Science.gov

Sample records for advanced radio astronomy

  1. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  2. International Agreement Will Advance Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-12-01

    Two of the world's leading astronomical institutions have formalized an agreement to cooperate on joint efforts for the technical and scientific advancement of radio astronomy. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the United States and the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany concluded a Memorandum of Understanding outlining planned collaborative efforts to enhance the capabilities of each other's telescopes and to expand their cooperation in scientific research. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF In the first project pursued under this agreement, the MPIfR will contribute $299,000 to upgrade the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array's (VLBA) capability to receive radio emissions at a frequency of 22 GHz. This improvement will enhance the VLBA's scientific productivity and will be particularly important for cutting-edge research in cosmology and enigmatic cosmic objects such as gamma-ray blazars. "This agreement follows many years of cooperation between our institutions and recognizes the importance of international collaboration for the future of astronomical research," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "Our two institutions have many common research goals, and joining forces to keep all our telescopes at the forefront of technology will be highly beneficial for the science," said Anton Zensus, Director at MPIfR. In addition to the VLBA, the NRAO operates the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The MPIfR operates the 100-meter Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany and the 12-meter APEX submillimeter telescope in 5100 m altitude in the Cilean Atacama desert (together with the European Southern Observatory and the Swedish Onsala Space Observatory). With the 100-meter telescope, it is part of the VLBA network in providing transatlantic baselines. Both institutions are members of a global network of telescopes (the Global VLBI Network) that uses simultaneous

  3. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Niell, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the DSN in support of Radio and Radar Astronomy Operations during September through December 1980 are described. Emphasis is on a report of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel: that of VLBI observations of the energetic galactic object SS-433.

  4. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Schaffer, R. D.; Gorenstein, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of Radio Astronomy Operations during April and May 1981 are reported. Work in progres in support of an experiment selected for use of the DSN by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel, Twin Quasi-Stellar Object VLBI, is reported.

  5. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Wolken, P. R.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio astronomy operations during the first quarter of 1981 are reported. Results of the use of a low noise maser are presented, as well as updates in DSN support of experiments sanctioned by the Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel.

  6. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Deep Space Network in support of radio and radar astronomy operations during July and August 1980 are reported. A brief update on the OSS-sponsored planetary radio astronomy experiment is provided. Also included are two updates, one each from Spain and Australia on current host country activities.

  7. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Heeschen, David; Backer, Donald C.; Cohen, Marshall H.; Davis, Michael; Depater, Imke; Deyoung, David; Dulk, George A.; Fisher, J. R.; Goss, W. Miller

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) scientific opportunities (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength astronomy; meter to hectometer astronomy; the Sun, stars, pulsars, interstellar masers, and extrasolar planets; the planets, asteroids, and comets; radio galaxies, quasars, and cosmology; and challenges for radio astronomy in the 1990's); (2) recommendations for new facilities (the millimeter arrays, medium scale instruments, and small-scale projects); (3) continuing activities and maintenance, upgrading of telescopes and instrumentation; (4) long range programs and technology development; and (5) social, political, and organizational considerations.

  8. Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolken, P. R.; Shaffer, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) 26- and 64-meter antenna stations were utilized in support of Radio Astronomy Experiment Selection Panel experiments. Within a time span of 10 days, in May 1983 (267.75 hours total), nine RAES experiments were supported. Most of these experiments involved multifacility interferometry using Mark 3 data recording terminals and as many as six non-DSN observatories. Investigations of black holes, quasars, galaxies, and radio sources are discussed.

  9. Learning radio astronomy by doing radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo Gallego, J. A.

    2011-11-01

    PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el Radio Telescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is an educational program that allows high school and undergraduate students to control a 34 meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the internet. High-school teachers who join the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna as an educational resource. Also, teachers are provided with learning activities they can do with their students and focused on the classroom implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. PARTNeR provides students with firsthand experience in radio astronomy science. Thus, remote radio astronomical observations allow students to learn with a first rate scientific equipment the basics of radio astronomy research, aiming to arouse scientific careers and positive attitudes toward science. In this contribution we show the current observational programs and some recent results.

  10. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  11. Frequencies for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Smith, F G

    1970-10-31

    At present the scope of research in radio astronomy is limited by the allocation of frequencies, some of which have to be shared with other radio services. When the International Telecommunications Union reconsiders all frequency allocations next year, astronomers are hoping for an improvement.

  12. Radio astronomy with microspacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic constellation of microspacecraft in lunar orbit can carry out valuable radio astronomy investigations in the frequency range of 30kHz--30MHz, a range that is difficult to explore from Earth. In contrast to the radio astronomy ivestigations that have flown on individual spacecraft, the four microspacecraft together with a carrier spacecraft, which transported them to lunar orbit, form an interferometer with far superior angular resolution. Use of microspacecraft allows the entire constellation to be launched with a Taurus-class vehicle. Also distinguishing this approach is that the Moon is used as needed to shield the constellation from RF interference from the Earth and Sun.

  13. Advanced Amateur Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Gerald

    This book is for amateur astronomers and telescope users who want to move beyond elementary stargazing to more challenging projects. Written by an accomplished amateur astronomer, this indispensable guide to more advanced work is packed with information and lucid explanations. The first section of the book sets out the fundamental principles of practical astronomy, with chapters on telescope optics, the atmosphere, telescope hardware, astrophotography, and electronic imaging. This knowledge is then applied to the full range of celestial bodies accessible by telescope: the solar system, stars and galaxies. For those users who want to move to even greater challenges, chapters on photometry, spectroscopy and radio astronomy bring observational astronomy to a level where data of real scientific value can be acquired.

  14. Advances in Composite Reflectors: From X-Ray to Radio Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, S. J.; Abusafieh, A. A.; Mehle, G. V.; Sheikh, D. A.; Giles, D. C.

    2000-12-01

    In recent years, Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) has made significant advances in the use of graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) materials for astronomical instrument applications. The inherent low density, high stiffness, and thermal stability makes GFRC a natural candidate for many astronomy applications. In order to reap these inherent benefits in astronomical applications, basic research has focused on material and process improvement. This has been accompanied by the design, fabrication, and test of several prototype reflectors that cover a broad wavelength spectrum of astronomical interests. The results of, and applications for, these efforts are summarized in the following list. X-Ray Carrier Shell: Innovative composite process yields accuracy and moisture stability. Demonstrated by vacuum optical test of 6" Wolter-I shell. Applicable to Con-X, etc. Lightweight Mirror Substrate for Visible Astronomy: Composite/glass hybrid design. Areal density < 15 kg/m2. Demonstrated by cryo-optical test (to 35K) of 1.6m NMSD mirror. Applicable to NGST, etc. Polishable Composite Facesheet: Glass-like coating applied to composite. Polishable by conventional methods. Multiple six-inch substrates polished to 20 angstroms. Technology will enable future 5 kg/m2 visible to UV optics. 10 kg/m2 Submillimeter Reflector: Apertures to 5m possible with economical, all-composite mirror design, diffraction limited at 80 microns. Demonstrated with cryo-optical test (to 70K) of FIRST 2-meter prototype mirror. Applicable to FIRST and other IR astronomy. Large, Ultra-Stable Optical Support Structure: Uniform and near-zero CTE over broad dimensions. Demonstrated with cryo-optical test of 2-meter FIRST prototype. Applicable to NGST, SIM, LISSA. Ground Based Radio Telescope Reflector: Low-cost, accurate, stable, durable all-composite design for support structure & reflective surface. Demonstrated via fab & test of 3m adjustable and 5m static prototypes. Applicable to LMT, ALMA, etc. These

  15. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  16. New vistas in planetary radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in planetary radio astronomy is reviewed, where the most significant advances have come from spacecraft observations. The low-frequency radio spectra of the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are compared, and the striking similarity in shapes is noted. New radio data are examined which provide a way to compare the magnetic field strengths of the planets. More detailed information on the radio structures of Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly on Uranus, is expected from the 1977 Mariner Jupiter-Saturn mission.

  17. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

  18. An Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

  19. An Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

  20. The future for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Rene P.; Hassall, Tom

    2013-12-01

    THE TRANSIENT UNIVERSE Rene P Breton and Tom Hassall argue that, while radio astronomy has always involved transient phenomena, exploration of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been falling behind because of the lack of data. But the advent of a new generation of radio telescopes such as LOFAR, could change that.

  1. Origins of Canadian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, A. E.

    1988-08-01

    Radar technology after World War II was rapidly applied to the radio astronomy founded by Jansky and Reber. The first post-war discoveries in various countries from 1945 to 1950 were made with instruments built from surplus parts, and quickly led to the design of specialized equipment. The development in Ottawa at the Laboratories of the National Research Council is outlined, initially for solar radio observations and then for the early galactic observations at the Goth Hill Radio Observatory, near Ottawa.

  2. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  3. Planetary radio astronomy from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of radio astronomy makes it possible for a remote observer to detect the presence of magnetic fields and plasmas in planetary environments. Prior to the flights of the Voyager spacecraft, radio astronomical studies of Jupiter from earth and from earth orbit had correctly predicted the strength and orientation of Jupiter's magnetic field and trapped radiation belts. The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy investigations have now provided measurements of the complete spectrum of low frequency radio emissions from both planets. Each Voyager instrument consists of a pair of orthogonal, 10-m, electric monopole antennas which are connected to a step-tuned, superheterodyne receiver operating over the frequency range from 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz. The Voyager trajectory provided observations from above both the sunlit and nightside hemispheres of Jupiter. Saturn's nonthermal radio emission has been observed at frequencies as low as 3 kHz and as high as 1.2 MHz.

  4. The Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy: Graduates, Undergraduates and High School Students Engaged in the Exploration of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Andy; Jenet, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA) is a part of the University of Texas system located in Brownsville, Texas. Under the umbrella of CARA is the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC). The ARCC is a virtual control room where researchers and students (graduate, undergraduate, and local high school students) control and take data utilizing the Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Long Wavelength Array. This poster presents a general outline of CARA programs and recent accomplishments—including on-going pulsar discoveries, the expansion of the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) to four sites across North America, and the graduation of our second cohort of ARCC Scholars.

  5. The Helios radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S.; Stone, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radio bursts traveling between the Sun and the Earth were tracked by radio astronomy experiments on Helios 1 and 2. A relatively short dipole antenna with a well-defined toroidal reception pattern was flown. The antenna spins in the ecliptic at 60.3 rpm and 2 frequencies are measured in each revolution. The signal analysis determines the strength of the signal, the direction of the source in the ecliptic, and the degree of modulation, and estimates source size. The experiments provide three-dimensional direction finding in space. They extend the radio frequency window beyond what is observable on Earth, and offer a long triangulation baseline.

  6. Auto-Adaptive Radio Astronomy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor; Lonsdale, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    Progress in the field of radio astronomy depends heavily on advances in instrumental capabilities, characterized by properties such as collecting area, resolution in the angular, spectral and temporal domains, field of view, and spatial aperture sampling. Generally, such advances in capability represent increases in the formal quantity of astronomical information that is received and processed by the instrument. The current generation of radio astronomy arrays can generate antenna voltage data at rates of Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will quickly expand these rates by multiple orders of magnitude. Future Exascale systems will have to make many choices on how to process subsets of big data. As human capacity will be overwhelmed at this scale, part of the discovery process will have to be handled by algorithms and machines. A key challenge will be to identify patterns of scientific significance in massive data sets and adjust instruments to become more sensitive to such patterns. As a step towards realization, we will revisit the current data collection and analysis pipelines from a fresh perspective that treats them as one system. In this system, multicore parallelism reduces big data accumulation by moving fragments of analysis and filtering closer to the data acquisition. MIT Haystack is pursuing approaches that enable future scientists to shift their interaction with bare metal instruments to steering search algorithms. Our vision is to create auto-adaptive instruments that can automatically adjust to identify and characterize interesting data patterns and properties, to optimize signal to noise ratios, and balance the search process depending on environmental changes. Bios Victor Pankratius is a principal investigator and computer scientist at MIT Haystack Observatory, where he advances new directions of computing in astronomy. Contact him at [pankrat at mit dot edu], victorpankratius.com, or Twitter @vpankratius. Colin Lonsdale is Director of

  7. The Future of Radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekers, R. D.

    2001-12-01

    Five decades ago, astronomers finally broke free of the boundaries of light when a new science, radio astronomy, was born. This new way of "seeing" rapidly uncovered a range of unexpected objects in the cosmos. This was our first view of the non-thermal universe, and our first unobscured view of the universe. In its short life, radio astronomy has had an unequalled record of discovery, including four Nobel prizes: Big-Bang radiation, neutron stars, aperture synthesis and gravitational radiation. Radio telescopes have followed the pattern of exponential growth generally seen in flourishing areas of science and technology and there is no technical reason for this not to continue, but to do so will require a shift in technology that will set new challenges. New technologies have made it possible to construct an affordable radio telescope with collecting area of one square km the SKA. Such a telescope would be so powerful that we could expand our knowledge of the universe from the earliest stages of its formation through to planetary exploration with greatly enhanced spacecraft communications. The SKA will join the new generation of telescopes at other wavebands with the sensitivity and resolution to image the earliest phases of galaxy formation, as well as greatly extending the range of unique science accessible at radio wavelengths. We already know how to build an SKA, the issue is how to build the most cost effective SKA, and how to maximize the science we can do with it. The path we have chosen to achieve this vision is through international collaboration. Following the pattern of other successful international collaborations in science we have started this process early, and we are already benefiting from the level of innovation generated by our international interactions.

  8. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  9. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  10. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for STARLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltuch, D.; Hund, L.; Buck, S.; Fultz, C.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Castelaz, M. W.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.

    2005-12-01

    We present elements of a curriculum that will accompany the STARLAB module "Sensing the Radio Sky" a portable planetarium program and projection of the radio sky. The curriculum will serve to familiarize high school students to a set of topics in radio astronomy. The curriculum includes lessons and activities addressing several topics related to radio astronomy and the Milky Way that consists of two main resources: a manual and a multimedia website. It is designed to accommodate a wide variety of possible uses and time constraints. The manufacturer of STARLAB, Learning Technologies, Inc. produces a short manual to accompany each presentation for the STARLAB. The "Sensing the Radio Sky" manual we have created includes the mandatory, minimum background information that students need to understand radio astronomy. It briefly discusses waves and electromagnetic radiation, similarities and differences between optical and radio astronomy, probable misconceptions about radio astronomy, how radio images are produced, synchrotron radiation in the Milky Way, and galactic coordinates. It also includes a script that presenters can choose to follow inside the STARLAB, a lesson plan for teachers, and activities for students to complete before and after the STARLAB experience that mirror the scientific method. The multimedia website includes more detailed information about electromagnetic radiation and a more detailed comparison of optical and radio astronomy. It also discusses the life cycles of stars, radiation from a variety of specific sources, and pulsars, as each relates to radio astronomy. The five highly detailed lessons are pulled together in sixth "overview lesson", intended for use by teachers who want to present more than the basic material in the manual, but do not have the classroom time to teach all five of the in-depth lessons. . We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  11. The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    The 1960s were the Golden Years of Radio Astronomy. During this decade a new generation of young scientists discovered quasars, pulsars, the cosmic microwave background, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio source variability, superluminal motion, radio recombination lines, the rotation of Mercury and Venus, the Venus Greenhouse effect, Jupiter's radiation belts, and opened up the high redshift Universe. On the technical side, the 1960s saw the completion of the NRAO 140-ft and 300-ft radio telescopes, the Haystack, Arecibo and Parkes antennas, the Owens Valley Interferometer, the first practical demonstrations of aperture synthesis, VLBI, and CLEAN, the Cambridge 1-mile radio telescope, the most precise tests of GR light bending, and the introduction of the 4th test of GR. Following sessions at the recent IAU 29th General Assembly on the "Golden Years of Radio Astronomy," we will discuss the circumstances surrounding these transformational discoveries which changed the course of modern astronomy.

  12. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  13. A Teaching Lab in Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kirk R.; Cudaback, David D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a study in which participants in a summer institute for secondary science teachers performed a series of experiments with a radio telescope. Concludes that a radio astronomy teaching facility would encourage students to use their own initiative and strategy in working with the scientific concepts involved. (MLH)

  14. Forty Years of Radio Astronomy at Hartebeesthoek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.; Nicolson, G. D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1961 an 85-foot (26-metre) diameter radio antenna was erected at Hartebeesthoek near Johannesburg, as NASA's Deep Space Instrumentation Facility 51. A young South African engineer employed there soon initiated a radio astronomy research programme to use free time between tracking spacecraft. On the closure of the facility by NASA in 1974, it was re-constituted as a radio astronomy observatory operated by the CSIR. In this paper, we highlight various strands of the forty year history of radio astronomy at Hartebeesthoek. We also cover some of the perhaps surprising spinoffs that it has generated, both scientifically and practically. Some of these hark back to measurements taken by the Abbé de la Caille at the Cape in the 1750's, and to the reasons for establishing a Royal Observatory there in the 1820's.

  15. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  16. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  17. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  18. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  19. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  20. Radio Jove: Jupiter Radio Astronomy for Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Charles; Thieman, J. R.; Flagg, R.; Reyes, F. J.; Sky, J.; Greenman, W.; Brown, J.; Typinski, D.; Ashcraft, T.; Mount, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio JOVE is a hands-on educational activity that brings the radio sounds of the Sun, Jupiter, the Milky Way Galaxy, and terrestrial radio noise to students, teachers, and the general public. Participants may build a simple radio telescope kit, make scientific observations, and interact with professional radio observatories in real-time over the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) includes science information, construction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for teachers and students. Radio Jove is continually expanding its participants with over 1800 kits sold to more than 70 countries worldwide. Recently some of our most dedicated observers have upgraded their Radio Jove antennas to semi-professional observatories. We have spectrographs and wide band antennas, some with 8 MHz bandwidth and some with dual polarization capabilities. In an effort to add to the science literature, these observers are coordinating their efforts to pursue some basic questions about Jupiter’s radio emissions (radio source locations, spectral structure, long term changes, etc.). We can compare signal and ionosphere variations using the many Radio Jove observers at different locations. Observers are also working with members of the Long Wavelength Array Station 1 (LWA1) radio telescope to coordinate observations of Jupiter; Radio Jove is planning to make coordinated observations while the Juno Mission is active beginning in 2015. The Radio Jove program is overviewed, its hardware and software are highlighted, recent sample observations are shown, and we demonstrate that we are capable of real citizen science.

  1. Teaching radio astronomy with Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    A simple, easy to build and portable radio telescope, called Affordable Small Radio Telescope (ASRT), has been developed by the Radio Physics Laboratory (RPL), a radio astronomy teaching unit associated with the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (TIFR) and Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), which are two premier astronomy institutes in India. ASRT consists of off-the-shelf available Direct to Home television dishes and is easy to assemble. Our design is scalable from simple very low cost telescope to more complex yet moderately costing instrument. ASRT provides a platform for demonstrating radio physics concepts through simple hands-on experiment as well as for carrying out solar monitoring by college/University students. The presentation will highlight the concept of ASRT and the different experiments that can be carried out using it. The solar monitoring observations will be discussed along-with details of methods for calibrating these measurements. The pedagogical usefulness of ASRT in introducing undergraduatephysics students to astrophysics, measurements and analysis methods used in radio astronomy will also be discussed. Use of ASRT in the last three years in the programs of RPL, namely the annual Radio Astronomy Winter School for College students (RAWSC) and Pulsar Observing for Students (POS) is also presented. This year a new program was initiated to form a virtual group of an ASRT community, which will not only share their measurements, but also think of improving the pedagogical usefulness of ASRT by innovative experiments. This initiative is presented with the best practices drawn from our experience in using ASRT as a tool for student training in space sciences. The talk will also point out future ideas in involving a larger body of students in simple radio astronomy experiments with the ASRT, which RPL is likely to nucleate as part of its mandate.

  2. The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

  3. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period.

  4. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  5. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalactic astronomers, irrespective of their favourite electromagnetic band(s), and even stellar astronomers might find it somewhat gratifying.

  6. Radio astronomy - The next decade

    SciTech Connect

    Kellermann, K.I. )

    1991-09-01

    Discoveries made over the past several decades by radio astronomers include radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, gravitational lenses, energetic bursts from the sun and Jupiter, the greenhouse effect on Venus, the rotation of Mercury, giant molecular clouds, violent activity in galactic nuclei, and cosmic background radiation. This paper discusses the development of ever more powerful radio telescopes, which include the VLA operated by NRAO near Socorro (New Mexico); the new NRAO's 100-m Green Bank Telescope being constructed in Green Bank (West Virginia); and the proposed Millimeter Array, which will consist of 40 antennas, each 8-m across, arranged in any of four different ways depending on the size of the region under study. Consideration is also given to methods for increasing the resolving power and image quality of radio telescopes, with special attention given to very-long-baseline interferometry.

  7. Radio astronomy. [principles and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J.; Clark, T.

    1974-01-01

    The origins, generation, detection, and interpretation of radio signals are discussed for signals with an assumed random polarization. After defining the basic parameters, the discussion moves to such topics as synchrotron radiation, plasma effects, changes in the electron energy spectrum in the radiating regions, energy loss to ionization, bremsstrahlung, radio astronomical observations of high-energy particles, emission by energetic particles, observation of supernova remnants and pulsars, galactic background continuum radiation, and others.

  8. GPU accelerated radio astronomy signal convolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chris; Haines, Karen; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2008-10-01

    The increasing array size of radio astronomy interferometers is causing the associated computation to scale quadratically with the number of array signals. Consequently, efficient usage of alternate processing architectures should be explored in order to meet this computational challenge. Affordable parallel processors have been made available to the general scientific community in the form of the commodity graphics card. This work investigates the use of the Graphics Processing Unit in the parallelisation of the combined conjugate multiply and accumulation stage of a correlator for a radio astronomy array. Using NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture, our testing shows processing speeds from one to two orders of magnitude faster than a Central Processing Unit approach.

  9. Radio astronomy Explorer B antenna aspect processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. H.; Novello, J.; Reeves, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    The antenna aspect system used on the Radio Astronomy Explorer B spacecraft is described. This system consists of two facsimile cameras, a data encoder, and a data processor. Emphasis is placed on the discussion of the data processor, which contains a data compressor and a source encoder. With this compression scheme a compression ratio of 8 is achieved on a typical line of camera data. These compressed data are then convolutionally encoded.

  10. Developments in Coherent Amplifiers and Miniaturized Receivers for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kieran; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Gawande, R.; Kooi, J.; Gaier, T.; Lawrence, C. R.; Kangaslahti, P.; Samoska, L.; Varonen, M.; Lai, R.; Sarkozy, S.; Church, S. E.; Sieth, M.; Devaraj, K.; Voll, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of InP HEMT amplifiers have produced a breakthrough in the cryogenic noise performance of these devices. Caltech's Cahill Radio Astronomy Lab (CRAL), JPL and Northrop Grumman (NGAS) are working to produce new amplifiers which can exploit this improved performance for radio astronomy. In parallel, these new amplifiers are being integrated into a family of miniaturized modular receivers which have wide application as focal plane arrays. Such arrays will have a major impact on a diverse range of scientific goals, such as measurement of integrated CO from the Epoch of Reionization, efficient spectroscopic and continuum mapping of Galactic emission and measurement of the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We report on these developments and prospects for the future.

  11. The Radio JOVE Project - An Inexpensive Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Radio JOVE project began over six years ago as an education-centered program to inspire secondary school students' interest in space science through hands-on radio astronomy. The project was begun on small grants from the Goddard Space Flight Center Director's Discretionary Fund, the Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, and the American Astronomical Society. Students build a radio receiver and antenna kit capable of receiving Jovian, solar, and galactic emissions at a frequency of 20.1 MHz. More than 600 of these kits have been distributed to students and interested observers (ages 10 through adult) in over 30 countries. For those who are not comfortable building their own kit, the Radio JOVE project has made it possible to monitor real-time data and streaming audio online from professional radio telescopes in Florida (http://jupiter.kochi-ct.jp) and Hawaii http://jupiter.wcc.hawaii.edu/newradiojove/main.html). Freely downloadable software called Radio-Skypipe (http://radiosky.com) emulates a chart recorder to monitor ones own radio telescope or the telescopes of other observers worldwide who send out their data over the Internet. Inexpensive spectrographs have been developed for the professional telescopes in Hawaii and Florida and freely downloadable spectrograph display software is available to receive this research-quality data. We believe the amateur network data to be of value to the research community and would like to have students more directly connected to ongoing research projects to enhance their interest in participating. Results of the project and plans for the future will be highlighted.

  12. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

    2014-10-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

  13. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  14. On post-SKA radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parijskij, Yuri; Chernenkov, Vladimir

    It is suggested that the development of the SKA will drastically change the face of radio astronomy in the 21st Century. A FAST-style SKA would admit observations of low contrast features, and would be the best design for studying the `dark ages' of the Universe (x>> 1) where sub-arcmin total power instruments can usefully be employed. To date there have been no proposals for post-SKA, billion square-metra instruments; we speculate that mobile communication systems can be used. In the very distant future, SKA multi-beam systems could be used to collect signals reflected by Solar system bodies such as the asteroid belt.

  15. Array Signal Processing for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veen, Alle Jan; Leshem, Amir; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2004-06-01

    Radio astronomy forms an interesting application area for array signal processing techniques. Current synthesis imaging telescopes consist of a small number of identical dishes, which track a fixed patch in the sky and produce estimates of the time-varying spatial covariance matrix. The observations sometimes are distorted by interference, e.g., from radio, TV, radar or satellite transmissions. We describe some of the tools that array signal processing offers to filter out the interference, based on eigenvalue decompositions and factor analysis, which is a more general technique applicable to partially calibrated arrays. We consider detection of interference, spatial filtering techniques using projections, and discuss how a reference antenna pointed at the interferer can improve the performance. We also consider image formation and its relation to beamforming.

  16. Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Leech, Marcus; Oxley, Paul; Flagg, Richard; Fields, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a Radio Astronomy Software Defined Receiver (RASDR) that is currently under development. RASDR is targeted for use by amateurs and small institutions where cost is a primary consideration. The receiver will operate from HF thru 2.8 GHz. Front-end components such as preamps, block down-converters and pre-select bandpass filters are outside the scope of this development and will be provided by the user. The receiver includes RF amplifiers and attenuators, synthesized LOs, quadrature down converters, dual 8 bit ADCs and a Signal Processor that provides firmware processing of the digital bit stream. RASDR will interface to a user s PC via a USB or higher speed Ethernet LAN connection. The PC will run software that provides processing of the bit stream, a graphical user interface, as well as data analysis and storage. Software should support MAC OS, Windows and Linux platforms and will focus on such radio astronomy applications as total power measurements, pulsar detection, and spectral line studies.

  17. Radio Astronomy: A Strong Link between Undergraduate Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratap, Preethi; Salah, Joseph E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a successful pilot program to develop and test a program that facilitates the linking of undergraduate research and education through radio astronomy. Based on the pilot experiences, students everywhere should be able to exploit the opportunity to strengthen their education through practical research using radio astronomy. (Author/SAH)

  18. Space situational awareness applications for radio astronomy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Galen; Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) builds, operates, and maintains a suite of premier radio antennas, including the 100m aperture Green Bank Telescope, the largest fully-steerable antenna in the world. For more than five decades the NRAO has focused on astrophysics, providing researchers with the most advanced instruments possible: large apertures, extremely low-noise receivers, and signal processors with high frequency and time resolution. These instruments are adaptable to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) tasks such as radar detection of objects in near-Earth and cis-Lunar space, high accuracy orbit determination, object surveillance with passive methods, and uplink and downlink communications. We present the capabilities of antennas and infrastructure at the NRAO Green Bank Observatory in the context of SSA tasks, and discuss what additions and modifications would be necessary to achieve SSA goals while preserving existing radio astronomy performance. We also discuss how the Green Bank Observatory's surrounding topography and location within the National Radio Quiet Zone will enhance SSA endeavors.

  19. JPL Big Data Technologies for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; D'Addario, L. R.; De Jong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Rebbapragada, U. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2014-04-01

    During the past three years the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been working on several technologies to deal with big data challenges facing next-generation radio arrays, among other applications. This program has focused on the following four areas: 1) We are investigating high-level ASIC architectures that reduce power consumption for cross-correlation of data from large interferometer arrays by one to two orders of magnitude. The cost of operations for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which may be dominated by the cost of power for data processing, is a serious concern. A large improvement in correlator power efficiency could have a major positive impact. 2) Data-adaptive algorithms (machine learning) for real-time detection and classification of fast transient signals in high volume data streams are being developed and demonstrated. Studies of the dynamic universe, particularly searches for fast (<< 1 second) transient events, require that data be analyzed rapidly and with robust RFI rejection. JPL, in collaboration with the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, has developed a fast transient search system for eventual deployment on ASKAP. In addition, a real-time transient detection experiment is now running continuously and commensally on NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array. 3) Scalable frameworks for data archiving, mining, and distribution are being applied to radio astronomy. A set of powerful open-source Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) tools is now available through Apache. OODT was developed at JPL for Earth science data archives, but it is proving to be useful for radio astronomy, planetary science, health care, Earth climate, and other large-scale archives. 4) We are creating automated, event-driven data visualization tools that can be used to extract information from a wide range of complex data sets. Visualization of complex data can be improved through algorithms that detect events or features of interest and autonomously

  20. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  1. The Deep Space Network: An instrument for radio astronomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Levy, G. S.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Walken, P. R.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network operates and maintains the Earth-based two-way communications link for unmanned spacecraft exploring the solar system. It is NASA's policy to also make the Network's facilities available for radio astronomy observations. The Network's microwave communication systems and facilities are being continually upgraded. This revised document, first published in 1982, describes the Network's current radio astronomy capabilities and future capabilities that will be made available by the ongoing Network upgrade. The Bibliography, which includes published papers and articles resulting from radio astronomy observations conducted with Network facilities, has been updated to include papers to May 1987.

  2. The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, Benjamin Kevin

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion of the early days of the science is given to set the stage for an examination of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO. The developmental and construction phases of the major instruments including the 85-foot Tatel telescope, the 300-foot telescope, the 140-foot telescope, and the Green Bank lnterferometer are examined. The technical evolution of these instruments is traced and their relevance to scientific programs and discovery events is discussed. The history is told in narrative format that is interspersed with technical and scientific explanations. Through the use of original data technical and scientific information of historical concern is provided to elucidate major developments and events. An interpretive discussion of selected programs, events and technological developments that epitomize the contributions of the NRAO to the science of radio astronomy is provided. Scientific programs conducted with the NRAO instruments that were significant to galactic and extragalactic astronomy are presented. NRAO research programs presented include continuum and source surveys, mapping, a high precision verification of general relativity, and SETI programs. Cosmic phenomena investigated in these programs include galactic and extragalactic HI and HII, emission nebula, supernova remnants, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio stars, normal and radio galaxies, and quasars. Modern NRAO instruments including the VLA and VLBA and their scientific programs are presented in the final chapter as well as plans for future NRAO instruments such as the GBT.

  3. Large-N correlator systems for low frequency radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Griffin

    Low frequency radio astronomy has entered a second golden age driven by the development of a new class of large-N interferometric arrays. The low frequency array (LOFAR) and a number of redshifted HI Epoch of Reionization (EoR) arrays are currently undergoing commission and regularly observing. Future arrays of unprecedented sensitivity and resolutions at low frequencies, such as the square kilometer array (SKA) and the hydrogen epoch of reionization array (HERA), are in development. The combination of advancements in specialized field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware for signal processing, computing and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources, and new imaging and calibration algorithms has opened up the oft underused radio band below 300 MHz. These interferometric arrays require efficient implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to compute the baseline correlations. FPGA technology provides an optimal platform to develop new correlators. The significant growth in data rates from these systems requires automated software to reduce the correlations in real time before storing the data products to disk. Low frequency, widefield observations introduce a number of unique calibration and imaging challenges. The efficient implementation of FX correlators using FPGA hardware is presented. Two correlators have been developed, one for the 32 element BEST-2 array at Medicina Observatory and the other for the 96 element LOFAR station at Chilbolton Observatory. In addition, calibration and imaging software has been developed for each system which makes use of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) to derive calibrations. A process for generating sky maps from widefield LOFAR station observations is presented. Shapelets, a method of modelling extended structures such as resolved sources and beam patterns has been adapted for radio astronomy use to further improve system calibration. Scaling of computing technology allows for the

  4. Wide field imaging problems in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

    2005-03-01

    The new generation of synthesis radio telescopes now being proposed, designed, and constructed face substantial problems in making images over wide fields of view. Such observations are required either to achieve the full sensitivity limit in crowded fields or for surveys. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA Consortium, Tech. Rep., 2004), now being developed by an international consortium of 15 countries, will require advances well beyond the current state of the art. We review the theory of synthesis radio telescopes for large fields of view. We describe a new algorithm, W projection, for correcting the non-coplanar baselines aberration. This algorithm has improved performance over those previously used (typically an order of magnitude in speed). Despite the advent of W projection, the computing hardware required for SKA wide field imaging is estimated to cost up to $500M (2015 dollars). This is about half the target cost of the SKA. Reconfigurable computing is one way in which the costs can be decreased dramatically.

  5. Sixty Years in radio astronomy: A tribute to Bruce Slee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2005-06-01

    Bruce Slee is one of the pioneers of radio astronomy. After recording solar emission during World War II, he joined what was then the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia, and went on to make important contributions to Solar System, Galactic and extra-galactic astronomy. Since his retirement, in 1989, he has continued his research as an Honorary Fellow of the Australia Telescope National Facility. Now in his early 80s, Bruce Slee is one of the few radio astronomy pioneers of the 1940s who is still actively contributing to astrophysics. This issue of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (JAH2), and the two that will follow it, are a tribute to this quietly-spoken scientist and his remarkable 60-year involvement in radio astronomy.

  6. Communicating radio astronomy with the public: Another point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varano, S.

    2008-06-01

    Radio waves cannot be sensed directly, but they are used in daily life by almost everybody. Even so, the majority of the general public do not even know that celestial bodies emit radio waves. Presenting invisible radiation to a general audience with little or no background knowledge in physics is a difficult task. In addition, much important technology now commonplace in many other scientific fields was pioneered by radio observatories in their efforts to detect and process radio signals from the Universe. Radio astronomy outreach does not have such a well-established background as optical astronomy outreach. In order to make radio astronomy accessible to the public, it is necessary either to add more scientific detail or to find a different way of communicating. In this paper we present examples from our work at the Visitor Centre "Marcello Ceccarelli", which is part of the Medicina Radio Observatory, operated by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) in Bologna, which in turn is part of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF).

  7. Radio astronomy aspects of the NASA SETI Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of SETI data to radio astronomy is studied. The number of continuum radio sources in the 1-10 GHz region to be counted and cataloged is predicted. The radio luminosity functions for steep and flat spectrum sources at 2, 8, and 22 GHz are derived using the model of Peacock and Gull (1981). The relation between source number and flux density is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is evaluated.

  8. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Evans, D. R.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Pedersen, M.; Lecacheux, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  9. Planetary radio astronomy observations from voyager 1 near saturn.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Pearce, J B; Evans, D R; Carr, T D; Schauble, J J; Alexander, J K; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Pedersen, M; Lecacheux, A; Daigne, G; Boischot, A; Barrow, C H

    1981-04-10

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  10. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  12. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  13. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  15. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  17. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification to the National Radio Astronomy... SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 5.91 Notification to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory site...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  20. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.1030 Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. (a)(1) Radio astronomy and radio research installations. In order to...

  1. Need a Classroom Stimulus? Introduce Radio Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derman, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Silently, invisibly, ceaselessly, our planet Earth is showered by radio waves from every direction and from every region of space. This radio energy originates in our solar system, throughout the Milky Way galaxy, and far beyond, out to the remotest reaches of the universe. Detecting and unraveling the origins of these invisible signals is what…

  2. Planetary radio astronomy observations during the Voyager 1 Titan flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigne, G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    During the Voyager 1 Titan flyby, unusual radio emissions were observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment in the 20- to 97-kHz frequency range. It is shown that Titan itself is not the source of the observed radio emission. The emission features are attributed to modification of the normal Saturn kilometric radiation by propagation effects in enhanced density structures within the Titan wake. Furthermore, spiky emissions observed in the magnetic wake of Titan are interpreted in terms of local electrostatic instabilities at the electron plasma frequency. From these measurements a range of electron densities in the wake region is derived, and the consistency of the results is discussed.

  3. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Mahoney, M. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Knowles, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities.

  4. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105

  5. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  6. An outside view of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, G.

    Astronomy is in a golden age of discovery of the new, with a growing appreciation from astrophysics that physics has studied so far an almost insignificant fraction of reality. This golden age is enabled by technology, with next generation technologies approaching the Giga-euro/dollar investment level. This forces a strategic view of relative strengths in the past, and strategies for future developments. Some of these may transcend traditional wavelength classifications.

  7. Radio astronomy with very large arrray.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Bignell, R C

    1982-06-18

    The construction of the Very Large Array of radio telescopes has been completed, and this new research instrument is now being used to make radio images of astronomical objects with a resolution comparable to or better than that of ground-based optical telescopes. The role of the Very Large Array in current and future research is discussed both in principle and in terms of a sample of observing projects.

  8. High-School Solar Radio Astronomy Project in Mexico Based on Radio Jove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cole, A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Andrade, E.; Carrillo, A.

    2007-05-01

    Inspired by the RADIO JOVE project (http:radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) we propose a curse in solar radio astronomy for the high school system (CCH) at UNAM. The aim of this curse is to introduce solar radio astronomy to students and teachers, building their own radio telescope, and participating in radio astronomical measurements becoming familiar with the emissions of the Sun and Jupiter. The project is also based on the observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope(www.mexart.unam.mx) and the real time data from the Virtual Earth Sun Observatory (www.veso.unam.mx) at the Instituto de Geofisica-UNAM. The aim of this Project is to adapt the materials to the high school system in Mexico.

  9. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  10. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  11. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  12. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  13. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations....

  14. Solar radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of solar radio emissions at decametric to kilometric wavelengths are reviewed. Special attention is given to the radiation of the quiet sun at several metric and decametric wavelengths and to nonthermal radiation from the active sun, including radio bursts of type III (electron beams), type-III bursts from behind the sun, storms of type III bursts, the flare-associated radio bursts, type II bursts (shock waves), and shock-associated bursts. It is pointed out that almost no observations have been made so far of solar radiation between about 20 MHz and about 2 MHz. Below about 2 MHz, dynamic spectra of flux densities of solar burst have been recorded in space and observations were made of the directions of centroids and characteristic sizes of the emitting sources.

  15. Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-07-01

    Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

  16. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  17. Olof Rydbeck and Early Swedish Radio Astronomy: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, V.

    2006-12-01

    The spectacular development of radio astronomy in Europe and Australia in the period soon after World War II was mostly propelled by ‘amateur’ scientists motivated by a spirit of adventure. Totally untrained in astronomy, these pioneers were necessarily courageous and highly individualistic. Each of the leaders was ‘a character’, and often larger than life. And among these personalities there was none bigger than Olof Rydbeck of Sweden. He was already well known for his studies of electromagnetic theory and the invention and fabrication of devices for ever higher frequencies. He was one of the pioneers in the study of the ionosphere, and had built powerful sounders and also detectors for meteor trails. The creation of the Onsala Radio Observatory was entirely due to his efforts.

  18. Radio astronomy Explorer-B postlaunch attitude operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.; Berg, R.; Brokke, K.; Hattox, T.; Lerner, G.; Stewart, D.; Williams, R.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude support activities of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B are reported. The performance of the spacecraft hardware and software are discussed along with details of the mission events, from launch through main boom deployment. Reproductions of displays are presented which were used during support activities. The interactive graphics proved the support function by providing the quality control necessary to ensure mission success in an environment where flight simulated ground testing of spacecraft hardware cannot be performed.

  19. Teaching Astronomy at Columbus State University using Small Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Zodiac T.

    2006-12-01

    Astronomy is inherently fascinating to students but dark skies and good weather are not often scheduled during the school day. Radio telescopes provide an all-weather, all-day opportunity for astronomical observations. Columbus State University (CSU) has installed two “Small Radio Telescopes” for use by undergraduate students to pursue extra-curricular research in introductory astronomy. These telescopes are relatively affordable and are designed to be remotely operated through a Windows, Linux, or Macintosh environment. They are capable of diffraction-limited observations of the Sun and galactic Hydrogen in the ‘L-band’. A comprehensive website of projects suitable for high-school students and undergraduates is maintained by a group at MIT. This website ensures users are not left to explore the telescope’s abilities blindly. Students with varied interests learn about the nature of science by using an instrument that doesn’t lend itself to pretty pictures. Radio telescopes also provide a slight engineering flavor drawing in students who might not otherwise be interested in astronomy. This poster will provide a summary of installation, calibration, and future plans, and will share some observations by undergraduates at CSU.

  20. Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

  1. On the Development of Radio Astronomy and Protected Astronomy Reserves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiplady, Adrian John

    2015-08-01

    Recent initiatives to take advantage of various geographic locations in South Africa that exhibit excellent conditions for astronomical observations (optical and radio) has resulted in the establishment of a number of world class astronomical facilities. This includes the 10m class Southern African Large Telescope, the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope (under construction), and future Square Kilometre Array.To preserve these areas that exhibit natural astronomical advantage, unique legislation was promulgated to establish 'astronomy reserves'. These reserves are protected through a unique set of regulations that enable protection of astronomical facilities located in declared areas from any current, and future, sources of potential interference. This paper will look at the development and implementation of a protection regime, and review some of practical implications of the construction and operation of a radio telescope in what has become to be known as a 'radio quiet zone'.

  2. The Lunar Observer Radio Astronomy Experiment (LORAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1990-01-01

    The paper proposes to place a simple low-frequency dipole antenna on board the Lunar Observer (LO) satellite. LO will orbit the moon in the mid-1990's, mapping the surface at high resolution and gathering new geophysical data. In its modest concept, LORAE will collect crucial data on the radio interference environment while on the near-side (to aid in planning future arrays) and will monitor bursts of emission from the sun and the Jovian planets. LORAE will also be capable of lunar occultation studies of greater than 100 of the brightest sources, gathering arcminute resolution data on sizes and measuring source fluxes. A low resolution all-sky map below 10 MHz, when combined with data from the Gamma-Ray Observatory, will uniquely determine the density of Galactic cosmic ray electrons and the strength of the Galaxy's magnetic field. LORAE also will be able to measure the density of the moon's ionosphere.

  3. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in acousto-optic techniques and in photodetector arrays have made feasible a new type of RF spectrometer, offering the advantages of wide bandwidth, high resolution, large number of channels in compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and relatively low cost systems. Such a system employs an acousto-optic diffraction cell which serves the key role of converting RF signals to ultrasonic traveling-waves modulating the optical index of the cell. The cell is illuminated across its aperture by a monochromatic laser beam. A fraction of the light is diffracted by the acoustic waves. A focusing lens follows the cell and essentially performs a Fourier transform of the RF signal into a far-field intensity pattern. CSIRO in Australia and the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Japan have taken the lead in using acousto-optic techniques in astronomical applications. The first practical device was successfully made at CSIRO for obtaining dynamical spectrographs of solar radio emission.

  4. Accurate Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope routinely observes at wavelengths from 3 mm to 1 m. As with all mm-wave telescopes, observing conditions depend upon the variable atmospheric water content. The site provides over 100 days/yr when opacities are low enough for good observing at 3 mm, but winds on the open-air structure reduce the time suitable for 3-mm observing where pointing is critical. Thus, to maximum productivity the observing wavelength needs to match weather conditions. For 6 years the telescope has used a dynamic scheduling system (recently upgraded; www.gb.nrao.edu/DSS) that requires accurate multi-day forecasts for winds and opacities. Since opacity forecasts are not provided by the National Weather Services (NWS), I have developed an automated system that takes available forecasts, derives forecasted opacities, and deploys the results on the web in user-friendly graphical overviews (www.gb.nrao.edu/ rmaddale/Weather). The system relies on the "North American Mesoscale" models, which are updated by the NWS every 6 hrs, have a 12 km horizontal resolution, 1 hr temporal resolution, run to 84 hrs, and have 60 vertical layers that extend to 20 km. Each forecast consists of a time series of ground conditions, cloud coverage, etc, and, most importantly, temperature, pressure, humidity as a function of height. I use the Liebe's MWP model (Radio Science, 20, 1069, 1985) to determine the absorption in each layer for each hour for 30 observing wavelengths. Radiative transfer provides, for each hour and wavelength, the total opacity and the radio brightness of the atmosphere, which contributes substantially at some wavelengths to Tsys and the observational noise. Comparisons of measured and forecasted Tsys at 22.2 and 44 GHz imply that the forecasted opacities are good to about 0.01 Nepers, which is sufficient for forecasting and accurate calibration. Reliability is high out to 2 days and degrades slowly for longer-range forecasts.

  5. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  6. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  7. From radio-astronomy to medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Peters, T M

    1991-12-01

    A common thread in much of the medical imaging that has developed over the past 20 years has been the Fourier transform. It was Richard Bates' interest in radio-interferometry, as well as his fascination with problems of medical imaging that prompted an initial interest in applying Fourier techniques to medical imaging in general and to Computed Tomography in particular. This resulted 20 years ago in one of the earliest technical papers advocating Fourier techniques for reconstructing cross-sections from radiographic projections (Bates and Peters, NZ J Science 14:883-896, 1971). Since those early days, medical imaging has explored into a multi-billion dollar industry. The CT scanner has become the workhorse imaging modality in the radiology department, while its more recent relative, the MR scanner, is rapidly gaining ground as a technique of even greater importance. Richard Bates, with his team of "Medical Imagers" was a very significant force in the development of the field of Medical Imaging as we know it today. This paper attempts to chronicle the genesis of this process from the personal perspective of the author.

  8. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at neptune.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Peltzer, G R; Peltzer, R G; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Riddle, A C; Schweitzer, A E; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Farrell, W M; Carr, T D; de Pater, I; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Boischot, A; Genova, F; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1989-12-15

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions ofthe planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 +/- 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  9. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  10. Reflections on the Radio Astronomy Explorer program of the 1960s and 70s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) program of the late 1960s and early 1970s is, to date, the only totally dedicated radio astronomy mission to have flown. However, only some of the prelaunch goals were achieved due to the unexpectedly high levels of interference from the earth in the form of both naturally occurring and man-made noise. Some important lessons in receiver design were learned which could and should be applied to any future radio astronomy missions.

  11. New ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' Gives Support to Protection Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael M.

    1994-12-01

    A complex international structure exists for the administration of the radio spectrum, now widely viewed as an increasingly valuable natural resource. Radio astronomy was first officially recognized as a radio communications service at the World Administrative Radio Conference of 1959. At that time the IAU, URSI and COSPAR set up under ICSU the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies for Radio Astronomy and Space Science (IUCAF) to represent scientific usage of the spectrum. Radio astronomers work through their national agencies or IUCAF to get their concerns considered by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), or included on the agenda of a World Radio Conference. In addition to IUCAF, National and Regional committees such as the US Committee on Radio Frequencies (CORF) and the European Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies (CRAF) facilitate a united participation by radio astronomers. It is essential that the unique requirements of the passive services be clearly documented and readily accessible to professional spectrum managers more attuned to the requirements of government and commercial transmitting services. The ITU Radio-communications Sector is supporting this effort by the publication of ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy''. This document, prepared by an international team of radio astronomers experienced in frequency management, describes the characteristics of the radio astronomy service, the preferred frequency bands for radio astronomy use, and the extreme sensitivity and resulting vulnerability of radio astronomy observations to interference. It defines sharing criteria, harmful interference limits, and the threat of unwanted emissions from broad band (spread spectrum) modulation. Copies of the ITU ``Handbook on Radio Astronomy'' should be in every engineering and astronomy library, and the material it provides can usefully be included in college and graduate level courses. The Handbook is available in both English and

  12. An evolutionary sequence of low frequency radio astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    1990-01-01

    Many concepts for space-based low frequency radio astronomy missions are being developed, ranging from simple single-satellite experiments to large arrays on the far side of the moon. Each concept involves a different tradeoff between the range of scientific questions it can answer and the technical complexity of the experiment. Since complexity largely determines the development time, risk, launch vehicle requirements, cost, and probability of approval, it is important to see where the ability to expand the scientific return justifies a major increase in complexity. An evolutionary series of increasingly capable missions, similar to the series of missions for infrared or X-ray astronomy, is advocated. These would range from inexpensive 'piggy-back' experiments on near-future missions to a dedicated low frequency array in earth orbit (or possibly on the lunar nearside) and eventually to an array on the lunar farside.

  13. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, J.; Bandura, K.; Cliche, J.-F.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Tang, Q. Y.

    2013-10-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications.

  14. RASDR: Benchtop Demonstration of SDR for Radio Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaliuc, Bogdan; Oxley, Paul; Fields, David; Kurtz, Dr. Stan; Leech, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA) members present the benchtop version of RASDR, a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is optimized for Radio Astronomy. RASDR has the potential to be a common digital receiver interface useful to many SARA members. This document describes the RASDR 0.0 , which provides digitized radio data to a backend computer through a USB 2.0 interface. A primary component of RASDR is the Lime Microsystems Femtocell chip which tunes from a 0.4-4 GHz center frequency with several selectable bandwidths from 0.75 MHz to 14 MHz. A second component is a board with a Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) chip that connects to the Femtocell and provides two USB connections to the backend computer. A third component is an analog balanced mixer up conversion section. Together these three components enable RASDR to tune from 0.015 MHz thru 3.8GHz of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. We will demonstrate and discuss capabilities of the breadboard system and SARA members will be able to operate the unit hands-on throughout the workshop.

  15. A review of decametric radio astronomy - Instruments and science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Cane, H. V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources.

  16. Planetary radio astronomy receiver. [experiment on Voyager spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, G. J.; Peltzer, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The planetary radio astronomy (PRA) experiment on the Voyager spacecraft will measure the amplitude, spectrum, time variations, and polarization of radio emissions over a frequency range of 1.2 kHz to 40.5 MHz with the aid of the PRA receiver (PRAR) and two 10-m orthogonal monopoles. Sensitivity and dynamic range will allow observation of a wide range of Jovian emissions from near earth to encounter. This paper describes the system elements, including the preamp/attenuator/calibrator, the LF polarization discriminator, the four LF-IF amplifier stages, the HF polarization discriminator, the translation LO, the log-IF and detector, the frequency synthesizer, the data processor, control system, power supply, and antennas.

  17. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 3: Early solar radio research at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Masato; Orchiston, Wayne; Akabane, Kenji; Enome, Shinzo; Hayashi, Masa; Kaifu, Norio; Nakamura, Tsuko; Tsuchiya, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    The radio astronomy group at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1948 immediately after WWII, and decided to put its main research efforts into solar radio astronomy. The first radio telescope was completed in 1949 and started routine observations at 200 MHz. Since then, the group has placed its emphasis on observations at meter and decimeter wavelengths, and has constructed various kinds of radio telescopes and arrays operating at frequencies ranging from 60 to 800 MHz. In addition, radio telescopes operating at 3, 9.5 and 17 GMHz were constructed. In parallel with the observationally-based research, theoretical research on solar radio emission also was pursued. In this paper, we review the instrumental, observational and theoretical developments in solar radio astronomy at the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in the important period from 1949 through to the 1960s.

  18. Site selection for a radio astronomy observatory in Turkey: atmospherical, meteorological, and radio frequency analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, Ibrahim; Üler, Ipek; Öz, Şükriye; Onay, Sedat; Özdemir, Ali Rıza; Gülşen, Mehmet; Sarıkaya, Mikail; Dag˜Tekin, Nazlı Derya; Özeren, Ferhat Fikri

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the future site for a large Turkish radio telescope is a key issue. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is now in the stage of construction at a site near Karaman City, in Turkey. A single-dish parabolic radio antenna of 30-40 m will be installed near a building that will contain offices, laboratories, and living accommodations. After a systematic survey of atmospheric, meteorological, and radio frequency interference (RFI) analyses, site selection studies were performed in a predetermined location in Turkey during 2007 and 2008. In this paper, we described the experimental procedure and the RFI measurements on our potential candidate's sites in Turkey, covering the frequency band from 1 to 40 GHz.

  19. Embracing the Wave: Using the Very Small Radio Telescope to Teach Students about Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Doherty, M.; Minnigh, S.; Arndt, M. B.; Pratap, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) is a low-cost educational tool appropriate for laboratory demonstrations of the nature of radio waves and the principles of interferometry for use in both high school and undergraduate physics/astronomy classes. The system consists of small direct broadcast antenna dishes and other commercially available parts and can be assembled for under $500. Complete teaching units have been developed and tested by high school physics teachers to demonstrate radio wave transmission and exponential absorption though materials (Beer's law), the polarization of electromagnetic waves (Malus' law), the inverse square law, and interferometry. These units can be used to explore the properties of electromagnetic waves, including similarities and differences between radio and visible light, while challenging students' misconceptions about a wavelength regime that is important to both astronomy and everyday life. In addition, the VSRT can be used as a radio astronomical interferometer to measure the diameter of the Sun at 12 GHz. Full details, including a parts list, comprehensive assembly instructions, informational memos, teaching units, software, and conformance to national and Massachusetts educational standards, are available on the web at http://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/undergrad/VSRT/index.html . Development of the VSRT at MIT Haystack Observatory is made possible through funding provided by the National Science Foundation.

  20. Found: The Original 1945 Records of Australian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Miller; Ekers, Ron; Sim, Helen

    2015-08-01

    In July 2014, we found the original records of the first published Australian radio astronomy observations. These were obtained by Joseph L. Pawsey and Ruby Payne-Scott in early October 1945. The observations gave strong evidence of a million degree corona as well as frequent radio bursts.These observations followed earlier detections of the radio sun by Stanley Hey, George Southworth, Grote Reber and Elizabeth Alexander. The latter observations (the "Norfolk Island Effect" of March 1945) were the immediate motivation for the campaign carried out by Pawsey and Payne-Scott.These observations formed the basis for a number of pioneering publications: the 9 February 1946 Nature paper of Pawsey, Payne-Scott and McCready which was submitted on the last date on which data was obtained on 23 October 1945, the major publication of the initial Australian radio solar publication in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London in August 1947 and Pawsey's presentation of the radio properties of the million degree corona in the Nature of 2 November 1946. Contemporaneously with these publications, D. F.Martyn was involved in an independent theoretical study of the properties of the solar corona.(Ginzburg and Shklovsky were also involved in this era in a study of the properties of the corona.) The back-to-back Martyn and Pawsey Nature papers were the first that described the radio properties of the hot corona, due to free-free emission. The division of the observed emission into "bursting" and "quiet" modes was challenging for the novice radio astronomers.These historical records had been recognized by Paul Wild in 1968, who instructed the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics secretary to E.("Taffy") G. Bowen, Ms. Sally Atkinson, to submit these to the Australian Academy of Science. Wild characterized these documents as "of considerable historical interest". Apparently the transmission of the documents was not done; a thorough search of the Australian Academy Library in August 2014

  1. GEMS at OVRO: Education Courses in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, A. J.; Schuck, B. J.; Dawson, L.; Hodges, M. W.; Mercer, A. J.

    2004-05-01

    A collaboration between the Caltech Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the UCSB Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory has been formed to provide an astronomy-related hands-on summer instruction course for elementary-level students in eastern California. We are using the OVRO 40-m telescope to reinforce the LHS GEMS "Messages from Space" curriculum; the control room of the telescope has been remodelled into a classroom, and a user-friendly control and data acquisition system for the 40-m has been developed. After a successful pilot program in 2003 where students spent time searching for SETI signals from nearby bright stars, we are continuing to expand our suite of instructional experiments.

  2. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. The paper reports on quasi-periodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kHz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families is discussed.

  3. User friendly database for Neptune planetary radio astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data from the Voyager Neptune encounter were cleaned and reformatted in a variety of formats. Most of these formats are new and have been specifically designed to provide easy access and use of the data without the need to understand esoteric characteristics of the PRA instrument or the Voyager spacecraft. Several data sets were submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and have either appeared already on peer reviewed CDROM's or are in the process of being reviewed for inclusion in forthcoming CD-ROM's. Many of the data sets are also available online electronically through computer networks; it is anticipated that as time permits, the PDS will make all the data sets that were a part of this contract available both online and on CD-ROM's.

  4. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range.

  5. Planetary radio astronomy observations from voyager 2 near jupiter.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J B; Riddle, A C; Warwick, J W; Alexander, J K; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Thieman, J R; Carr, T D; Gulkis, S; Boischot, A; Leblanc, Y; Pedersen, B M; Staelin, D H

    1979-11-23

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively or, less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. We report here on quasiperiodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kilohertz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, we discuss the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families.

  6. Radio Astronomy at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR and Other Armenian Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamian, V. A.

    The establishment and development of radio astronomy in Armenia is described in detail. Information about the radio telescopes of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) is summarised. The main results of radio-astronomy studies carried out by BAO staff are described, including a number that used large Soviet and foreign radio telescopes, primarily studies of active galaxies.

  7. An Overview of W.N. Christiansen's Contribution to Australian Radio Astronomy, 1948-1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    In 1948, an accomplished industrial physicist who had harboured a long-term ambition to become an astronomer joined the newly-formed Radio Astronomy Group in the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney, Australia. Thus, W.N. (`Chris') Christiansen (1913-2007) began a new career in the fledgling field of radio astronomy. This paper reviews Christiansen's contribution to both instrumentation development and scientific research during the first phase of his career in radio astronomy, covering his work at the Potts Hill and Fleurs field stations prior to his resignation from the Division of Radiophysics in 1960.

  8. SwaMURAy - Swapping Memory Unit for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winberg, Simon

    2016-03-01

    This paper concerns design and performance testing of an HDL module called SwaMURAy that is a configurable, high-speed data sequencing and flow control module serving as an intermediary between data acquisition and subsequent processing stages. While a FIFO suffices for many applications, our case needed a more elaborate solution to overcome legacy design limitations. The SwaMURAy is designed around a system where a block of sampled data is acquired at a fast rate and is then distributed among multiple processing paths to achieve a desired overall processing rate. This architecture provides an effective design pattern around which various software defined radio (SDR) and radio astronomy applications can be built. This solution was partly in response to legacy design restrictions of the SDR platform we used, a difficulty likely experienced by many developers whereby new sampling peripherals are inhibited by legacy characteristics of an underlying reconfigurable platform. Our SDR platform had a planned lifetime of at least five years as a complete redesign and refabrication would be too costly. While the SwaMURAy overcame some performance problems, other problems arose. This paper overviews the SwaMURAy design, performance improvements achieved in an SDR case study, and discusses remaining limitations and workarounds we expect will achieve further improvements.

  9. Jansky and Reber: Two Remarkable Stories in Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. T., III

    1996-05-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves were first detected in 1931-32 by Karl Jansky at the Bell Telephone Labs in New Jersey while he was investigating sources of interference to recently opened, trans-Atlantic shortwave (20 MHz) radiotelephone circuits. At this time Jansky was only a few years beyond his physics degree from the University of Wisconsin, where his father was a professor of engineering. Jansky studied this "star noise" off and on until 1935, establishing that the emission came from the direction of the Milky Way and the galactic center, but did not pursue it in any further detail. The only other person to make a significant contribution to the nascent subject before World War II was Grote Reber, an electrical engineer who worked for several different radio firms in Chicago. After reading Jansky's articles, in 1937 Reber decided to build a 30-ft diameter dish antenna in the backyard of his suburban home in Wheaton, Illinois. By 1939 he had detected the Jansky radiation, which he called "cosmic noise", at 160 MHz and he comenced a long term program of mapping it in detail (with a 12 degree beam). Reber became a well-known figure to the astronomers at the University of Chicago and Yerkes Observatory (Struve, Greenstein, Kuiper, Henyey, Keenan) as he sought to learn astronomy and convince the staff that this cosmic noise was of importance. Struve, editor of the "Astrophysical Journal", was finally persuaded to publish Reber's articles. During and just after the war Reber extended his work to 480 MHz. He then sought funds to move his dish to a quieter locale and to build a second, much larger dish, but neither of these plans came to fruition. It is ironic that the remarkable contributions of these two pioneers to the field that would eventually become known as "radio astronomy" (a term only introduced in the late 1940s) had little influence on the spectacular growth of the field in the decade after World War II. The great bulk of the important work was done in

  10. Radio frequency interference measurements in Indonesia. A survey to establish a radio astronomy observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Taufiq; Munir, Achmad; Dermawan, Budi; Jaelani, Anton Timur; Léon, Stéphane; Nugroho, Dading Hadi; Suksmono, Andriyan Bayu; Mahasena, Putra; Premadi, Premana Wardayanti; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Kunjaya, Chatief; Dupe, Zadrach Ledoufij; Brahmantyo, Budi; Mandey, Denny; Yusuf, Muhammad; Tri Wulandari, Hesti Retno; Arief, Falahuddin; Irfan, Muhammad; Puri Jatmiko, Agus Triono; Akbar, Evan Irawan; Sianturi, Hery Leo; Tanesib, Jehunias Leonidas; Warsito, Ali; Utama, Judhistira Aria

    2014-02-01

    We report the first measurements of radio frequency spectrum occupancy performed at sites aimed to host the future radio astronomy observatory in Indonesia. The survey is intended to obtain the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment in a spectral range from low frequency 10 MHz up to 8 GHz. The measurements permit the identification of the spectral occupancy over those selected sites in reference to the allocated radio spectrum in Indonesia. The sites are in close proximity to Australia, the future host of Square Kilometre Array (SKA) at low frequency. Therefore, the survey was deliberately made to approximately adhere the SKA protocol for RFI measurements, but with lower sensitivity. The RFI environment at Bosscha Observatory in Lembang was also measured for comparison. Within the sensitivity limit of the measurement equipment, it is found that a location called Fatumonas in the surrounding of Mount Timau in West Timor has very low level of RFI, with a total spectrum occupancy in this measured frequency range being about 1 %, mostly found at low frequency below 20 MHz. More detailed measurements as well as a strategy for a radio quiet zone must be implemented in the near future.

  11. Thunderstorms and ground-based radio noise as observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) data were analyzed to determine the frequency dependence of HF terrestrial radio noise power. RAE observations of individual thunderstorms, mid-ocean areas, and specific geographic regions for which concommitant ground based measurements are available indicate that noise power is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency which conforms to expectations over the geographic locations and time periods investigated. In all cases investigated, active thunderstorm regions emit slightly higher power as contrasted to RAE observations of the region during meteorologically quiet periods. Noise levels are some 15 db higher than predicted values over mid-ocean, while in locations where ground based measurements are available a maximum deviation of 5 db occurs. Worldwide contour mapping of the noise power at 6000 km for five individual months and four observing frequencies, examples of which are given, indicate high noise levels over continental land masses with corresponding lower levels over ocean regions.

  12. Radio Jupiter after Voyager: An overview of the Planetary Radio Astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Jupiter's low frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is reviewed. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized following over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previous unrecognized emission components were discovered: broadband and narrow band kilometric emission and the lesser arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, which is believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequency time domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of Sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in suit measurements of the Io plasma torus hot to cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  13. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  14. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

  15. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

  16. Planetary radio astronomy observations from voyager 2 near saturn.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Romig, J H; Alexander, J K; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Aubier, M; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M

    1982-01-29

    Planetary radio astronomy measurements obtained by Voyager 2 near Saturn have added further evidence that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable because of Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably because of influences of the solar wind and Dione. The electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager 1 and attributed to emissions from the B ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and an episodic recurrence period of about 10 hours, but their occurrence frequency was only about 30 percent of that detected by Voyager 1. While crossing the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 Saturn radii, the spacecraft detected an intense noise event extending to above 1 megahertz and lasting about 150 seconds. The event is interpreted to be a consequence of the impact, vaporization, and ionization of charged, micrometer-size G ring particles distributed over a vertical thickness of about 1500 kilometers.

  17. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  18. Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2000-01-01

    This program entitled "Infrared Submillimeter and Radio Astronomy Research and Analysis Program" with NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC) was proposed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) to cover three years. Due to funding constraints only the first year installment of $18,436 was funded, but this funding was spread out over two years to try to maximize the benefit to the program. During the tenure of this contact, the investigators at the SAO, Drs. Wesley A. Traub and Nathaniel P. Carleton, worked with the investigators at ARC, Drs. Jesse Bregman and Fred Wittebom, on the following three main areas: 1. Rapid scanning SAO and ARC collaborated on purchasing and constructing a Rapid Scan Platform for the delay arm of the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. The Rapid Scan Platform was tested and improved by the addition of stiffening plates which eliminated a very small but noticeable bending of the metal platform at the micro-meter level. 2. Star tracking Bregman and Wittebom conducted a study of the IOTA CCD-based star tracker system, by constructing a device to simulate star motion having a specified frequency and amplitude of motion, and by examining the response of the tracker to this simulated star input. 3. Fringe tracking. ARC, and in particular Dr. Robert Mah, developed a fringe-packet tracking algorithm, based on data that Bregman and Witteborn obtained on IOTA. The algorithm was tested in the laboratory at ARC, and found to work well for both strong and weak fringes.

  19. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  20. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  1. Early Dutch radio astronomy (1940-1970) : the people and the politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbers, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Radio astronomy was born during the Second World War. The early post-war radio astronomy group in the Netherlands was one of the most important radio astronomy groups in the world. There are several reasons for this. Firstly: Dutch radio astronomers were trained as (optical) astronomers, while in most countries engineers and physicists with a background in wartime radar research were the first radio 'astronomers'. This was because radio telescopes shared the technology of wartime radar installations. Because Dutch astronomers were not familiar with the new kind of instrumentation, they had to conclude strategic alliances with industrial partners such as Philips, the PTT and the KNMI. These alliances would offer much more than merely technical know-how, which means that the disadvantage would prove to be an advantage in the end. Secondly: astronomy was still a very small-scale undertaking in the early post-war period. Even so, ZWO was still a very small organisation. The fact that so few people were involved meant that the impact of a personal network could be enormous. Thirdly: the Dutch post-war context was remarkably favourable to science: it was considered to be a key factor in the rebuilding of the country.

  2. Radio Jupiter after Voyager - An overview of the planetary radio astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is presented. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized, based on over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previously-unrecognized emission components have been discovered: broadband and narrow-band kilometric emission, and the lesser-arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter wavelength and hectometer wavelength emission, now believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequencytime domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of the sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in situ measurements of the Io plasma torus hot-to-cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  3. The Expanded VLA -- Opening New Frontiers in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, R. A.

    2000-12-01

    The Very Large Array remains the premier research telescope for astronomy in the wavelength range from 0.7 to 400 cm. But the productivity of the VLA is limited by the same 1980s technology that it had when commissioned in 1980. Since that time, new technologies have enabled vast improvements in radio telescope performance, particularly in the key areas of digital signal transport and digital signal processing. The Expanded VLA (EVLA) will revolutionize the capabilities of the Very Large Array by incorporating these modern technologies into the existing array and its sound infrastructure. All key observational capabilities of the array will be improved by a factor of ten or more. The key observational characteristics of the EVLA will include: (i) Complete frequency coverage from 1 to 50 GHz, with a possible low frequency extension to 300 MHz or lower, (i) Full polarization capability with bandwidth of up to 8 GHz, per polarization, (iii) A continuum sensitivity of ~ 1μ Jy between 2 and 40 GHz, (iv) A state-of-the-art 40-station correlator, providing 16384 channels over the full 16 GHz bandwidth, and up to 262144 channels at narrower bandwidths, and (v) An increase in resolution by a factor ~ 10 by addition of eight new antennas at distances of up to ~ 300 Km. The NRAO has prepared and submitted to the National Science Foundation a proposal to implement Phase I of the Expanded VLA Project. This phase will include all the components listed above except the increased resolution. The Phase I proposal is budgeted at \\76.2M, of which \\49.9M is for new NSF funding. The remainder will come from foreign contributions, and from redirected work of the existing staff. The proposed timescale for Phase I is nine years, with a start in 2001, although a shorter timescale, at somewhat lower cost, is both possible and preferred by the NRAO. Preparation of the Phase II proposal, which is primarily concerned with the increase in resolution, but may also include other desirable

  4. Investigation on the Frequency Allocation for Radio Astronomy at the L Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Z. Z.; Umar, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Rosli, Z.; Asanok, K.; Gasiprong, N.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the frequency allocation reserved for radio astronomy in the L band set by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is between 1400 and 1427 MHz, is reviewed. We argue that the nearby frequencies are still very important for radio astronomers on the ground by investigating radio objects (H i sources) around 1300-1500 MHz. The L-band window is separated into a group of four windows, namely 1400-1427 MHz (window A), 1380-1400 MHz (window B), 1350-1380 MHz (window C), and 1300-1350 MHz (window D). These windows are selected according to their redshifts from a rest frequency for hydrogen spectral line at 1420.4057 MHz. Radio objects up to z ≈ 0.1 or frequency down to 1300 MHz are examined. We argue that since window B has important radio objects within the four windows, this window should also be given to radio astronomy. They are galaxies, spiral galaxies, and galaxy clusters. This underlines the significance of window B for radio astronomers on the ground. By investigating the severeness of radio frequency interference (RFI) within these windows, we have determined that window B still has significant, consistent RFI. The main RFI sources in the four windows have also been identified. We also found that the Department of Civil Aviation of Malaysia is assigned a frequency range of 1215-1427 MHz, which is transmitted within the four windows and inside the protected frequency for radio astronomy. We also investigated the RFI in the four windows on proposed sites of future radio astronomy observatories in Malaysia and Thailand and found the two best sites as Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and Ubon Ratchathani, respectively. It has also been determined that RFI in window B increases with population density.

  5. The Birth and Development of Radio Astronomy Studies of the Sun at the Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol'kov, G. Y.

    The history of the organisation of the Department of Radio Astronomy at the Siberian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere and Radio-Wave Propagation (SibIZMIRAN) is described, together with the principles behind the construction of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope and the results of observations of the solar radio emission at decimetre wavelengths using this telescope.

  6. Advances in Detector Technology for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreight, Craig; Cheng, P. L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in semiconductor materials and processing technology has allowed the development of infrared detector arrays with unprecedented sensitivity, for imaging and spectroscopic applications in astronomy. The earlier discrete-detector approach has been replaced by large-element (up to 1024 x 1024 pixel), multiplexed devices. Progress has been made against a number of key limiting factors, such as quantum efficiency, noise, spectral response, linearity, and dark current. Future developments will focus on the need for even larger arrays, which operate at higher temperatures.

  7. Analysis of radio astronomy bands using CALLISTO spectrometer at Malaysia-UKM station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavvari, Azam; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Anwar, Radial; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Asillam, Mhd Fairos; Monstein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The e-CALLISTO system is a worldwide network that aims to observe solar radio emission for astronomical science. CALLISTO instruments have been deployed worldwide in various locations that together can provide continuous observation of the solar radio spectrum for 24 h per day year-round. Malaysia-UKM is a strategic equatorial location and can observe the Sun 12 h per day. This paper gives an overview of the spectrum allocation for radio astronomy, which falls in the specified operating frequency band of the CALLISTO spectrometer. The radio astronomy bands are analyzed at the Malaysia-UKM station according to the International Telecommunication Union recommendations. Some observational results are also presented in this paper.

  8. Millimeter wavelength spectroscopy of trace atmospheric constituents from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, G. R.; Irvine, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    The Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory system, located in western Massachusetts, is described. It is suggested that high sensitivity in the three-millimeter wavelength band facilitates detection and monitoring of a number of trace molecules in the earth's atmosphere as well as astonomical observation at radio wavelengths. Line formation and radiative transfer in the earth's atmosphere are discussed, and the receiver sensitivity is considered.

  9. Outer planets grand tours: Planetary radio astronomy team report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements related to scientific observations of planetary radio emissions during outer planets grand tours are discussed. Observations at low frequencies where non-thermal cooperative plasma phenomena play a major role are considered for determining dynamical processes and magnetic fields near a planet. Magnetic field measurements by spacecraft magnetometers, and by radio receivers in their harmonic modes are proposed for interpretation of planetary radio emission.

  10. Advanced components for spaceborne infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The need for improved cryogenic components to be used in future spaceborne infrared astronomy missions was identified. Improved low noise cryogenic amplifiers operated with infrared detectors, and better cryogenic actuators and motors with extremely low power dissipation are needed. The feasibility of achieving technological breakthroughs in both of these areas was studied. An improved silicon junction field effect transistor (JFET) could be developed if: (1) high purity silicon; (2) optimum dopants; and (3) very high doping levels are used. The feasibility of a simple stepper motor equipped with superconducting coils is demonstrated by construction of such a device based on a standard commercial motor. It is found that useful levels of torque at immeasurably low power levels were achieved. It is concluded that with modest development and optimization efforts, significant performance gains is possible for both cryogenic preamplifiers and superconducting motors and actuators.

  11. The First Steps of Radio Astronomy in Czestochowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosik, M.; Starzyński, S.; Szcześniak, M.; Szcześniak, R.; Ceglarek, A.

    2007-12-01

    In the paper, technical documentation and the principle of operation is presented. "KLAUDIA" radio telescope was built in Rabka in 2007 and it is used to receive secondary radio waves, emitted by the Earth's ionosphere at frequency of 40 kHz.

  12. Communicating astronomy in a small island state: The unique role of the Mauritius Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddul-Hauzaree, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Mauritius Radio Telescope (MRT) is a 2 km x 1 km T-shaped aperture synthesis array that can generate radio images of the southern sky at 151.6 MHz. The sky surveyed can be in the declination range of -70o to -10o. It is located at Bras d'Eau, northeast of Mauritius at latitude 20oS and longitude 60oE. The MRT is a joint project of the University of Mauritius, the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and the Raman Research Institute. One of the main objectives of the MRT is to generate public interest in astronomy. Thus, it is involved in a wide range of onsite outreach activities for young school children. More mature students visiting the telescope learn about sky observation with a radio telescope, get to explore some sets of data, interact with the scientific personnel, get the opportunity to have hands-on experience with image manipulation and can ask a lot of questions on astronomy. This poster gives an overview of the Mauritius Radio Telescope and the attempts of MRT ito communicate astronomy to students as a process and not just as a vast expanse of knowledge. The challenges and dilemmas faced by MRT in conveying astronomy to the general public in a small island state are investigated and presented.

  13. New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive

  14. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere are reported. Dramatic new information was obtained, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are outlined briefly.

  15. Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

  16. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near jupiter.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Pearce, J B; Riddle, A C; Alexander, J K; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Thieman, J R; Carr, T D; Gulkis, S; Boischot, A; Harvey, C C; Pedersen, B M

    1979-06-01

    We report results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. We obtained dramatic new information, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 megahertz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are out-lined briefly.

  17. Radio Astronomy Working Group for SEAAN and RFI Survey in INSTUN, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Rosli, Zulfazli; Malim, Siti Fatin Fathinah; Anim, Norsuzian Mohd

    2010-07-01

    The South East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) was established in 2006 at the Special Session of Astronomy for Developing World during the IAU General Assembly in Prague. It held its first meeting in 2007 at the Thai National Astronomy Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. It aims to establish effective mechanisms for nurturing and sharing the development and experiences in astronomy research and education among SEA countries. This working group has a main objective of putting South East Asia on the map of the global radio astronomy community. This paper will discuss the working group's short-term and long-term goals. This paper will also discuss the results of the latest Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) study in Malaysia, particularly the survey at Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN) in Perak. The RFI level at that site is measured at -94.312 (+/-0.999) dBm or 11.065 (+/-1.505) μV on average, which is considered quite well when compared to the best site in Malaysia, which is Langkawi (-100.352 +/-0.036) dBm or 2.192 lp+/-0.019) μV on average).

  18. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  19. Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The instrumentation of the RAE-2 spacecraft is described. The instruments include a pair of long travelling-wave antennas, a 37-m dipole, two radiometers making one frequency scan every 144 sec, and two rapid-sampling total-power burst receivers which cover the range from 0.025 to 13.1 MHz in 32 discrete steps. Effects of terrestrial noise on RAE-1 and RAE-2 observations are discussed, and it is noted that RAE-2 is uniquely capable of observing repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies. Some observational programs are briefly noted, including observations of the galactic background distribution, measurements of lunar occultations of solar radio bursts, and searches for more radio sources among the planets, galactic objects, and extragalactic sources.

  20. The renaissance of radio astronomy: towards the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I will give a brief overview of the largest radio telescope in the world, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The history of this instrument, its development as a huge international project, as well as its main scientific goals, will be summarised. I will then focus on a particular science case by presenting how the first phase of the SKA (SKA1), whose observations are expected to start in the early 2020's, will change our radio view of the largest gravitationally bound structures of the Universe: galaxy clusters.

  1. Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Novaco, J. C.; Grena, F. R.; Weber, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-2 spacecraft has been collecting radio astronomical measurements in the 25 kHz to 13 MHz frequency range from lunar orbit since June, 1973. A summary is given of the technical aspects of the program including the calibration, instrumentation and operation of the RAE-2 experiments. Performance of the experiments over the first 18 months of the flight is summarized and illustrated. Among the unique features of the RAE-2 is the capability to observe repeated lunar occultations of strong radio sources at very low frequencies.

  2. Space-based aperture array for ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Raj Thilak; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Bentum, Mark; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Belien, Frederik; Arts, Michel; Saks, Noah; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2016-02-01

    The past decade has seen the advent of various radio astronomy arrays, particularly for low-frequency observations below 100 MHz. These developments have been primarily driven by interesting and fundamental scientific questions, such as studying the dark ages and epoch of re-ionization, by detecting the highly red-shifted 21 cm line emission. However, Earth-based radio astronomy observations at frequencies below 30 MHz are severely restricted due to man-made interference, ionospheric distortion and almost complete non-transparency of the ionosphere below 10 MHz. Therefore, this narrow spectral band remains possibly the last unexplored frequency range in radio astronomy. A straightforward solution to study the universe at these frequencies is to deploy a space-based antenna array far away from Earths' ionosphere. In the past, such space-based radio astronomy studies were principally limited by technology and computing resources, however current processing and communication trends indicate otherwise. Furthermore, successful space-based missions which mapped the sky in this frequency regime, such as the lunar orbiter RAE-2, were restricted by very poor spatial resolution. Recently concluded studies, such as DARIS (Disturbuted Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) have shown the ready feasibility of a 9 satellite constellation using off the shelf components. The aim of this article is to discuss the current trends and technologies towards the feasibility of a space-based aperture array for astronomical observations in the Ultra-Long Wavelength (ULW) regime of greater than 10 m i.e., below 30 MHz. We briefly present the achievable science cases, and discuss the system design for selected scenarios such as extra-galactic surveys. An extensive discussion is presented on various sub-systems of the potential satellite array, such as radio astronomical antenna design, the on-board signal processing, communication architectures and joint space-time estimation of the

  3. The birthplace of planetary radio astronomy: The Seneca, Maryland observatory 50 years after Burke and Franklin's Jupiter radio emission discovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L. N.; Thieman, J. R.; Higgins, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    Burke and Franklin's discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter in 1955 effectively marked the birth of the field of planetary radio astronomy. The discovery was made near Seneca, Maryland using the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism/Carnegie Institution of Washington's Mills Cross Array. Fifty years later there is very little evidence of this 96-acre X-shaped array of dipoles still in existence, nor evidence of any of the other antennas used at this site. The site, now known as the McKee Besher Wildlife Management Area, is owned by the State of Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Radio Jove, a NASA/GSFC education and public outreach project, will recognize the 50th anniversary of this discovery through an historic reenactment using their receiver and dual-dipole array system. Our search through the DTM/CIW archives, our visit to the site to look for evidence of this array, and other efforts at commemorating this anniversary will be described.

  4. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  5. A New Approach to Interference Excision in Radio Astronomy: Real-Time Adaptive Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnbaum, Cecilia; Bradley, Richard F.

    1998-11-01

    Every year, an increasing amount of radio-frequency (RF) spectrum in the VHF, UHF, and microwave bands is being utilized to support new commercial and military ventures, and all have the potential to interfere with radio astronomy observations. Such services already cause problems for radio astronomy even in very remote observing sites, and the potential for this form of light pollution to grow is alarming. Preventive measures to eliminate interference through FCC legislation and ITU agreements can be effective; however, many times this approach is inadequate and interference excision at the receiver is necessary. Conventional techniques such as RF filters, RF shielding, and postprocessing of data have been only somewhat successful, but none has been sufficient. Adaptive interference cancellation is a real-time approach to interference excision that has not been used before in radio astronomy. We describe here, for the first time, adaptive interference cancellation in the context of radio astronomy instrumentation, and we present initial results for our prototype receiver. In the 1960s, analog adaptive interference cancelers were developed that obtain a high degree of cancellation in problems of radio communications and radar. However, analog systems lack the dynamic range, noised performance, and versatility required by radio astronomy. The concept of digital adaptive interference cancellation was introduced in the mid-1960s as a way to reduce unwanted noise in low-frequency (audio) systems. Examples of such systems include the canceling of maternal ECG in fetal electrocardiography and the reduction of engine noise in the passenger compartments of automobiles. These audio-frequency applications require bandwidths of only a few tens of kilohertz. Only recently has high-speed digital filter technology made high dynamic range adaptive canceling possible in a bandwidth as large as a few megahertz, finally opening the door to application in radio astronomy. We have

  6. A very low frequency radio astronomy observatory on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, James N.; Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    Because of terrestrial ionospheric absorption, very little is known of the radio sky beyond 10 m wavelength. An extremely simple, low cost very low frequency radio telescope is proposed, consisting of a large array of short wires laid on the lunar surface, each wire equipped with an amplifier and a digitizer, and connected to a common computer. The telescope could do simultaneous multifrequency observations of much of the visible sky with high resolution in the 10 to 100 m wavelength range, and with lower resolution in the 100 to 1000 m range. It would explore structure and spectra of galactic and extragalactic point sources, objects, and clouds, and would produce detailed quasi-three-dimensional mapping of interstellar matter within several thousand parsecs of the Sun.

  7. The time resolution domain of stellar radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J.

    1985-01-01

    The high time resolution (HTR) radio observation of late-type stars and RS CVn systems is discussed. Some examples of these sources are addressed, identifying what information HTR observations can provide. HTR can provide important information on flares in late-type stars, and can be used to study coronal structure and the particle acceleration mechanism in these stars. The possible use of HTR to establish the nature of quiescent emission form RS CVn systems is discussed.

  8. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations. (GHT)

  9. Information Telecommunications of Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumsky, V.; Isaev, E. A.; Samodurov, V. A.; Likhachev, S. F.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Zaytcev, A. Yu.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Kornilov, V. V.

    Buffer data center was created in the territory of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory three years ago. The necessity of its creation was caused by the high requirements to the speed and quality of the transmission large amounts of scientific and telemetry data received by tracking station RT-22 from the space radio telescope of the international project "Radioastron". The transfer of this data is carried out over a long distance over 100 km from the Pushchino to Moscow center of processing and storage ASC FIAN. And now we use the data center as a center of local network of the Observatory.

  10. Planetary Radio Astronomy: The 60 Years from Burke and Franklin to ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    For nearly 60 years, radio astronomy has played a major role in the characterization and monitoring of thermal structure, composition, and temporal changes of the planets and small bodies in our solar system. At this, the 60th anniversary of the initial detection of radio emission by a planet, the role radio astronomy has played in the early characterization of solar system objects, in raising basic scientific questions and motivating planetary exploration missions, and in providing insight into the structure and temporal variations of planets is explored. The evolution of the instrumentation capabilities from crude total-power, or bolometric measurements averaged over an entire planetary disk to today's instrumentation providing radio images of planets and comets with high spectral resolution is also discussed. Major developments such as precise total-power calibration, ultra-large apertures, microwave and millimeter-wave array technology, and supporting laboratory spectroscopy have played major roles in enhancing the effectiveness of radio astronomical observations. The newest generation instruments such as the upgraded Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Altacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now usher in a whole new level of capability in observation of solar system objects.

  11. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  12. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  13. Scientific Visualization of Radio Astronomy Data using Gesture Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.

    2015-09-01

    MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.

  14. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  15. Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  16. Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S. K.; Brown, J.

    2003-12-01

    Radio Frequency Interference: Projects and Activities Developed for the High School Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Classroom Susan Dunn Tewksbury Memorial High School Jason Brown Tyngsboro High School Preethi Pratap MIT Haystack Observatory The Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program, funded by the NSF, brings teachers into research environments to interact with scientists and translate the experience into the classroom. We will describe a RET experience at the MIT Haystack Observatory which involved using an AR3000A communications receiver and a discone antenna as the basis for an Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics classroom unit. The projects and activities in this unit were developed to help foster student learning and understanding of radio astronomy, the electromagnetic spectrum, wave dynamics, signal propagation, meteor detection, and radio frequency interference. Additionally, this RET project utilizes the SEARFE (Students Examining Australia???s Radio Frequency Environment) software developed for use with the AR3000A communications receiver to scan and monitor frequencies across the radio bandwidth to determine areas of low and high usage in the radio spectrum. Classroom activities include Scanning Protected Radio Astronomy Bandwidths, Investigating the Radio Environment, Time Variation of Signal Strength, Signal Strength vs. Location Studies, Detecting Meteors using the AR300A Receiver, Mapping the RFI Environment of Your School, AM Radio Interference, and Signal Propagation Effects. The primary focus of the unit???s activities is to address the Massachusetts State Science Frameworks for electromagnetic radiation, waves, cosmology, and matter and energy in the Earth system and foster an understanding of how everyday communications devices may cause radio frequency interference with sensitive radio astronomy equipment. The projects and activities in the unit will be used in the classroom, amended, and the results of the classroom

  17. PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.

  18. Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia

    1992-01-01

    An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.

  19. Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

  20. Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 6: The Multi-element Grating Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, Monique; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, Andre

    2011-03-01

    After constructing a number of simple antennas for solar work at Nangay field station, during the second half of the 1950s and through into the 1960s radio astronomers from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) erected five different innovative multi-element arrays. Three of these operated at 169 MHz, a fourth at 408 MHz and the fifth array at 9,300 MHz. While all of these radio telescopes were used for solar research, one of the 169 MHz arrays was used mainly for galactic and extra-galactic research. In this paper we discuss these arrays and summarise the science that was achieved with them during this important period in the development of French radio astronomy.

  1. National Radio Astronomy Observatory Announces Closure of Millimeter-Wave Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will close down its millimeter-wavelength telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona, in July 2000, Director Paul Vanden Bout announced today. The closure will affect the activities of 24 NRAO employees. The Arizona telescope, known as the 12 Meter Telescope because of the diameter of its dish antenna, is the only millimeter-wavelength instrument in the U.S. that is operated full-time as a national facility, open to all scientists. The action was made necessary by the current and anticipated budget for the Observatory, Vanden Bout said. "We are forced to reduce the scope of our activities," Vanden Bout said. The NRAO also operates the Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array from its facilities in New Mexico and is completing construction of the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. The 12 Meter Telescope is used to observe electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths of a few millimeters down to one millimeter, a region that lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared radiation. The NRAO is currently participating in an international partnership to develop the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), an array of 64 antennas to observe at millimeter wavelengths from a 16,500-foot-high location in northern Chile. "We understood that ALMA eventually would replace the 12 Meter Telescope, but we had hoped to continue operating the 12 Meter until ALMA began interim operations, probably sometime in 2005. That is not possible, and we are forced to close the 12 Meter this year," Vanden Bout said. More than 150 scientists use the 12 Meter Telescope for their research every year. The NRAO's Tucson-based employees have been notified of the Observatory's decision. Some of the NRAO employees in Tucson already are working on the ALMA project. Over the next few months, the NRAO will seek to transfer 12 Meter staff to the ALMA project or to other positions within the Observatory, where that is possible. Where

  2. Pulsars in a Box: A Radio Astronomy Exercise for Windows from PROJECT CLEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Snyder, G. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1996-12-01

    The latest astronomy laboratory exercise from PROJECT CLEA, "Radio Astronomy of Pulsars", is designed for use in introductory astronomy classes, but contains options and features that make it usable by upperclass astronomy students as well. The heart of the exercise is a simulated radio telescope, whose aperture, location, and beamwidth can be set by the instructor. It is steered by pushing buttons, but instead of seeing a star field on the field monitor,students see a projection of the sky showing, with a colored dot,where the beam is pointing. Large LED-like readouts display time and telescope coordinates. The telescope can be operated in either a tracking or transit mode. Using the telescope, students point to several pulsars suggested by the write-up (from an on-line catalog of over 500). Students can then use a multi-channel tunable receiver, with multiple oscilloscope displays, to view the incoming signal vs. time. The signal received is a combination of random receiver and background noise plus the pulsar signal (if it is in the beam) Receivers are tunable from 400 to 1400 MHz, and both the time and frequency behavior of signals can be studied. By measuring the dispersion delay at a number of different frequencies, students can determine the pulsar's distance. Data can be stored, displayed, and printed using a versatile measuring window. Though we provide a manual for a 2-3 hour lab exercise involving dispersion measures, the database and receivers can be used for a wide variety of other exercises, for instance the measurement of pulsar spin-down rates. We welcome suggestions for improvements and applications.

  3. Panoramic attitude sensor for Radio Astronomy Explorer B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrument system to acquire attitude determination data for the RAE-B spacecraft was designed and built. The system consists of an electronics module and two optical scanner heads. Each scanner head has an optical scanner with a field of view of 0.7 degrees diameter which scans the sky and measures the position of the moon, earth and sun relative to the spacecraft. This scanning is accomplished in either of two modes. When the spacecraft is spinning, the scanner operates in spherical mode, with the spacecraft spin providing the slow sweep of lattitude to scan the entire sky. After the spacecraft is placed in lunar orbit and despun, the scanner will operate in planar mode, advancing at a rate of 5.12 seconds per revolution in a fixed plane parallel to the spacecraft Z axis. This scan will cross and measure the moon horizons with every revolution. Each scanner head also has a sun slit which is aligned parallel to the spin axis of the spacecraft and which provides a sun pulse each revolution of the spacecraft. The electronics module provides the command and control, data processing and housekeeping functions.

  4. NASA IDEAS EPO Support of the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, M.; Daugherty, J.; Moffett, D.; Case, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was awarded a STScI IDEAS Program grant to develop the School of Galactic Radio Astronomy (SGRA). SGRA enhances education of science, mathematics, and technology of students in grades 8-12. The purpose of SGRA is to teach the basics of scientific inquiry, which includes methodology, critical thinking, and communication of the results. To facilitate the excitement of science and discovery, teachers and students use the PARI 4.6m ``Smiley" radio telescope via the Internet. The IDEAS grant supported the development of the science curriculum and labs that use the 4.6m radio telescope, teacher workshops, and high speed internet service necessary for remote access to the radio telescope. Partnerships with Brevard High School , Furman University, and the University of North Carolina-Asheville have proven important to the success of the program. In addition, the IDEAS grant was important in our success in acquiring grants from the foundations at Z. Smith Reynolds and Progress Energy, a AAS Small Grant, and a STScI HST/EPO award to further enhance and continue the SGRA Program. More than 100 teachers are now involved in SGRA. To increase awareness of SGRA, we have presented the program at meetings of the AAS, North Carolina Science Teachers Association, the North Carolina Science Museum, and Pisgah Forest Institute summer workshops. Our experience in writing and carrying out the program, along with the NASA components in the program, teachers' comments, and lessons learned, will be presented. We are extremely grateful to the IDEAS Grant Program for helping PARI initiate and develop an exciting program of hands-on Internet radio astronomy from high school classrooms.

  5. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  6. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  7. Tectonic motion site survey of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Allenby, R. J.; Hutton, L. K.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Tiedemann, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    A geological and geophysical site survey was made of the area around the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) to determine whether there are at present local tectonic movements that could introduce significant errors to Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) geodetic measurements. The site survey consisted of a literature search, photogeologic mapping with Landsat and Skylab photographs, a field reconnaissance, and installation of a seismometer at the NRAO. It is concluded that local tectonic movement will not contribute significantly to VLBI errors. It is recommended that similar site surveys be made of all locations used for VLBI or laser ranging.

  8. Mogadoc - a Personal Computer Database for Atmospheric and Interstellar Molecules in Microwave Spectroscopy and Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.

    1992-03-01

    MOGADOC is a comprehensive database for gas-phase molecules, investigated by microwave spectroscopy, radio astronomy and electron diffraction. It contains data on electrical, magnetic, dynamical and spectroscopic properties of inorganic, organic and organometallic compounds in the gas phase. As a special feature the in-house database, which can be run on a personal computer by means of the well known Messenger retrieval language, contains numerical data sets for structural parameters such as internuclear distances and bond angles. Key words: INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES - MOLECULAR PROCESSES - RADIOSOURCES: SPECTRA

  9. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  10. Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    , problems of linking positions from one observing session to another can be avoided, the astronomers say. The result will be a much stronger, more precise, reference grid. Telescopes in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, Antarctica, and in the Pacific will participate. Improving the celestial positional grid will allow astronomers better to pinpoint the locations and measure the motions of objects in the sky. As astronomers increasingly study objects using multiple telescopes observing at different wavelengths, such as visible light, radio, infrared, etc., the improved positional grid will allow more accurate overlaying of the different images. The improved celestial reference frame also strengthens a terrestrial reference frame used for radio-telescope measurements that contribute to geophysical research. The precise geodetic measurements help geophysicists understand phenomena such as plate tectonics, earth tides, and processes that affect our planet's orientation in space. The VLBA is a continent-wide radio telescope system with 10, 240-ton dish antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. Operated from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, the VLBA offers the greatest resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in astronomy. The multi-telescope observation will be accompanied by public-outreach activities in celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. A public web page devoted to the observation will be hosted at Bordeaux Observatory, and some of the participating telescopes will have webcams available.

  11. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Use of the Tidbinbilla Interferometer to refine the source positions in the Parkes 2.7 GHz survey of the southern sky is described. A result of the first phase of this work was the identification of a quasi-stellar object which appears to be the most remote object yet observed. This object has a red shift of 3.78 (PKS 2000-330, and a velocity of recession equal to 91% of that light. Based on Hubble's law, PKS 2000-330 appears to be 12 billion light years away.

  12. Radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, R. D.; Mccluskey, J. T.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Kuiper, T.

    1981-01-01

    A K-band reflected-wave ruby maser was used on the 64-meter (DSS-43) antenna at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra, Australia. Spectral line observations were carried out near 22 GHz for water vapor sources and near 24 GHz for ammonia sources. The water vapor observations were made in the direction of known southern OH and H2O maser sources. All of the previously detected water line sources examined were detected. In addition, two new water vapor maser sources were discovered, G301.1+1.1and G308.9+0.1. The spectrum of G301.0+1.1 is presented six ammonia sources were found: G291.3-0.7, G305.4+0.2, G322.2+0.6, G327.3-0.5, G333.6-0.2, and G268.4-0.8. Spectra of two of these sources, G291.3-0.7 (RCW 57) and G305.4+0.2, are presented. Both show clearly the presence of the quadrupole splitting satellite lines that will allow the determination of NH3 optical depths in these clouds.

  13. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  14. A New Geodetic Research Data Management System at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, G. L.; Botha, R. C.; Combrinck, L.; Fourie, S. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) hosts two research programmes: radio astronomy and space geodesy. The Space Geodesy programme has four main co-located space geodetic techniques, making HartRAO a true fiducial site. The HartRAO Space Geodesy Programme is expanding its geodetic techniques to include Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) as well as a network of seismometers, accelerometers, tide gauges, and gravimeters. These instruments will be installed across the southern African region and will generate large volumes of data that will be streamed to and stored at HartRAO. Our objective is to implement a complete Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS) to handle all HartRAO's geodetic data on-site in terms of archiving, indexing, processing, and extraction. These datasets and subsequent data products will be accessible to both the scientific community and general public through an intuitive and easy to use web-based front-end. As the first step in this process, we are currently working on establishing a new data centre. This opens up the possibility for the librarian to provide data services and support by working together with researchers and information technology staff. We discuss the rationale, role players and top-level system design of this GRDMS, as well as the current status and planned products thereof.

  15. Development of a Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingala, Dominique Guelord Kumamputu

    2015-03-01

    This dissertation describes the development and construction of the Multi-frequency Interferometer Telescope for Radio Astronomy (MITRA) at the Durban University of Technology. The MITRA station consists of 2 antenna arrays separated by a baseline distance of 8 m. Each array consists of 8 Log-Periodic Dipole Antennas (LPDAs) operating from 200 MHz to 800 MHz. The design and construction of the LPDA antenna and receiver system is described. The receiver topology provides an equivalent noise temperature of 113.1 K and 55.1 dB of gain. The Intermediate Frequency (IF) stage was designed to produce a fixed IF frequency of 800 MHz. The digital Back-End and correlator were implemented using a low cost Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform and Gnu-Radio software. Gnu-Octave was used for data analysis to generate the relevant received signal parameters including total power, real, and imaginary, magnitude and phase components. Measured results show that interference fringes were successfully detected within the bandwidth of the receiver using a Radio Frequency (RF) generator as a simulated source. This research was presented at the IEEE Africon 2013 / URSI Session Mauritius, and published in the proceedings.

  16. ASTRONOMY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON ASTRONOMY ESTABLISHES (1) UNDERSTANDINGS AND ATTITUDES, (2) SKILLS, AND (3) CONCEPTS TO BE GAINED IN THE STUDY. THE OVERVIEW EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UNIT. TOPICAL DIVISIONS ARE (1) THE EARTH, (2) THE MOON, (3) THE SUN, (4) THE SOLAR SYSTEM, (5) THE STARS, (6) THE UNIVERSE, AND (7) SPACE…

  17. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  18. Calibration of a cylindrical RF capacitance probe. [for ionospheric plasma effects on Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, S. R.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient electron concentrations derived from observations with the Radio Astronomy Explorer 1 antenna capacitance probe have been compared with upper hybrid resonance measurements from the same spacecraft. From this comparison an empirical correction factor for the capacitance probe measurements has been derived. The differences between the two types of measurements is attributed to sheath effects.

  19. New Astronomy from the Moon: a Lunar Based Very-Low Frequency Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuki D.

    2002-01-01

    Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the universe, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. Such a project will utilize the same transportation, communication, and power systems required for further exploration of the Moon. The lunar surface provides unique advantages for astronomy, even compared to orbits or Lagrange points. It is a large and stable platform that can shield unwanted radiation and that will be easily accessible once a lunar base is established. Astronomy from the Moon has been advocated since at least the mid-1960s. The most seriously investigated concept has always been a very-low- frequency (VLF) array on the lunar far side for mainly three reasons. First, the very low frequencies below ~30 MHz is the last window in the electromagnetic spectrum yet to be explored in astronomy, giving us good reasons to anticipate unexpected discoveries. Second, because of E a r t h ' s significant radio interference, the lunar far side may well be the only site accessible that enables sensitive galactic / extra-galactic VLF observations. Finally, an array of short dipole antennas is one the most technologically feasible observatories to be placed and operated on the Moon. The motivations for a lunar based VLF array is detailed in the first section. The second section provides a review of the foregoing effort and a summary of the consensus to date. To make this dream into a reality, we identify the next required steps in the third section. We must f i r s t address any unresolved issues, especially concerning the lunar environmental factors like the ionosphere density. We should make the most out of the upcoming lunar missions by proposing relevant measurements. Most importantly, we should begin proposing our first array now. C o n s i d e r i n g the limited budget, the first realistic surface array will be deployed as a piggyback payload to early landers on the lunar south pole. The side of the Malapert

  20. Thunderstorms observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1 over regions of low man made noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I observations of thunderstorms over regions of low man-made noise levels are analyzed to assess the satellite's capability for noise source differentiation. The investigation of storms over Australia indicates that RAE can resolve noise generation due to thunderstorms from the general noise background over areas of low man-made noise activity. Noise temperatures observed by RAE over stormy regions are on the average 10DB higher than noise temperatures over the same regions in the absence of thunderstorms. In order to determine the extent of noise contamination due to distant transmitters comprehensive three dimensional computer ray tracings were generated. The results indicate that generally, distant transmitters contribute negligibly to the total noise power, being 30DB or more below contributions arriving from an area immediately below the satellite.

  1. Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Jonathan C.

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization

  2. Next Generation Very Large Array: Centimeter Radio Astronomy in the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Beasley, Anthony; Carilli, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the future scientific discovery and technical challenges for cm radio studies, presenting calculations and simulations of the science of a next generation VLA (ngVLA), an array with vastly improved resolution and sensitivity relative to ALMA and JVLA, operating from ~1 GHz to 115 GHz, with an enhanced ability to image thermal objects on milliarcsecond scales, spanning thermal and non-thermal radio astronomy and bridging SKA and ALMA capabilities.Key areas of astrophysics where ngVLA can make new contributions include:- Probing deep into dusty protoplanetary disks, revealing terrestrial planet formation on AU-scales — regions that are opaque at shorter wavelengths. Observations in this wavelength range are critically required to study the poorly understood growth of dust into rocks.- Providing a census and imaging at kpc-scale resolution, of the cool molecular gas in distant galaxies. The ngVLA will be able to observe the lower order molecular transitions in high redshift, normal star forming galaxies, a key diagnostic for understanding the fuel driving the star formation history of the Universe.- Enabling an unprecedented, wide field imaging capability for nearby galaxies, over the cm frequency range covering key astrochemical tracers, including both thermal/non-thermal radio continuum emission.- Exploring the otherwise-unobservable deep atmospheres of the giant planets. In addition, the subsurfaces of other solar system bodies (e.g. icy satellites, TNOs, comets, asteroids) can be probed via thermal emission and radar remote sensing.- Allowing major improvements in synoptic, astrometric and transient/time-domain measurements at cm wavelengths of a wide variety of active sources, including Fast Radio Bursts, AGNs, pulsars and x-ray binaries.Led by NRAO, work to address the technical challenges for the ngVLA is underway. Areas currently under investigation include: low cost antennas, ultra-wide band feeds and receivers, broad band data transmission, and

  3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory: The early history and development of the observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia, are reviewed.

    PubMed

    Emberson, R M

    1959-11-13

    The existence of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the researches already accomplished there are the result of the foresight and wisdom of United States scientists, the National Science Board, and the Congress, who joined forces to make possible this new national asset. Continued effort will be needed td insure that the observatory will always have the finest possible research instruments and that the site will be a haven of radio quiet. Visiting scientists in some instances may wish to bring equipment with them for studying special problems. Within its means, the observatory will provide supporting facilities, including receivers and other electronic devices, computers, laboratories and shops, and housing. Scientists interested in more details concerning arrangements for visitors should direct their inquiries to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P. O. Box 2, Green Bank, West Virginia.

  4. Analysis of the Capability and Limitations of Relativistic Gravity Measurements Using Radio Astronomy Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, I. I.; Counselman, C. C., III

    1975-01-01

    The uses of radar observations of planets and very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations of extragalactic objects to test theories of gravitation are described in detail with special emphasis on sources of error. The accuracy achievable in these tests with data already obtained, can be summarized in terms of: retardation of signal propagation (radar), deflection of radio waves (interferometry), advance of planetary perihelia (radar), gravitational quadrupole moment of sun (radar), and time variation of gravitational constant (radar). The analyses completed to date have yielded no significant disagreement with the predictions of general relativity.

  5. PULSE@Parkes, Engaging Students through Hands-On Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert; Hobbs, George; Shannon, Ryan M.; Kerr, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    PULSE@Parkes is an innovative, free educational program run by CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS) in which high school students use the 64m Parkes radio telescope remotely in real time to observe pulsars then analyse their data. The program caters for a range of student ability and introduces students to hands-on observing and radio astronomy. Students are guided by professional astronomers, educators and PhD students during an observing session. They have ample time to interact with the scientists and discuss astronomy, careers and general scientific questions. Students use a web-based module to analyse pulsar properties. All data from the program are streamed via a web browser and are freely available from the online archive and may be used for open-ended student investigations. The data are also used by the team for ongoing pulsar studies with two scientific papers published to date.Over 100 sessions have been held so far. Most sessions are held at CASS headquarters in Sydney, Australia but other sessions are regularly held in other states with partner institutions. The flexibility of the program means that it is also possible to run sessions in other countries. This aspect of the program is useful for demonstrating capability, engaging students in diverse settings and fostering collaborations. The use of Twitter (@pulseatparkes) during allows followers worldwide to participate and ask questions.Two tours of Japan plus sessions in the UK, Netherlands and Canada have reached a wide audience. Plans for collaborations in China are well underway with the possibility of use with other countries also being explored. The program has also been successfully used in helping to train international graduate students via the International Pulsar Timing Array Schools. We have identified strong demand and need for programs such as this for training undergraduate students in Asia and the North America in observing and data analysis techniques so one area of planned

  6. Designing a new Geodetic Research Data Management System for the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzer, Glend Lorraine

    2015-08-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) participates in astronomic, astrometric and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using both 26- and 15-m diameter radio telescopes. Geodetic data from a Satellite Laser Ranger (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Met4 weather stations and a new seismic vault network must be stored at HartRAO and made available to the scientific community. Some data are e-transferred to correlators, analysis centres and space geodesy data providers, while some data are processed locally to produce basic data products. The new South African co-located seismology network of seismic and GNSS instrumentation will generate large volumes of raw data to be stored and archived at HartRAO. The current data storage systems are distributed and outdated, and management systems currently being used will also not be able to handle the additional large volumes of data. This necessitates the design and implementation of a new, modern research data management system which combines all the datasets into one database, as well as cater for current and future data volume requirements. The librarian’s expertise and knowledge will be used in the design and implementation of the new HartRAO Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS). The librarian’s role and involvement in the design and implementation of the new GRDMS are presented here. Progress to date will also be discussed.

  7. Instrumental and Observational Studies in Radio Astronomy, Low Noise Amplifier Design and Methanol Maser Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.

    1998-10-01

    ``Radio astronomy is the study of the universe by observing electromagnetic radiation after it has been amplified. The use of amplifiers that preserve the oscillatory character of radiation - the phase information - is the mark of Radio astronomy.'' Thus, the development of low noise amplifiers for microwave and millimeter wavelengths is a major part of Radio astronomy as important as the observations themselves. This technical report involves those two aspects of Radio astronomy, the observational and technical aspects. In the first part, observations of methanol masers in massive star forming regions using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) are presented. The second part concerns the realization of low noise amplifiers using in a radio camera. Recent observations have confirmed that the methanol masers are powerful tools for probing the regions of massive star formation. The methanol masers fall in two distinct classes related to their location in the star forming regions. Class I methanol masers are observed offset far away from the UC HII region emission peak. They are certainly collisionally pumped and may occur in the interface between high velocity gas outflows and the ambient molecular material. Class II methanol masers coincide with the UC HII region emission. They may be radiatively pumped by FIR radiation from the dust grains and reside either in spherical layers surrounding the UC HII regions or in circumstellar discs. The maser spots are usually compact (~1-10 AU) and lie in region of physical conditions n(H)~104-108 cm-3 and T=100-1000 K. CH3OH may be produced by hydrogenation of CO on the surface of the icy mantles of the dust grains . The methanol is then injected in the molecular gas by evaporation of the ice (n(H)=106 cm-3, T=100-300 K). In this report we present VLBI observations of 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers in the star forming regions NGC7538, W75N and S252. Our results show the existence of two groups of masers in NGC7538. The

  8. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  9. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  10. Applicability of radio astronomy techniques to the processing and interpretation of aperture synthesis passive millimetre-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Salmon, Neil A.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2012-06-01

    This PhD programme is contributing to the development of Passive Millimetre-Wave Imagers (PMMWI) using the principles of interferometric aperture synthesis and digital signal processing. The principal applications are security screening, all-weather flight aids and earth observation. To enhance the cost-effectiveness of PMMWI systems the number of collecting elements must be minimised whilst maintaining adequate image fidelity. A wide range of techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community for improving the fidelity of sparse interferometric array imagery. This paper brings to the attention of readers these techniques and discusses how they may be applied to imaging using software packages publicly available from the radio astronomy community. The intention of future work is to adapt these algorithms to process experimental data from a range of realistic simulations and real-world targets.

  11. The radio astronomy experiment on Helios A and B /E 5c/. [using dipole antenna-preamplifier-radiometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center radio astronomy experiment on Helios, identified as Experiment 5c, has sixteen observing frequencies over the range of 26.5 to 3000 kHz. The antenna consists of two extendible 15-m booms, forming an electric dipole, two high-impedance preamplifiers located at the root of the booms, and the 16-channel radiometer. Important information about propagation conditions, such as absorption, scattering and refraction, are expected from observations of radio emission regions at distances between 1 and 0,3 AU.

  12. FANATIC: an SIS radiometer for radio astronomy from 660 to 695 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Genzel, R.; Plathner, B.; Gundlach, K.-H.

    1994-09-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 695 GHz (lambda 455 - 432 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 h nu/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlO(x)/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn approximately 10 Ohm, an area of approximately 2 sq micron, an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a lambda/4 transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  13. FANATIC: An SIS Radiometer for Radio Astronomy in the 660-690 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. I.; Schuster, K.-F.; Gundlach, K.-H.; Plathner, B.

    1994-05-01

    FANATIC is a compact radiometer optimized for radio astronomy from about 660 to 690 GHz (455-435 micron). We observed a large number of molecular and atomic spectral lines from galactic and extragalactic sources during FANATIC's first run on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in early March 1994. Double sideband receiver temperatures during observations were about 800 K (25 hv/k). The heart of the receiver is a two-junction Nb/AlOx/Nb SIS array fed by a sandwiched V-Antenna. The junction array and antenna are fabricated together at IRAM's Grenoble SIS laboratory. Each junction has a normal resistance of Rn~10 ohm, an area of ~2 um^2 , an individual radial stub circuit to resonate the capacitance, and a 1/4-wavelength transformer to match to the antenna. The solid-state local oscillator is a mm-wave Gunn oscillator followed by a doubler and tripler. The LO diplexer is a Martin-Puplett interferometer, which insures that there is always abundant LO power for operation and speedy tuning. The receiver and telescope coupling optics, LO, dewar, and calibration system fit on an 0.6 x 0.8 m optical breadboard.

  14. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  15. The Evolution of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory into a User Based Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.; Bouton, E.

    2006-12-01

    The NRAO was conceived in the mid 1950s as a state-of-the-art facility to allow the United States to compete in the exciting radio astronomy discoveries then taking place in the U.K., the Netherlands and Australia. Otto Struve, the first NRAO director in Green Bank, was chosen to lead the Observatory research program. During Struve's tenure as director, nearly all of the research was carried out by NRAO staff members resident at the Green Bank Observatory. However, under Dave Heeschen, who served as NRAO Director from 1961 to 1978, the number of visitor programs gradually increased; the NRAO scientific staff become more involved in visitor support than in doing their own research, and users became more dependent on instruments and techniques developed by NRAO, often not even coming to the Observatory for their observations. Currently, about half of the observing time on NRAO facilities is allocated to observers from foreign institutions -institutions with which NRAO was built to compete.

  16. Investigation of radio astronomy image processing techniques for use in the passive millimetre-wave security screening environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Christopher T.; Hutchinson, Simon; Salmon, Neil A.; Wilkinson, Peter N.; Cameron, Colin D.

    2014-06-01

    Image processing techniques can be used to improve the cost-effectiveness of future interferometric Passive MilliMetre Wave (PMMW) imagers. The implementation of such techniques will allow for a reduction in the number of collecting elements whilst ensuring adequate image fidelity is maintained. Various techniques have been developed by the radio astronomy community to enhance the imaging capability of sparse interferometric arrays. The most prominent are Multi- Frequency Synthesis (MFS) and non-linear deconvolution algorithms, such as the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and variations of the CLEAN algorithm. This investigation focuses on the implementation of these methods in the defacto standard for radio astronomy image processing, the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package, building upon the discussion presented in Taylor et al., SPIE 8362-0F. We describe the image conversion process into a CASA suitable format, followed by a series of simulations that exploit the highlighted deconvolution and MFS algorithms assuming far-field imagery. The primary target application used for this investigation is an outdoor security scanner for soft-sided Heavy Goods Vehicles. A quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of the aforementioned image processing techniques is presented, with thoughts on the potential cost-savings such an approach could yield. Consideration is also given to how the implementation of these techniques in CASA might be adapted to operate in a near-field target environment. This may enable a much wider usability by the imaging community outside of radio astronomy and thus would be directly relevant to portal screening security systems in the microwave and millimetre wave bands.

  17. Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

    Traditionally, radio astronomy receivers have been limited to bandwidths less than an octave, and as a result multiple feeds and receivers are necessary to observe over a wide bandwidth. Next generation of instruments for radio astronomy will benefit greatly from reflector antenna feeds that demonstrate very wide instantaneous bandwidth, and exhibit low noise behavior. There is an increasing interest in wideband systems from both the cost and science point of view. A wideband feed will allow simultaneous observations or sweeps over a decade or more bandwidth. Instantaneous wide bandwidth is necessary for detection of short duration pulses. Future telescopes like square kilometer array (SKA), consisting of 2000 to 3000 coherently connected antennas and covering a frequency range of 70 MHz to 30 GHz, will need decade bandwidth single pixel feeds (SPFs) along with integrated LNAs to achieve the scientific objectives in a cost effective way. This dissertation focuses on the design and measurement of a novel decade bandwidth sinuous-type, dual linear polarized, fixed phase center, low loss feed with an integrated LNA. A decade bandwidth, low noise amplifier is specially designed for noise match to the higher terminal impedance encountered by this antenna yielding an improved sensitivity over what is possible with conventional 50 O amplifiers. The self-complementary, frequency independent nature of the planar sinuous geometry results in a nearly constant beam pattern and fixed phase center over more than a 10:1 operating frequency range. In order to eliminate the back-lobe response over such a wide frequency range, we have projected the sinuous pattern onto a cone, and a ground plane is placed directly behind the cone's apex. This inverted, conical geometry assures wide bandwidth operation by locating each sinuous resonator a quarter wavelength above the ground plane. The presence of a ground plane near a self complementary antenna destroys the self complementary nature

  18. Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed

  19. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter; Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei; Chen, Kevin; Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B.; Gough, Jonathan D.; Kanner, Jonah; Kavic, Michael

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  20. Multi-messenger astronomy of gravitational-wave sources with flexible wide-area radio transient surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Cregg C. Yancey, Brandon E. Bear, Bernadine Akukwe, Kevin Chen, Jayce Dowell, Jonathan D. Gough, Jonah Kanner, Kenneth Obenberger, Peter Shawhan, John H. Simonetti , Gregory B. Taylor , Jr-Wei Tsai

    2016-01-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg(2) sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  1. Multi-messenger Astronomy of Gravitational-wave Sources with Flexible Wide-area Radio Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Chen, Kevin; Dowell, Jayce; Gough, Jonathan D.; Kanner, Jonah; Kavic, Michael; Obenberger, Kenneth; Shawhan, Peter; Simonetti, John H.; -Wei Tsai, Gregory B. Taylor, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ˜30 s time window and ˜200-500 deg2 sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ˜2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  2. Astronomy for a Better World: IAU OAD Task Force-1 Programs for Advancing Astronomy Education and Research in Universities in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward; Kolenberg, Katrien

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the IAU Commission 46 and Office for Astronomy Development (OAD) programs that support advancing Astronomy education and research primarily in universities in developing countries. The bulk of these operational activities will be coordinated through the OAD's newly installed Task Force 1. We outline current (and future) IAU/OAD Task Force-1 programs that promote the development of University-level Astronomy at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Among current programs discussed are the past and future expanded activities of the International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA) and the Teaching Astronomy for Development (TAD) programs. The primary role of the ISYA program is the organization of a three week School for students for typically M.Sc. and Ph.D students. The ISYA is a very successful program that will now be offered more frequently through the generous support of the Kavli Foundation. The IAU/TAD program provides aid and resources for the development of teaching, education and research in Astronomy. The TAD program is dedicated to assist countries that have little or no astronomical activity, but that wish to develop or enhance Astronomy education. Over the last ten years, the ISYA and TAD programs have supported programs in Africa, Asia, Central America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, South East and West Asia, and South America. Several examples are given. Several new programs being considered by OAD Task Force-1 are also discussed. Other possible programs being considered are the introduction of modular Astronomy courses into the university curricula (or improve present courses) as well as providing access to ``remote learning`` courses and Virtual Astronomy labs in developing countries. Another possible new program would support visits of astronomers from technically advanced countries to spend their sabbatical leaves teaching and advising University Astronomy programs in developing countries. Suggestions for new Task Force -1

  3. Indexing data cubes for content-based searches in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Candia, G.; Gregorio, R.; Mendoza, M.; Solar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for observing space have changed profoundly in the past few decades. The methods needed to detect and record astronomical objects have shifted from conventional observations in the optical range to more sophisticated methods which permit the detection of not only the shape of an object but also the velocity and frequency of emissions in the millimeter-scale wavelength range and the chemical substances from which they originate. The consolidation of radio astronomy through a range of global-scale projects such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reinforces the need to develop better methods of data processing that can automatically detect regions of interest (ROIs) within data cubes (position-position-velocity), index them and facilitate subsequent searches via methods based on queries using spatial coordinates and/or velocity ranges. In this article, we present the development of an automatic system for indexing ROIs in data cubes that is capable of automatically detecting and recording ROIs while reducing the necessary storage space. The system is able to process data cubes containing megabytes of data in fractions of a second without human supervision, thus allowing it to be incorporated into a production line for displaying objects in a virtual observatory. We conducted a set of comprehensive experiments to illustrate how our system works. As a result, an index of 3% of the input size was stored in a spatial database, representing a compression ratio equal to 33:1 over an input of 20.875 GB, achieving an index of 773 MB approximately. On the other hand, a single query can be evaluated over our system in a fraction of second, showing that the indexing step works as a shock-absorber of the computational time involved in data cube processing. The system forms part of the Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), an initiative which belongs to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) that

  4. Advances in photographic X-ray imaging for solar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, D.; Schueller, R.; Waljeski, K.; Davis, J. M.

    1989-11-01

    The technique of obtaining quantitative data from high resolution soft X-ray photographic images produced by grazing incidence optics was successfully developed to a high degree during the AS&E Solar Research Sounding Rocket Program and the S-054 X-Ray Spectrographic Telescope Experiment Program on Skylab. Continued use of soft X-Ray photographic imaging in sounding rocket flights of the AS&E High Resolution Solar Soft X-Ray Imaging Payload has provided opportunities to further develop these techniques. The developments discussed include: (1) the calibration and use of an inexpensive, commercially available microprocessor controlled drum type film processor for photometric film development, (2) the use of Kodak Technical Pan 2415 film and Kodak SO-253 High Speed Holographic film for improved resolution, and (3) the application of a technique described by Cook, Ewing, and Sutton (1988) for determining the film characteristics curves from density histograms of the flight film. Although the superior sensitivity, noise level, and linearity of microchannel plate and CCD detectors attracts the development efforts of many groups working in soft X-ray imaging, the high spatial resolution and dynamic range as well as the reliability and ease of application of photographic media assures the continued use of these techniques in solar X-ray astronomy observations.

  5. Advances in photographic X-ray imaging for solar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. Daniel; Schueller, R.; Waljeski, K.; Davis, John M.

    1989-08-01

    The technique of obtaining quantitative data from high resolution soft X-ray photographic images produced by grazing incidence optics was successfully developed to a high degree during the Solar Research Sounding Rocket Program and the S-054 X-Ray Spectrographic Telescope Experiment Program on Skylab. Continued use of soft X-ray photographic imaging in sounding rocket flights of the High Resolution Solar Soft X-Ray Imaging Payload has provided opportunities to further develop these techniques. The developments discussed include: (1) The calibration and use of an inexpensive, commercially available microprocessor controlled drum type film processor for photometric film development; (2) The use of Kodak Technical Pan 2415 film and Kodak SO-253 High Speed Holographic film for improved resolution; and (3) The application of a technique described by Cook, Ewing, and Sutton for determining the film characteristics curves from density histograms of the flight film. Although the superior sensitivity, noise level, and linearity of microchannel plate and CCD detectors attracts the development efforts of many groups working in soft X-ray imaging, the high spatial resolution and dynamic range as well as the reliability and ease of application of photographic media assures the continued use of these techniques in solar X-ray astronomy observations.

  6. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  7. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination. PMID:27140543

  8. An antenna, a radio and a microprocessor: which kinds of observation are possible in meteor radio astronomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteors are usually investigated by professional radars. Amateur astronomers cannot have transmitters, so usually they can only listen to sounds generated by a radio tuned to a TV or military transmitter. Until recently, this kind of observation has not produced good data. The experience of "RAMBo" (Radar Astrofilo Meteorico Bolognese) shows which data can be extracted from an amateur meteor scatter observatory and the results which can be achieved.

  9. Development of Radio Astronomy at Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, Nsukka Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyu, Nasiru; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Lanre, Daniyan O.; Ezechi, Nwachukwu E.

    2015-08-01

    Radio telescopes for research, teaching and learning at Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) observatory are currently in place of development. A small parabolic radio telescope with diameter of 3.0 m working at 1420 MHz is already available for general purpose of radio astronomical observations. In addition, a Radio Jove telescope with dual dipole antenna working at 20 MHz and Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitor working at 24 KHz are also available. It is suitable to monitor daily solar burst, solar flares as well as Jupiter decametric emission. More over, CBSS radio interferometers are now under construction. It consists of non-tracking Radio Jove array and SID monitor as well as two radio telescope tracking interferometers. The latter is planned to utilize up to 4 antennas. Multi frequency receivers are made available at 24 KHz, 20 and 1420 MHz and will be used for VLBI in the near future.

  10. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  11. Cometary radio astronomy; Proceedings of the NRAO Workshop, Green Bank, WV, Sept. 24-26, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, W.M.; Schloerb, F.P.; Tacconi-Garman, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on the cometary plasma, near-nucleus observations of P/Halley, scintillations of four radio sources occulted by the plasma tail of Comet Halley, and modeling of the excitation of molecules at radio wavelengths and the thermodynamics of the coma. Also considered are observations of HCN in Comet Halley, the search for parent molecules, the search for molecules in Comet Halley at millimeter wavelengths, and the OH radio lines in comets. Other topics include OH radio observations of Comet Halley from the Southern Hemisphere, radio OH observations of P/Halley with the NRAO 43-m telescope, models of the OH 18-cm line profiles of Comet Halley, and the first radio images of OH emission from Comet Halley.

  12. The Contribution of the Division of Radiophysics Murraybank Field Station to International Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce

    During the 1950s Australia was one of the world's foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the work of the dynamic radio astronomy group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation's Division of Radiophysics. Most of the observations were made at the network of field stations maintained by the Division in or near Sydney, and one of these field stations was Murraybank in the north-western suburbs of Sydney. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the GalaxyThe Observatory7423311954Obs....74...23DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954a. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy. The Observatory, 74, 23-31. GVaucouleursDe1954The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, IIThe Observatory741581641954Obs....74..158DDe Vaucouleurs, G., 1954b. The Magellanic Clouds and the Galaxy, II. The Observatory, 74, 158-164. GVaucouleursDe1961Classification and radial velocities of bright southern galaxiesMemoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society68

  13. The history of early low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 4: Kerr, Shain, Higgins and the Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; George, Martin; Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Between 1949 and 1952 the CSIR's Division of Radiophysics was a world leader in low frequency radio astronomy, through research conducted mainly by Alex Shain and Charlie Higgins at their Hornsby Valley field station near Sydney. In this paper we discuss the personnel, radio telescopes and research programs (mainly conducted at 9.15 and 18.3 MHz) associated with the Hornsby Valley site.

  14. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 2: The solar eclipse observations of 1949-1954

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    During the 1940s and early 1950s radio astronomers from a number of nations used observations of total and partial solar eclipses to investigate the positions of radio-emitting regions and to determine the distribution of radio emission across the solar disk. Between 1949 and 1954 French radio astronomers from the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Institute of Astrophysics between them mounted four successful eclipse expeditions to Africa and northern Europe. This short paper lists the personnel involved, discusses their instrumentation, describes the observations made, and evaluates the significance of these observations in an international context.

  15. A Rooftop Radio Observatory: A New Method for Teaching Science Fundamentals to Advanced Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, C.; Cudaback, D.; Heiles, C.; Treffers, R.; Hancox, C.; Millan, R.; Parthasarathy, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports on an innovative teaching style for the instruction of advanced undergraduates in experimental science fundamentals. Working under the belief that a complete education includes both theoretical work and ``hands-on'' laboratory experience, a radio observatory has been created on top of the U. C. Berkeley Astronomy Department building. Class work with this observatory give students an understanding of: (1) components of a radio telescope system, (2) system operation and trouble-shooting, (3) observation strategies, (4) data collection and reduction, and (5) presentation and visualization of results. Our antenna consists of a two meter tall pyramidal horn optimized to observe the 21 cm atomic hydrogen transition. The receiver consists of a double-heterodyning system with a PC to sample and Fourier transform the signal and generate a power spectrum. System components were constructed by students with guidance from faculty members. Students using this system obtain power spectra representing the Doppler shifted HI line, as a function of galactic coordinate. Students derive results including basic galactic structure and rotation and mass curves. Further technical information is presented in the accompanying poster paper. Close contact between students and equipment is essential for successful comprehension of fundamental concepts. The system is constructed such that most components can be individually examined or assembled on a bench-top in a configuration the student wishes to explore. We believe that systems which perform real astronomy can be duplicated by other universities. The small scale of the antenna as well as the strength of the HI line require a small allocation of resources to implement an observation system. The ``hands-on'' approach compliments theoretical course work, in addition to providing practical experience for students who may not be inclined towards graduate school. Finally, this educational technique is exportable and

  16. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  17. System integration and radiation pattern measurements of a phased array antenna employing an integrated photonic beamformer for radio astronomy applications.

    PubMed

    Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Marpaung, David; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Maat, Peter; Dijkstra, Klaas; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, René

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe the system integration and the experimental demonstration of a photonically beamformed four-element receiving array antenna for radio astronomy applications. To our knowledge, the work described here is the first demonstration of the squint-free, continuously tunable beamsteering capability offered by an integrated photonic beamformer based on optical ring resonator true-time-delay units, with measured radiation patterns. The integrated beamformer is realized in a low loss, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible optical waveguide technology. The measurements show a wideband, continuous beamsteering operation over a steering angle of 23.5 degrees and an instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz limited only by the measurement setup.

  18. Radio Astronomy Tools in Python: Spectral-cube, pvextractor, and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, A.; Robitaille, T.; Beaumont, C.; Rosolowsky, E.; Leroy, A.; Brogan, C.; Hunter, T.; Teuben, P.; Brisbin, D.

    2015-12-01

    The radio-astro-tools organization has been established to facilitate development of radio and millimeter analysis tools by the scientific community. The first packages developed under its umbrella are: • The spectral-cube package, for reading, writing, and analyzing spectral data cubes • The pvextractor package for extracting position-velocity slices from position-position-velocity cubes along aribitrary paths • The radio-beam package to handle gaussian beams in the context of the astropy quantity and unit framework • casa-python to enable installation of these packages - and any other - into users' CASA environments without conflicting with the underlying CASA package. Community input in the form of code contributions, suggestions, questions and commments is welcome on all of these tools. They can all be found at http://radio-astro-tools.github.io.

  19. The Astronomical Low Frequency Array: A Proposed Explorer Mission for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D.; Allen, R.; Basart, J.; Bastian, T.; Bougeret, J. L.; Dennison, B.; Desch, M.; Dwarakanath, K.; Erickson, W.; Finley, D.; Kaiser, M.; Kassim, N.; Kuiper, T.; MacDowall, R.; Mahoney, M.; Perley, R.; Preston, R.; Reiner, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Stone, R.; Unwin, S.; Weiler, K.; Woan, G.; Woo, R.

    1999-01-01

    A radio interferometer array in space providing high dynamic range images with unprecedented angular resolution over the broad frequency range from 0.030 - 30 MHz will open new vistas in solar, terrestial, galactic, and extragalactic astrophysics.

  20. Source counts at 5 gigahertz from the MG survey. [radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Burke, B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The MIT-Green Bank (MG) radio survey (reported by Bennett and colleagues in 1984 and 1985) is the largest 5 GHz survey to date. In this paper the source counts from the MG survey are examined. They are consistent with past measurements, but due to the large size of the MG survey the Poisson errors have been reduced. Radio source evolution models (such as that reported by Condon in 1984) are consistent with these new measurements.

  1. A 5 Giga Samples Per Second 8-Bit Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Homin; Liu, Howard; Guzzino, Kim; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Chang, Ray; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2014-08-01

    We have designed, manufactured, and characterized an 8-bit 5 Giga samples per second (Gsps) ADC printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). An e2v EV8AQ160 ADC chip was used in the design and the board is plug compatible with the field programmable gate array (FPGA) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) community. Astronomical interference fringes were demonstrated across a single baseline pair of antennas using two ADC boards on the Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) telescope. Several radio interferometers are using this board for bandwidth expansion, such as Submillimeter Array; also, several experimental telescopes are building new spectrometers using the same board. The ADC boards were attached directly to the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH-2) FPGA board for processing of the digital output signals. This ADC board provides the capability of digitizing radio frequency signals from DC to 2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth), and to an extended bandwidth of 2.5 GHz (5 dB) with derated performance. The following worst-case performance parameters were obtained over 2 GHz: spur free dynamic range (SFDR) of 44 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) of 35 dB, and effective number of bits (ENOB) of 5.5.

  2. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  3. Precise Radio-Telescope Measurements Advance Frontier Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    extremely precise measurements, the scientists turned to the VLBA, a continent-wide system of radio telescopes ranging from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. The VLBA offers the power to make the most accurate position measurements in the sky and the most detailed images of any astronomical instrument available. The researchers made their observations as the Sun passed nearly in front of four distant quasars -- faraway galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores -- in October of 2005. The Sun's gravity caused slight changes in the apparent positions of the quasars because it deflected the radio waves coming from the more-distant objects. The result was a measured value of gamma of 0.9998 +/- 0.0003, in excellent agreement with Einstein's prediction of 1.0. "With more observations like ours, in addition to complementary measurements such as those made with NASA's Cassini spacecraft, we can improve the accuracy of this measurement by at least a factor of four, to provide the best measurement ever of gamma," said Edward Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Since gamma is a fundamental parameter of gravitational theories, its measurement using different observational methods is crucial to obtain a value that is supported by the physics community," Fomalont added. Kopeikin and Fomalont worked with John Benson of the NRAO and Gabor Lanyi of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. They reported their findings in the July 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

  4. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  5. The modern radio astronomy network in Ukraine: UTR-2, URAN and GURT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A.; Sodin, L.; Zakharenko, V.; Zarka, P.; Ulyanov, O.; Sidorchuk, M.; Stepkin, S.; Tokarsky, P.; Melnik, V.; Kalinichenko, N.; Stanislavsky, A.; Koliadin, V.; Shepelev, V.; Dorovskyy, V.; Ryabov, V.; Koval, A.; Bubnov, I.; Yerin, S.; Gridin, A.; Kulishenko, V.; Reznichenko, A.; Bortsov, V.; Lisachenko, V.; Reznik, A.; Kvasov, G.; Mukha, D.; Litvinenko, G.; Khristenko, A.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Belov, A.; Rudavin, E.; Vasylieva, I.; Miroshnichenko, A.; Vasilenko, N.; Olyak, M.; Mylostna, K.; Skoryk, A.; Shevtsova, A.; Plakhov, M.; Kravtsov, I.; Volvach, Y.; Lytvinenko, O.; Shevchuk, N.; Zhouk, I.; Bovkun, V.; Antonov, A.; Vavriv, D.; Vinogradov, V.; Kozhin, R.; Kravtsov, A.; Bulakh, E.; Kuzin, A.; Vasilyev, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Vashchishin, R.; Pylaev, O.; Koshovyy, V.; Lozinsky, A.; Ivantyshin, O.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Fischer, G.; Lecacheux, A.; Denis, L.; Coffre, A.; Grieβmeier, J.-M.; Tagger, M.; Girard, J.; Charrier, D.; Briand, C.; Mann, G.

    2016-08-01

    The current status of the large decameter radio telescope UTR-2 (Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope) together with its VLBI system called URAN is described in detail. By modernization of these instruments through implementation of novel versatile analog and digital devices as well as new observation techniques, the observational capabilities of UTR-2 have been substantially enhanced. The total effective area of UTR-2 and URAN arrays reaches 200 000 m2, with 24 MHz observational bandwidth (within the 8-32 MHz frequency range), spectral and temporal resolutions down to 4 kHz and 0.5 msec in dynamic spectrum mode or virtually unlimited in waveform mode. Depending on the spectral and temporal resolutions and confusion effects, the sensitivity of UTR-2 varies from a few Jy to a few mJy, and the angular resolution ranges from ~ 30 arcminutes (with a single antenna array) to a few arcseconds (in VLBI mode). In the framework of national and international research projects conducted in recent years, many new results on Solar system objects, the Galaxy and Metagalaxy have been obtained. In order to extend the observation frequency range to 8-80 MHz and enlarge the dimensions of the UTR-2 array, a new instrument - GURT (Giant Ukrainian Radio Telescope) - is now under construction. The radio telescope systems described herein can be used in synergy with other existing low-frequency arrays such as LOFAR, LWA, NenuFAR, as well as provide ground-based support for space-based instruments.

  6. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  7. The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes: Upgrade of the antennas from satellite communication to radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Yoshinori; Saito, Yu; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Soon, Kang Lou; Momose, Munetake; Yokosawa, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Kenta; Ohyama, Tomoaki; Kono, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Ueno, Yuji; Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sorai, Kazuo; Takaba, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Sekido, Mamoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Naomasa; Omodaka, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes (former satellite communication antennas) were so upgraded as to work at 6, 8, and 22 GHz. We developed the receiver systems, IF systems, back-end systems (including samplers and recorders), and reference systems. We measured the performance of the antennas. The system temperature including the atmosphere toward the zenith, T_sys^{ast }, is measured to be ˜30-40 K for 6 GHz and ˜25-35 K for 8 GHz. T_sys^{ast } for 22 GHz is measured to be ˜40-100 K in winter and ˜150-500 K in summer seasons, respectively. The aperture efficiency is 55%-75% for Hitachi at 6 GHz and 8 GHz, and 55%-65% for Takahagi at 8 GHz. The beam sizes at 6 GHz and 8 GHz are ˜4.6° and ˜3.8°, respectively. The side-lobe level is less than 3%-4% at 6 and 8 GHz. Pointing accuracy was measured to be better than ˜0.3° for Hitachi and ˜0.6° for Takahagi. We succeeded in VLBI observations in 2010 August, indicating good performance of the antenna. We started single-dish monitoring observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources in 2012 December, and found several new sources showing short-term periodic variation of the flux density.

  8. The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes: Upgrade of the antennas from satellite communication to radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, Yoshinori; Saito, Yu; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Soon, Kang Lou; Momose, Munetake; Yokosawa, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Hideo; Kimura, Kimihiro; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Fujisawa, Kenta; Tomoaki, Oyama; Kono, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Hideyuki, Kobayashi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Sato, Katsuhisa; Ueno, Yuji; Jike, Takaaki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sorai, Kazuo; Takaba, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Sekido, Mamoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Naomasa; Omodaka, Toshihiro

    2016-05-01

    The Hitachi and Takahagi 32 m radio telescopes (former satellite communication antennas) were so upgraded as to work at 6, 8, and 22 GHz. We developed the receiver systems, IF systems, back-end systems (including samplers and recorders), and reference systems. We measured the performance of the antennas. The system temperature including the atmosphere toward the zenith, T_sys^{ast }, is measured to be ˜30-40 K for 6 GHz and ˜25-35 K for 8 GHz. T_sys^{ast } for 22 GHz is measured to be ˜40-100 K in winter and ˜150-500 K in summer seasons, respectively. The aperture efficiency is 55%-75% for Hitachi at 6 GHz and 8 GHz, and 55%-65% for Takahagi at 8 GHz. The beam sizes at 6 GHz and 8 GHz are ˜4{^'.}6 and ˜3{^'.}8, respectively. The side-lobe level is less than 3%-4% at 6 and 8 GHz. Pointing accuracy was measured to be better than ˜0{^'.}3 for Hitachi and ˜0{^'.}6 for Takahagi. We succeeded in VLBI observations in 2010 August, indicating good performance of the antenna. We started single-dish monitoring observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources in 2012 December, and found several new sources showing short-term periodic variation of the flux density.

  9. Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

    2014-10-01

    We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented.

  10. Low noise, 0.4-3 GHz cryogenic receiver for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Gawande, R; Bradley, R; Langston, G

    2014-10-01

    We present the design and measurement of a radio telescope receiver front end cooled to 100 K physical temperature, and working over 400 MHz to 3 GHz frequency band. The system uses a frequency independent feed developed for operation as a feed for parabola using sinuous elements and integrated with an ultra-wideband low noise amplifier. The ambient temperature system is tested on the 43 m radio telescope in Green Bank, WV and the system verification results on the sky are presented. The cryogenic receiver is developed using a Stirling cycle, one stage cryocooler. The measured far field patterns and the system noise less than 80 K over a 5:1 bandwidth are presented. PMID:25362437

  11. Application of Field System-FS9 and a PC to Antenna Control Unit interface in Radio Astronomy in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, E. V. S.; Ishitsuka, J. I. I.; Koyama, K. Y.

    2006-08-01

    We are in the process to transform a 32m antenna in Peru, used for telecommunications, into a Radio Telescope to perform Radio Astronomy in Peru. The 32m antenna of Peru constructed by NEC was used for telecommunications with communications satellites at 6 GHz for transmission, and 4 GHz for reception. In collaboration of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) Japan, and National Observatory of Japan we developed an Antenna Control System for the 32m antenna in Peru. It is based on the Field System FS9, software released by NASA for VLBI station, and an interface to link PC within FS9 software (PC-FS9) and Antenna Control Unit (ACU) of the 32 meters antenna. The PC-FS9 controls the antenna, commands are translated by interface into control signals compatibles with the ACU using: an I/O digital card with two 20bits ports to read azimuth and elevation angles, one 16bits port for reading status of ACU, one 24bits port to send pulses to start or stop operations of antenna, two channels are analogic outputs to drive the azimuth and elevation motors of the antenna, a LCD display to show the status of interface and error messages, and one serial port for communications with PC-FS9,. The first experiment of the control system was made with 11m parabolic antenna of Kashima Space Research Center (NICT), where we tested the right working of the routines implemented for de FS9 software, and simulations was made with looped data between output and input of the interface, both test were done successfully. With this scientific instrument we will be able to contribute with researching of astrophysics. We expect to into a near future to work at 6.7GHz to study Methanol masers, and higher frequencies with some improvements of the surface of the dish.

  12. A planetary radio astronomy discussion of the 1.55 cm microwave emission of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Chang, T. C.; Darby, L. T.; Finkelstein, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Using 1.55 cm observations of the earth made by the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) experiment on Nimbus 5, the appearance of the earth from Venus is simulated. A single antenna unable to resolve the earth's disk would give a time-averaged disk temperature of 183 K. In one rotation, the disk temperature would vary from 194 K to 172 K. During the 1973 inferior conjunction, a radio telescope with 1 arc sec resolution would resolve most of the major surface features of the earth.

  13. The magnetic field of Jupiter - A comparison of radio astronomy and spacecraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Gulkis, S.

    1979-01-01

    The inner magnetic field of Jupiter is characterized on the basis of Pioneer 10 and 11 measurements and earth-based decimetric radio observations. The dipole parameters derived from the two data sets are in good agreement. Problems in reconciling asymmetries observed in the earth-based data and the spacecraft data are discussed. Models of synchrotron emission from arbitrary magnetic field configurations and high-resolution maps of the Jovian radiation belts in all polarizations are needed to further understanding of Jupiter's magnetic field

  14. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, David P.; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L.; Lamb, James W.; Lawrence, Ronald P.; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J.; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H.; Cartwright, John K.; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

  15. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.

    PubMed

    Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.

  16. Controller-area-network bus control and monitor system for a radio astronomy interferometer.

    PubMed

    Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C

    2007-09-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data. PMID:17902962

  17. Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

  18. Observations of electron gyroharmonic waves and the structure of the Io torus. [jupiter 1 spacecraft radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Hubbard, R. F.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    Narrow-banded emissions were observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment on the Voyager 1 spacecraft as it traversed the Io plasma torus. These waves occur between harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency and are the Jovian analogue of electrostatic emissions observed and theoretically studied for the terrestrial magnetosphere. The observed frequencies always include the component near the upper hybrid resonant frequency, (fuhr) but the distribution of the other observed emissions varies in a systematic way with position in the torus. A refined model of the electron density variation, based on identification of the fuhr line, is included. Spectra of the observed waves are analyzed in terms of the linear instability of an electron distribution function consisting of isotropic cold electrons and hot losscone electrons. The positioning of the observed auxiliary harmonics with respect to fuhr is shown to be an indicator of the cold to hot temperature ratio. It is concluded that this ratio increases systematically by an overall factor of perhaps 4 or 5 between the inner and outer portions of the torus.

  19. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities.

  20. VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

  1. WSCLEAN: an implementation of a fast, generic wide-field imager for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offringa, A. R.; McKinley, B.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Briggs, F. H.; Wayth, R. B.; Kaplan, D. L.; Bell, M. E.; Feng, L.; Neben, A. R.; Hughes, J. D.; Rhee, J.; Murphy, T.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, D. C.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Procopio, P.; Prabu, T.; Riding, J.; Roshi, D. A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2014-10-01

    Astronomical wide-field imaging of interferometric radio data is computationally expensive, especially for the large data volumes created by modern non-coplanar many-element arrays. We present a new wide-field interferometric imager that uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. The performance dependences of CASA's w-projection and our new imager are analysed and analytical functions are derived that describe the required computing cost for both imagers. On data from the Murchison Widefield Array, we find our new method to be an order of magnitude faster than w-projection, as well as being capable of full-sky imaging at full resolution and with correct polarization correction. We predict the computing costs for several other arrays and estimate that our imager is a factor of 2-12 faster, depending on the array configuration. We estimate the computing cost for imaging the low-frequency Square Kilometre Array observations to be 60 PetaFLOPS with current techniques. We find that combining w-stacking with the w-snapshot algorithm does not significantly improve computing requirements over pure w-stacking. The source code of our new imager is publicly released.

  2. Peta-Flop Real Time Radio Astronomy Signal Processing Instrumentation and the CASPER Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan

    2014-04-01

    I will briefly describe next generation radio telescopes, such as HERA and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will require 1E15 to 1E17 operations per second of real time processing. I'll present some of the new architectures we've used to develop a variety of heterogeneous FPGA-GPU-CPU based signal processing systems for such telescopes, including spectrometers, correlators, and beam formers. I will also describe the CASPER collaboration, which has developed architectures, open source programming tools, libraries and reference designs that make it relatively easy to develop a variety of scalable, upgradeable, fault tolerant, low power, real time digital signal processing instrumentation. CASPER utilizes commercial 10Gbit and 40 Gbit ethernet switches to interconnect open source general purpose field programmable gate array (FPGA) boards with GPUs and software modules. CASPER collaborators at hundreds of universities, government labs and observatories have used these techniques to rapidly develop and deploy a variety of correlators, beamformers, spectrometers, pulsar/transient machines, and VLBI instrumentation. CASPER instrumentation is also utilized in physics, medicine, genomics and engineering. Open source source hardware, software, libraries, tools, tutorials, reference designs, information about workshops, and how to join the collaboration are available at http://casper.berkeley.edu

  3. Digital Signal Processing Using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-Input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocz, J.; Greenhill, L. J.; Barsdell, B. R.; Price, D.; Bernardi, G.; Bourke, S.; Clark, M. A.; Craig, J.; Dexter, M.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S.; Hallinan, G.; Hartman, J.; Jameson, A.; MacMahon, D.; Taylor, G.; Schinzel, F.; Werthimer, D.

    2015-03-01

    A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ˜ 100 MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ˜ 58 MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8 Tops s-1 and 0.236 Tbit s-1 throughput in a 9 kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260 MB s-1 for 9-s time averaging of cross-power and 1 s averaging of total power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneous, computing architecture.

  4. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  5. Extragalactic Radio Astronomy from an Armchair: Continuum Spectral Shapes of 150 Faint Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Andernach, H.

    1994-08-01

    We have used all available radio-source surveys to construct the continuum spectra for sources in an area of 5 by 10 degrees near the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP), previously observed at 2.7 GHz with the Effelsberg telescope. Most of the surveys are of similar angular resolution (~3 to 5 arcmin) and cover a wide range of frequencies from 38 MHz to 5 GHz. We have developed a cross-identification algorithm that takes into account the dependence of source structure on observing frequency. This improved the number of true matches between the source catalogues. Spectra for 229 sources with flux measurements at two or more frequencies were constructed. For 124 of these we found data at four or more frequencies, allowing us to classify their spectral shape. In our rather faint sample (S_2.7GHz > 20 mJy) we find the fraction of sources with spectral curvature to be much lower than in samples of stronger sources previously studied by other authors. Preliminary optical identifications are being drawn from the digitized versions of the first Palomar Sky Survey prepared at STScI.

  6. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 4: Early solar research at the École Normale Supérieure, Narcoussis and Nançay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Kundu, Mukul; Arsac, Jacques; Blum, Émile-Jacques; Boischot, André

    2009-11-01

    The first tentative steps in solar radio astronomy took place during the 1940s and early 1950s as physicists and engineers in a number of countries used recycled World War II equipment to investigate the flux levels and polarisation of solar bursts and emission from the quiet Sun, and sought to understand the connection between this emission and optical features in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. There was also an abiding interest in the terrestrial effects of this solar radio emission. Among these solar pioneers were French radio astronomers from the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In this paper we review the early solar observations made by them from Paris, Marcoussis and Nançay prior to the construction of a number of innovative multi-element solar interferometers at the Nançay field station in the mid-1950s.

  7. Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.

    2006-11-01

    Foreword; Preface; 1. General data; 2. Astronomy and astrophysics; 3. Radio astronomy; 4. Infrared and submillimeter astronomy; 5. Ultraviolet astronomy; 6. X-ray astronomy; 7. Gamma-ray astronomy; 8. Cosmic rays; 9. Earth's atmosphere and environment; 10. Relativity and cosmology; 11. Atomic physics; 12. Electromagnetic radiation; 13. Plamsa physics; 14. Experimental astronomy and astrophysics; 15. Astronautics; 16. Mathematics; 17. Probability and statistics; 18. Radiation safety; 19. Astronomical catalogs; 20. Computer science; 21. Glossary of abbreviations and symbols; Appendices; Index.

  8. Fast gain calibration in radio astronomy using alternating direction implicit methods: Analysis and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Stefano; Wijnholds, Stefan J.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Modern radio astronomical arrays have (or will have) more than one order of magnitude more receivers than classical synthesis arrays, such as the VLA and the WSRT. This makes gain calibration a computationally demanding task. Several alternating direction implicit (ADI) approaches have therefore been proposed that reduce numerical complexity for this task from 𝒪(P3) to 𝒪(P2), where P is the number of receive paths to be calibrated Aims: We present an ADI method, show that it converges to the optimal solution, and assess its numerical, computational and statistical performance. We also discuss its suitability for application in self-calibration and report on its successful application in LOFAR standard pipelines. Methods: Convergence is proved by rigorous mathematical analysis using a contraction mapping. Its numerical, algorithmic, and statistical performance, as well as its suitability for application in self-calibration, are assessed using simulations. Results: Our simulations confirm the 𝒪(P2) complexity and excellent numerical and computational properties of the algorithm. They also confirm that the algorithm performs at or close to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB, lower bound on the variance of estimated parameters). We find that the algorithm is suitable for application in self-calibration and discuss how it can be included. We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude speed improvement in calibration over traditional methods on actual LOFAR data. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate that ADI methods are a valid and computationally more efficient alternative to traditional gain calibration methods and we report on its successful application in a number of actual data reduction pipelines.

  9. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  10. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlation are proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here, we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope’s bandwidth (the so-called “FX” structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with two opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chip memory and the CMACs are reused as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the ICs size and power consumption. It is intended for fabrication in a 32nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76-3.3pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N=4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-level I/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5-7pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N=32) and ALMA (N=64) telescopes achieve about 5000pJ and 1000pJ, respectively using application-specific ICs (ASICs) in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA at N=256; it

  11. The early history of low frequency radio astronomy in Australia. 6: Michael Bessell and the University of Tasmania's Richmond field station near Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Martin; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wielebinski, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Following some initial research in Tasmania between 1955 and 1957, notably by Graeme Ellis and Grote Reber, low frequency radio astronomy became a significant activity of the University of Tasmania from the early 1960s, with the main aims being to study the radio Milky Way and Jupiter's decametric emissions. Although locations very close to Hobart Airport were to see the majority of this work, in the early to mid-1960s low frequency antenna arrays were set up and used by the University at nearby Penna and Richmond. This paper describes the erection and use of the Richmond arrays, which in 1962-1963 operated at a site 1 km north of the town of Richmond, and at frequencies of 2.35, 1.55 and 1.03 MHz.

  12. "Discoveries in Planetary Sciences": Slide Sets Highlighting New Advances for Astronomy Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; Schneider, N.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Afsharahmadi, F.

    2012-10-01

    We present two new features of an ongoing effort to bring recent newsworthy advances in planetary science to undergraduate lecture halls. The effort, called 'Discoveries in Planetary Sciences', summarizes selected recently announced discoveries that are 'too new for textbooks' in the form of 3-slide PowerPoint presentations. The first slide describes the discovery, the second slide discusses the underlying planetary science concepts at a level appropriate for students of 'Astronomy 101', and the third presents the big picture implications of the discovery. A fourth slide includes links to associated press releases, images, and primary sources. This effort is generously sponsored by the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society, and the slide sets are available at http://dps.aas.org/education/dpsdisc/ for download by undergraduate instructors or any interested party. Several new slide sets have just been released, and we summarize the topics covered. The slide sets are also being translated into languages other than English (including Spanish and Farsi), and we will provide an overview of the translation strategy and process. Finally, we will present web statistics on how many people are using the slide sets, as well as individual feedback from educators.

  13. Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  14. Automated radio astronomy operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The improvements in using a computer to drive a DSN 64-meter antenna are described. The development is used to simplify operation, improve antenna safety, reduce antenna wear, present the abuse of antenna by misoperation, increase quantity and quality of data gathered, and give users a greater choice of automatic operations.

  15. Imaging in radio astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feretti, L.; Vigotti, M.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * THE FOURIER TRANSFORM (FT) * DECONVOLUTI0N * The Dirty Map * Image Restoration * Clean and Restore * Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) * SELF-CALIBRATION ALGORITHM * IMAGING WITH VLBI DATA * Model Fitting * Hybrid Mapping Tecniques * SPECTRAL LINE OBSERVATIONS * ACKNOWLEDGMENTS * REFERENCES * FIGURE CAPTION

  16. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviére, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2011-04-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs “radio-hybrid” measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluorescence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.

  17. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Copenhagen Astron. Observ. /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs 'radio-hybrid' measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluorescence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of detector effects, and the read-in of multiple data formats including data from various radio simulation codes. The source code of this radio functionality can be made available to interested parties on request.

  18. Minoan Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Mary; Henriksson, Göran

    Of the three great cultures of the ancient eastern Mediterranean — the Babylonian, Egyptian, and Minoan — we have considerable knowledge of the astronomy of the first two through their documents (see relevant sections of this Handbook). Very little written material, however, has survived from Minoan Crete, but the evidence of other impressive archaeological discoveries implies that the inhabitants were on a par with their neighbors and had made similar advances in astronomy. In lieu of written sources, we have used the methods of archaeoastronomy to recover as much as possible about Minoan astronomy. In short, these are measuring the orientations of walls and their opposite horizons at a representative selection of monuments, analyzing the measurements statistically, and comparing the results with digital reconstruction of the positions of significant celestial bodies for the time when the walls were built.

  19. Astronomy research at the Aerospace Corporation. [research projects - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    This report reviews the astronomy research carried out at The Aerospace Corporation during 1974. The report describes the activities of the San Fernando Observatory, the research in millimeter wave radio astronomy as well as the space astronomy research.

  20. Highlighting the history of French radio astronomy. 3: The Würzburg antennas at Marcoussis, Meudon and Nançay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Lequeux, James; Steinberg, Jean-Louis; Delannoy, Jean

    2007-11-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s ex-World War II 7.5m Würzburg radar antennas played a crucial role in the early development of radio astronomy in a number of European nations. One of these was France, where three different antennas began to be used during the late 1940s. Two of these were associated with the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and were initially sited at Marcoussis, near Paris, before being transferred to the Nançay field station in 1957. The third Würzburg antenna was used by staff from the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, and was installed at Meudon Observatory on the outskirts of Paris. This paper describes the three antennas, lists the personnel involved, discusses the observations made, evaluates the significance of this research in a national and international context, and comments on their current whereabouts.

  1. 'The Relation of Biology to Astronomy' and Theology: Panspermia and Panentheism; Revolutionary Convergences Advanced by Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    In contrast to the Copernican revolution in astro-geometry, the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe contribution to the recent and continuing revolution in astrobiology - "cometary panspermia" - features astronomy and biology converging toward theology. They employed astro-biotic reasoning (often labeled "anthropic" reasoning) to demonstrate that life is made possible by the deliberate controlling influence of the living all-embracing "intelligent universe." This is consistent with panentheism [pan-en-theos-ism, not pantheism]. As advanced by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, cometary panspermia is panentheistic. Also, neoclassical panentheism requires generic panspermia, and favors cometary panspermia.

  2. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Calibration of Data from the Green Bank Telescope and Classroom Activities in Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will present the results of research conducted with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) as well as classroom activities that will use GBT data. In order to determine the accuracy of the calibration of receivers on cm-wave radio telescopes, engineers must periodically determine the equivalent temperature of a receiver's calibration noise diode. The traditional methods utilize hot-cold loads and usually achieve an accuracy of no better than 5%, have a very coarse frequency resolution, and require days of labor. Using observations with the GBT of standard astronomical flux calibrators, we measured the noise diode temperatures for four receivers that cover 1 to 10 GHz. By comparing the detected power from the calibrators to that generated by the noise diodes we were able to determine the temperature of the noise diodes to an accuracy of 1% with very good frequency resolution (1 MHz). The astronomically determined values agree, with few exceptions, to the less accurate values generated by the receiver engineer. In contrast to the methods employed by engineers, the astronomical determinations took only a few hours. Using data collected from the GBT and the NRAO 140-foot telescope, high-school students at Breck School in Golden Valley, MN will use the Hands-On Universe (HOU) software to analyze fits files containing data from a 100 square-degree region of the Orion Nebula. Instead of always relying on optical images from personal observations or the HOU groups at Lawrence Hall of Science or Yerkes, students can now use radio images. Comparing radio images with those derived at optical wavelengths should prove enlightening for students, many of whom have misconceptions concerning radio astronomy.

  3. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Nichi

    2011-08-01

    We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

  4. Radio Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Triggers during Advanced LIGO O1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyaguru, N. T.; Corsi, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Frail, D. A.; Perley, D. A.; Mishra, N.; Singer, L. P.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Surace, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present radio follow-up observations carried out with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array during the first observing run (O1) of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). A total of three gravitational-wave triggers were followed-up during the ≈ 4 months of O1, from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these triggers, GW150914 and GW151226, are binary black hole (BH) merger events of high significance. A third trigger, G194575, was subsequently declared as an event of no interest (i.e., a false alarm). Our observations targeted selected optical transients identified by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in the Advanced LIGO error regions of the three triggers, and a limited region of the gravitational-wave localization area of G194575 not accessible to optical telescopes due to Sun constraints, where a possible high-energy transient was identified. No plausible radio counterparts to GW150914 and GW151226 were found, in agreement with expectations for binary BH mergers. We show that combining optical and radio observations is key to identifying contaminating radio sources that may be found in the follow-up of gravitational-wave triggers, such as emission associated with star formation and active galactic nuclei. We discuss our results in the context of the theoretical predictions for radio counterparts to gravitational-wave transients, and describe our future plans for the radio follow-up of Advanced LIGO (and Virgo) triggers.

  5. African Astronomy and the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    We highlight the growth of astronomy across Africa and the effect of hosting the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will have on this growth. From the construction of a new 25m radio telescope in Nigeria, to new university astronomy programmes in Kenya, the HESS in Namibia and the Mauritian Radio Telescope, to the world class projects being developed in South Africa (Southern African Large Telescope and Karoo Array Telescope) astronomy is re-emerging across the continent. The SKA will represent the pinnacle of technological advancement in astronomy when constructed; requiring ultra high speed data transmission lines over 3000 km baselines and the World's fastest computer for correlation purposes. The investment alone to build the SKA on African soil will be of great economic benefit to its people, but the required network connectivity will significantly drive commercial expansion far beyond the initial value of the SKA investment. The most important consequence of hosting the SKA in Africa would be the impact on Human Capital Development (HCD) on the continent. Major HCD projects already underway producing excellent results will be presented. )

  6. A Voyage through the Radio Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Each year, professionals and amateurs alike make significant contributions to the field of astronomy. High school students can also conduct astronomy research. Since 1992, the Radio Astronomy Research Team from Oil City Area Senior High School (OCHS) in Oil City, Pennsylvania, has traveled each year to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory…

  7. A Multi-Feed Receiver in the 18 to 26.5 GHz Band for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfei, A.; Carbonaro, L.; Cattani, A.; Cremonini, A.; Cresci, L.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Mariotti, S.; Monari, J.; Morsiani, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Poloni, M.; Roda, J.; Scalambra, A.; Tofani, G.

    2010-08-01

    A large-bandwidth, state-of-the-art multi-feed receiver has been constructed to be used on the new 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) (http://www.srt.inaf.itl), an antenna aiming to work from 300 MHz to 100 GHz with an almost continuous frequency coverage. The goal of this new receiver is to speed up the survey of the sky with high sensitivity in a frequency band that is very interesting to radio astronomers. In the meantime, the antenna erection has been finalized, and the receiver has been mounted on the Medicina 32 m antenna to be tested (http://www.med.ira.inaf.itl). We present a complete description of the system, including a dedicated backend, and the results of the tests.

  8. Advancing Variable Star Astronomy: The Centennial History of the American Association of Variable Star Observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Thomas R.; Saladyga, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Preface; Part I. Pioneers in Variable Star Astronomy Prior to 1909: 1. The emergence of variable star astronomy - a need for observations; 2. A need for observers; Part II. The Founding of the AAVSO - The William Tyler Olcott Era: 3. The amateur's amateur; 4. Amateurs in the service of science; Part III. The Leon Campbell Era: 5. Leon Campbell to the rescue; 6. Formalizing relationships; 7. The Pickering Memorial Endowment; 8. Fading of the Old Guard; 9. Growing pains and distractions; Part IV. The Service Bureau - The Margaret Mayall Era: 10. Learning about independence; 11. Eviction from Harvard College Observatory; 12. Actions and reactions; 13. In search of a home; 14. Survival on Brattle Street; 15. AAVSO achievements; 16. Breathing room on Concord Avenue; Part V. Analysis and Science: The Janet Mattei Era: 17. The growth of a director; 18. Learning the ropes the hard way; 19. Managing with renewed confidence; 20. Expanding the scientific charter; Part VI. Accelerating Observational Science - The Arne Henden Era: 21. Bridging the gap; 22. Accelerating the science - the Henden era begins; Epilogue; Appendices; Index.

  9. Elementary astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  10. Infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Frederick; Houck, James; Bally, John; Becklin, Eric; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Draine, Bruce; Frogel, Jay; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert; Hildebrand, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The decade of 1990's presents an opportunity to address fundamental astrophysical issues through observations at IR wavelengths made possible by technological and scientific advances during the last decade. The major elements of recommended program are: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and the IR Optimized 8-m Telescope (IRO), a detector and instrumentation program, the SubMilliMeter Mission (SMMM), the 2 Microns All Sky Survey (2MASS), a sound infrastructure, and technology development programs. Also presented are: perspective, science opportunities, technical overview, project recommendations, future directions, and infrastructure.

  11. Advancing astronomy on the American frontier: the career of Frank Herbert Loud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskin, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Frank Herbert Loud came to Colorado Springs in 1877 to teach mathematics and became interested in astronomy after witnessing the solar eclipse of 1878. His nearly 50-year astronomical career included overseeing the building of two observatories, founding the Western Association for Stellar Photography, supporting expeditions for two solar eclipses, supplying astronomers with meteorological data for the Rocky Mountains, educating students, publishing astronomical articles and giving public lectures, and aiding and influencing two Directors of Harvard College Observatory. Despite this, Loud and the two observatories he directed have been mostly forgotten, although they were well known by contemporary astronomers. Loud and his work deserve to be remembered given the relative scarcity of astronomers and observatories in the American West (i.e. west of the Mississippi River) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  12. Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Singh, K D S; Sharma, V K

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a new power reactor concept being developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The reactor retains many desirable features of the existing Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), while incorporating new, advanced safety features. The reactor aims to utilise the vast thorium resources available in India. The reactor core will use plutonium as the make-up fuel, while breeding (233)U in situ. On account of this unique combination of fuel materials, the operational characteristics of the fuel as determined by its radioactivity, decay heat and radio-toxicity are being viewed with great interest. Radio-toxicity of the spent fuel is a measure of potential radiological hazard to the members of the public and also important from the ecological point of view. The radio-toxicity of the AHWR fuel is extremely high to start with, being approximately 10(4) times that of the fresh natural U fuel used in a PHWR, and continues to remain relatively high during operation and subsequent cooling. A unique feature of this fuel is the peak observed in its radio-toxicity at approximately 10(5) y of decay cooling. The delayed increase in fuel toxicity has been traced primarily to a build-up of (229)Th, (230)Th and (226)Ra. This phenomenon has been observed earlier for thorium-based fuels and is confirmed for the AHWR fuel. This paper presents radio-toxicity data for AHWR spent fuel up to a period of 10(6) y and the results are compared with the radio-toxicity of PHWR. PMID:19776247

  13. Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Singh, K D S; Sharma, V K

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a new power reactor concept being developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The reactor retains many desirable features of the existing Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), while incorporating new, advanced safety features. The reactor aims to utilise the vast thorium resources available in India. The reactor core will use plutonium as the make-up fuel, while breeding (233)U in situ. On account of this unique combination of fuel materials, the operational characteristics of the fuel as determined by its radioactivity, decay heat and radio-toxicity are being viewed with great interest. Radio-toxicity of the spent fuel is a measure of potential radiological hazard to the members of the public and also important from the ecological point of view. The radio-toxicity of the AHWR fuel is extremely high to start with, being approximately 10(4) times that of the fresh natural U fuel used in a PHWR, and continues to remain relatively high during operation and subsequent cooling. A unique feature of this fuel is the peak observed in its radio-toxicity at approximately 10(5) y of decay cooling. The delayed increase in fuel toxicity has been traced primarily to a build-up of (229)Th, (230)Th and (226)Ra. This phenomenon has been observed earlier for thorium-based fuels and is confirmed for the AHWR fuel. This paper presents radio-toxicity data for AHWR spent fuel up to a period of 10(6) y and the results are compared with the radio-toxicity of PHWR.

  14. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  15. Working Papers: Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Beichman, Charles A.; Canizares, Claude; Cronin, James; Heeschen, David; Houck, James; Hunten, Donald; Mckee, Christopher F.; Noyes, Robert; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1991-01-01

    The papers of the panels appointed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics survey Committee are compiled. These papers were advisory to the survey committee and represent the opinions of the members of each panel in the context of their individual charges. The following subject areas are covered: radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, optical/IR from ground, UV-optical from space, interferometry, high energy from space, particle astrophysics, theory and laboratory astrophysics, solar astronomy, planetary astronomy, computing and data processing, policy opportunities, benefits to the nation from astronomy and astrophysics, status of the profession, and science opportunities.

  16. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  17. Gravitational Waves and Time-Domain Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-04-01

    The gravitational-wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high-frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low-frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational-wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  18. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  19. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ≥ 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ≥ 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  20. A History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    Why start at 1890? That year marked one of the most significant dates in the history of the multidimensional story that is the history of astronomy. It was the year in which the Draper Memorial Catalogue of Stellar spectra was published - a publication that provided essential data for an understanding of stellar spectra well into the twentieth century. It's also slightly over a hundred years ago. This is a long enough span of time for any one book on this subject to cover, but sufficient to chart the progress of astronomy from a time when Newtonian physics reigned supreme, photography was in its infancy, and radio astronomy was decades in the future. Paradoxically, the theories of Einstein, Planck and Heisenberg, along with modern radio, X-ray, and space-borne telescopes mean that the cosmos seems to hold more mysteries today than it did a hundred years ago. Any reader with a basic knowledge of astronomy will find this book quite fascinating. Academics, historians, and others who need a definitive history of the major events and characters that influenced the growth of astronomy.

  1. PARTNeR: Radio astromony for students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, C.; Vaquerizo, J. A.

    2008-06-01

    PARTNeR stands for Proyecto Academico con el Radiotelescopio de NASA en Robledo (the Academic Project with NASA's radio telescope at Robledo), and allows students to perform radio astronomy observations. High school and university students can access the PARTNeR radio telescope via the internet. The students can operate the antenna from their own school or university and perform radio astronomy observations.

  2. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  3. Women in Astronomy Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, Meg

    2000-04-01

    For more than a century women have played a key role in astronomy, making major discoveries that advanced the field. Today there are many examples of women astronomers leading new fields and making fundamental contributions to understanding the Universe. Yet women remain a small fraction of practicing (academic) astronomers. Only 5% of the full professors in astronomy are women, even though at least 10% of astronomy Ph.D.s have gone to women over the last 100 years (and the fraction is now approaching 25%). These and other statistics for women in astronomy, including those from the recent survey by the American Astronomical Society, suggest mechanisms are in place to help men advance beyond their representation in the talent pool. To ensure equity of opportunity and to strengthen science by drawing on the largest possible talent base, similar mechanisms might allow talented women astronomers to meet with comparable success.

  4. Radio-Frequency Electronics, Circuits and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Jon B.

    This accessible and comprehensive book provides an introduction to the basic concepts and key circuits of radio frequency systems, covering fundamental principles which apply to all radio devices, from wireless data transceivers on semiconductor chips to high-power broadcast transmitters. Topics covered include filters, amplifiers, oscillators, modulators, low-noise amplifiers, phase-locked loops, and transformers. Applications of radio frequency systems are described in such areas as communications, radio and television broadcasting, radar, and radio astronomy. The book contains many exercises, and assumes only a knowledge of elementary electronics and circuit analysis. It will be an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in electrical engineering, as well as an invaluable reference for researchers and professional engineers in this area, or for those moving into the field of wireless communications.

  5. Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, D. V.; Hall, E. D.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Aston, S. M.; Austin, L.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barbet, M.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Belopolski, I.; Bergman, J.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Black, E.; Blair, C. D.; Bogan, C.; Bork, R.; Bridges, D. O.; Brooks, A. F.; Celerier, C.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Cook, D.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Damjanic, M.; Dannenberg, R.; Danzmann, K.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Foley, S.; Frede, M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, R.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Grote, H.; Guido, C. J.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Heefner, J.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hoak, D.; Hough, J.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jones, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kells, W.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kokeyama, K.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Le Roux, A.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Lhuillier, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacDonald, T.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyer, M. S.; Meyers, P. M.; Miller, J.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dell, J.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Patrick, Z.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Poeld, J.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Ramet, C. R.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schultz, B.; Schwinberg, P.; Sellers, D.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Stein, A. J.; Stochino, A.; Strain, K. A.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vargas, M.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Weßels, P.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10-23/√{Hz } was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30 M⊙ could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914.

  6. Early Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, Hugh

    The earliest investigations that can be called scientific are concerned with the sky: they are the beginnings of astronomy. Many early civilizations produced astronomical texts, and several cultures that left no written records left monuments and artifacts-ranging from rock paintings to Stonehenge-that show a clear interest in astronomy. Civilizations in China, Mesopotamia, India and Greece had highly developed astronomies, and the astronomy of the Mayas was by no means negligible. Greek astronomy, as developed by the medieval Arab philosophers, evolved into the astronomy of Copernicus. This displaced the earth from the central stationary position that almost all earlier astronomies had assumed. Soon thereafter, in the first decades of the seventeenth century, Kepler found the true shape of the planetary orbits and Galileo introduced the telescope for astronomical observations.

  7. Big Computing in Astronomy: Perspectives and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, Victor

    2014-06-01

    Hardware progress in recent years has led to astronomical instruments gathering large volumes of data. In radio astronomy for instance, the current generation of antenna arrays produces data at Tbits per second, and forthcoming instruments will expand these rates much further. As instruments are increasingly becoming software-based, astronomers will get more exposed to computer science. This talk therefore outlines key challenges that arise at the intersection of computer science and astronomy and presents perspectives on how both communities can collaborate to overcome these challenges.Major problems are emerging due to increases in data rates that are much larger than in storage and transmission capacity, as well as humans being cognitively overwhelmed when attempting to opportunistically scan through Big Data. As a consequence, the generation of scientific insight will become more dependent on automation and algorithmic instrument control. Intelligent data reduction will have to be considered across the entire acquisition pipeline. In this context, the presentation will outline the enabling role of machine learning and parallel computing.BioVictor Pankratius is a computer scientist who joined MIT Haystack Observatory following his passion for astronomy. He is currently leading efforts to advance astronomy through cutting-edge computer science and parallel computing. Victor is also involved in projects such as ALMA Phasing to enhance the ALMA Observatory with Very-Long Baseline Interferometry capabilities, the Event Horizon Telescope, as well as in the Radio Array of Portable Interferometric Detectors (RAPID) to create an analysis environment using parallel computing in the cloud. He has an extensive track record of research in parallel multicore systems and software engineering, with contributions to auto-tuning, debugging, and empirical experiments studying programmers. Victor has worked with major industry partners such as Intel, Sun Labs, and Oracle. He holds

  8. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    1999-09-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  9. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  10. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    2000-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: ANIMATED ORBITS OF PLANETS AND MOONS: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. SOLAR SYSTEM COLLISIONS: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). SCALE OF THE UNIVERSE: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. ORBITAL SIMULATIONS: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. ASTRONOMY WORKSHOP BULLETIN BOARD: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  11. The Astronomy Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.

    1999-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed and maintained at the University of Maryland for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 63 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Scale of the Universe: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Scientific Notation: Students are interactively guided through conversions between scientific notation and regular numbers. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by NSF.

  12. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  13. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  14. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The main purpose of this presentation is to describe new advanced diagnostic techniques of the near-Earth space plasma and point out the scientific challenges of the radio frequency analyser located on board of low orbiting satellites and LOFAR facilities. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  15. Advanced infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.

    1986-01-01

    The CO2 laser heterodyne spectrometer was used at the 3-m IRTF on Mauna Kea to make measurements of Mars during the 1984 opposition. Analysis of the observations of the mesospheric non-thermal emission demonstrated the existence of a warming of the Mars polar mesosphere, similar to the seasonal effects which are well known to occur at the Earth's mesopause. A search for CO2 and NH3 on Comet Halley was done with the new Kitt Peak system as well as with the IRTF heterodyne system. A Lamb-dip absorption cell was designed and constructed. Its use will allow extreme frequency stabilization of the laser local oscillator, which will greatly facilitate measurements of winds and dynamical phenomena. The Lamb-dip cell was used at Kitt Peak to study zonal and meridional winds in the atmosphere of Venus. Water vapor was detected in Comet Halley using Fourier transform spectrometer. The 2.65 micrometer upsilon sub 3 band was seen in emission, confirming non-thermal-equilibrium excitation models for comets. A study was made of the variability of Jovian ethane emission. The average volume mixing ratio of ethane in the Jovian stratosphere was found to be 3x10 to the -6 power, with the greatest variability seen in the auroral regions.

  16. Advanced infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    1991-01-01

    This task supports the application of infrared heterodyne spectroscopy and other high resolution techniques, as well as infrared arrays to ultra-high resolution studies of molecular constituents of planetary atmospheres. High spectral and spatial resolution measurement and analysis of individual spectral lines permits the retrieval of distributions of atmospheric molecular abundances and temperatures and thus, information on local photochemical processes. Determination of absolute line positions to better than 10(exp -8) permits direct measurement of gas velocities to a few m/sec and thus, the study of dynamics. Observations are made from ground based observatories.

  17. Advanced infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Deming, Drake; Mumma, M.

    1988-01-01

    This task supports the application of infrared heterodyne and Fourier transform spectroscopy to ultra-high resolution studies of molecular constituents of planetary astomspheres and cometary comae. High spectral and spatial resolutions are especially useful for detection and study of localized, non-thermal phenomena in low temperature and low density regions, for detection of trace constituents and for measurement of winds and dynamical phenomena such as thermal tides. Measurement and analysis of individual spectial lines permits retrieval of atmospheric molecular abundances and temperatures and thus, information on local photochemical processes. Determination of absolute line positions to better than 10 to the minus eighth power permits direct measurements of gas velocity to a few meters/sec. Observations are made from ground based heterodyne spectrometers at the Kitt Peak McMath solar telescope and from the NASA infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Wind velocities at 110km altitude on Venus were extracted approximately 1 m/sec from measurements of non-thermal emission cores of 10.3 micron CO2 lines. Results indicate a subsolar to antisolar circulationwith a small zonal retrograde component.

  18. Intermediate Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  19. Primary Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  20. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    PubMed Central

    Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk. PMID:26217350

  1. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  2. The New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henbest, Nigel; Marten, Michael

    1996-08-01

    There's more to the Universe than meets the eye. In a marvelous review of multi-wavelength astronomy, The New Astronomy compares traditional optical images to infrared, ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray astronomical observations of a staggering variety of cosmic objects. With over 300 photographs and images obtained by telescopes and detectors operating at different wavelengths, the authors present startlingly different views of the solar system, stars, galaxies and, in this new edition, Halley's Comet and Supernova 1987A. Specially processed by astronomers worldwide, these images reveal in spectacular detail otherwise invisible events such as starbirth, stardeath, and distant quasar eruptions. Emphasizing the physical processes that produce astronomical radiation, they explain how the observations have expanded our existing knowledge and provided new discoveries. They also describe the new techniques in nontechnical language. By giving equal weight to observations at all wavelengths, this book corrects the bias toward optical astronomy and objectively presents all views of the Universe. It will appeal to everyone interested in the mysteries of astronomy. Nigel Henbest and Michael Marten previously collaborated (along with Heather Couper) on The Guide to the Galaxy (CUP, 1994).

  3. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  4. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  5. Astronomy Camp = IYA x 22: 22 Years of International Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember childhood dreams of being an astronomer, or the ravenous desire for ever larger glass and better equipment as an amateur astronomer? What if your child or the person down the street could live that dream for a weekend or a week? The University of Arizona Astronomy Camp continues to substantiate those dreams after more than two decades in existence. Astronomy Camp is an immersion hands-on field experience in astronomy, ranging from two to eight nights, occurring a few times per year. Participants span an age range from elementary students to octogenarians. The three basic offerings include adult camps, a beginning Camp for teenagers, and an advanced teen Camp. Several variants of the basic Camp model have evolved, including an ongoing decade long series of specialized Camps for Girl Scout leaders from across the country, funded by the NIRCam instrument development program for the James Webb Space Telescope. The advanced teen Camp is a microcosm of the entire research arc: the participants propose projects, spend the week collecting and analyzing data using research grade CCDs, infrared arrays, and radio/sub-millimeter telescopes, and finish with a presentation of the results. This past summer the Camps moved to Kitt Peak National Observatory for the first time, providing access to a vast and diverse collection of research instruments, including the 0.9-meter WIYN and 2.3-meter Bok telescopes, the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope, and the 12-meter ARO radio telescope. Education research into the Camp's impact indicates that reasons for its appeal to youth include a learner-centered and personal approach with a fun attitude toward learning, authentic scientific inquiry led by mentors who are real scientists, a peer group with common interests in science and engineering, and the emotional appeal of spending time on a dark "sky island" devoted to the exploration of nature.

  6. Astronomy education in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutawarakorn, Busaba; Soonthornthum, B.; Kirdkao, T.

    Thailand is one of the developing countries which pursues the goal to advance economy, technology as well as science. Education in Astronomy is considered as a supporting factor, since it is one of the basic sciences which can teach the young generation to understand and conserve their mother nature and at the same time helps to develop analytical thinking. The poster reports the present developments in astronomical education in Thailand which includes (1) current astronomy education in school and university; (2) educational activities outside school; (3) development of programs for teaching astronomy in school (including teacher training); (4) the access of educational resources via internet. Proposals for future development and collaborations will be presented and discussed.

  7. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  8. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  9. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  10. Submillimeter and infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. G.

    An overview of the current state of submillimeter and infrared astronomy is given. In order to develop these fields, three areas must be considered. First, a platform immuned to atmospheric effects must be found, and satellites capable of supporting large telescopes must be designed. Current programs are considering specialized instruments such as COBE, a small cosmic background explorer; IRAS, a small cooled infrared survey telescope; and SIRTF, a small cooled infrared telescope. Second, a large area telescope with light gathering power and resolution, comparable to that available in the optical and radio, is essential to the program. Recent NASA studies have indicated the feasibility of constructing a 20 m diameter telescope with a 20 micron wavelength diffraction. Third, detectors are being developed which are near quantum noise limited, radio-style detectors. Questions which can be answered by submillimeter and infrared techniques pertain to star formation, existence of other planetary systems, and missing mass formation.

  11. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  12. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  13. Astronomy Allies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewelling, Heather; Alatalo, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine you are a grad student, at your first conference, and a prominent senior scientist shows interest in your work, and he makes things get way too personal? What would you do? Would you report it? Or would you decide, after a few other instances of harassment, that maybe you shouldn't pursue astronomy? Harassment is under-reported, the policies can be difficult to understand or hard to find, and it can be very intimidating as a young scientist to report it to the proper individuals. The Astronomy Allies Program is designed to help you with these sorts of problems. We are a group of volunteers that will help by doing the following: provide safe walks home during the conference, someone to talk to confidentially, as an intervener, as a resource to report harassment. The Allies are a diverse group of scientists committed to acting as mentors, advocates, and liaisons. The Winter 2015 AAS meeting was the first meeting that had Astronomy Allies, and Astronomy Allies provided a website for information, as well as a twitter, email, and phone number for anyone who needs our help or would like more information. We posted about the Astronomy Allies on the Women In Astronomy blog, and this program resonates with many people: either they want to help, or they have experienced harassment in the past and don't want to see it in the future. Harassment may not happen to most conference participants, but it's wrong, it's against the AAS anti-harassment policy ( http://aas.org/policies/anti-harassment-policy ), it can be very damaging, and if it happens to even one person, that is unacceptable. We intend to improve the culture at conferences to make it so that harassers feel they can't get away with their unprofessional behavior.

  14. History of the Astronomy in the Century XX: Perspective Cosmo-philosophically of its Advances and their Origenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Quintano, Jose

    The man has for the first time been able to contemplate from the Earth space. For the first time, a cosmological theory, the big-bang, physically explains the origin of the universe. But also, for the first time, the man has seen reunited the origins of this celestial science through the paleolithics antecedents, and just discovered in Mesopotamia. Now, the philosophy proposes through the thinking J. Habermas, an ideal community of speech. Now, astronomy proposes a model that explains the causal origins of all the created one. Of the assembly of recoveries, it excels the recovery of the old cuneiform cultures. Compared vision of assembly and between the assyriologists outstanding work like Epping, Strassmaier and Kugler, goes to der Waerden and Neugebauer, along with the work of eminent physicists and thinkers of this century.

  15. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  16. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  17. Astronomy Adventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Astronomy Adventures." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  18. Advanced stratospheric data processing of radio occultation with a variational combination for multifrequency GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Tae-Kwon; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    As the understanding of our Earth system grows, the importance of comprehending the structure and processes in the remote stratosphere is intensified and the interest in stratospheric observations mushrooms. Despite its great potential, radio occultation (RO) data have been underused in exploiting the stratosphere. A major reason for the underutilization is the imperfections in preexisting RO data processing methods. We propose an advanced stratospheric RO data processing, where the variational method provides a general framework in which multiple-frequency RO measurements of different quality are effectively combined with the aid of a priori. The variational combination (VAR) is designed to extract the most information from RO measurements, where a priori plays a role of enhancing the observation and attenuating measurement noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is found to be a universal quality indicator, which concisely describes the uncertainty of RO measurements in diverse conditions. The measured SNR is used to parameterize a dynamic observation error, which is essential for the VAR to use the observation optimally. Tests with real data show that VAR significantly improves the accuracy of the RO retrieval even in the upper stratosphere, where the RO data were once considered to possess little observational value. When compared with independent radiosonde observations, for instance, the VAR-produced data are more accurate than the analysis from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for which the radiosonde data have been assimilated. The VAR-produced data are also precise enough to reveal the systematic error of the radiosonde data.

  19. Astronomy in Australia - A Brief Historical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffleit, Dorrit

    2000-08-01

    An astronomical event, the transit of Venus at Tahiti in 1769, led to the discovery of Eastern Australia by Captain James Cook and its colonization by the English in 1788. Beginning that very year, an observatory was erected, and ever since, Australia has played significant roles throughout the history of astronomy. Now the modern optical observatories at Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring have become important and friendly centers of international cooperation in research. In modern radio astronomy, Australia has been an outstanding pioneer.

  20. Advanced digital self-triggering of radio emission of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehle, Christoph; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Radio detection provides information about the electromagnetic part of an air shower in the atmosphere complementary to that obtained by water-Cherenkov detectors predominantly sensitive to the muonic content of an air shower at ground. For the measurement of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) by the detection of their coherent radio emission, several test setups have been developed and deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. However, these UHECR radio pulses are significantly polluted by man-made radio frequency interferences (RFI). This requires a special design of antennas, analog, data acquisition (DAQ), and communication electronics, which are under investigation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. In large-scale detector arrays sophisticated self-triggering methods are necessary, to use the limited available communication data rate efficiently. This paper gives an overview of the electronics and self-triggering methods used in the test setups at the Pierre Auger Observatory and describes the experiences gained so far.

  1. Application of the mid-IR radio correlation to the Ĝ sample and the search for advanced extraterrestrial civilisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Wright et al. (2014, ApJ, 792, 26) have embarked on a search for advanced Karadashev Type III civilisations via the compilation of a sample of sources with extreme mid-IR emission and colours. The aim is to furnish a list of candidate galaxies that might harbour an advanced Kardashev Type III civilisation; in this scenario, the mid-IR emission is then primarily associated with waste heat energy by-products. I apply the mid-IR radio correlation to this Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technology (Ĝ) sample, a catalogue of 93 candidate galaxies compiled by Griffith et al. (2015, ApJS, 217, 25). I demonstrate that the mid-IR and radio luminosities are correlated for the sample, determining a k-corrected value of q22 = 1.35 ± 0.42. By comparison, a similar measurement for 124 galaxies drawn from the First Look Survey (FLS) has q22 = 0.87 ± 0.27. The statistically significant difference of the mean value of q22 for these two samples, taken together with their more comparable far-IR properties, suggests that the Ĝ sample shows excessive emission in the mid-IR. The fact that the Ĝ sample largely follows the mid-IR radio correlation strongly suggests that the vast majority of these sources are associated with galaxies in which natural astrophysical processes are dominant. This simple application of the mid-IR radio correlation can substantially reduce the number of false positives in the Ĝ catalogue since galaxies occupied by advanced Kardashev Type III civilisations would be expected to exhibit very high values of q. I identify nine outliers in the sample with q22> 2 of which at least three have properties that are relatively well explained via standard astrophysical interpretations e.g. dust emission associated with nascent star formation and/or nuclear activity from a heavily obscured AGN. The other outliers have not been studied in any great detail, and are deserving of further observation. I also note that the comparison of resolved mid-IR and radio images of galaxies

  2. Grassroots Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    Congress has a large impact on the amount and quality of astronomical research that takes place in the United States. By funding NASA and NSF, as well as other agencies such as the Department of Education and the Department of Defense, the Federal Government enables U.S. astronomers to perform cutting edge research. However, Congress makes decisions based on input from citizens. It the citizens are silent on an issue, Congress does not know it exists. Last summer the U.S.amatuer community rallied in support of professional research, resulting in a healthy budget for both NASA and NSF astronomy research. I will present a summary of how the funding process works and how and why amateurs can and should help ensure continued research funding for U.S. astronomy.

  3. Relativistic astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimishin, I. A.

    The ideas of special and general relativity are discussed in relation to astronomy, in particular, problems concerning blackholes and models of the universe. Such problems as the redshift in the spectra of galaxies, the nature of quasars, and the possible relationships between the microcosm and the macrocosm are also treated. Special attention is given to problems of topology and the three-dimensionality of the universe.

  4. Chaco astronomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  5. Past, Present and Future of Chinese Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Through out the ancient history, Chinese astronomers had made tremendous achievements. Since the main purpose of the ancient Chinese astronomy was to study the correlation between man and the universe, all the Emperors made ancient Chinese astronomy the highly regarded science throughout the history. After a brief introduction of the achievement of ancient Chinese astronomy, I describe the beginnings of modern astronomy research in China in the 20th century. Benefiting from the fast development of Chinese economy, the research in astronomy in China has made remarkable progress in recent years. The number of astronomers has doubled in the past ten years, and the number of graduate students has grown over 1300. The current budget for astronomy research is ten times larger than that ten years ago. The research covers all fields in astronomy, from galaxies to the Sun. The recent progress in both the instruments, such as the Guo Shoujing's telescope, a Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), and the theoretical research will be briefly presented. The ongoing and future projects on the space- and ground-based facilities will be described, including the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), ``Chang E'' (Lunar mission) project, Hard X-ray Modulate Telescope (HXMT), DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), Deep Space Solar Observatory (DSO), Chinese Antarctic Observatory (CAO), 65m steerable radio telescope, Chinese Spectral Radioheliogaph (CSRH) etc.

  6. Humanising Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  7. Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampaso, A.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2004-01-01

    What do we understand of the birth and death of stars? What is the nature of the tiny dust grains that permeate our Galaxy and other galaxies? And how likely is the existence of brown dwarfs, extrasolar planets or other sub-stellar mass objects? These are just a few of the questions that can now be addressed in a new era of infrared observations. IR astronomy has been revolutionised over the past few years by the widespread availability of large, very sensitive IR arrays and the success of IR satellites (IRAS in particular). Several IR space missions due for launch over the next few years promise an exciting future too. For these reasons, the IV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics was dedicated to this burgeoning field. Its primary goal was to introduce graduate students and researchers from other areas to the important new observations and physical ideas that are emerging in this wide-ranging field of research. Lectures from nine leading researchers, renowned for their teaching abilities, are gathered in this volume. These nine chapters provide an excellent introduction as well as a thorough and up-to-date review of developments - essential reading for graduate students entering IR astronomy, and professionals from other areas who realise the importance that IR astronomy may have on their research.

  8. Aesthetics & Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, K. K.; Smith, L. F.; Smith, J.; Watzke, M.; Hove, K. H. T.; Smith, R.

    2010-08-01

    Astronomy is considered by many to be one of the most visual of the sciences. Most people have some experience with visually processing and reacting to astronomical information, beginning with gazing at the night sky. Today, modern astronomy and astrophysics extend far beyond what is detectable with the human eye. Researchers explore the Universe through a fleet of space-based telescopes, as well as major facilities on the ground, which cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The release of science results from these different types of light poses major questions about the dissemination and communication of that knowledge including: how do non-experts (i.e., the public) perceive these images? Recently the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory hosted a survey and focus group meetings to study the perception of multi-wavelength astronomical imagery and the effects of the scientific and artistic choices in processing astronomical data. The images in the study came from a variety of space and ground-based observatories, including the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, the Very Large Array, the Hinode satellite, and many others. This talk will provide an overview of the results of the preliminary Aesthetics and Astronomy study.

  9. Communicating Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

    2007-08-01

    Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

  10. 47 CFR 27.1250 - Transition of the 2150-2160/62 MHz band from the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. 27.1250 Section 27.1250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. The 2150-2160/62 MHz band has been allocated for use by...

  11. 47 CFR 27.1250 - Transition of the 2150-2160/62 MHz band from the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. 27.1250 Section 27.1250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. The 2150-2160/62 MHz band has been allocated for use by...

  12. 47 CFR 27.1250 - Transition of the 2150-2160/62 MHz band from the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. 27.1250 Section 27.1250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. The 2150-2160/62 MHz band has been allocated for use by...

  13. 47 CFR 27.1250 - Transition of the 2150-2160/62 MHz band from the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. 27.1250 Section 27.1250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. The 2150-2160/62 MHz band has been allocated for use by...

  14. 47 CFR 27.1250 - Transition of the 2150-2160/62 MHz band from the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Broadband Radio Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. 27.1250 Section 27.1250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Service to the Advanced Wireless Service. The 2150-2160/62 MHz band has been allocated for use by...

  15. Television Sweep Circuits and Picture Signal Path; Radio and Television Service--Advanced: 9787.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline is designed to give students a working knowledge of radio and television theory and servicing techniques. Course content includes goals, specific block objectives, resistance-capacitance circuit characteristics, sawtooth generators sawtooth generator control and production of scanning waveforms, deflection systems, composite…

  16. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    1988-01-01

    The goal is to use a variety of observational techniques and instruments to reduce, interpret, and synthesize groundbased astronomical data concerning the comets, asteroids, and other small bodies of the solar system in order to study the compositions, physical characteristics, population properties, and evolution of these bodies. This year's research has involved five distinct efforts. Chapman has studied asteroids, with emphasis on synthesizing groundbased databases to determine surface mineralogies and population characteristics; many new results on astronomy, size-distributions, and asteroid family traits have been obtained.

  17. Astronomy stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenson, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    For many years I have taught physics and astronomy courses to liberal arts students. I have found most of my students to be intelligent and diligent, but not anxious to study science. They typically take the class only because their degree requires a science course. Many arrive having already decided they will not be able to do the math or understand the scientific concepts, and have essentially built a wall between themselves and science. In the 1990s, in an effort to help break down that wall, as part of an NSF-supported course, "The Evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life," I began using creative writing assignments.

  18. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  19. Astronomy in the streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebe, Fatoumata

    2015-08-01

    The Ephemerides Association was founded last year by a PhD student in Astronomy. The association is devoted to the promotion and advancement of knowledge of the universe through research and education.The main activities of the association are scientific meetings, the planning and realization of scientific projects, the support of the scientific activities of its members, and the dissemination of related information among members and other interested persons.The association targets the disadvantaged zones of the Paris suburbs.The main issue was how to bring astronomy in those places. In the suburbs, since most of the youth are poor, most leisure activities like cinema are out of your reach. Thus, mostly of them will play football or basketball outside.We decided to go to meet young people who find themselves together in the evening. We prepare the telescope as well as the fasicules to start the observation of the planets. The discussion finally lead to their career plans and aspirations. Astronomy has become a tool to address societal issues. We present our results after one year of activity.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Phillips, Cynthia K.

    2014-06-15

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion “burn” may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to “demo” and “fusion power plant.” A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of

  1. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Phillips, Cynthia K.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion "burn" may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to "demo" and "fusion power plant." A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of power to the

  2. Towards Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, Giovanni

    This chapter is meant to introduce the reader to the forthcoming network of second-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, at a time when their construction is close to completion and there is the ambition to detect gravitational waves for the first time in the next few years and open the way to gravitational wave astronomy. The legacy of first-generation detectors is discussed before giving an overview of the technology challenges that have been faced to make advanced detectors possible. The various aspects outlined here are then discussed in more detail in the subsequent chapters of the book.

  3. Handbook of CCD Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    2000-04-01

    This handbook constitutes a concise and accessible reference on all practical aspects of using Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs). Starting with the electronic workings of these modern marvels, Steven Howell discusses their basic characteristics and then gives methods and examples for determining their values. While the focus is on using CCDs in professional observational astronomy, advanced amateur astronomers, and researchers in physics, chemistry, medical imaging, and remote sensing will also benefit from the material. Tables of useful and hard-to-find data, and key practical equations round off the book's treatment. For exercises and more information, log on to www.psi.edu/~howell/ccd.html.

  4. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  5. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  6. Astronomy Books of 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercury, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

  7. TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-06-01

    Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

  8. Extragalactic astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Components of the active extragalactic universe are examined to discover what extragalactic objects exhibit physical processes of the same kind as those thought to be important within the galaxy. Radio galaxies; quasars; bulk ejection from galactic objects such as novae supernovae, and other galactic nuclei; the red shifts of quasars; and the possibility of non-cosmological red shifts are among the topics discussed. It is concluded that the highest energy cosmic rays may have an extragalactic or extragalactic origin.

  9. Development of the Advance Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; de Nolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2010-07-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (~0.3< Eγ < ~200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, mediumenergy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30×30×30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  10. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  11. Astronomy education through interactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Antunes de Macêdo, Josué

    2015-08-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  12. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  13. Metrology of angles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In astronomy, measurements of angles play a major role. After defining the units in use in astronomy, three methods of measuring angles are presented, with an application to the transit instrument. The interferometric techniques for measuring large angles are described in optical and radio wavelengths. Due to the atmospheric and mechanical limitation on ground, space astrometry has multiple advantages. The satellite Hipparcos is described and the data reduction procedures and results obtained are sketched. In the future, two new astrometric space missions are approved: GAIA, based on Hipparcos principles and SIM, a space interferometer. They are described and the expected accuracies are presented. To cite this article: J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  14. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) Low Cost Telemetry - Access from Space Advanced Technologies or Down the Middle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, presently qualified satellite transponder applications were developed during the early 1960's space program. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR, NASA-MSFC SDR) technology revolutionizes satellite transponder technology by increasing data through-put capability by, at least, an order of magnitude. PULSAR leverages existing Marshall Space Flight Center SDR designs and commercially enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) a commensurate volume reduction. Also, PULSAR increases flexibility to implement multiple transponder types by utilizing the same hardware with altered logic - no analog hardware change is required - all of which can be accomplished in orbit. This provides high capability, low cost, transponders to programs of all sizes. The final project outcome would be the introduction of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost CubeSat to SmallSat telemetry system into the NASA Portfolio.

  15. Teach Astronomy: An Online Resource for Introductory Astronomy Courses and Informal Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, C. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Patikkal, A.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Teach Astronomy (www.teachastronomy.com) is a new, free online resource—a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and a reference guide for lifelong learners interested in the subject. Digital content available includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Motivation behind the development of Teach Astronomy includes steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption by students and the public of digital resources, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. Recent additions to Teach Astronomy include: AstroPix images—from some of the most advanced observatories and complete with metadata, mobile device functionality, links to WikiSky where users can see the location of astronomical objects in the sky, and end of chapter textbook review questions. Next in line for development are assignments for classroom use. We present suggestions for utilizing the rich content and features of the web site.

  16. The TAIGA experiment: from cosmic ray to gamma-ray astronomy in the Tunka valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnev, N.; Astapov, I.; Bezyazeekov, P.; Bogdanov, A.; Boreyko, V.; Büker, M.; Brückner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O.; Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grishin, O.; Dyachok, A.; Epimakhov, S.; Fedorov, O.; Gafarov, A.; Gorbunov, N.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grinuk, A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Horns, D.; Huege, T.; Ivanova, A.; Kalinin, A.; Karpov, N.; Kalmykov, N.; Kazarina, Y.; Kirichkov, N.; Kiryuhin, S.; Kleifges, M.; Kokoulin, R.; Komponiest, K.; Konstantinov, A.; Korosteleva, E.; Kostunin, D.; Kozhin, V.; Krömer, O.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L.; Lenok, V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Monkhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Panasyuk, M.; Pankov, L.; Perevalov, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Platonov, V.; Poleschuk, V.; Popova, E.; Porelli, A.; Prosin, V.; Ptuskin, V.; Rubtsov, G.; Pushnin, A.; Samoliga, V.; Satunin, P.; Schröder, F.; Semeney, Yu; Silaev, A.; Silaev, A., Jr.; Skurikhin, A.; Slucka, V.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L.; Tabolenko, V.; Tarashansky, B.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Tluczykont, M.; Voronin, D.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.; Zurbanov, V.; Yashin, I.

    2016-05-01

    The physical motivations and advantages of the new gamma-observatory TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy) is presented. The TAIGA array is a complex, hybrid detector for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy for energies from a few TeV to several PeV as well as for cosmic ray studies from 100 TeV to several EeV. The TAIGA will include the wide angle Cherenkov array TAIGA-HiSCORE with ~5 km2 area, a net of 16 I ACT telescopes (with FOV of about 10x10 degree), muon detectors with a total area of up to 2000-3000 m2 and the radio array Tunka-Rex.

  17. Astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  18. Astronomy Looks Different When You Listen to It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of a radio telescope to arouse new interest among students. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Radio Astronomy--Which Level; (2) First Steps: The Site--The Antenna; (3) The Electronics: Do It Yourself, or Store Bought; (4) Field Test: Music of the Spheres; (5) Getting Started: Entry Level Projects; and (6)…

  19. Fleet Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebe, D. I.; Colorado College Student Astronomy Instrument Team; Pikes Peak Observatory Team

    1999-12-01

    The Colorado College Student Astronomy Instrument Team (CCSAIT) and the Pikes Peak Observatory (PPO) present preliminary optical and mechanical designs as well as discussion on a fleet of small research-class 0.4-0.5-meter telescopes. Each telescope is being designed to accommodate a variety of visible and near-infrared instrumentation, ranging from wide-field imaging cameras to moderate resolution spectrometers. The design of these telescopes is predicated on the use of lightweight primary mirrors, which will enable the entire optical telescope assembly (OTA) including instrumentation to come in under 50 kilograms. The lightweight OTA’s will further allow the use of inexpensive high-quality off-the-shelf robotic telescope mounts for future access and computer control of these telescopes over the Internet. The basic idea is to provide astronomers with a comprehensive arsenal of modest instrumentation at their fingertips in order to conduct a wide variety of interesting scientific research programs. Some of these research programs are discussed and input from the astronomical community is strongly encouraged. Connectivity and Internet control issues are also briefly discussed as development in this area is already underway through a collaborative effort between the PPO and the Cowan-Fouts Foundation of Woodland Park, Colorado.

  20. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  1. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2005-12-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  2. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  3. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Program Offerings in Astronomy in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R. F.

    2009-03-01

    The formal academic programs in Astronomy of the Rizal Technological University are the first such programs in the Philippines. The Master of Science in Astronomy program is envisioned to provide the student with a wide range of knowledge in many areas of Astronomy, leaning towards the descriptive aspects of knowledge. The student will choose the field or research most suitable to his or her interests. Three of these researches done while enrolled in the program, and even researches completed before the student actually enrolled in the program, may be considered as his or her thesis. The program suits professionals in all persuasions who wish to study Astronomy either for professional advancement or plainly for the love of the science or for intellectual satisfaction. Non-science majors can enroll. In 2008, the RTU Graduate School decided to ladderize the MS program and the Graduate Diploma in Astronomy was designed. This program is suited for science educators, astronomy lecturers and entrepreneurs, members of astronomical societies, and plain astronomy enthusiasts who like to gain in-depth knowledge in the most important aspects of astronomy. A bachelor's degree in any field is required. The program can be finished in two semesters and one summer. If the student opts to continue in the MS in Astronomy program, all the courses he or she has earned in the Diploma will be credited. The Bachelor of Science in Astronomy Technology is an intensive baccalaureate degree program designed to prepare students to become future research scientists and technologists in the field of Astronomy. The BS in Astronomy Technology is a cross-fertilized program, integrating interrelated sciences, such as engineering, geology, remote sensing, physics, atmospheric and environmental science, biology and biochemistry, and even philosophy and entrepreneurship into the study. Thus, the B.S. in Astronomy Technology program gives the student excellent job opportunities in many fields.

  4. Pulsar Astronomy with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsett, Stephen

    2005-09-12

    Despite their name, the rotation powered neutron stars called "radio pulsars" are actually most luminous in the hard x-ray and gamma-ray bands. GLAST will be the first high-energy satellite with sufficient sensitivity to detect and study large numbers of these pulsars. I will review GLAST's key science goals in pulsar astrophysics and summarize the extraordinary advances in low-energy pulsar surveys since the days of CGRO.

  5. The Radio JOVE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, L.; Thieman, J.; Higgins, C.

    1999-09-01

    Radio JOVE is an interactive educational activity which brings the radio sounds of Jupiter and the Sun to students, teachers, and the general public. This is accomplished through the construction of a simple radio telescope kit and the use of a real-time radio observatory on the Internet. Our website (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will contain science information, instruction manuals, observing guides, and education resources for students and teachers. Our target audience is high school science classes, but subjects can be tailored to college undergraduate physics and astronomy courses or even to middle school science classes. The goals of the project are: 1) Educate people about planetary and solar radio astronomy, space physics, and the scientific method 2) Provide teachers and students with a hands-on radio astronomy exercise as a science curriculum support activity by building and using a simple radio telescope receiver/antenna kit 3) Create the first ever online radio observatory which provides real-time data for those with internet access 4) Allow interactions among participating schools by facilitating exchanges of ideas, data, and observing experiences. Our current funding will allow us to impact 100 schools by partially subsidizing their participation in the program. We expect to expand well beyond this number as publicity and general interest increase. Additional schools are welcome to fully participate, but we will not be able to subsidize their kit purchases. We hope to make a wide impact among the schools by advertising through appropriate newsletters, space grant consortia, the INSPIRE project (http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire/), electronic links, and science and education meetings. We would like to acknoledge support from the NASA/GSFC Director's Discretionary Fund, the STScI IDEAS grant program and the NASA/GSFC Space Science Data Operations Office.

  6. Successful Innovative Methods in Introducing Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattejee, T. K. C.

    2006-08-01

    Innovating new informative methods to induce interest in students has permitted us to introduce astronomy in several universities and institutes in Mexico. As a prelude, we gave a popular course in the history of astronomy. This was very easy as astronomy seems to be the most ancient of sciences and relating the achievements of the ancient philosophers/scientists was very enlightening. Then we put up an amateur show of the sky every week (subject to climatic conditions for observability). We showed how to take photographs and make telescopic observations. We enlightened the students of the special missions of NASA and took them to museums for space exploration. We gave a popular seminar on "Astrodynamics," highlighting its importance. We gave a series of introductory talks in radio and T.V. Finally we exposed them to electronic circulars, like "Universe Today" and "World Science." The last mentioned strategy had the most electrifying effect. We may not have been successful without it, as the students began to take the matter seriously only after reading numerous electronic circulars. In this respect, these circulars are not only informative about the latest news in astronomy, but highlight the role of astronomy in the modern world. Without it, students seem to relate astronomy to astrology; it is due to this misconception that they are not attracted to astronomy. Students were hardly convinced of the need for an astronomy course, as they did not know about the scope and development of the subject. This awakened the interests of students and they themselves proposed the initiation of an elementary course in astronomy to have a feel of the subject. Later on they proposed a course on "Rocket Dynamics." We will discuss our methods and their impact in detail.

  7. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  8. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Pavlinsky, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  9. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2008-07-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  10. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  11. Encyclopedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David

    2013-06-01

    Preface; Part I. General Astronomy: 1. Ancient (pre-telescopy) astronomy; 2. Period overviews; 3. International Astronomical Union; Part II. The Solar System: 4. Overview - the Solar System; 5. Sun, Earth, and Moon; 6. Inner Solar System; 7. Giant planets; 8. Smaller objects; 9. Exoplanets; Part III. Stars: 10. Stars considered individually; 11. Stars considered as a group; 12. Types of stars; Part IV. Galaxies and Cosmology: 13. Milky Way; 14. Other galaxies and cosmology; Part V. General Astronomical Tools and Techniques (After 1600); Part VI. Optical Telescopes and Observatories: 15. Overview - optical telescopes and observatories; 16. Optical observatories; Part VII. Radio Telescopes, Observatories and Radar: 17. Overview - radio telescopes and observatories; 18. Early radio astronomy and observatories; 19. Later radio observatories; Part VIII. Other Ground-Based Observatories; Part IX. Solar System Exploration Spacecraft: 20. Overview - Solar System exploration spacecraft; 21. Individual Solar System spacecraft; Part X. Selected Observatory Spacecraft: 22. Overview - spacecraft observatories; 23. Individual spacecraft observatories; Name index; Subject index.

  12. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  13. The astronomy education through interactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-11-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs

  14. Advances in development of Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, Sam; Liepe, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    A 1.3 GHz Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavity prepared with a modified annealing step reached Bp k>50 mT , well above Bc 1=25 ±7 mT , without the strong Q -slope observed in previous Nb3Sn cavities. At 4.2 K, it has a Q0 of approximately 1 ×1 010 at >10 MV /m , far outperforming Nb at useable gradients. At 2 K, quench occurred at ˜55 mT , apparently due to a defect, so additional treatment may increase the maximum gradient. Material parameters of the coating were extracted from Q vs T data, including a Tc of 18.0 ±0.1 K , close to the maximum literature value. High power pulses were used to reach fields far higher than in CW measurements, and near Tc, quench fields close to the superheating field were observed. Based on a review of previous experience with Nb3Sn cavities, a speculative mechanism involving weak link grain boundaries is presented to explain how the modified annealing step could be the cause of the absence of strong Q -slope. Finally, an analysis of the progress to date provides hints that the path forward for Nb3Sn cavities should focus on minimizing defects.

  15. Radio loud far-infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Arjun; Vanbreugel, Wil; Shields, Joseph C.

    1990-01-01

    The first results are presented of a multiwavelength study of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) galaxies with excess radio emission. The sample was selected by cross correlating the IRAS Faint Source Survey, and the Point Source Catalogue with the Texas radio survey. Recent optical (imaging and spectroscopic) and radio (VLA) observations are discussed. These observations will be used to investigate possible connections between radio galaxy activity, star formation and galaxy interactions.

  16. Nontechnical Astronomy Books of 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercury, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 126 reviews. Categories include amateur astronomy, children's books, computers and astronomy, cosmic rays, cosmology, education in astronomy, galaxies, general astronomy, history of astronomy, life in the universe, physics and astronomy, pseudoscience, quasars and active galaxies, reference, solar system, space exploration, stars and…

  17. Early infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2009-07-01

    I present a short history of infrared astronomy, from the first scientific approaches of the ‘radiant heat’ in the seventeenth century to the 1970's, the time when space infrared astronomy was developing very rapidly. The beginning of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy is also covered. As the progress of infrared astronomy was strongly dependent on detectors, some details are given on their development.

  18. Astronomy in the City for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa Maria; García, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. “Astronomy in the city” is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education). In each NASE course we introduce a “working group session” chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair.After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city:• Astronomy in ancient typical cloths• Archeological temples oriented according the Sun rise or set.• Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning.• Astronomy in monuments.• Sundials.• Oriented Colonial churches• Astronomy in SouvenirsIn any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus "what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?" The result is motivation to go with “open eyes” when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings.The most significant characteristic of NASE is that the ”Local NASE Working Group” (LWG) in each country continues with astronomy activities using our materials and new materials created by them. These LWG are integrated by 6 to 8 teachers and professors that participated actively in NASE courses. They maintains alive the program and increases the number of students which can learn through our didactical proposal. There are more than 25 LWG that teach and organize activities on astronomy (education and/or communication) in about 20 countries.In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local

  19. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, John R.

    2010-10-01

    I review the teaching and learning of astronomy, in elementary and secondary school, colleges and universities, and for the public through astronomy outreach and communication. I describe International Year of Astronomy 2009, and some of the national and personal projects in which I am involved.

  20. Differential radio astronomy of galactic objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    A differential astrometry technique is discussed. An improved proper motion and a parallax limit for pulsar 1929 + 10 is presented as well as a limit on the space velocity of the enigmatic object in SgrA.

  1. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  2. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  3. Astronomy Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory astronomer, John D. Callahan developed a computer program called Multimission Interactive Planner (MIP) to help astronomers analyze scientific and optical data collected on the Voyager's Grand Tour. The commercial version of the program called XonVu is published by XonTech, Inc. Callahan has since developed two more advanced programs based on MIP technology, Grand Tour and Jovian Traveler, which simulate Voyager and Giotto missions. The software allows astronomers and space novices to view the objects seen by the spacecraft, manipulating perspective, distance and field of vision.

  4. Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

  5. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  6. Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, M.; Agnetta, G.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Aleksić, J.; Aliu, E.; Allan, D.; Allekotte, I.; Antico, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Aravantinos, A.; Arlen, T.; Arnaldi, H.; Artmann, S.; Asano, K.; Asorey, H.; Bähr, J.; Bais, A.; Baixeras, C.; Bajtlik, S.; Balis, D.; Bamba, A.; Barbier, C.; Barceló, M.; Barnacka, A.; Barnstedt, J.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Bauer, C.; Becerra, J.; Becherini, Y.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, J.; Beckmann, V.; Bednarek, W.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Belluso, M.; Benallou, M.; Benbow, W.; Berdugo, J.; Berger, K.; Bernardino, T.; Bernlöhr, K.; Biland, A.; Billotta, S.; Bird, T.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Blake, S.; Blanch, O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Bogacz, L.; Bogdan, M.; Boisson, C.; Boix, J.; Bolmont, J.; Bonanno, G.; Bonardi, A.; Bonev, T.; Borkowski, J.; Botner, O.; Bottani, A.; Bourgeat, M.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brau-Nogué, S.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Briggs, M. S.; Brun, P.; Brunetti, L.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Byrum, K.; Cailles, M.; Cameron, R.; Canestrari, R.; Cantu, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Casiraghi, M.; Castarede, H.; Catalano, O.; Cavazzani, S.; Cazaux, S.; Cerruti, B.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chiang, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cieślar, M.; Ciesielska, M.; Cillis, A.; Clerc, C.; Colin, P.; Colomé, J.; Compin, M.; Conconi, P.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, J. L.; Coppi, P.; Corlier, M.; Corona, P.; Corpace, O.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Costantini, H.; Cotter, G.; Courty, B.; Couturier, S.; Covino, S.; Croston, J.; Cusumano, G.; Daniel, M. K.; Dazzi, F.; Angelis, A. De; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; de Jager, O.; de La Calle Pérez, I.; de La Vega, G.; de Lotto, B.; de Naurois, M.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, B.; Deil, C.; Delagnes, E.; Deleglise, G.; Delgado, C.; Dettlaff, T.; di Paolo, A.; di Pierro, F.; Díaz, C.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, H.; Digel, S. W.; Dimitrov, D.; Disset, G.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Doert, M.; Domainko, W.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Dravins, D.; Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dufour, C.; Durand, D.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edy, E.; Egberts, K.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elles, S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enomoto, R.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Errando, M.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcone, A. D.; Farakos, K.; Farnier, C.; Federici, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fillin-Martino, E.; Fink, D.; Finley, C.; Finley, J. P.; Firpo, R.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; Fokitis, E.; Font, Ll.; Fontaine, G.; Fontana, A.; Förster, A.; Fortson, L.; Fouque, N.; Fransson, C.; Fraser, G. W.; Fresnillo, L.; Fruck, C.; Fujita, Y.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Gäbele, W.; Gabici, S.; Gadola, A.; Galante, N.; Gallant, Y.; García, B.; García López, R. J.; Garrido, D.; Garrido, L.; Gascón, D.; Gasq, C.; Gaug, M.; Gaweda, J.; Geffroy, N.; Ghag, C.; Ghedina, A.; Ghigo, M.; Gianakaki, E.; Giarrusso, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giro, E.; Giubilato, P.; Glanzman, T.; Glicenstein, J.-F.; Gochna, M.; Golev, V.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, A.; González, F.; Grañena, F.; Graciani, R.; Granot, J.; Gredig, R.; Green, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grimm, O.; Grube, J.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Guarino, V.; Guglielmi, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gunji, S.; Gyuk, G.; Hadasch, D.; Haefner, D.; Hagiwara, R.; Hahn, J.; Hallgren, A.; Hara, S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Hassan, T.; Haubold, T.; Hauser, M.; Hayashida, M.; Heller, R.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Herrero, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, D.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Horns, D.; Hrupec, D.; Huan, H.; Huber, B.; Huet, J.-M.; Hughes, G.; Hultquist, K.; Humensky, T. B.; Huppert, J.-F.; Ibarra, A.; Illa, J. M.; Ingjald, J.; Inoue, Y.; Inoue, S.; Ioka, K.; Jablonski, C.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janiak, M.; Jean, P.; Jensen, H.; Jogler, T.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kabuki, S.; Kakuwa, J.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kankanyan, R.; Kapala, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Karczewski, M.; Karkar, S.; Karlsson, N.; Kasperek, J.; Katagiri, H.; Katarzyński, K.; Kawanaka, N.; Kȩdziora, B.; Kendziorra, E.; Khélifi, B.; Kieda, D.; Kifune, T.; Kihm, T.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Knapp, J.; Knappy, A. R.; Kneiske, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Köck, F.; Kodani, K.; Kohri, K.; Kokkotas, K.; Komin, N.; Konopelko, A.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Kostka, P.; Kotuła, J.; Kowal, G.; Kozioł, J.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Kretzschmann, A.; Kubo, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, N.; La Parola, V.; La Rosa, G.; López, A.; Lamanna, G.; Laporte, P.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lessio, L.; Lieunard, B.; Lindfors, E.; Liolios, A.; Lohse, T.; Lombardi, S.; Lopatin, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lubiński, P.; Luz, O.; Lyard, E.; Maccarone, M. C.; Maccarone, T.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; Maltezos, S.; Małkiewicz, P.; Mañá, C.; Manalaysay, A.; Maneva, G.; Mangano, A.; Manigot, P.; Marín, J.; Mariotti, M.; Markoff, S.; Martínez, G.; Martínez, M.; Mastichiadis, A.; Matsumoto, H.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; McCubbin, N.; McHardy, I.; Medina, C.; Melkumyan, D.; Mendes, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meucci, M.; Michałowski, J.; Micolon, P.; Mineo, T.; Mirabal, N.; Mirabel, F.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mizuno, T.; Moal, B.; Moderski, R.; Molinari, E.; Monteiro, I.; Moralejo, A.; Morello, C.; Mori, K.; Motta, G.; Mottez, F.; Moulin, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Munar, P.; Muraishi, H.; Murase, K.; Murphy, A. Stj.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamori, T.; Nakayama, K.; Naumann, C.; Naumann, D.; Nayman, P.; Nedbal, D.; Niedźwiecki, A.; Niemiec, J.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nishijima, K.; Nolan, S. J.; Nowak, N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ochoa, I.; Ohira, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Ohka, H.; Okumura, A.; Olivetto, C.; Ong, R. A.; Orito, R.; Orr, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Ostrowski, M.; Otero, L.; Otte, A. N.; Ovcharov, E.; Oya, I.; Oziȩbło, A.; Paiano, S.; Pallota, J.; Panazol, J. L.; Paneque, D.; Panter, M.; Paoletti, R.; Papyan, G.; Paredes, J. M.; Pareschi, G.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pepato, A.; Persic, M.; Petrucci, P. O.; Peyaud, B.; Piechocki, W.; Pita, S.; Pivato, G.; Płatos, Ł.; Platzer, R.; Pogosyan, L.; Pohl, M.; Pojmański, G.; Ponz, J. D.; Potter, W.; Prandini, E.; Preece, R.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quel, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rajda, P.; Rando, R.; Rataj, M.; Raue, M.; Reimann, C.; Reimann, O.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Renner, S.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Ribordy, M.; Rico, J.; Rieger, F.; Ringegni, P.; Ripken, J.; Ristori, P.; Rivoire, S.; Rob, L.; Rodriguez, S.; Roeser, U.; Romano, P.; Romero, G. E.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rovero, A. C.; Roy, F.; Royer, S.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Russo, F.; Ryde, F.; Sacco, B.; Saggion, A.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, K.; Saito, T.; Sakaki, N.; Salazar, E.; Salini, A.; Sánchez, F.; Sánchez Conde, M. Á.; Santangelo, A.; Santos, E. M.; Sanuy, A.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Sarkar, S.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Scarcioffolo, M.; Schanz, T.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schmidt, T.; Schmoll, J.; Schroedter, M.; Schultz, C.; Schultze, J.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schweizer, T.; Seiradakis, J.; Selmane, S.; Seweryn, K.; Shayduk, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Shibata, T.; Sikora, M.; Silk, J.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Skole, C.; Smith, N.; Sobczyńska, D.; Sofo Haro, M.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spiga, D.; Spyrou, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Starling, R. L. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steiner, S.; Stergioulas, N.; Sternberger, R.; Stinzing, F.; Stodulski, M.; Straumann, U.; Suárez, A.; Suchenek, M.; Sugawara, R.; Sulanke, K. H.; Sun, S.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutcliffe, P.; Szanecki, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Szostek, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Talbot, R. G.; Tam, P. H.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tavani, M.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Tejedor, L. A.; Telezhinsky, I.; Temnikov, P.; Tenzer, C.; Terada, Y.; Terrier, R.; Teshima, M.; Testa, V.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tokanai, F.; Tokarz, M.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Totani, T.; Toussenel, F.; Vallania, P.; Vallejo, G.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vankov, H.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vegas, I.; Venter, L.; Vercellone, S.; Veyssiere, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Videla, M.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Vlahos, L.; Vogler, P.; Vollhardt, A.; Volpe, F.; von Gunten, H. P.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wagner, B.; Wakely, S. P.; Walter, P.; Walter, R.; Warwick, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Wegner, P.; Weinstein, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Welsing, R.; Wetteskind, H.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Williams, D. A.; Winde, M.; Wischnewski, R.; Wiśniewski, Ł.; Wolczko, A.; Wood, M.; Xiong, Q.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Yanagita, S.; Yoffo, B.; Yonetani, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshikoshi, T.; Zabalza, V.; Zagdański, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Zitelli, V.; Zychowski, P.

    2011-12-01

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  7. Design Concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA: An Advanced Facility for Ground-Based High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Actis, M

    2012-04-17

    Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.

  8. Astronomy at the University of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, D. P.

    2000-12-01

    Unisa is the largest correspondence university in Africa and the only South African university currently offering a BSc in Astronomy. The astronomy modules can be included in any standard BSc Physics programme. Besides using the radio and optical telescopes at HartRAO and SAAO, Unisa also has its own Observatory on the main campus equipped with modern instrumentation for training students and doing niche research projects. Unisa est la plus importante université d'enseignement par correspondance en Afrique et la seule université d'Afrique du Sud qui forme des licenciés ès sciences (BSc) en Astronomie. Les modules d'astronomie peuvent être inclus dans tout programme standard de Physique pour BSc. En plus d'utiliser les télescopes radio et optiques à HartRAO et SAAO, Unisa a aussi sur le campus principal son propre Observatoire équipé d'une instrumentation moderne pour la formation des étudiants et pour mener à bien des projets de recherche dans des niches scientifiques modernes.

  9. The Radio Jove Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  10. The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor for the Study of Radio Transients: Prototype Hardware Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Jesus; Ford, A. J.; Jenet, F. A.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S. C.; Dartez, L.; Garcia, A., Jr.; Hinojosa, J.; Longoria, C.; Lunsford, G.; Mata, A.; Miller, R. B.; Reser, J. S.; Hicks, B. C.; Kassim, N. E.; Ray, P. S.; Taylor, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    In radio astronomy, the low frequency band (< 88 MHz) is one of the least explored regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM), built from technology designed for the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), will be dedicated to the continuous, long-term monitoring of this band. The primary science goal of this project will be the study of radio transients, bursts of radio radiation that can last for a wide range of time scales from micro-seconds to several days. The full LoFASM project will consist of three independent antenna arrays, or "stations,” separated by several thousand kilometers, observing coincident parts of the sky, allowing fast discrimination of local and astronomical signals. The sensitivity and geographical distribution of the LoFASM antennas will offer significant advantages for the study of radio transients compared to previous and ongoing programs. This poster describes the analog and digital hardware implemented in the prototype system which has been developed by undergraduate students working at UTB's Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy.

  11. Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

  12. Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-07-01

    One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National

  13. A Fortunate Life in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    I have had a very fortunate career in astronomy, benefiting greatly from numerous accidents of fate. I grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio, served in the US Army Air Force in World War II, and had all my further education at the University of Chicago, from PhB in the College to PhD in astronomy and astrophysics. There, as a postdoc at Princeton University, and as a young faculty member at Caltech and Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, I had excellent teachers and mentors. I have done research primarily on gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei, but also made a few early contributions on stellar interiors and the heating in the outer layers of the Sun. The major part of my scientific career was at the University of Wisconsin and Lick Observatory, but I also had three productive years at the Institute for Advanced Study.

  14. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  15. Exploring the Birth and Evolution of the Universe: How Detectors Have Revolutionized Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2012-01-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in the capability of instruments used for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy. Capabilities of instruments have expanded in many dimensions; the scale of telescopes has grown tremendously, the wavelengths used for astronomy have grown from visible light to the full electromagnetic spectrum, extending from gamma rays to low frequency radio waves. Additional advances have been enabled by the availability of space facilities, which eliminate the effects of the earths atmosphere and magnetosphere, and allow cooling of instruments to avoid instrumental thermal radiation. Even with all these advances, the increase in capability of detection systems has produced truly revolutionary improvements in capability. Today, I will describe the advances in astronomical detection from the photographic plates of the early 20th century to the giant high efficiency focal planes being developed for modern space and ground based astronomical instrument. I will review the demanding performance requirements set by space astronomy, and show how the detector community has risen to the challenge in producing high performance detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the James Webb Space Telescope, now under development.

  16. Astronomy for African development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Kevindran

    2011-06-01

    In recent years there have been a number of efforts across Africa to develop the field of astronomy as well as to reap benefit from astronomy for African people. This presentation will discuss the case of the SALT (Southern African Large Telescope) Collateral Benefits Programme (SCBP) which was set up to ensure societal benefit from astronomy. With African society as the target, the SCBP has embarked on various projects from school level education to public understanding of science to socio-economic development, the latter mainly being felt in the rural communities surrounding the South African Astronomical Observatory (home to SALT). A development plan for ``Astronomy in Africa'' will also be discussed. This plan has been drawn up with input from all over Africa and themed ``Astronomy for Education''. The Africa case stands as a good example for the IYA cornerstone project ``Developing Astronomy Globally'' which focuses on developing regions.

  17. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  18. Astronomy in Indian Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, V. B.

    Tradition of astronomy in India goes back to ancient times. Many festivals and rituals are associated with astronomical phenomena. Indian children start learning rudiments of astronomy from primary classes. But primary teachers are not equipped to handle this subject so not much learning actually takes place. The first serious interface with astronomy occurs when children reach class X when they are 15 years old. Till last year astronomy was there in class XII also but it has now been dropped. This is a serious setback for the study of astronomy. In class X astronomy forms part of general science. Since children at this stage are not proficient in physics and mathematics the subject remains descriptive though there are useful activities for children to do. However the teachers are not equipped to handle this subject and there is no help in the form of visual material. So the subject remains neglected. The Indian astronomical community can help by training teachers and providing visual material. It must also urge authorities to reintroduce astronomy in class XII if astronomy is to flourish in India. Moreover India needs to network with developing countries share experiences with them and evolve a strategy that promotes astronomy.

  19. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  20. Use of Modern Technologies in Improving Astronomy Education in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiwaji, N. T.

    2006-08-01

    With only the most basic astronomy content officially included in the Physics syllabus of Secondary Schools in Tanzania and a one semester Astrophysics option course offered in the Physics Department of one University, the reasons for apathy towards astronomy education in Tanzania are discussed. Using the current focus on introducing ICT into Primary and Secondary schools in Tanzania, the potential for advancing astronomy education per se and natural sciences in general is presented. Limiting factors such as teachers in general and science and astronomy literate teachers in particular, infrastructure and running costs of providing ICT based education, cultural impediments need to be overcome.

  1. The role of astronomy in society and culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; Boksenberg, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    As an ancient and multidisciplinary field, astronomy is an ambassador for all sciences. Astronomy's broad appeal, whether from its cultural interest of our place in the universe, or its practical aims such as sea- or space navigation, is well recorded in history from ancient to modern times, and sky-awareness, more generally, began prehistorically. Astronomy's perceived role and purpose has continually developed over the ages. In all, astronomy is not to be viewed as a narrow subject operating in isolation but one that has contributed comprehensively to the advancement of society.

  2. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities

  3. Neptune radio emission - Predictions based on planetary scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper a prediction is advanced concerning Neptune's low-frequency radio emission based on the radiometric Bode's law for radio planets in combination with the magnetostrophic scaling law for magnetized planets. The total emitted radio power is predicted to be about 1.6 x 10 to the 7th W, very nearly the same as that predicted and observed for Uranus. Possible emission spectral shapes, based on Saturn and earth-like models, are shown. Using these models, the radio emission frequency range is predicted to extend from approximately 100 to just over 1000 kHz, with a spectral peak between 350 and 500 kHz. If radiation is beamed approximately in the sunward direction, Neptune should be detectable by the planetary radio astronomy experiment onboard the Voyager spacecraft sometime between 45 and 90 days before closest approach. This detection is likely to represent the first direct evidence of a Neptune magnetic field. Possible implications for Neptune's magnetosphere with regard to the time of first detection are discussed.

  4. Astronomy in Hawaii: Telescopes, Research, and Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. K.

    2012-08-01

    Since early Polynesian way-finding combined observations of sky and ocean and allowed voyagers to locate and se ttle the far-flung islands of the Pacific, astronomy has impacted the islands of Hawaii. The Twentieth Century saw telescope development on both Haleakala on Maui and Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island. These complexes have developed libraries and information services to support and enhance their research. The University of Hawaii established the Institute for Astronomy (IfA). The IfA Library serves researchers and instrument developers at each of its three locations. Canada-France-Ha waii Telescope, the Joint Astronomy Center, the W. M. Keck Observatory, Gemini Northern Telescope and Subaru Telescope have each developed library services to respond to their unique needs. The librarians at these organizations have formed Astronomy Libraries of HAwaii (A LOHA) to share resources. As electronic research has developed, each library has responded to capitalize on these new capabilities. In coming years, projects such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Maui and the Thirty Meter Telescope on Hawaii Island have the promise of enlarging our understanding of the Universe. Astronomy libraries in Hawaii will con tinue to enhance their expertise to match the evolution of astronomy technologies and maximize research impact.

  5. Random time series in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Simon

    2013-02-13

    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series.

  6. Random time series in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Simon

    2013-02-13

    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series. PMID:23277606

  7. Multiversos: Rock'n'Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Arias, A.; García, N.

    2011-11-01

    Imagine that you can use your fingers only for typing target coordinates at thetelescope, reduce images and spectra with IRAF, or write papers for Astronomy &Astrophysics, but you would never be able to play an electric guitar.Imagine that you love music, work in front of the computer always withheadphones, and dream of playing with your favourite rock band in a tumultuousconcert.Imagine that you are an astronomer who, after a "cosmic fluke", share stagewith the band which themes you have always hummed since you were a teenager.Imagine that you were born for rock, played a main role in the best Spanishalbum of the 90s (Omega, with Enrique Morente), and your songs arerutinary played by Radio 3, but you would never be able to detect an exoplanetor a galaxy at a high redshift.Imagine that you love Astronomy, try to see the Moon craters and Andromeda withyour small telescope through the light pollution of your city, and explain yourdaughter that Pluto is not a planet any longer. Imagine that you are a musician who, after a "cosmic fluke", give a talk justafter a Nobel laureate that discovered the cosmic microwave backgroundradiation.Such "cosmic flukes" sometimes happen. If you were not at the dinner of the SEA meeting and do not believe us, visithttp://www.myspace.com/antonioariasmultiverso or open the proceedings DVD andlisten "El ordenador simula el nacimiento de las estrella...".

  8. Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

  9. Junior High Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid; Smith, Murray

    Selected materials needed to teach an astronomy unit as well as suggested procedures, activities, ideas, and astronomy fact sheets published by the Manitoba Planetarium are provided. Subjects of the fact sheets include: publications and classroom picture sets available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and facts and statistics…

  10. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  11. Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

  12. Astronomy in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  13. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  14. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  15. A Basic Astronomy Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    This bibliography lists the most useful and scientifically accurate astronomy books published in the 1980s for beginners and students. The books are categorized under the topics of: (1) astronomy in general; (2) solar system as a whole; (3) planets; (4) asteroids, comets, and meteorites; (5) the sun; (6) stars and their evolution; (7) mikly way…

  16. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  17. Astronomy in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beet, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes practical projects, science activities, and teaching aids usable in teaching of the astronomy section of physics courses at the pre-O, O and A-level stages. Indicates that the teacher interest is the decisive factor influencing introduction of astronomy into schools. (CC)

  18. Joseph Henry and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Joseph Henry (1797-1878) is best known for his work in electromagnetism and as the first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. But he was also a pioneer solar physicist, an early advocate of US participation in astrophysics, and a facilitator of international cooperation in astronomy. This paper will briefly trace his role in the development of the US astronomical community from the time he taught astronomy at Princeton in the 1830s through his death, focusing on failed efforts to persuade US astronomers and patrons of astronomy that the best path for US astronomy should be astrophysics. He thought that the US could make a more significant contribution to astronomy science by striking out on a less travelled path rather than competing with the established European observatories.

  19. History of Oriental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

    2002-12-01

    This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

  20. A Wide Spectrum of Solar Science for After School Astronomy Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Lou; Thieman, James R.

    2008-01-01

    After School Astronomy clubs are an important method of exposing students to astronomy at the critical middle school age when sparking an interest can inspire a lifelong career or hobby. We know that teachers complain that they can spend little time on astronomy in the classroom since they must teach to the test and the curriculum requirements do not have very extensive astronomy coverage. We also know that space is a very popular subject with students that can motivate them to join an after school club. One of the problems with after school astronomy clubs is that they don't often have a chance to observe the night sky. We propose to train club mentors on how to do daytime solar observing so students fulfill the IYA goal of looking through a telescope. We propose to provide a half day workshop for elementary and middle school teachers on starting and maintaining After School Astronomy clubs with special emphasis on observing the Sun not only in the visible spectrum but with radio waves and other parts of the spectrum as well. We will use NASA-oriented or NASA-funded educational materials and websites to bring a variety of ideas to the mentors and a broad knowledge of astronomy to the students. Attendees will be given an overview of the science of the Sun and how it can affect us on the Earth. They will be shown the dynamic nature of the Sun and what to look for to track the events happening there. The educators will be shown simple approaches to directly observing the Sun such as pinhole cameras, use of projection techniques with telescopes or binoculars, etc. They will be acquainted with sunspotter scopes and the advantages and disadvantages (such as expense) they pose for getting students involved. We will also point out the possibilities of using regular telescopes with solar filters and the specialized solar viewing telescopes such as the Coronado. Once the educators are comfortable with the simple approaches to viewing the Sun we will expose them to advanced

  1. Large Databases in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Alexander S.; Gray, Jim; Kunszt, Peter; Thakar, Anirudha; Slutz, Don

    The next-generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The archives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. The intensive use of advanced data archives will enable astronomers to explore their data interactively. Data access will be aided by multidimensional spatial and attribute indices. The data will be partitioned in many ways. Small tag indices consisting of the most popular attributes will accelerate frequent searches. Splitting the data among multiple servers will allow parallel, scalable I/O and parallel data analysis. Hashing techniques will allow efficient clustering, and pair-wise comparison algorithms that should parallelize nicely. Randomly sampled subsets will allow debugging otherwise large queries at the desktop. Central servers will operate a data pump to support sweep searches touching most of the data. The anticipated queries will require special operators related to angular distances and complex similarity tests of object properties, like shapes, colors, velocity vectors, or temporal behaviors. These issues pose interesting data management challenges.

  2. Takahashi Yoshitoki and Western astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi

    2005-05-01

    When we discuss the achievements of Takahashi Yoshitoki (1764-1804), we must pay attention to the two "Western" astronomical treatises, for they contributed a great deal to the advancement of his astronomical knowledge. They are a sequel to the Li-xiang Kao-cheng, a Sino-Western work by a German Jesuit I. Koegler, et al. and the Dutch version of J. J. de Lalande's Astronomie. Both books introduced the latest astronomical knowledge from the West. This paper traces Yoshitoki's life and achievements, focusing on his encounter with these two works.

  3. Astronomy Camp: Adventures in Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Eric J.; McCarthy, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the nature of the Advanced Astronomy Camp (AAC), which is held at an observatory at the University of Arizona. For one week, students are immersed in doing science and engineering, using modern astronomical equipment under the guidance of scientists and graduate students. (DDR)

  4. Observations of Jupiter and the Sun using Radio JOVE at Francis Marion University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ryan; Myers, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    The Radio JOVE project sponsored by NASA allows for a hands-on learning experience with Radio Astronomy. Results will be presented of data collected for the Sun and Jupiter using a dual-dipole antenna and a Radio JOVE receiver at the Observatory of Francis Marion University in Florence, SC. Verification of data collected by comparison with other radio antenna will be provided.

  5. NASA IDEAS to Improve Instruction in Astronomy and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B.; Kidwell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The IDEAS to Improve Instructional Competencies in Astronomy and Space Science project is intended to develop and/or enhance teacher competencies in astronomy and space sciences of teacher participants (Grades 5-12) in Kentucky. The project is being implemented through a two-week summer workshop, a series of five follow-up meetings, and an academic year research project. The resources of Kentucky's only Radio Astronomy Observatory- the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT), Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) (via remote observing using the Internet), and the Kentucky Department of Education regional service centers are combined to provide a unique educational experience. The project is designed to improve science teacher's instructional methodologies by providing pedagogical assistance, content training, involving the teachers and their students in research in radio astronomy, providing access to the facilities of the Morehead Astrophysical Observatory, and by working closely with a NASA-JOVE research astronomer. Participating teachers will ultimately produce curriculum units and research projects, the results of which will be published on the WWW. A major goal of this project is to share with teachers and ultimately students the excitement and importance of scientific research. The project represents a partnership of five agencies, each matching the commitment both financially and/or personnel. This project is funded by the NASA IDEAS initiative administered by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the National Air and Space Administration (NASA).

  6. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  7. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  8. The Future of Space Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, George B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

  9. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  10. Astronomy Education in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxa, M.

    2006-06-01

    Astronomy, being an interdisciplinary science having to do with economics, technology, biology, chemistry, math, and physics, can enhance students' interest and overcome the educational problems we face daily in the classroom. Astronomy education, as with education in general, requires an approach from different aspects. Through it students must come into contact with their natural, historical, social, and technological environments. Having this in mind, we began to develop further astronomy education in Greece. According to the natural environment approach, the study of variable stars is of extreme interest to Greek students.

  11. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  12. Astronomy in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the current state of Astronomy in Argentina and describes its origins. We briefly describe the institutions where astronomical research takes place, the observational facilities available, the training of staff and professionals, and the role of the institutions in scientific promotion. We also discuss the outreach of Astronomy towards the general public, as well as amateur activities. The article ends with an analysis of the future prospects of astronomy in Argentina. Although we have tried to be as objective as possible, some statements inevitably contain some personal views.

  13. The Design of the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) for the Study of Radio Transients and Student Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenet, Fredrick; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Longoria, C.; Lunsford, G.; Mata, A.; Miller, R. B.; Reser, J.; Rivera, J.; Stovall, K.; Creighton, T. D.; Hicks, B.; Price, R. H.; Taylor, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey (Astro2010) identified transient science and time-domain studies as one of the most promising discovery areas of the coming decade. The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a new distributed radio array designed specifically to search for and to study transient radio phenomena in the 5-88 MHz frequency range. LoFASM consists of four stations, each made up of 12 cross dipole-antennas. The stations were constructed by undergraduates at the University of Texas at Brownsville's Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy. LoFASM utilizes the same antennas and front-end electronics developed for the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) project by the Naval Research Laboratory. The stations are located at Port Mansfield, Texas, the LWA North Arm site of the LWA1 Radio Observatory in New Mexico, the Green Bank Radio Observatory, West Virginia, and NASA's Goldstone tracking center in California. Having the stations in these geographically distinct regions allows for the immediate discrimination between bonafide astronomical transient events and radio frequency interference. In this presentation, we will give an overview of LoFASM's design and capabilities as well as the project's primary scientific objectives

  14. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  15. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  16. Ideas for Citizen Science in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2015-08-01

    We review the expanding, internet-enabled, and rapidly evolving field of citizen astronomy, focusing on research projects in stellar, extragalactic, and planetary science that have benefited from the participation of members of the public. These volunteers contribute in various ways: making and analyzing new observations, visually classifying features in images and light curves, exploring models constrained by astronomical data sets, and initiating new scientific enquiries. The most productive citizen astronomy projects involve close collaboration between the professionals and amateurs involved and occupy scientific niches not easily filled by great observatories or machine learning methods: Citizen astronomers are motivated by being of service to science, as well as by their interest in the subject. We expect participation and productivity in citizen astronomy to increase, as data sets get larger and citizen science platforms become more efficient. Opportunities include engaging citizens in ever-more advanced analyses and facilitating citizen-led enquiry through professional tools designed with citizens in mind.

  17. The astronomy education through interactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Macedo, Josue

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  18. The Demographics of Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, M.; Marvel, K. B.; Blacker, B.

    1999-12-01

    To assess the status of women in astronomy we need data. How many women are astronomers? How does this percentage change with professional level? Do women have an advantage over men in hiring or other professional opportunities, or do men have the advantage, or is the playing field level? Using recent STScI and AAS surveys, I report the gender demographics in U.S. astronomy departments in 1999. Roughly 1/4 of astronomy graduate students are women, and this percentage decreases with rank, to 6% at the full professor level. Comparing to similar data from 1992, it appears that women fall behind men at the first transition, from graduate student to postdoc, but then keep pace with men in moving to faculty positions. (There is no sign that women advance more easily than men.) Interestingly, the percentage of women is slighly higher in the larger, better known institutions than in the profession as a whole.

  19. Overview of lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

  20. Astronomy without astronomers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magdalena

    Astronomy in Romania has an old tradition. After half a century of privations and isolation from the rest of the world, we believed that the changes undergone by our country in 1989 (and by the neighbour countries, as well) will be benefit for the Romanian astronomy, too. Indeed, it was, but for a very short period. The young people left the country, one by one, and others cannot accept the low salary offered by a research institute. The economy doesn't allow us to enrich the astronomical endowment. Of course, we cannot close the observatories. We have to find other ways to save the astronomy in this part of Europe, especially in the epoch of the space astronomy.

  1. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  2. Women in Astronomy 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space science research institutions have traditionally been populated by a strong male workforce, but this structure is rapidly changing. To help meet these challenges, the "Women in Astronomy and ...

  3. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  4. Remote Access Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Remote Access Astronomy Project, a computerized optical telescope and dial-in data distribution system that places high-quality images and image processing techniques into computer workstations in junior and high school classrooms. (PR)

  5. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities

  6. Popularising astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

  7. Astronomy in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Mexican astronomy has a long standing tradition of excellence in research. After a brief review of its history, I outline the current profile of the community, the available infrastructure and participating institutions, and give a glimpse into the future through current projects. The development of astronomy can serve as a powerful lever for science, technological development, education and outreach, as well as for improving the much needed link between basic research and industry development.

  8. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  9. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  10. Introducing the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Ryan; Christensen, L. L.; Gauthier, A.; Hurt, R.

    2008-05-01

    The goal of the Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) is to promote and vastly multiply the use of astronomy multimedia resources—from images and illustrations to animations, movies, and podcasts—and enable innovative future exploitation of a wide variety of outreach media by systematically linking resource archives worldwide. High-quality astronomical images, accompanied by rich caption and background information, abound on the web and yet prove notoriously difficult to locate efficiently using existing search tools. The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project offers a solution via the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard. Due to roll out in time for IYA2009, VAMP manages the design, implementation, and dissemination of the AVM standard for the education and public outreach astronomical imagery that observatories publish. VAMP will support implementations in World Wide Telescope, Google Sky, Portal to the Universe, and 365 Days of Astronomy, as well as Uniview and DigitalSky software designed specifically for planetariums. The VAMP workshop will introduce the AVM standard and describe its features, highlighting sample image tagging processes using diverse tools—the critical first step in getting media into VAMP. Participants with laptops will have an opportunity to experiment first hand, and workshop organizers will update a web page with system requirements and software options in advance of the conference (see http://virtualastronomy.org/ASP2008/ for links to resources). The workshop will also engage participants in a discussion and review of the innovative AVM image hierarchy taxonomy, which will soon be extended to other types of media.

  11. Gravitational waves and multimessenger astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Fulvio

    2016-07-01

    It is widely expected that in the coming quinquennium the first gravitational wave signal will be directly detected. The ground-based advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors are being upgraded to a sensitivity level such that we expect to be measure a significant binary merger rate. Gravitational waves events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts and neutrino emission carrying complementary information to those associated to the gravitational signals. If it becomes possible to measure all these forms of radiation in concert, we will end up an impressive increase in the comprehension of the whole phenomenon. In the following we summarize the scientific outcome of the interferometric detectors in the past configuration. Then we focus on some of the potentialities of the advanced detectors once used in the new context of the multimessenger astronomy.

  12. Conceptual frameworks in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundak, David

    2016-06-01

    How to evaluate students' astronomy understanding is still an open question. Even though some methods and tools to help students have already been developed, the sources of students' difficulties and misunderstanding in astronomy is still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the development of conceptual systems in astronomy by 50 engineering students, as a result of learning a general course on astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA) that was initially used in 1989, was adapted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool included 23 questions, and five to six optional answers were given for each question. Each of the answers was characterized by one of the four conceptual astronomical frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal or scientific. The paper describes the development of the tool and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to identify the conceptual frameworks of the students at the beginning of the course and at its end. CFA enabled us to evaluate the paradigmatic change of students following the course and also the extent of the general improvement in astronomical knowledge. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index) was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their understanding of conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks.

  13. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  14. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  15. Conceptual Background to Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsonby, J. E. B.

    2004-06-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) conceives the radio spectrum as primarily a resource for telecommunications. Indeed most applications of radio are for communications and other radio services, particularly the Radio Astronomy Service, are deemed to be `pretend'communication serviceas for spectrum amnagement purposes. The language of Radio Spectrum Management is permeated by the terminology ofcommunications, some derived from the physics of radio and some from aspects of information theory. This contribution touches on all the essential concepts of radiocommunications which the author thinks should be the common mental equipment of the Spectrum Manager. The fundamental capacity of a communication channel is discussed in terms of the degrees of freedom and bandwidth of a signal, and the signal to noise ratio. It is emphasized that an information bearing signal is inherently unpredictable, and must, at some level, be discontinuous. This has important consequences for the form of its power spectrum. The effect of inserting filters is discussed particularly with regard to constant amplitude signals and, in the context of non-linear power amplifiers, the phenomenon of`sideband recovery'. All the common generic forms of modulation are discussed including the very different case of `no-modulation' which applies in all forms of passive remote sensing. Whilst all are agreed that the radio spectrum should be used `efficiently', there is no quantitative measure of spectral efficiency which embraces all relevant aspects of spectral usage. These various aspects are dicussed. Finally a brief outline of some aspects of antennae are reviewed. It is pointed out that the recent introduction of so-called `active antennnae', which have properties unlike traditional passive antennae, has confused the interpretation of those ITU Radio Regulations which refer to antennae.

  16. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  17. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  18. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  19. Handbook of space astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombeck, Martin V.

    Tables, graphs, maps, diagrams, and formulas summarizing data and illustrating relationships of interest to space astronomers and astrophysicists are complied in handbook form. General data such as physical and solar-system constants, cosmological parameters, unit conversions, numerical constants, mathematical formulas, and symbols are given in a preliminary section. Individual chapters are devoted to astronomy (A) and astrophysics, radio A, IR A, UV A, X-ray A, gamma-ray A, cosmic rays, earth atmosphere and environment, relativity, atomic physics, electromagnetic radiation, plasma physics, experimental astrophysics, aeronautics and astronautics, mathematics, statistics, radiation safety, and astronomical catalogs.

  20. Astronomy and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2009-10-01

    The problems of teaching of astronomy in the schools of the former communist countries has been disccused in the connection with the genealogical (family names) of the Presidents of the Countries and scientists astronomers and other Country leaders. Particularly the recent decision of the Russian authorities to reduce the hours for the course of astronomy in the Russian secondary schools is supposed to critics. Some improvements of the situation has been reported. The hours for the astronomy teaching in Russia varry, according with the will of Ministers of Education of the Countries, Prime ministers and Presidents. Similar news came from the Romania. In conclusion, there is no a stable curriculum for astronomy (physics) in some countries. This reffer especially to the number of hours. The influence of presidents of the Countries is so great, that the fate of the astronomy teaching (probably of science teaching in general), that it is difficult to have a scientific education in a country without an elementary scientific education of the Leaders of the Countries, particularly of the persons above. An incomplete list of political leaders and scientists (astronomers and physicists) with the same family names is given. Since the number of persons with decision power in the area is about 3 per country in 4 years, the modern astronomy is taught during about 200 years, the total number of family names responsible for the area of astronomy teaching throughout the world during the last 200 years is about 10000. A similar calculation could be made for physics teaching. Another aspect of the problem is the relation of the number of publications with the GDP/capita of the country. The relation between science and policy is mediated by the number of papers /population which "grosso modo" is proportional to the GDP/capita for the country given. Subsequently the GDP/capita corellates strongly with the policy. The SPIRES database ilustrates this with evidence, but with taking in

  1. Astronomy 101 in Washington State High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie H.; Garner, S.; Stetter, T.; McKeever, J.; Santo Pietro, V.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Washington in the High School (UWHS) program enables high schools to offer the 5 quarter credits Astronomy 101 (Astr 101) course for college credits. The credits are transferable to most colleges and universities. The course provides an alternative to advance placement courses and programs such as Washington's Running Start whereby high school students take courses at community colleges. Astr 101 focuses on stars, galaxies and the universe, as well as background topics such as gravitation, electromagnetic radiation and telescopes. The course satisfies the UW "natural world” and "quantitative/symbolic reasoning” distribution requirements. Students must pay a fee to enroll, but the credits cost less than half what they would cost for the course if taken on one of the UW campuses. The course can be offered as either one semester or full-year at the high school. Teachers who offer Astr 101 must be approved in advance by the UW Astronomy Department, and their syllabi and course materials approved also. Teachers receive orientation, professional development opportunities, classroom visits and support (special web site, answering questions, making arrangements for campus visits, planetarium visits) from astronomy department course coordinator. The UWHS Astr 101 program has produced positive outcomes for the astronomy department, the participating teachers and the students who complete the course. In this poster we will discuss our 5 years of experience with offering Astr 101, including benefits to the students, teachers, high schools, university and department, student outcomes, course assessments and resources for offering the course.

  2. Astronomy and Shakespeare's Hamlet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    Payne-Gaposchkin and others have suggested that Hamlet shows evidence of the Bard's awareness of the astronomical revolutions of the sixteenth century. I summarize major arguments and note that the play's themes recur in modern astronomy teaching and research: (1) The play amounts to a redefinition of universal order and humankind's position in it. (2) There is interplay between appearance and reality. Such a contrast is commonplace wherever superficial celestial appearances obscure underlying physical realities, the nature of which emerge as the tale unfolds. (3) The outermost sphere of the Ptolemaic and Copernican models seems to encase humanity, who are liberated by the reality of Digges' model and the implications advanced by Bruno. Similarly the oppressiveness of the castle interior is relieved by the observing platform which enables the heavens to be viewed in their true light. (4) Hamlet could be bounded in a nut-shell and count himself a king of infinite space, were it not that he has bad dreams. These concern the subversiveness of the new doctrine, for Hamlet refers to the infinite universe only hypothetically and in the presence of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are named for relatives of the Danish astronomer Brahe. (5) Hamlet, and Brahe and Bruno, have connections to the university at Wittenberg, as does the Copernican champion Rheticus. (6) Ways are needed to reveal both the truths of nature, and the true nature of Danish royalty. Those unaccustomed to science think that there is madness in Hamlet's method. In particular, `doubt' is advanced as a methodological principle of inquiry. (7) The impression of normalcy and propriety in the upper reaches of society is like the false impression of an encapsulating universe. In Hamlet this duality is dramatized tragically, whereas in King John (cf. BAAS 27, 1325, 1995) it is not; for by 1601 when the writing of Hamlet was probably completed, Shakespeare would have known of the martyrdom of Bruno the previous

  3. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    either strikes or passes near a dust grains, the grain would "spin up," reaching speeds of up to one trillion revolutions per minute, causing it to radiate. The rate of rotation of these dust grains directly correlates to the frequencies at which they radiate. For example, a dust grain rotating 10 billion times each second would emit radio waves at 10 gigahertz (GHz). In looking for this elusive signal, the researchers narrowed their search to 10 dust clouds within the Milky Way Galaxy. These specific clouds were selected because their location and properties would help to eliminate other possibilities for these emissions. "Our goal was to find those areas within the Milky Way Galaxy that would help us rule out other sources of emission," said Finkbeiner. "By selected these specific targets, we believe that the signals we received are very indicative of rapidly rotating dust grains." The researchers emphasize, however, that additional observations will be required to confirm their results, and other potential emission mechanisms have not been ruled out. Particularly, it is possible that a portion of this radiation is due to the presence of ferro-magnetic minerals within the dust grains. Additional studies with more sensitive equipment will be necessary to confirm these results conclusively. "What we think is the most intriguing, however," said Finkbeiner, "is that with further advances in radio astronomy, the faint emissions from rotating dust grains may reveal previously unknown details about the dynamics of the interstellar medium. By detecting and understanding this emission we also hope to give astronomers a tool to greatly refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation." The NSF's 140 Foot Radio Telescope now is decommissioned after a long and highly productive career. Research will continue on the newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which is the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope. The National Radio Astronomy

  4. Radio Quiet Protection at the Australian Square Kilometre array site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Radio astronomy relies on the detection of very faint signals from the universe. Many radio telescopes are now detrimentally affected by radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from a wide range of active spectrum users such as communications, aviation and satellites. This is why many new radio observatories are being sited at increasingly remote locations.The site for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders in Australia is the Murchison Radio-Astronomy Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located more than 350km from the nearest population centre and has a large radio-quiet zone that is managed under a range of legislative agreements.In this talk I will describe the radio quiet zone, what protection it gives, how it works and how astronomers interact with the spectrum management authorities.

  5. Developing Astronomy Research and Education in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sese, R. M. D.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. Thijs

    2015-03-01

    In the past few years, the Philippines has been gradually developing its research and educational capabilities in astronomy and astrophysics. In terms of astronomy development, it is still lagging behind several neighboring Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia, while it is advanced with respect to several others. One of the main issues hampering progress is the scarcity of trained professional Filipino astronomers, as well as long-term visions for astronomy development. Here, we will be presenting an overview of astronomy education and research in the country. We will discuss the history and current status of astronomy in the Philippines, including all levels of education, outreach and awareness activities, as well as potential areas for research and collaborations. We also discuss issues that need to be addressed to ensure sustainable astronomy development in the Philippines. Finally, we discuss several ongoing and future programs aimed at promoting astronomy research and education. In essence, the work is a precursor of a possible white paper which we envision to submit to the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) in the near future, with which we aim to further convince the authorities of the importance of astrophysics. With the support of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), this may eventually lead to the creation of a separate astronomy agency in the Philippines.

  6. The Radio Jove Project: Citizen Science Contributes to Jupiter Decametric Radio Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J.; Higgins, C. A.; Sky, J.; Cecconi, B.; Garcia, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build a simple radio telescope, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth. Regular monitoring of Jupiter and solar radio storms is typical, and Radio Jove amateur observations have improved in their scientific utility. Some observers have upgraded their equipment to make spectroscopic observations in the frequency band from 15-30 MHz. These observations can be particularly useful when made in conjunction with professional telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA), the Nancay Decametric Array, the Ukrainian UTR-2 Radio Telescope, etc. The coming Juno mission to Jupiter will observe the radio emissions while in orbit at Jupiter and will benefit from the Earth-based perspective provided by frequent monitoring of the emissions. With these goals in mind work is now underway to provide simple methods of archiving the Radio Jove observations for use by the amateur and professional radio science community in scientifically useful and easily analyzed formats. The data will be ingested to both Radio Jove specific databases and to archives containing a variety of "waves" data. Methods are being developed to assure the scientific validity of contributed data such as certification of the observers. Amateur scientists have made overwhelming contributions to optical astronomy and we believe the same is possible within the radio astronomy community as well.

  7. Astronomy Students Learn to Think Big.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents background information related to astronomy for high school students. Discusses the differences between astronomy and astrophysics, and the employment of the astronomy graduates. Lists degree programs in astronomy and related subjects in an appendix. (YP)

  8. Astronomy in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearnshaw, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Although New Zealand is a young country, astronomy played a significant role in its early exploration and discovery during the three voyages of Cook from 1769. In the later 19th century several expeditions came to New Zealand to observe the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 and New Zealand's rich history of prominent amateur astronomers dates from this time. The Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand (founded in 1920) has catered for the amateur community. Professional astronomy however had a slow start in New Zealand. The Carter Observatory was founded in 1941. But it was not until astronomy was taken up by New Zealand's universities, notably by the University of Canterbury from 1963, that a firm basis for research in astronomy and astrophysics was established. Mt John University Observatory with its four optical telescopes (largest 1.8 m) is operated by the University of Canterbury and is the main base for observational astronomy in the country. However four other New Zealand universities also have an interest in astronomical research at the present time. There is also considerable involvement in large international projects such as MOA, SALT, AMOR, IceCube and possibly SKA.

  9. Astronomy in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Peña, W. E.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy in Colombia has been done since the beginning of the nineteen century when in 1803 was built one of the oldest or maybe the older astronomical Observatory of America. This is a very beautiful, historical and ancient building. A small dome with a small telescope is also inside the university campus . The Observatory leads since then the development of astronomy in Colombia as a professional science. At the present time a Master Program and a Specialization Program are successfully carried out with a good number of smart young students. The Observatory has a staff of eleven professors all with a master degree in sciences; two of them are PhD and in a couple of years five staff members will be PhD in Physics. With some international collaboration they will shoulder in few years a doctoral astronomical program. There are several research lines mainly in the fields of Astrometry, Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, Cosmology, Astrostatistic and Astrobiology. Three research groups have got recognition from the governmental institution that supports the research in sciences COLCIENCIAS. Several papers have been published in national and international journals. Besides the professional line in astronomy, the Observatory sponsors several non professional Colombian astronomical groups that work enthusiastically in the field of astronomy.

  10. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  11. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  12. Radio Synthesis Imaging - A High Performance Computing and Communications Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, Richard M.

    -distance distributed computing. Finally, the project is developing 2D and 3D visualization software as part of the international AIPS++ project. This research and development project is being carried out by a team of experts in radio astronomy, algorithm development for massively parallel architectures, high-speed networking, database management, and Thinking Machines Corporation personnel. The development of this complete software, distributed computing, and data archive and library solution to the radio astronomy computing problem will advance our expertise in high performance computing and communications technology and the application of these techniques to astronomical data processing.

  13. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  14. Python in Astronomy 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik; Mumford, Stuart; Cruz, Kelle

    2016-04-01

    The second Python in Astronomy conference will be held from 21-25 March 2016 at the University of Washington eScience Institute in Seattle, WA, USA. Similarly to the 2015 meeting (which was held at the Lorentz Center), we are aiming to bring together researchers, Python developers, users, and educators. The conference will include presentations, tutorials, unconference sessions, and coding sprints. In addition to sharing information about state-of-the art Python Astronomy packages, the workshop will focus on improving interoperability between astronomical Python packages, providing training for new open-source contributors, and developing educational materials for Python in Astronomy. The meeting is therefore not only aimed at current developers, but also users and educators who are interested in being involved in these efforts.

  15. Astronomy Librarian - Quo Vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerstrom, Jill; Grothkopf, Uta

    "You don't look like a librarian" is a phrase we often hear in the astronomy department or observatory library. Astronomy librarians are a breed apart, and are taking on new and non-traditional roles as information technology evolves. This talk will explore the future of librarians and librarianship through the lens of some of the recent talks given at the sixth "Libraries and Information Services in Astronomy" conference held in Pune, India in February 2010. We will explore the librarian's universe, illustrating how librarians use new technologies to perform such tasks as bibliometrics, how we are re-fashioning our library spaces in an increasingly digital world and how we are confronting the brave new world of Open Access, to name but a few topics.

  16. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  17. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  18. Our Attempts in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanichai, Yupa

    During the last decade of twentieth century astronomical articles in Thai scientific magazines were out of date. Interacting galaxies blackholes and other celestial objects beyond solar system were hardly found. While a pocket book for deep space was purposefully written by a lecturer a website of astronomy for Thais was planned by the cooperation of two computer programmers. An obseravatory with 600-mm reflector was the first attempt by a Thai engineer. The product of the first 150-mm reflector Dosonian made in Thailand is sold in low price. Future optical programs are now being planned to be made by Thais. These people have recently worked together to develope astronomy in Thailand.

  19. Astronomy before the telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.

    This book is the most comprehensive and authoritative survey to date of world astronomy before the telescope in AD 1609. International experts have contributed chapters examining what observations were made, what instruments were used, the effect of developments in mathematics and measurement, and the diversity of early views of cosmology and astrology. The achievements of European astronomers from prehistoric times to the Renaissance are linked with those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and the Islamic world. Other chapters deal with early astronomy in the Far East and in the Americas, and with traditional astronomical knowledge in Africa, Australia and the Pacific.

  20. Radio Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

    This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…