers were characterised in the family by PCR amplification and polyachrylamide gel electrophoresis. Association of the disease to MEN-1 gene was confirmed for this family: all the affected members show a haplotype in common. Three patients at risk were diagnosed as non-carriers, since they have not inherited that haplotype. The remaining seven members, presymptomatic carriers, are included in a follow-up protocol. The genetic study of families segregating MEN-1 syndrome are useful in avoiding indiscriminate follow-up determinations to those members who have not received the genetic predisposition to develop any of the manifestations of the syndrome. Segregation analysis with linked markers is useful, under certain circumstances, to perform such type of studies. PMID:10207847

  5. Multiple oncogenic viruses identified in Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-1 patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a rare cancer that has increased in incidence with the HIV pandemic in Africa. The underlying cause of this cancer in HIV-infected patients from Botswana is not well defined. Results Tissues were obtained from 28 OSSN and 8 pterygia patients. The tissues analyzed from OSSN patients were 83% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 70% were KSHV positive, 75% were HSV-1/2 positive, and 61% were CMV positive by PCR. Tissues from pterygium patients were 88% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 50% were KSHV positive, and 60% were CMV positive. None of the patients were JC or BK positive. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses further identified HPV, EBV, and KSHV in a subset of the tissue samples. Conclusion We identified the known oncogenic viruses HPV, KSHV, and EBV in OSSN and pterygia tissues. The presence of these tumor viruses in OSSN suggests that they may contribute to the development of this malignancy in the HIV population. Further studies are necessary to characterize the molecular mechanisms associated with viral antigens and their potential role in the development of OSSN. PMID:20346104

  6. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  7. [Histological evaluation of cryosurgery in high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-III)] of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Rojas, I; Rodríguez, T; Pierotic, M; Le Cerf, P

    1993-01-01

    Sixty patients, having high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III) are analyzed. They are all treated primarily with cryosurgery followed, approximately 12 weeks thereafter, by cervical conization, in order to histologically evaluate the response to treatment. The mean follow up of the whole series was 36 months. Ninetieth five percentage of the patients were included in the series, having an abnormal PAP smear, suggesting presence of a CIN. Colposcopically directed biopsy prior to cryosurgery showed grade CIN III, with no glandular involvement in 61.7% of the cases. In 38.3% the endocervical glands were involved, cryotherapy was done in 60 patients, with single freezing in 26 (43.3%) and double freezing in 34 (53.7%) patients. On analyzing the cone specimen, 71.7% of the cases showed no residual disease. The group that received double freezing did better than the single one (79 versus 61%). As well, the group with out gland involvement did better than the group showing such condition (83.8 versus 52.2%). Cryosurgery is a good therapeutic modality in cases with CIN III, following street selection criteria and having a good and reliable follow up.

  8. An update on vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: terminology and a practical approach to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M Carolina; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2014-04-01

    There are two distinct types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which differ in their clinical presentation, aetiology, pathogenesis and histological/immunophenotypical features. One form driven by high-risk human papilloma virus infection usually occurs in young women and has been termed classic or usual VIN (uVIN). The other, not related to viral infection, occurs in postmenopausal women with chronic skin conditions such as lichen sclerosus and lichen simplex chronicus and is termed differentiated or simplex-type VIN. The latter is the precursor lesion of the most common type of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the vulva, namely keratinizing SCC (representing 60% of cases). In contrast, uVIN usually gives rise to basaloid or warty SCC (40% of cases). The histological features of uVIN are similar to those of high grade lesions encountered in other lower anogenital tract sites (hyperchomatic nuclei with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios and increased mitotic activity). However, differentiated VIN has very subtle histopathological changes and often escapes diagnosis. Since uVIN is driven by high-risk human papilloma virus infections, p16 immunohistochemistry is diffusely positive in these lesions and is characterized with a high Ki-67 proliferation index. In contrast, differentiated or simplex-type VIN is consistently negative for p16 and the majority of the cases harbour TP53 mutations, correlating with p53 positivity by immunohistochemistry.

  9. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee.

    PubMed

    Sideri, Mario; Jones, Ronald W; Wilkinson, Edward J; Preti, Mario; Heller, Debra S; Scurry, James; Haefner, Hope; Neill, Sallie

    2005-11-01

    In the current classification, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is categorized as VIN 1, 2 and 3 according to the degree of abnormality. There is neither evidence that the VIN 1-3 morphologic spectrum reflects a biologic continuum nor that VIN 1 is a cancer precursor. The VIN 2 and 3 category includes 2 types of lesion, which differ in morphology, biology and clinical features. VIN, usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed), is HPV related in most cases. Invasive squamous carcinomas of warty or basaloid type is associated with VIN, usual type. VIN, differentiated type, is seen particularly in older women with lichen sclerosus and/or squamous cell hyperplasia in some cases. Neither VIN, differentiated type, nor associated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is HPV related. The term VIN should apply only to histologically high grade squamous lesions (former terms, VIN 2 and VIN 3 and differentiated VIN 3). The term VIN 1 will no longer be used. Two categories should describe squamous VIN: VIN, usual type (encompassing former VIN 2 and 3 of warty, basaloid and mixed types) and VIN, differentiated type (VIN 3, differentiated type).

  10. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  11. Plasminogen activators in experimental colorectal neoplasia: a role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence?

    PubMed Central

    Gelister, J S; Lewin, M R; Driver, H E; Savage, F; Mahmoud, M; Gaffney, P J; Boulos, P B

    1987-01-01

    An important step in the transition from adenomatous polyp to invasive carcinoma is the degradation of the epithelial basement membrane. By the generation of plasmin, plasminogen activators may play an important role in regulating the extracellular protease activity required for this event to occur. The production of biofunctional urokinase and of tissue plasminogen activator was therefore investigated in the dimethylhydrazine induced rat model of colorectal neoplasia. Both adenomatous polyps (p values less than 0.001) and colorectal carcinomas (p values less than 0.001) were demonstrated to produce a significant excess of both urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator when compared with macroscopically normal colon. There was, however, no increased production of either enzyme by macroscopically normal preneoplastic colon when compared with control colon. This enhanced capacity of colorectal tumours to produce plasminogen activators and generate plasmin is thus a feature of both the premalignant as well as the malignant phenotype. These enzymes may contribute to the malignant potential of adenomatous polyps and to the invasive capacity of established carcinomas. PMID:3115868

  12. A retrospective study of the prevalence and classification of intestinal neoplasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Colleen E; Kent, Michael L; Buchner, Cari; Tanguay, Robert L; Guillemin, Karen; Mason, Timothy J; Peterson, Tracy S

    2013-06-01

    For over a decade, spontaneous intestinal neoplasia has been observed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) submitted to the ZIRC (Zebrafish International Resource Center) diagnostic service. In addition, zebrafish displayed preneoplastic intestinal changes including hyperplasia, dysplasia, and enteritis. A total of 195 zebrafish, representing 2% of the total fish submitted to the service, were diagnosed with these lesions. Neoplastic changes were classified either as adenocarcinoma or small cell carcinoma, with a few exceptions (carcinoma not otherwise specified, tubular adenoma, and tubulovillous adenoma). Tumor prevalence appeared similarly distributed between sexes and generally occurred in zebrafish greater than 1 year of age, although neoplastic changes were observed in fish 6 months of age. Eleven lines displayed these preneoplastic and neoplastic changes, including wild-types and mutants. Affected zebrafish originated from 18 facilities, but the majority of fish were from a single zebrafish research facility (hereafter referred to as the primary facility) that has submitted numerous samples to the ZIRC diagnostic service. Zebrafish from the primary facility submitted as normal sentinel fish demonstrate that these lesions are most often subclinical. Fish fed the diet from the primary facility and held at another location did not develop intestinal lesions, indicating that diet is not the etiologic agent.

  13. Aquaporin water channels in the mammary gland: from physiology to pathophysiology and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Aquaporins are membrane proteins that play fundamental roles in water and small solute transport across epithelial and endothelial barriers. Recent studies suggest that several aquaporin proteins are present in the mammary gland. Immunohistochemical techniques have confirmed the presence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP3 water channels in rat, mouse, bovine and human mammary glands. Studies suggest that in addition to AQP1 and AQP3 AQP4, AQP5 and AQP7 proteins are expressed in different locations in the mammary gland. Aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology and are involved in cell growth, migration and formation of ascites via increased water permeability of micro-vessels. Emerging evidence suggests that expression of these proteins is altered in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cell lines although it is not yet clear whether this is a cause or a consequence of neoplastic development. This review analyzes the expression and potential functional roles of aquaporin water channels in the mammary gland. The physiological mechanisms involved in the transport of water and small solutes across mammary endothelial and epithelial barriers are discussed in the context of milk production and lactation. This paper also reviews papers from the recent cancer literature that implicate aquaporins in mammary neoplasia.

  14. Management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Aytac, Erman; Ozuner, Gokhan; Isik, Ozgen; Gorgun, Emre; Stocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience on management of colorectal neoplasia during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period (< 6 mo), between 8/1997 and 4/2013, in our department were reviewed. Patient characteristics, operations, fetal health and follow-up during pregnancy, type of delivery and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Eight patients met our study criteria. Median age at the time of diagnosis of colorectal cancer was 31 years. Median follow-up after surgery was 36 mo. Median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 16 wk. Three patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during pregnancy and underwent surgery prior to delivery. None of the patients received adjuvant treatment during pregnancy. Five patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within a median of 2.1 mo after delivery and underwent surgery. No adverse neonatal outcomes were noted. All deliveries were at term (2 cesarean sections) except for one preterm delivery following low anterior resection on the 34th week of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There has been a significant delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer which is probably due to overlap of symptoms and signs between these tumors and a normal pregnancy. Surgery for colorectal cancer during pregnancy can be performed safely without compromising maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:27559434

  15. Metabonomic changes from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in tissues from rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi; Li, Zhishui; Feng, Jianghua; Bai, Jianxi; Lin, Xianchao; Huang, Heguang

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most malignant tumors and is difficult to diagnose in the early phase. This study was aimed at obtaining the metabolic profiles and characteristic metabolites of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC tissues from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to establish metabonomic methods used in the early diagnosis of PDAC. In the present study, the animal models were established by embedding 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in the pancreas of SD rats to obtain PanIN and PDAC tissues. After the preprocessing of tissues, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate and univariate statistical analysis was applied to identify the potential metabolic signatures and the corresponding metabolic pathways. Pattern recognition models were successfully established and differential metabolites, including glucose, amino acids, carboxylic acids and coenzymes, were screened out. Compared with the control, the trends in the variation of several metabolites were similar in both PanIN and PDAC. Kynurenate and methionine levels were elevated in PanIN but decreased in PDAC, thus, could served as biomarkers to distinguish PanIN from PDAC. Our results suggest that NMR-based techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis can distinguish the metabolic differences among PanIN, PDAC and normal tissues, and, therefore, present a promising approach for physiopathologic metabolism investigations and early diagnoses of PDAC. PMID:27019331

  16. T-cell proliferative response to human papillomavirus type 16 peptides: relationship to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, M; Stites, D P; Farhat, S; Judd, A; Moscicki, A B; Canchola, A J; Hilton, J F; Palefsky, J M

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer is increased with immunodeficiency, but the role of immune response, including cell-mediated immunity, in disease prevention is not well understood. In this study, T-cell proliferative responses to six synthetic peptides with predicted immunogenic determinants from the HPV-16 E4, E6, E7, and L1 open reading frames were analyzed in 22 sexually active women with new-onset CIN and 65 sexually active women without cervical disease, characterized by cytology, colposcopy, and HPV testing. T-cell proliferative responses were demonstrated to all six HPV-16 peptides. Although not statistically significant, rates of reactivity to E6 (24-45) were higher among sexually active women without disease (26%) than among women with current CIN (7%), as was the overall number of peptides stimulating a response. Women with CIN may not respond to selected HPV antigens as well as women without disease do. PMID:8991637

  17. HIRA orchestrates a dynamic chromatin landscape in senescence and is required for suppression of neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cole, John J.; Nelson, David M.; Dikovskaya, Dina; Faller, William J.; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Hewitt, Rachael N.; Anannya, Orchi; McBryan, Tony; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Morrice, Nicholas; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A.; Ivanov, Andre; Brock, Claire; Drotar, Mark E.; Nixon, Colin; Clark, William; Sansom, Owen J.; Anderson, Kurt I.; King, Ayala; Blyth, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest that suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence and associated tumor suppression depend on control of chromatin. Histone chaperone HIRA deposits variant histone H3.3 and histone H4 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. Appropriately for a DNA replication-independent chaperone, HIRA is involved in control of chromatin in nonproliferating senescent cells, although its role is poorly defined. Here, we show that nonproliferating senescent cells express and incorporate histone H3.3 and other canonical core histones into a dynamic chromatin landscape. Expression of canonical histones is linked to alternative mRNA splicing to eliminate signals that confer mRNA instability in nonproliferating cells. Deposition of newly synthesized histones H3.3 and H4 into chromatin of senescent cells depends on HIRA. HIRA and newly deposited H3.3 colocalize at promoters of expressed genes, partially redistributing between proliferating and senescent cells to parallel changes in expression. In senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, promoters of active genes are exceptionally enriched in H4K16ac, and HIRA is required for retention of H4K16ac. HIRA is also required for retention of H4K16ac in vivo and suppression of oncogene-induced neoplasia. These results show that HIRA controls a specialized, dynamic H4K16ac-decorated chromatin landscape in senescent cells and enforces tumor suppression. PMID:25512559

  18. Clinical significance of RET mutation screening in a pedigree of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    PubMed

    Ying, Rongbiao; Feng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The clinical characteristics and RET proto-oncogene (RET‑PO) mutation status of a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A pedigree (MEN2A) was analyzed with the aim of preliminarily exploring the molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of the disease. Clinical characteristics of a single MEN2A patient were analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the proband and 10 family members. The 21 exons of RET‑PO were PCR amplified and the amplified products were sequenced. Of the family members, 5 exhibited a C634Y (TGC→TAC) missense mutation in exon 11 of RET‑PO, among which 2 family members were screened as mutation carriers, while the others did not exhibit clinical symptoms of the mutation. The screening and analysis of RET‑PO mutations for the MEN2A proband and the family members suggests potential clinical phenotypes and enables assessment of the risk of disease development, thus providing useful information for determining the surgical timing of preventive thyroid gland removal. PMID:27277749

  19. Genetic Instability in Gastric Epithelial Neoplasias Categorized by the Revised Vienna Classification

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woo Chul; Jung, Sung Hoon; Lee, Kang Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kwak, Jae Wuk; Jung, Ji Han; Yoo, Jin Young; Lee, Min Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to determine the structural chromosomal aberrations, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI), at multiple tumor suppressor gene loci in gastric epithelial neoplasia categorized by the revised Vienna classification. Methods All tissue samples were excised by endoscopic mucosal resection. Sixty category 3 (low-grade adenoma) tissue samples and 51 category 4 samples (high-grade adenoma and intramucosal carcinoma with adenoma) were examined at the 7 sets of microsatellite loci linked to the tumor suppressor gene locus. Results For category 3 and 4 tissue samples, there were no differences in the frequencies of LOH-positive chromosomes or the extent of chromosomal loss. The Helicobacter-pylori (H. pylori)-positive rate was significantly higher in MSI-positive category 4 samples than in category 3 samples (p=0.04). The frequency of MSI positivity was significantly higher in category 4 samples than in category 3 samples (p=0.003). Conclusions H. pylori infection is associated with genetic instability of the premalignant lesion. MSI occurs in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis and its occurrence increases during malignant transformation. Detection of MSI in premalignant gastric lesions may be a surveillant of risk of malignant transformation. PMID:20559519

  20. The histologic features of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and its correlation with tumor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Movahhed, Saeed; Parvin, Mahmood; Salimi, Maziar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) in patients with concurrent testis tumor and its correlation with histologic features and serum tumor markers. Materials and Methods From 2003 to 2015, 179 patients underwent radical orchiectomy due to testicular mass. Tissue specimens were evaluated by an expert uro-pathologist using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, in addition to light microscopy, to identify presence of ITGCN. Patients' demographic characteristics, histologic subtypes, pathologic stage of tumor and serum tumor markers were gathered and analyzed. Results Eighty-five out of 179 patients (47.5%) had concomitant ITGCN according to IHC staining. There was not statistically significant difference in histologic type, histologic components, cryptorchidism, and lymphovascular invasion between the 2 groups (p=0.151, p=0.11, p=0.233, p=0.413, and p=0.14, respectively). The prevalence of ITGCN was significantly higher in patients with stage T2 and T3 of tumor than those with stage T1. Elevated serum alpha feto protein level is much common in patients with ITGCN (p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of concurrent ITGCN in our region is lower than previous data from western countries. ITGCN is more common in higher tumor stages and is accompanied with elevated serum alpha feto protein levels before surgery. Presence of ITGCN in adjacent tissue may suggest a negative cancer behavior. PMID:27195317

  1. How significant is the association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of colorectal neoplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Ngo, Ondrej; Vojtechova, Gabriela; Majek, Ondrej; Minarikova, Petra; Brogyuk, Nagyija; Bunganic, Bohus; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rising in developed countries. The association between these two diseases has been widely studied and reported. Less evidence is available about the relationship between MS and CRC precancerous lesions (adenomatous polyps, adenomas). The aim of this paper is to present an overview of our scientific understanding of that topic and its implication in clinical practice. One of the principal goals of current CRC secondary prevention efforts is to detect and remove the precancerous lesions in individuals with an average CRC risk to prevent the development of invasive cancer. MS is not currently considered a high-risk CRC factor and is therefore not included in the guidelines of organized screening programs. However, in light of growing scientific evidence, the approach to patients with MS should be changed. Metabolic risk factors for the development of adenomas and cancers are the same - obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore, the key issue in the near future is the development of a simple scoring system, easy to use in clinical practice, which would identify individuals with high metabolic risk of colorectal neoplasia and would be used for individual CRC secondary prevention strategies. Currently, such scoring systems have been published based on Asian (Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening Score; APCS) and Polish populations. PMID:27688652

  2. Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Granzotto, Adriana; Leonel, Camila; Jardim, Bruna V; Moschetta, Marina G; Carareto, Claudia M A; Zuccari, Debora Ap P C

    2014-01-01

    The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (p<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier test demonstrated a negative correlation between an increased number of copies and survival time (p=0.03). High amounts of CAN SINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring. PMID:24173085

  3. Experimental pancreatic hyperplasia and neoplasia: effects of dietary and surgical manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Watanapa, P.; Williamson, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies carried out during the past two decades have investigated the effect of dietary and surgical manipulation on pancreatic growth and carcinogenesis. Diets high in trypsin inhibitor stimulate pancreatic growth and increase the formation of preneoplastic lesions and carcinomas in the rat pancreas. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is the key intermediary in this response, since both natural and synthetic trypsin inhibitors increase circulating levels of the hormone and CCK antagonists largely prevent these changes. Fatty acids enhance pancreatic carcinogenesis in both rats and hamsters, whereas protein appears to have a protective role in the rat, but to increase tumour yields in the hamster. Several surgical operations affect the pancreas. Pancreatobiliary diversion and partial gastrectomy stimulate pancreatic growth and enhance carcinogenesis, probably by means of increased CCK release. Complete duodenogastric reflux has similar effects on the pancreas but the gut peptide involved is gastrin. Although massive small bowel resection increases pancreatic growth, the marked reduction in caloric absorption probably explains its failure to enhance carcinogenesis. CCK and enteroglucagon might work in concert to modulate the tropic response of the pancreas to small bowel resection. In the pancreas, as in the large intestine, hyperplasia appears to precede and predispose to neoplasia. PMID:8494719

  4. Is intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasia a new entity in the spectrum of familial pancreatic cancer syndrome?

    PubMed

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Mucelli, Raffaella Pozzi; Blomberg, John; Segersvärd, Ralf; Verbeke, Caroline

    2014-06-01

    We report on a 78-year old male with a positive family history for pancreatic cancer, who underwent total pancreatectomy for a suspected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with extensive involvement of the main pancreatic duct and multiple branch ducts. The post operative course was uneventful. Macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed multiple solid non-mucinous tumour nodules throughout the main pancreatic duct and within multiple branch ducts. The microscopic appearance of the tumour, in particular its tubulopapillary growth pattern and immunohistochemical mucin profile (MUC1, MUC6 positive; MUC2, MUC5AC negative) were consistent with intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasia (ITPN) showing high-grade dysplasia. No evidence of stromal invasion was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on ITPN in a high-risk patient based on a history of familial pancreatic cancer (FPC). The potential association between this entity and the spectrum of neoplastic lesions in FPC should be investigated with particular consideration of the lower biological aggressiveness of ITPN.

  5. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Intestinal Neoplasia in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Indicates Epithelial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Colleen E.; Kent, Michael L.; Peterson, Tracy S.; Wang, Rong; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Löhr, Christiane V.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasia of the intestinal tract in sentinel and moribund zebrafish (Danio rerio) is common in some zebrafish facilities. We previously classified these tumors as adenocarcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, or carcinoma otherwise unspecified based on histomorphologic characteristics. Based on histological presentation, the primary differential diagnosis for the intestinal carcinomas was tumor of neuroendocrine cells (e.g., carcinoids). To further characterize the phenotype of the neoplastic cells, select tissue sections were stained with a panel of antibodies directed toward human epithelial (Cytokeratin Wide Spectrum Screening [WSS], AE1/AE3) or neuroendocrine (S100, chromogranin A) markers. We also investigated antibody specificity by Western blot analysis, using a human cell line and zebrafish tissues. Nine of the intestinal neoplasms (64%) stained for AE1/AE3, seven (50%) also stained for WSS. None of the intestinal neoplastic cells were stained for chromogranin A or S100. Endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and neurons and axons of peripheral nerves and ganglia stained for Chromogranin A, whereas perineural and periaxonal cells of peripheral intestinal ganglia, and glial and ependymal cells of the brain stained for S100. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins confirmed the majority of intestinal neoplasms in this cohort of zebrafish as carcinomas. PMID:26503773

  6. c-Jun promotes whereas JunB inhibits epidermal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jane Y; Ke, Hengning; Hall, Russell P; Zhang, Jennifer Y

    2011-05-01

    Deregulation of the activator protein 1 (AP1) family gene regulators has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. In this study we report that c-Jun was activated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and coexpression of c-Jun with oncogenic Ras was sufficient to transform primary human epidermal cells into malignancy in a regenerated human skin grafting model. In contrast, JunB was not induced in a majority of human SCC cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of JunB inhibited tumorigenesis driven by Ras or spontaneous human SCC cells. Conversely, the dominant-negative JunB mutant (DNJunB) promoted tumorigenesis, which is in contrast to the tumor-suppressor function of the corresponding c-Jun mutant. At the cellular level, JunB induced epidermal cell senescence and slowed cell growth in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, coexpression of JunB and Ras induced premature epidermal differentiation concomitant with upregulation of p16 and filaggrin and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). These findings indicate that JunB and c-Jun differentially regulate cell growth and differentiation and induce opposite effects on epidermal neoplasia.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://www.nature.com/jid/journalclub.

  7. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice.

  8. c-Jun promotes whereas JunB inhibits epidermal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jane Y; Ke, Hengning; Hall, Russell P; Zhang, Jennifer Y

    2011-05-01

    Deregulation of the activator protein 1 (AP1) family gene regulators has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. In this study we report that c-Jun was activated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and coexpression of c-Jun with oncogenic Ras was sufficient to transform primary human epidermal cells into malignancy in a regenerated human skin grafting model. In contrast, JunB was not induced in a majority of human SCC cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of JunB inhibited tumorigenesis driven by Ras or spontaneous human SCC cells. Conversely, the dominant-negative JunB mutant (DNJunB) promoted tumorigenesis, which is in contrast to the tumor-suppressor function of the corresponding c-Jun mutant. At the cellular level, JunB induced epidermal cell senescence and slowed cell growth in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, coexpression of JunB and Ras induced premature epidermal differentiation concomitant with upregulation of p16 and filaggrin and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). These findings indicate that JunB and c-Jun differentially regulate cell growth and differentiation and induce opposite effects on epidermal neoplasia.JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://www.nature.com/jid/journalclub. PMID:21289643

  9. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    PubMed

    Sura, R; French, R A; Goldman, B D; Schwartz, D R

    2011-07-01

    Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis) are among the longest-living rodents, with a maximum longevity of approximately 16 years. As one of the few mammals termed eusocial, these animals have been used in behavioral, genetic, metabolic, and physiologic research at the University of Connecticut since 1997. For individual identification at 3 to 4 months of age, mole rats were subcutaneously implanted with microchip transponders (11 mm in length) in the dorsal cervical region. In 2007, 2 of the 90 implanted adults, 10-year-old and 9-year-old females, developed subcutaneous masses at the site of the implant. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed amelanotic melanoma and fibrosarcoma, respectively, with metastasis of the amelanotic melanoma. In 2008, a total of 3 adult males were castrated as part of a sex behavior study; 3 months later, all 3 castrated males developed subcutaneous masses around their implants, whereas none of the noncastrated males had masses. After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder.

  10. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  11. [Pituitary syndrome caused by neoplasia in a 17-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer].

    PubMed

    Wippermann, Wolf; Schöniger, Sandra; Gerlach, Kerstin; Schusser, Gerald Fritz; Köller, Gabor; Starke, Alexander

    2016-06-16

    A 17-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented after one day with dysphagia, slight paralysis of the tongue and swelling of the eyelids. Clinical examination of the animal revealed an extended posture of the head and neck, severely increased salivation, reduced lingual tone and mandibular paralysis with complete absence of the swallowing reflex. The right eye showed a drooping eyelid, mucopurulent discharge, exposure keratitis, corneal opacity and miosis. On the left side, a moderate exophthalmos and slight mucous discharge from the nostril were observed. Neurological examination revealed the absence of multiple cranial nerve reflexes suggesting a pituitary syndrome. On X-rays, a soft-tissue opacity with sharp margins and a diameter of approximately 5 cm was seen. It was located ventral to the ethmoid bone with possible intraneurocranial origin. Rhinoscopically, a mass located distal to the ethmoid bone with an uneven, slightly reddish surface partly covered by purulent exudate was visualised. Post-mortem examination of the euthanized animal confirmed neoplasia, which ranged from the fossa hypophysialis of the corpus ossis basisphenoidalis to the ethmoid bone. Histopathologic findings matched a small, round, blue cell tumour. PMID:27172846

  12. Disseminated neoplasia causes changes in ploidy and apoptosis frequency in cockles Cerastoderma edule.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Villalba, A; Insua, A; Soudant, P; Fernández-Tajes, J; Méndez, J; Carballal, M J

    2013-07-01

    A proliferative disease, usually referred as disseminated neoplasia (DN), shows high prevalence in some cockle Cerastoderma edule beds of Galicia (NW Spain). Chromosome counts, examination of chromosome morphology, DNA quantification by flow cytometry and estimation of apoptosis frequency by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry were performed in cockles with different DN severity. Metaphases obtained from gills of DN-affected cockles displayed a chromosome number ranging from 41 to 145, while normal number is 38; changes in chromosome morphology were also evident, with numerous microchromosomes occurring. Haemolymph flow cytometry analysis revealed difference in DNA content between healthy and DN-affected cockles. Aneuploid peaks ranged from 1.3n to 8.9n. Apoptosis frequency was determined on histological sections (TUNEL assay) and haemolymph samples (flow cytometry). Both techniques revealed neoplastic cells in apoptosis. The higher DN severity, the lower the percentage of apoptotic cells. According to flow cytometry results, the negative association between DN severity and apoptosis frequency only affected the neoplastic cells, whereas DN did not significantly affect the percentage of apoptotic hyalinocytes or apoptotic granulocytes. PMID:23583807

  13. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  14. Porcupine inhibitor suppresses paracrine Wnt-driven growth of Rnf43;Znrf3-mutant neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bon-Kyoung; van Es, Johan H.; van den Born, Maaike; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Rnf43 (RING finger protein 43) and Znrf3 (zinc/RING finger protein 3) (RZ) are two closely related transmembrane E3 ligases, encoded by Wnt target genes, that remove surface Wnt (wingless-int) receptors. The two genes are mutated in various human cancers. Such tumors are predicted to be hypersensitive to, yet still depend on, secreted Wnts. We previously showed that mutation of RZ in the intestine yields rapidly growing adenomas containing LGR5+ (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5) stem cells and Wnt3-producing Paneth cells. We now show that removal of Paneth cells by Math1 mutation inhibits RZ−/− tumor formation. Similarly, deletion of Wnt3 inhibits tumorigenesis. Treatment of mice carrying RZ−/− intestinal neoplasia with a small molecule Wnt secretion inhibitor (porcupine inhibitor C59) strongly inhibited growth, whereas adjacent normal crypts remained intact. These results establish that paracrine Wnt secretion is an essential driver of RZ−/− tumor growth and imply that a therapeutic window exists for the use of porcupine inhibitors for RZ-mutant cancers. PMID:26023187

  15. Disruption of PPARγ signaling results in mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia involving active autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Fernandez, Suzanne; Jerome, W. Gray; He, Yue; Yu, Xiuping; Cai, Hui; Boone, Braden; Yi, Yajun; Magnuson, Mark A.; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Matusik, Robert J.; Shappell, Scott B.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) regulates the interface between cellular lipid metabolism, redox status and organelle differentiation. Conditional prostatic epithelial knockout of PPARγ in mice resulted in focal hyperplasia which developed into mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). The grade of PIN became more severe with time. Electron microscopy (EM) showed accumulated secondary lysosomes containing cellular organelles and debris suggestive of autophagy. Consistent with this analysis the autophagy marker LC3 was found to be upregulated in areas of PIN in PPARγ KO tissues. We selectively knocked down PPARγ2 isoform in wild-type mouse prostatic epithelial cells and examined the consequences of this in a tissue recombination model. Histopathologically grafted tissues resembled the conditional PPARγ KO mouse prostates. EM studies of PPARγ- and PPARγ2-deficient epithelial cells in vitro were suggestive of autophagy, consistent with the prostatic tissue analysis. This was confirmed by examining expression of beclin-1 and LC3. Gene expression profiling in PPARγ-/γ2-deficient cells indicated a major dysregulation of cell cycle control and metabolic signaling networks related to peroxisomal and lysosomal maturation, lipid oxidation and degradation. The putative autophagic phenotypes of PPARγ-deficient cells could be rescued by re-expression of either γ1 or γ2 isoform. We conclude that disruption of PPARγ signaling results in autophagy and oxidative stress during mPIN pathogenesis. PMID:19834493

  16. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  17. Fertility sparing surgery in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A report of 4 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Vahid Roodsari, Ftemeh; Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Gavedan Mehr, Masoumeh; Azadeh, Tabari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a curable disease that involves the development of malignant tumor in the woman after a normal or molar pregnancy. The position of surgery in GTN is not properly specified and is changing due to new chemotherapy protocols. However, the role of surgery is highlighted in chemotherapy-resistant GTN. Other indications of surgery in trophoblastic diseases are drug toxicity and uterine perforation. Based on the fact that most women in certain age tend to preserve fertility, this study reported 4 cases of successful treatment after fertility sparing surgery. Case: A hospital-based case-report study was carried out to investigate the role of surgery in 4 patients with GTN. In this study, acute complications, such as intra-abdominal bleeding and liver dysfunction due to chemotherapy occurred in some patients. Surgery was performed and all cases underwent localized tumor removal while preserving the uterus. No hysterectomy surgery was performed. Conclusion: Surgery is supposed in specific cases of GTN, who desire preserving fertility. PMID:27738663

  18. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-07-30

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report.

  19. Putting the brakes on mammary tumorigenesis: Loss of STAT1 predisposes to intraepithelial neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Schneckenleithner, Christine; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Dolznig, Helmut; Neugebauer, Nina; Kollmann, Karoline; Kolbe, Thomas; Decker, Thomas; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Müller, Mathias; Stoiber, Dagmar; Sexl, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Multiparous Stat1−/− mice spontaneously develop mammary tumors with increased incidence: at an average age of 12 months, 55% of the animals suffer from mammary cancer, although the histopathology is heterogeneous. We consistently observed mosaic expression or down-regulation of STAT1 protein in wild-type mammary cancer evolving in the control group. Transplantation experiments show that tumorigenesis in Stat1−/− mice is partially influenced by impaired CTL mediated tumor surveillance. Additionally, STAT1 exerts an intrinsic tumor suppressing role by controlling and blocking proliferation of the mammary epithelium. Loss of STAT1 in epithelial cells enhances cell growth in both transformed and primary cells. The increased proliferative capacity leads to the loss of structured acini formation in 3D-cultures. Analogous effects were observed when Irf1−/− epithelial cells were used. Accordingly, the rate of mammary intraepithelial neoplasias (MINs) is increased in Stat1−/− animals: MINs represent the first step towards mammary tumors. The experiments characterize STAT1/IRF1 as a key growth inhibitory and tumor suppressive signaling pathway that prevents mammary cancer formation by maintaining growth control. Furthermore, they define the loss of STAT1 as a predisposing event via enhanced MIN formation. PMID:22185785

  20. Soft shell clams Mya arenaria with disseminated neoplasia demonstrate reverse transcriptase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, M.L.; Kim, C.H.; Reno, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN), a proliferative cell disorder of the circulatory system of bivalves, was first reported in oysters in 1969. Since that time, the disease has been determined to be transmissible through water-borne exposure, but the etiological agent has not been unequivocally identified. In order to determine if a viral agent, possibly a retrovirus, could be the causative agent of DN, transmission experiments were performed, using both a cell-free filtrate and a sucrose gradient-purified preparation of a cell-free filtrate of DN positive materials. Additionally, a PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay was used to determine if reverse transcriptase was present in tissues or hemolymph from DN positive soft shell clams Mya arenaria. DN was transmitted to healthy clams by injection with whole DN cells, but not with cell-free flitrates prepared from either tissues from DN positive clams, or DN cells. The cell-free preparations from DN-positive tissues and hemolymph having high levels of DN cells in circulation exhibited positive reactions in the PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Cell-free preparations of hemolymph from clams having low levels of DN (<0.1% of cells abnormal), hemocytes from normal soft shell clams, and normal soft shell clam tissues did not produce a positive reaction in the PCR enhanced reverse transcriptase assay.

  1. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).

  2. Neurogenic regulation of proximal bicarbonate and chloride reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Cogan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Although a change in renal nerve activity is known to alter proximal reabsorption, it is unclear whether reabsorption of NaHCO3 or NaCl or both are affected. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were studied using free-flow micropuncture techniques during euvolemia and following acute ipsilateral denervation. Glomerular filtration rate and single nephron glomerular filtration rate were stable. Absolute proximal bicarbonate reabsorption fell following denervation (933 +/- 40 to 817 +/- 30 pmol/min) with a parallel reduction in chloride reabsorption (1,643 +/- 116 to 1,341 +/- 129 peq/min). Urinary sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride excretion all increased significantly. To further assess the physiological significance of neurogenic modulation of proximal transport, other rats (n = 6) were subjected to acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN). There is evidence that AUN induces a contralateral natriuresis (renorenal reflex) at least partially by causing inhibition of efferent renal nerve traffic. AUN caused significant changes in proximal NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption as well as in whole kidney electrolyte excretion in the same pattern as had denervation. Prior denervation of the remaining kidney prevented the proximal and whole kidney response to AUN (n = 6). In conclusion, depression of renal nerve activity inhibits both NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption in the rat superficial proximal convoluted tubule. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in renal nerve activity modify whole kidney electrolyte excretion under physiological conditions at least partially by regulating proximal transport.

  3. Juno and Cassini Proximal: Giant Steps Towards Understanding Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2016-17, Juno and Cassini Proximal will provide comparable large advances in our understanding of the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn. Both will provide high accuracy gravity and magnetic field data, while Juno will in addition determine the water abundance deep in the Jovian atmosphere, essential for understanding of giant planet formation and the density of the outer envelope (needed to construct interior models). Although Jupiter and Saturn are both gas giants, they differ in important ways (magnetic field, strength of zonal flows, enrichment in heavy elements, and probably the distribution of helium within). The opportunity to contrast and compare will be invaluable. Juno and Cassini are expected to determine the gravity field to about a part in 109 though with different spatial coverage and with less accurate determination near the poles. The determination of Jupiter's likely central concentration of heavy elements is particularly challenging because it is only a few percent at most of the total mass and yet important for understanding Jupiter's formation, which in turn likely determined the architecture of our solar system. This determination will be done from gravity, water determination and magnetic field and also aided by advances in our understanding of material properties. The corresponding determination for Saturn may prove easier (because the heavy element enrichment is a larger fraction of the mass) though complicated by lack of knowledge of water abundance and the need to identify a more precise value for the deep rotation of the planet (difficult for Saturn because of the lack of a measurable magnetic dipole tilt thus far). For both planets, the higher harmonics of gravity will likely be controlled by differential rotation (the zonal flows) and this will tell us their depth, an issue of major interest in the dynamics of these bodies. The magnetic field structure for Jupiter will be determined to higher accuracy than the Earth's core field (since

  4. Split biceps femoris tendon reconstruction for proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Mena, H; Brautigan, B; Johnson, D L

    2001-07-01

    Recurrent instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is an infrequently diagnosed abnormality. We present a new technique for reconstructing the joint using a split biceps femoris tendon passed through a bone tunnel in both the proximal tibial metaphysis and fibular head. The case report is also presented. The procedure offers an anatomic reconstruction and firm stabilization. It allows normal motion of the proximal tibiofibular joint and preserves the normal mechanics of the ankle. This procedure is an excellent alternative to resection of the fibular head, transarticular arthrodesis, or pseudoarthrosis focus at the fibular head.

  5. Detection of the alpha-subunit of inhibin in trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pelkey, T J; Frierson, H F; Mills, S E; Stoler, M H

    1999-01-01

    Placental trophoblasts are the primary source of serum inhibin during pregnancy. We sought to characterize inhibin immunolabeling in trophoblastic neoplasms and compare the results with those for established markers of trophoblastic differentiation. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from three normal term placentas, 13 hydatidiform moles (HM), five choriocarcinomas (CC) (three gestational, one testicular, one mediastinal), and five placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT) were immunolabeled with antibodies to the alpha-subunit of inhibin, hPL, and beta-hCG. Additionally, six first-trimester placentas were immunolabeled with antibody to inhibin alone. Trophoblastic subpopulations were assessed for the number of positive cells (1% to 24% = 1+,25% to 49% = 2+,50% to 74% = 3+, 75% to 100% = 4+). Immunolabeling in term placenta and HM was similar, because beta-hCG was the most sensitive marker (4+) of syncytiotrophoblasts followed by inhibin (3-4+) and hPL (2-3+). Immunolabeling of syncytiotrophoblasts in CC was similar to that in term placenta and HM, except for negative hPL staining in two cases. In HM, inhibin labeling of intermediate trophoblasts (2-3+) was less than that for hPL (3-4+). In CC, inhibin and hPL labeling of intermediate trophoblasts was more variable with negative hPL reactivity in two cases. Inhibin and hPL did not stain cytotrophoblasts. In PSTT, inhibin immunolabeling was a better marker than hPL in two cases, inferior in two, and similar in one. Inhibin labeling of syncytiotrophoblasts was less than that for beta-hCG, but did not have the often marked background staining that was present with beta-hCG. Immunolabeling of trophoblast subpopulations for inhibin was similar between first-trimester placenta, term placenta, and HM. We conclude that inhibin is a useful immunohistochemical marker of trophoblastic neoplasia and should be included in the antibody panel with beta-hCG and hPL.

  6. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetics and Role of Genetic Counseling in a Multiple Neoplasia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sarah M; Rhodes, Lindsay; Blanco, Ignacio; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Charis; Maher, Eamonn R; Richard, Stéphane; Giles, Rachel H

    2016-06-20

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is one of the most common inherited neoplasia syndromes and is characterized by highly vascular tumors of the eyes, brain, and spine, as well as benign and malignant tumors and/or cysts of the kidneys, adrenal medullae and sympathetic paraganglia, endolymphatic sac, epididymis, and broad ligament. Since the discovery of the VHL gene in 1993, more than 900 families with VHL have been identified and examined. Genetic testing for VHL is widely available and will detect a disease-causing mutation in rate 95% to 100% of individuals who have a clinical diagnosis of VHL, making it the standard of care for diagnosis of VHL. Furthermore, genetic testing for VHL is indicated in some individuals with seemingly sporadic VHL-related tumor types, as ≤ 10% of pheochromocytoma or early-onset renal cell carcinoma and ≤ 40% of CNS hemangioblastoma harbor germline VHL mutations without a family history or additional features of VHL disease. The majority of VHL mutations are private, but there are also well-characterized founder mutations. VHL is a complex, multiorgan disease that spans the breadth of oncology subspecialties, and, as such, providers in these subspecialties should be aware of when to consider a diagnosis of VHL, when to refer a patient to a genetics specialist for consideration of gene testing, and, perhaps most importantly, how to communicate this sensitive information in an age-appropriate manner to at-risk families. This review will provide state-of-the-art information regarding the genetics of VHL and will serve as a key reference for nongenetics professionals who encounter patients with VHL.

  7. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2–VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001). The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  8. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P = 0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P = 0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001).The diagnosis of HG-VaIN can be preceded by different abnormalities on referral pap smear. Major abnormalities are usually reported in postmenopausal women and in women with previous cervical HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  9. A1BG and C3 are overexpressed in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III.

    PubMed

    Canales, Norma Angélica Galicia; Marina, Vicente Madrid; Castro, Jorge Salmerón; Jiménez, Alfredo Antúnez; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; McCARRON, Elizabeth Langley; Roman, Margarita Bahena; Castro-Romero, Julieta Ivone

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sera proteins in females with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (CIN III) and in healthy control females, in order to identify a potential biomarker which detects lesions that have a greater probability of cervical transformation. The present study investigated five sera samples from females who were Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16(+) and who had been histopathologically diagnosed with CIN III, as well as five sera samples from healthy control females who were HPV-negative. Protein separation was performed using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and the proteins were stained with Colloidal Coommassie Blue. Quantitative analysis was performed using ImageMaster 2D Platinum 6.0 software. Peptide sequence identification was performed using a nano-LC ESIMS/MS system. The proteins with the highest Mascot score were validated using western blot analysis in an additional 55 sera samples from the control and CIN III groups. The eight highest score spots that were found to be overexpressed in the CIN III sera group were identified as α-1-B glycoprotein (A1BG), complement component 3 (C3), a pro-apolipoprotein, two apolipoproteins and three haptoglobins. Only A1BG and C3 were validated using western blot analysis, and the bands were compared between the two groups using densitometry analysis. The relative density of the bands of A1BG and C3 was found to be greater in all of the serum samples from the females with CIN III, compared with those of the individuals in the control group. In summary, the present study identified two proteins whose expression was elevated in females with CIN III, suggesting that they could be used as biomarkers for CIN III. However, further investigations are required in order to assess the expression of A1BG and C3 in different pre-malignant lesions.

  10. A1BG and C3 are overexpressed in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III

    PubMed Central

    CANALES, NORMA ANGÉLICA GALICIA; MARINA, VICENTE MADRID; CASTRO, JORGE SALMERÓN; JIMÉNEZ, ALFREDO ANTÚNEZ; MENDOZA-HERNÁNDEZ, GUILLERMO; McCARRON, ELIZABETH LANGLEY; ROMAN, MARGARITA BAHENA; CASTRO-ROMERO, JULIETA IVONE

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sera proteins in females with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (CIN III) and in healthy control females, in order to identify a potential biomarker which detects lesions that have a greater probability of cervical transformation. The present study investigated five sera samples from females who were Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16+ and who had been histopathologically diagnosed with CIN III, as well as five sera samples from healthy control females who were HPV-negative. Protein separation was performed using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and the proteins were stained with Colloidal Coommassie Blue. Quantitative analysis was performed using ImageMaster 2D Platinum 6.0 software. Peptide sequence identification was performed using a nano-LC ESIMS/MS system. The proteins with the highest Mascot score were validated using western blot analysis in an additional 55 sera samples from the control and CIN III groups. The eight highest score spots that were found to be overexpressed in the CIN III sera group were identified as α-1-B glycoprotein (A1BG), complement component 3 (C3), a pro-apolipoprotein, two apolipoproteins and three haptoglobins. Only A1BG and C3 were validated using western blot analysis, and the bands were compared between the two groups using densitometry analysis. The relative density of the bands of A1BG and C3 was found to be greater in all of the serum samples from the females with CIN III, compared with those of the individuals in the control group. In summary, the present study identified two proteins whose expression was elevated in females with CIN III, suggesting that they could be used as biomarkers for CIN III. However, further investigations are required in order to assess the expression of A1BG and C3 in different pre-malignant lesions. PMID:25009667

  11. Pregnancy incidence and outcome before and after cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kalliala, Ilkka; Anttila, Ahti; Nieminen, Pekka; Halttunen, Mervi; Dyba, Tadeusz

    2014-12-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study of 3530 women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, to investigate whether CIN treatment itself affects pregnancy incidence and outcome. We estimated the incidence of live births, miscarriages, extrauterine pregnancies, molar pregnancies, and termination of pregnancies (TOPs) before and after CIN treatment using nationwide registers. Women were followed up until death, emigration, sterilization, or the end of 2004. The comparison of incidence of pregnancy outcomes before and after the treatment was estimated by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with conditional Poisson regression. After 76,162 woman-years of follow-up, the incidence of any pregnancy remained constant over CIN-treatment, HR 1.02 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.08, but the incidence of the first pregnancy was significantly elevated after treatment, HR 1.13, and 95% CI 1.03-1.23. The incidence of live births was significantly elevated after treatment, HR 1.08 and 95% CI 1.01-1.15. Incidence of miscarriages, TOPs, extrauterine pregnancies, and molar pregnancies was not elevated. TOPs was significantly increased in the first pregnancy, HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.15-1.72 and after treatment by the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.60. CIN treatment did not reduce pregnancy incidence and women had more live births after than before CIN treatment. TOPs was more common in the first pregnancy or after treatment by LEEP. We encourage research on the psychosocial consequences of CIN treatment also in other countries and settings.

  12. Identification of appropriate cone length to avoid positive cone margin in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Naotake; Nishio, Shin; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify key factors for predicting positive cone margin and appropriate cone length. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the margin status of patients who received conization with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, along with other factors such as patient age, parity, preoperative cytology, size of disease, type of transformation zone, and cone length from patient records. Cut-off value of cone length was analyzed in women younger than 40 years old because we design conization with minimum length especially for women who wish for future pregnancy. Cut-off value of cone length was defined as length corresponds to estimated probability of positive cone margin equal to 0.1 by logistic regression analysis with variables selected by stepwise methods. Results Among 300 patients, 75 patients had positive cone margin. Multivariable analysis revealed that squamous cell carcinoma at preoperative cytology (p=0.001), 2 or more quadrant disease (p=0.011), and shorter cone length (p<0.001) were risk factors for positive cone margin. Stepwise methods identified cone length and size of lesion as important variables. With this condition, cut-off value of cone length was estimated as 15 mm in single quadrant disease and 20 mm in 2 or more quadrant disease, respectively. Conclusion We identified the independent risk factors of positive cone margin and identified the cut-off value of cone length to avoid positive cone margin in women younger than 40 years old. Conization should be performed not only according to colposcopic findings including type of transformation zone but size of disease and cone length. PMID:27401478

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genotype-Specific Prevalence Across the Continuum of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joste, Nancy E.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Hunt, William C.; Pearse, Amanda; Langsfeld, Erika; Leete, Thomas; Jaramillo, MaryAnn; Stoler, Mark H.; Castle, Philip E.; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry was established to measure the impact of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States. Prior to widespread HPV vaccine implementation, we established the baseline prevalence for a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes across the continuum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Methods A population-based sample of 6,272 tissue specimens were tested for 37 HPV genotypes. The number of specimens tested within each diagnostic category was: 541 negative, 1,411 CIN grade 1 (CIN1), 2,226 CIN grade 2 (CIN2), and 2,094 CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or greater. Age-specific HPV prevalence was estimated within categories for HPV genotypes targeted by HPV vaccines. Results The combined prevalence of HPV genotypes included in the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines increased from 15.3% and 29.3% in CIN1 to 58.4% and 83.7% in CIN3, respectively. The prevalence of HPV types included in both vaccines tended to decrease with increasing age for CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, and squamous cell carcinoma, most notably for CIN3 and SCC. The six most common HPV types in descending order of prevalence were HPV-16, −31, −52, −58, −33, and −39 for CIN3 and HPV-16, −18, −31, −45, −52, and −33 for invasive cancers. Conclusions Health economic modeling of HPV vaccine impact should consider age-specific differences in HPV prevalence. Impact Population-based HPV prevalence in CIN is not well described but is requisite for longitudinal assessment of vaccine impact and to understand the effectiveness and performance of various cervical screening strategies in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. PMID:25363635

  14. LINE-1 Methylation Patterns as a Predictor of Postmolar Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lertkhachonsuk, Ruangsak; Paiwattananupant, Krissada; Tantbirojn, Patou; Rattanatanyong, Prakasit; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the potential of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation change in the prediction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Methods. The LINE-1 methylation pattern from first trimester placenta, hydatidiform mole, and malignant trophoblast specimens were compared. Then, hydatidiform mole patients from 11999 to 2010 were classified into the following 2 groups: a remission group and a group that developed postmolar GTN. Specimens were prepared for a methylation study. The methylation levels and percentages of LINE-1 loci were evaluated for their sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the prediction of postmolar GTN. Results. First, 12 placentas, 38 moles, and 19 malignant trophoblast specimens were compared. The hydatidiform mole group had the highest LINE-1 methylation level (p = 0.003) and the uCuC of LINE-1 increased in the malignant trophoblast group (p ≤ 0.001). One hundred forty-five hydatidiform mole patients were classified as 103 remission and 42 postmolar GTN patients. The %mCuC and %uCmC of LINE-1 showed the lowest p value for distinguishing between the two groups (p < 0.001). The combination of the pretreatment β-hCG level (≥100,000 mIU/mL) with the %mCuC and %uCmC, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy modified the levels to 60.0%, 92.2%, 77.4%, 83.8%, and 82.3%, respectively. Conclusions. A reduction in the partial methylation of LINE-1 occurs early before the clinical appearance of malignant transformation. The %mCuC and %uCmC of LINE-1s may be promising markers for monitoring hydatidiform moles before progression to GTN. PMID:26448937

  15. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  16. GNA15 expression in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasia: functional and signalling pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sara; Giovinazzo, Francesco; Alaimo, Daniele; Lawrence, Ben; Pfragner, Roswitha; Bassi, Claudio; Modlin, Irvin; Kidd, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (GEP-NEN) comprises a heterogeneous group of tumours that exhibit widely divergent biological behaviour. The identification of new targetable GPCR-pathways involved in regulating cell function could help to identify new therapeutic strategies. We assessed the function of a haematopoietic stem cell heterotrimeric G-protein, Gα15, in gut neuroendocrine cell models and examined the clinical implications of its over expression. Functional assays were undertaken to define the role of GNA15 in the small intestinal NEN cell line KRJ-I and in clinical samples from small intestinal NENs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, proliferation and apoptosis assays, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA). GNA15 was not expressed in normal neuroendocrine cells but was overexpressed in GEP-NEN cell lines. In KRJ-I cells, decreased expression of GNA15 was associated with inhibition of proliferation, activation of apoptosis and differential effects on pro-proliferative ERK, NFκB and Akt pathway signalling. Moreover, Gα15 was demonstrated to couple to the ß1 adrenergic receptor and modulated proliferative signals through this GPCR. Transcript and protein levels of GNA15 were significantly elevated in primary and metastatic tumours compared to normal mucosa and were particularly increased in low Ki-67 expressing tumours. IHC and AQUA revealed that a higher Gα15 expression was associated with a poorer survival. GNA15 may have a pathobiological role in SI-NENs. Targeting this signalling mediator could provide an opportunity for the development of new therapeutic strategies for this tumour type. PMID:25701539

  17. Proteomic analysis of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic carcinoma in rat models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Hai-Lin; Li, Ya; Yuan, Ping

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To detect the proteomic variabilities of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and pancreatic carcinoma (PC) induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in rat models and to identify potential biomarkers. METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. The rats had DMBA implanted into their pancreas for one (n = 20) or two months (n = 20) or assigned to the normal group (n = 20). The rats were killed after one or two months, and were evaluated histopathologically. Three tissue samples from each group of rats with either normal pancreas, PanIN (PanIN-2) or PC were examined by 2D-DIGE. The different expression spot features were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of enolase 1, a differentially expressed protein, was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There was significant difference in the proportions of neoplastic changes between the 1- and 2-mogroups (P = 0.0488). There was an increase in the frequency of adenocarcinomas in the 2-mo group compared with the 1-mo group (P = 0.0309). No neoplastic changes were observed in any of the animals in the normal group. Enolase 1, pancreatic ELA3B, necdin, Hbp23, CHD3, hnRNP A2/B1, Rap80, and Gnb2l1 were up-regulated in the PanIN and PC tissues, and CEL, TPT1, NME2, PCK2, an unnamed protein product, and glycine C-acetyltransferase were down-regulated in the PanIN and PC tissues. The immunohistochemical results showed that enolase 1 expression was up-regulated in the pancreatic cancer tissues of rats and humans. CONCLUSION: The pancreatic protein expression changes induced by DMBA suggest potential molecular targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of PC. PMID:21472101

  18. CAHM, a long non-coding RNA gene hypermethylated in colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Mitchell, Susan M; Graham, Lloyd D; McEvoy, Aidan; Thomas, Melissa L; Baker, Rohan T; Ross, Jason P; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Ho, Thu; LaPointe, Lawrence C; Young, Graeme P; Molloy, Peter L

    2014-08-01

    The CAHM gene (Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HyperMethylated), previously LOC100526820, is located on chromosome 6, hg19 chr6:163 834 097-163 834 982. It lacks introns, encodes a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and is located adjacent to the gene QKI, which encodes an RNA binding protein. Deep bisulphite sequencing of ten colorectal cancer (CRC) and matched normal tissues demonstrated frequent hypermethylation within the CAHM gene in cancer. A quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) was used to characterize additional tissue samples. With a threshold of 5% methylation, the CAHM assay was positive in 2/26 normal colorectal tissues (8%), 17/21 adenomas (81%), and 56/79 CRC samples (71%). A reverse transcriptase-qPCR assay showed that CAHM RNA levels correlated negatively with CAHM % methylation, and therefore CAHM gene expression is typically decreased in CRC. The CAHM qMSP assay was applied to DNA isolated from plasma specimens from 220 colonoscopy-examined patients. Using a threshold of 3 pg methylated genomic DNA per mL plasma, methylated CAHM sequences were detected in the plasma DNA of 40/73 (55%) of CRC patients compared with 3/73 (4%) from subjects with adenomas and 5/74 (7%) from subjects without neoplasia. Both the frequency of detection and the amount of methylated CAHM DNA released into plasma increased with increasing cancer stage. Methylated CAHM DNA shows promise as a plasma biomarker for use in screening for CRC.

  19. An exogenous retrovirus isolated from koalas with malignant neoplasias in a US zoo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqin; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorman, Kristen; Jensen, Nathaniel; Kim, David; Zheng, HaoQiang; Tang, Shaohua; Switzer, William M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2013-07-01

    Leukemia and lymphoma account for more than 60% of deaths in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in northeastern Australia. Although the endogenizing gammaretrovirus koala endogenous retrovirus (KoRV) was isolated from these koalas, KoRV has not been definitively associated with leukemogenesis. We performed KoRV screening in koalas from the San Diego Zoo, maintained for more than 45 y with very limited outbreeding, and the Los Angeles Zoo, maintained by continuously assimilating captive-born Australian koalas. San Diego Zoo koalas are currently free of malignant neoplasias and were infected with only endogenous KoRV, which we now term subtype "KoRV-A," whereas Los Angeles Zoo koalas with lymphomas/leukemias are infected in addition to KoRV-A by a unique KoRV we term subtype "KoRV-B." KoRV-B is most divergent in the envelope protein and uses a host receptor distinct from KoRV-A. KoRV-B also has duplicated enhancer regions in the LTR associated with increased pathology in gammaretroviruses. Whereas KoRV-A uses the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 (PiT1) as a receptor, KoRV-B employs a different receptor, the thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1), to infect cells. KoRV-B is transmitted from dam to offspring through de novo infection, rather than via genetic inheritance like KoRV-A. Detection of KoRV-B in native Australian koalas should provide a history, and a mode for remediation, of leukemia/lymphoma currently endemic in this population.

  20. The association between sexually transmitted pathogens and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in a developing community.

    PubMed Central

    Kharsany, A B; Hoosen, A A; Moodley, J; Bagaratee, J; Gouws, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). SETTING--An urban tertiary referral hospital serving a large indigent developing community. PARTICIPANTS--48 women attending a colposcopy clinic and 49 women attending a family planning clinic. METHODS--Vaginal, endocervical, rectal swab specimens and sera were collected for the detection of sexually transmitted pathogens. Cervical cytology was performed on all patients. Women attending the colposcopy clinic had confirmation of abnormal cervical cytology by colposcopic directed biopsy. RESULTS--The mean age of women with CIN (33 years) was significantly greater than that of the women without CIN (28 years) and that of the family planning group (26 years). There was a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in all women. A significantly higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found in women with CIN compared to those without (50% vs 20%; p = 0.034). The human papilloma virus (HPV) was detected in 46% of women with CIN and 65% of those without CIN. Chlamydia trachomatis (21%) and Trichomonas vaginalis (39%) were detected frequently in women with CIN. C. trachomatis (14%-21%) was detected more frequently than Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3-5%) in all asymptomatic women studied. CONCLUSION--This study demonstrates a high prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens in women with and without CIN as well as family planning clinic attenders. Bacterial vaginosis was a significant finding in women with CIN. C. trachomatis was detected in a high proportion of all women studied and found more commonly than N. gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that all women attending gynaecological services in a developing community be investigated and treated for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:8244352

  1. Counselling in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes: from individual experience to general guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lips, C J; Höppener, J W; Van Nesselrooij, B P; Van der Luijt, R B

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients and closely related family members has to take a central place in management of hereditary diseases, like multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. In the strategy of health care, preventive medicine such as periodic clinical examination of families at-risk needs a high priority, because in general it is assumed that continuity in attendance is cost-effective. Counselling has to be based on individual medical experience of the doctor, adjusted to common guidelines and the findings in the family. Information leaflets, appropriate outpatient departments and an extensive network of specialists will facilitate continuity in care. Flow diagrams involving practical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow up need to be applicable and after adjustment, should be accepted generally. Specially trained paramedics for counselling are required as a network that will guarantee periodic clinical examination and secure optimal prevention. Such paramedics will coordinate nationwide multidisciplinary guidance, and organize preventive and emergency cure for these patients. They will be supervised by expert clinicians in the field, and collaborate with specialists for social and psychological issues, patient organizations and clinical genetic centres. All of these professionals are responsible together for providing patients with up to date clinical information (via newsletters, Internet, etc.). Recently, in the Netherlands, a project was initiated to guarantee continuity in care and study the delivery of care. In order to realize this plan, funding has to be provided in the current research programme. In a future system support has to be obtained on a continuous base, preferably by the government and health care insurers and supervised by the national institute for health care. PMID:15606378

  2. Risk Factors for Persistent Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grades 1 and 2 Managed by Watchful Waiting

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Einstein, Mark H.; Romney, Seymour L.; Kadish, Anna S.; Abadi, Maria; Mikhail, Magdy; Basu, Jayasri; Thysen, Benjamin; Reimers, Laura; Palan, Prabhudas R.; Trim, Shelly; Soroudi, Nafisseh; Burk, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examines risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) testing predicts persistent lesions. Materials and Methods Women with histologically diagnosed CIN 1 or CIN 2 (n = 206) were followed every 3 months without treatment. HPV genotyping, plasma levels of ascorbic acid, and red blood cell folate were obtained. Cervical biopsy at 12 months determined the presence of CIN. Relative risk (RR) was estimated by log-linked binomial regression models. Results At 12 months, 70% of CIN 1 versus 54% of CIN 2 lesions spontaneously regressed (p< 0.001). Levels of folate or ascorbic acid were not associated with persistent CIN at 12 months. Compared to HPV negative women, those with multiple HPV types (RRs ranged from 1.68 to 2.17 at each follow-up visit) or high-risk types (RRs range = 1.74 to 2.09) were at increased risk for persistent CIN; women with HPV 16/18 had the highest risk (RRs range = 1.91 to 2.21). Persistent infection with a high-risk type was also associated with persistent CIN (RRs range = 1.50 – 2.35). Typing for high-risk HPVs at 6 months only had a sensitivity of 46% in predicting persistence of any lesions at 12 months. Conclusion Spontaneous regression of CIN 1 and CIN 2 occurs frequently within 12 months. HPV infection is the major risk factor for persistent CIN. However, HPV testing cannot reliably predict persistence of any lesion. PMID:21811178

  3. Indefinite for non‐invasive neoplasia lesions in gastric intestinal metaplasia: the immunophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Mauro Cassaro; Rugge, Massimo; Tieppo, Chiara; Giacomelli, Luciano; Velo, Daniela; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Background In the Padova International Classification, gastric precancerous lesions are labelled as “indefinite for non‐invasive neoplasia” (Indef‐NiN) cytohistological alterations mimicking non‐invasive neoplasia (NiN), but lacking all the attributes required for a definite NiN categorisation. Aim To apply a panel of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of cell proliferation (Mib1), intestinal differentiation (Cdx2), apoptosis (pro‐caspase 3) and cell immortalisation (hTERT) to compare the IHC profiles of a series of precancerous lesions arising in gastric intestinalised (ie, IM‐positive) glands. Materials and methods By applying the histological criteria consistently provided by both the Padova Classification and the World Health Organization International Agency, 112 consecutive cases were considered: intestinal metaplasia (IM; n = 54), Indef‐NiN in IM‐positive gastric glands (n = 28) and low‐grade (LG) NiN (n = 30). In each histological category, the expression of the marker was separately scored in superficial, proliferative and coil compartments. Results In all glandular compartments, Mib1, Cdx2, hTERT and pro‐caspase 3 were consistently more expressed in LG‐NiN than in either IM or Indef‐NiN lesions (analysis of variance: p<0.001). Significant ORs (calculated by ordinal logistic regression analysis for each glandular compartment) associated IM, Indef‐NiN and LG‐NiN with the expression of the considered markers. Conclusions A consistent overexpression (unrestricted to the proliferative zone) of IHC markers of cell proliferation, intestinal differentiation, decreased apoptosis and cell immortalisation differentiates LG‐NiN from both (simple) IM and Indef‐NiN (arising in IM). An increased proliferative activity in the proliferative zone discriminates Indef‐NiN lesions (ie, hyperproliferative IM) from IM. Such divergent IHC profiles may provide a rationale for scheduling follow‐up protocols more properly tailored on

  4. Subcellular distribution of peptides associated with gastric mucosal healing and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, C E; Alison, M R; Ansari, T W; Wright, N A

    1995-06-15

    The trefoil peptides pS2 and human spasmolytic peptide are putative growth factors, particularly associated with mucus-producing cells of the gastrointestinal tract including those of the stomach. The receptor for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) takes its name from one of its alternative ligands, epidermal growth factor, and is called the epidermal growth factor receptor. Although there is immunoreactive epidermal growth factor in the stomach, it is TGF alpha and the epidermal growth factor receptor that are abundant. Immunolabelling at electron microscope level allows for subcellular localisation of antigens; pS2 and human spasmolytic peptide co-localise to cytomembranes, including the Golgi apparatus, and thecae of surface/pit mucous cells. TGF alpha is abundant on the membranes of tubulovesicles of parietal cells and is also present in chief cells: in mucous producing cells it can be detected but not in association with mucous. The distribution of the epidermal growth factor receptor mimics that of TGF alpha but with preferential clustering on the basolateral membranes of gastric cells. The trefoil peptides are associated with healing and probably act, together with mucus, to protect the gastric mucosa and maintain a viable environment. TGF alpha, transduced via the epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibits gastric acid secretion, thus aids the trefoils in the maintenance of a gastric microenvironment conducive to healing after damage. TGF alpha, however, is also a potent mitogen; while this property plays a vital part in repairing mucosal defects, if this peptide or indeed its receptor are overexpressed, the result can be neoplasia.

  5. [Clinical characteristics in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in Japan: a review of 106 patients].

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1991-07-20

    A review of 106 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 reported between 1966-1989 in Japan was conducted in order to clarify the natural history of this disease. Sporadic MEN 1 was found in 61 patients, and familial MEN 1 was found in 45 patients from 15 families. The mean ages at diagnosis of the two groups were 46.2 and 41.3 years, respectively, and the male to female ratio was 3:4. With regards to the involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid and endocrine pancreas, the combination of three endocrine glands was 31%, and that of two was 48%, in which the pituitary, parathyroid and endocrine pancreas had tumorous lesions in 60%, 88% and 63%, respectively. The first clinical manifestations of MEN 1 were the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism (32%), pituitary tumors (26%), peptic ulcer (28%) and hypoglycemia (13%). These symptoms appeared between 6 and 57 years of age (mean 34 years). The main clinical symptoms of the pituitary tumors were acromegaly and gigantism (37%), galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome (20%), Cushing's disease (10%) and visual disturbance due to compression of the tumor (20%). The clinical manifestations of hyperparathyroidism were mainly asymptomatic hypercalcemia (41%), nephrolithiasis (42%) and osteitis fibrosa (5%). In the patients with pancreatic tumor, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (52%) and hypoglycemic symptoms (42%) were found. Tumors in the adrenal cortex, thyroid, carcinoid and lipoma were detected in association with MEN 1 in the frequencies of 28%, 21%, 9% and 5%, respectively. Death was reported in 37 patients between 9 and 86 years of age (mean 50.0 years). The cause of death was gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation (45%), surgery (24%) and disseminated carcinomatosis (18%). Recently, the gene predisposing to this syndrome has been assigned to chromosome 11 (11q13) in non-Japanese cases but not yet in Japanese MEN 1 patients. PMID:1679721

  6. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  7. The PapilloCheck Assay for Detection of High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Emma J; Bailey, Andrew; Sargent, Alex; Gilham, Clare; Peto, Julian; Kitchener, Henry C

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is used in primary cervical screening, as an adjunct to cervical cytology for the management of low grade abnormal cytology, and in a test of cure. PapilloCheck (Greiner Bio-One) is a PCR-based DNA microarray system that can individually identify 24 HPV types, including the 13 high-risk (HR) types identified by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Here, we compare PapilloCheck with HC2 for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in a total of 8,610 cervical cytology samples from the ARTISTIC population-based cervical screening study. We performed a retrospective analysis of 3,518 cytology samples from round 1 ARTISTIC enriched for underlying CIN2+ (n = 723) and a prospective analysis of 5,092 samples from round 3 ARTISTIC. Discrepant results were tested using the Roche reverse line blot (RLB) or Linear Array (LA) assay. The relative sensitivity and specificity of HR PapilloCheck compared with that of HC2 for the detection of CIN2+ in women aged over 30 years were 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91, 0.97) and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.04, 1.05), respectively. HC2 missed 44/672 (7%) CIN2+ lesions, while HR PapilloCheck missed 74/672 (11%) CIN2+ lesions. Thirty-six percent of HC2-positive normal cytology samples were HR HPV negative by both PapilloCheck and RLB/LA, indicating that the use of HR PapilloCheck rather than HC2 in population-based primary screening would reduce the number of additional tests required (e.g., reflex cytology) in women where underlying CIN2+ is extremely unlikely. HR PapilloCheck could be a suitable HPV detection assay for use in the cervical screening setting. PMID:26338859

  8. scribble mutants promote aPKC and JNK-dependent epithelial neoplasia independently of Crumbs

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Gregory R; Goulding, Karen R; Amin, Nancy; Richardson, Helena E; Brumby, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastatic neoplasias are characterized by excessive cell proliferation and disruptions to apico-basal cell polarity and tissue architecture. Understanding how alterations in cell polarity can impact upon tumour development is, therefore, a central issue in cancer biology. The Drosophila gene scribble (scrib) encodes a PDZ-domain scaffolding protein that regulates cell polarity and acts as a tumour suppressor in flies. Increasing evidence also implicates the loss of human Scrib in cancer. In this report, we investigate how loss of Scrib promotes epithelial tumourigenesis in Drosophila, both alone and in cooperation with oncogenic mutations. Results We find that genetically distinct atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-dependent and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent alterations in scrib mutants drive epithelial tumourigenesis. First, we show that over-expression of the apical cell polarity determinants Crumbs (Crb) or aPKC induces similar cell morphology defects and over-proliferation phenotypes as scrib loss-of-function. However, the morphological and proliferative defects in scrib mutants are independent of Crb function, and instead can be rescued by a dominant negative (kinase dead) aPKC transgene. Secondly, we demonstrate that loss of Scrib promotes oncogene-mediated transformation through both aPKC and JNK-dependent pathways. JNK normally promotes apoptosis of scrib mutant cells. However, in cooperation with oncogenic activated Ras or Notch signalling, JNK becomes an essential driver of tumour overgrowth and invasion. aPKC-dependent signalling in scrib mutants cooperates with JNK to significantly enhance oncogene-mediated tumour overgrowth. Conclusion These results demonstrate distinct aPKC and JNK-dependent pathways through which loss of Scrib promotes tumourigenesis in Drosophila. This is likely to have a direct relevance to the way in which human Scrib can similarly restrain an oncogene-mediated transformation and, more generally, on how the

  9. Attributing oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes to high-grade cervical neoplasia: which type causes the lesion?

    PubMed

    van der Marel, Jacolien; Berkhof, Johannes; Ordi, Jaume; Torné, Aureli; Del Pino, Marta; van Baars, Romy; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim G V

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in most women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 in cervical cytology and biopsies. Multiple high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes are present in 15% to 50% of cytology samples. We have shown by laser-capture microscopy (LCM)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that each lesion is associated with a single hrHPV type. Attribution of hrHPV types to CIN2/3 is important to understand the oncogenic role of different types and the limitations of cytologic typing. We studied hrHPV genotypes in 257 women with histologic CIN2/3 referred on the basis of abnormal cytology. HPV typing was done on cytology and CIN2/3 biopsies. If the whole-tissue section of the biopsy was positive for multiple hrHPV types, LCM-PCR was performed. We found 181 (70%) single and 71 (28%) multiple hrHPV infections in cytology, with 5 (2%) cases HPV-positive only on whole-tissue section PCR. Of cases with multiple cytologic hrHPV infections, 47/71 (66%) showed a single type in CIN2/3 lesions. In total, in 232 of 257 (90%) women with CIN2/3, a single hrHPV type caused CIN2/3. One was nonattributable on the LCM level. The remaining 24 women had 2 or more contiguous or separated lesions, each associated with a single hrHPV infection. The probability of HPV16 being present in CIN2/3, if detected in cytology, was 0.96 (95% confidence interval=0.90-0.98). LCM-PCR confirms that only 9% of histologic CIN2/3 is associated with multiple hrHPV types, much less than cytology would indicate, and each lesion was associated with a single hrHPV infection.

  10. Tumor-associated glycoprotein distribution detected by monoclonal antibody B72.3 in salivary neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, M S; Huvos, A G; Patil, J; Jagirdar, J

    1992-06-01

    The expression of tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG-72), an oncofetal mucin-like tumor-associated glycoprotein derived from membrane-enriched fractions of metastatic breast carcinoma, has been detected by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) B72.3 in adenocarcinomas of breast, colon, lung, endometrium, pancreas, and ovary. The authors reported the scope of TAG-72 expression detected by MoAb B72.3 in salivary neoplasia. They examined 96 salivary lesions (53 malignant and 37 benign primary tumors, 2 metastatic carcinomas, and 4 other benign lesions) and 17 normal tissues from parotid glands and found: diffuse TAG-72 expression in 29 of 55 (53%) malignant tumors and 6 of 36 (17%) benign tumors and in no normal tissue; focal TAG-72 expression in 10 of 55 (17%) malignant salivary tumors, 10 of 37 (25%) benign salivary tumors (all benign mixed tumors), and 1 of 17 (6%) histologically normal parotid gland ducts. Any expression of TAG-72, whether diffuse or focal, was found to have a 71% sensitivity for detecting salivary malignant tumors, but an unacceptably low specificity for malignant lesions (57%). Alternatively, if only diffuse TAG-72 expression was regarded as indicative of malignancy, the specificity of diffuse TAG-72 expression was 86%, but sensitivity of detection decreased to 53%. The authors studied a subset of benign and malignant mixed tumors (BMT and MMT) and found that 12 of 15 (80%) MMT diffusely and strongly expressed TAG-72, 2 of 15 MMT (13%) expressed TAG-72 focally, and 1 MMT (7%) was nonreactive. By contrast, most BMT did not express TAG-72; only sparse, focal TAG-72 expression was seen in 10 of 27 (37%) BMT. If diffuse TAG-72 expression is considered indicative of malignancy, its sensitivity and specificity for malignant mixed tumors is 80% and 100%, respectively. The authors suggest that diffuse TAG-72 expression may resolve conflicts in determining whether or not a mixed tumor is malignant.

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Lesions Grades 2 and 3 by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uleberg, Kai-Erik; Øvestad, Irene Tveiterås; Munk, Ane Cecilie; van Diermen, Bianca; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Janssen, Emiel A. M.; Hjelle, Anne; Baak, Jan P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2-3 to CIN 1 or less is associated with immune response as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies. Proteomic analysis of water-soluble proteins in supernatants of biopsy samples with LC-MS (LTQ-Orbitrap) was used to identify proteins predictive of CIN2-3 lesions regression. CIN2-3 in the biopsies and persistence (CIN2-3) or regression (≤CIN1) in follow-up cone biopsies was validated histologically by two experienced pathologists. In a learning set of 20 CIN2-3 (10 regressions and 10 persistence cases), supernatants were depleted of seven high abundance proteins prior to unidimensional LC-MS/MS protein analysis. Mean protein concentration was 0.81 mg/mL (range: 0.55–1.14). Multivariate statistical methods were used to identify proteins that were able to discriminate between regressive and persistent CIN2-3. The findings were validated in an independent test set of 20 CIN2-3 (10 regressions and 10 persistence cases). Multistep identification criteria identified 165 proteins. In the learning set, zinc finger protein 441 and phospholipase D6 independently discriminated between regressive and persistent CIN2-3 lesions and correctly classified all 20 patients. Nine regression and all persistence cases were correctly classified in the validation set. Zinc finger protein 441 and phospholipase D6 in supernatant samples detected by LTQ-Orbitrap can predict regression of CIN2-3. PMID:25018881

  12. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  13. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Marc L.; McNeilly, David R.

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  14. Proximity superconductivity in ballistic graphene at high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prance, J. R.; Ben Shalom, M.; Zhu, M. J.; Fal'Ko, V. I.; Mishchenko, A.; Kretinin, A. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Woods, C. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Geim, A. K.

    We present measurements of the superconducting proximity effect in graphene-based Josephson junctions with a mean free path of several microns, which exceeds the junctions' length. The junctions exhibit low contact resistance and large supercurrents. We observe Fabry-Pérot oscillations in the normal-state resistance and the critical current of the junctions. The proximity effect is mostly suppressed in magnetic fields of <10 mT showing the conventional Fraunhofer interference pattern; however, unexpectedly, a weak proximity effect survives in magnetic fields as high as 1 T. Superconducting states randomly appear and disappear as a function of field and carrier concentration, and each exhibits a supercurrent carrying capacity close to the universal limit of e Δ/h where Δ is the superconducting gap of the contacts. We attribute the high-field supercurrent to mesoscopic Andreev states that persist near graphene edges. Our work reveals new proximity regimes that can be controlled by quantum confinement and cyclotron motion.

  15. Existence of best proximity pairs and equilibrium pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Hee

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, using the fixed point theorem for Kakutani factorizable multifunctions, we shall prove new existence theorems of best proximity pairs and equilibrium pairs for free abstract economies, which include the previous fixed point theorems and equilibrium existence theorems.

  16. Challenger's RMS arm grasps SPAS-01 during proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Challenger's remote manipulator system (RMS) arm grasps Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01) during proximity operations. The frame shows a number of reflections on the window, located overhead in the aft flight deck.

  17. Proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using Coherent Laser Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Goode, Plesent W.; Slotwinski, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of a telerobotic manipulator to operate in confined spaces while avoiding unwanted collisions is enhanced by the accurate sensing of its proximate environment. To achieve the fidelity required for precise manipulator control, a proportional proximity sensor system with a sufficiently large measurement envelope is required. Current proximity sensors provide a binary indication of the presence of obstacles within a small envelope with coarse or no proportional measurement of their location. A proportional proximity sensor system configured as a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Coherent Laser Radar (CLR) using a semiconductor laser as the energy source is described and analyzed. The source and reflected energies mix coherently to generate a radio frequency (RF) signal whose frequency is proportional to the range. The system is tested for accuracy, range, depth of range, speed, and sensitivity and the results are presented. Techniques to derive orientation information and an application to telerobotic control are also described.

  18. 1. General view to southwest showing proximity of house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to southwest showing proximity of house to bridge and north elevation of house. - Locke Avenue Bridge, Bridge Tender's House, East side of Locke Avenue, 12 feet south of Locke Avenue Bridge, Swedesboro, Gloucester County, NJ

  19. View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to northeast, showing west elevation and south side. Proximity of fence of adjacent subdivision precluded photography of north side. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Barn, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Evaluation and management of pediatric proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Charles A; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-02-01

    In the pediatric population, sports participation, falls, and motor vehicle accidents can result in proximal humerus fractures. Because the proximal humeral growth plate is responsible for up to 80% of the growth of the humerus, the remodeling of these fractures in children is tremendous. Most of these injuries can be treated with a sling or hanging arm cast, although older children with decreased remodeling capacity may require surgery. Special considerations should be taken for management of proximal humerus fractures that occur in the context of Little League shoulder, lesser tuerosity avulsion fractures, fracture-dislocations, birth fractures, and fractures associated with cysts. Most pediatric patients with proximal humerus fractures have favorable results, and complications are infrequent.