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Sample records for advanced rechargeable batteries

  1. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  2. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  3. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  4. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  5. Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

  6. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  7. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  8. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  9. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  10. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential. PMID:27487940

  11. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  12. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  14. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  15. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  16. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  17. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  18. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  19. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  20. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  1. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  2. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  3. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  4. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  5. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2008-08-04

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

  6. Conductivity of electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, J. T.; Wilkinson, D. P.; Thomas, G.; Levae, R.; Woo, S.

    1991-06-01

    The conductivity of 150 nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries between -60 and 80 C is reported. A wide range of solvents including esters, ethers, aromatics, chlorinated solvents, etc., and mixtures thereof, were studied. Results for five electrolyte salts which have some promise for rechargeable Li cells are presented. Several of the trends in the data are discussed, and the importance of solvent viscosity in determining electrolyte conductivity is shown.

  7. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Navaneedhakrishnan, Jayaprakash; Das, Shyamal K; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl₃ in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V₂O₅ nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g⁻¹ in the first cycle and 273 mAh g⁻¹ after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  8. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Das, S K; Archer, L A

    2011-12-21

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl(3) in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V(2)O(5) nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 273 mAh g(-1) after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  9. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  10. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  11. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g−1 and 84% at 150 mA g−1 over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g−1 (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  12. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g(-1) and 84% at 150 mA g(-1) over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g(-1) (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g(-1), respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  13. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  14. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  15. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  16. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  17. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  18. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  19. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  20. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-28

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

  1. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  2. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  3. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-10-25

    A secondary battery including a cathode having a primary cathode active material and an alkaline source material selected from the group consisting of Li.sub.2O, Li.sub.2O.sub.2, Li.sub.2S, LiF, LiCl, Li.sub.2Br, Na.sub.2O, Na.sub.2O.sub.2, Na.sub.2S, NaF, NaCl, and a mixture of any two or more thereof; an anode having an anode active material; an electrolyte; and a separator.

  4. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  5. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  6. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay. PMID:25849777

  7. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  8. Moderate temperature rechargeable sodium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Rupich, M. W.; Pitts, L.; Elliott, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Cells utilizing the organic electrolyte, NaI in triglyme, operated at approx. 130 C with Na(+) - intercalating cathodes. However, their rate and stability were inadequate. NaAlCl4 was found to be a highly useful electrolyte for cell operation at 165-190 C. Na(+) intercalating chalcogenides reacted with NaAlCl4 during cycling to form stable phases. Thus, VS2 became essentially VS2Cl, with reversible capacity of approx 2.8 e(-)/V, and a mid-discharge voltage of approx 2.5V and 100 deep discharge cycles were readily achieved. A positive electrode consisting of VCl3 and S plus NaAlCl4 was subjected to deep-discharge cycles 300 times and it demonstrated identity with the in-situ-formed BSxCly cathode. NiS2 and NiS which are not Na(+)-intercalating structures formed highly reversible electrodes in NaAlCl4. The indicated discharge mechanism implies a theoretical capacity 4e(-)/Ni for NiS2 and 2e(-)/Ni for NiS. The mid-discharge potentials are, respectively, 2.4V and 2.1V. A Na/NiS2 cell cycling at a C/5 rate has exceeded 500 deep discharge cycles with 2.5e(-)/Ni average utilization. A 4 A-hr nominal capacity prototype Na/NiS2 cell was tested at 190 C. It was voluntarily terminated after 80 cycles. Further development, particularly of cathode structure and hardware should produce a battery capable of at least 50-W-hr/lb and more than 1000 cycles.

  9. Recycling of used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, T.; Ono, H.; Shirai, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride) rechargeable battery was developed several years ago. Its higher electrochemical capacity and greater safety compared with the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery have resulted in very rapid increase in its production. The Ni-MH rechargeable battery consists of Ni, Co and rare earth metals, so that recycling is important to recover these valuable mineral resources. In this study, a basic recycling process for used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries has been developed, in which the Ni, Co and rare earth elements are recovered through a combination of mechanical processing and hydrometallurgical processing.

  10. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  11. Cycle life sensor for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjundiah, C.; Koch, V. R.

    The problem of characterizing the state of a rechargeable Li battery as a function of cycle life history was addressed. A 50-micron dia Pt microelectrode embedded in the cell package was used as a sensing electrode. Good correlations between Li stripping currents and cycle life were achieved in Li/Li half cells. However, no systematic trends were observed in Li/TiS2 ful cells. Additionally, Li-electrolyte degradation products were found to be either insoluble or electroinactive over the available electrochemical window.

  12. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  13. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. Oxocarbon Salts for Fast Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Liang, Guangxin; Chen, Jun

    2016-09-26

    Oxocarbon salts (M2 (CO)n ) prepared through one-pot proton exchange reactions with different metal ions (M=Li, Na, K) and frameworks (n=4, 5, 6) have been rationally designed and used as electrodes in rechargeable Li, Na, and K-ion batteries. The results show that M2 (CO)5 /M2 (CO)6 salts can insert two or four metal ions reversibly, while M2 (CO)4 shows less electrochemical activity. Especially, we discover that the K2 C6 O6 electrode enables ultrafast potassium-ion insertion/extraction with 212 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C and 164 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. This behavior can be ascribed to the natural semiconductor property of K2 C6 O6 with a narrow band gap close to 0.9 eV, the high ionic conductivity of the K-ion electrolyte, and the facilitated K-ion diffusion process. Moreover, a first example of a K-ion battery with a rocking-chair reaction mechanism of K2 C6 O6 as cathode and K4 C6 O6 as anode is introduced, displaying an operation voltage of 1.1 V and an energy density of 35 Wh kg(-1) . This work provides an interesting strategy for constructing rapid K-ion batteries with renewable and abundant potassium materials.

  15. Oxocarbon Salts for Fast Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Liang, Guangxin; Chen, Jun

    2016-09-26

    Oxocarbon salts (M2 (CO)n ) prepared through one-pot proton exchange reactions with different metal ions (M=Li, Na, K) and frameworks (n=4, 5, 6) have been rationally designed and used as electrodes in rechargeable Li, Na, and K-ion batteries. The results show that M2 (CO)5 /M2 (CO)6 salts can insert two or four metal ions reversibly, while M2 (CO)4 shows less electrochemical activity. Especially, we discover that the K2 C6 O6 electrode enables ultrafast potassium-ion insertion/extraction with 212 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C and 164 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. This behavior can be ascribed to the natural semiconductor property of K2 C6 O6 with a narrow band gap close to 0.9 eV, the high ionic conductivity of the K-ion electrolyte, and the facilitated K-ion diffusion process. Moreover, a first example of a K-ion battery with a rocking-chair reaction mechanism of K2 C6 O6 as cathode and K4 C6 O6 as anode is introduced, displaying an operation voltage of 1.1 V and an energy density of 35 Wh kg(-1) . This work provides an interesting strategy for constructing rapid K-ion batteries with renewable and abundant potassium materials. PMID:27608329

  16. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  17. Rechargeable high-temperature batteries [Book Chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, Elton J.

    1981-01-01

    There has been growing research and development effort in the area of high-specific-energy, high-specific-power rechargeable batteries since the mid 1960s and it has been used in electric vehicles, electric utility networks, and solar- and wind-powered electric generator systems. Nonaqueous systems have been found to be the most attractive candidates for the above relatively large-scale applications. Only the high-temperature cells offer the attractive combination of features sought for the cited applications: a specific energy above 100 Wh/kg, a specific power above 100 W/kg, a cycle life in excess of 500 cycles (at 100% depth of discharge), and a projected cost of less than $50† per kWh of energy storage capability.

  18. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  19. Germanium-Based Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songping; Han, Cuiping; Iocozzia, James; Lu, Mingjia; Ge, Rongyun; Xu, Rui; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-07-01

    Germanium-based nanomaterials have emerged as important candidates for next-generation energy-storage devices owing to their unique chemical and physical properties. In this Review, we provide a review of the current state-of-the-art in germanium-based materials design, synthesis, processing, and application in battery technology. The most recent advances in the area of Ge-based nanocomposite electrode materials and electrolytes for solid-state batteries are summarized. The limitations of Ge-based materials for energy-storage applications are discussed, and potential research directions are also presented with an emphasis on commercial products and theoretical investigations.

  20. Core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as an advanced cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Yang, Jinlong; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-18

    We report the formation of core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as a novel cathode material and its mechanism for use in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. A benefit of the amount of FeS2 nano-crystals as the core for Li-ion storage with high capacity and using coated N-doped graphene as the shell is that FeS2@N-graphene exhibits a remarkable specific energy (950 W h kg(-1) at 0.15 kW g(-1)) and higher specific power (543 W h kg(-1) at 2.79 kW g(-1)) than commercial rechargeable LIB cathodes, as well as stable cycling performance (∼600 W h kg(-1) at 0.75 kW g(-1) after 400 cycles).

  1. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  2. Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  4. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  5. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  6. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  7. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  8. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  9. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  10. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  11. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  12. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  13. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  14. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  15. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda; Kane, Marie; Au, Ming

    2010-10-01

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  16. The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

  17. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  18. Rechargable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.

    1989-10-01

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375 to 474 C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol percent)/upper-plateau (U.P.) FeS2 cell operated at 400 C has shown excellence performance prospects: 200 Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol percent) was found to exhibit 25 percent increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS2 cell. Such a cell has attained of 95 percent utilization of U.P. FeS2 electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8 to 1.0 ohm sq cm) to that of an electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS2 cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3 to 5 mA/sq cm) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators.

  19. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research and development technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical considerations predict increased stability of cyclic ethers and diethers against reductive cleavage by lithium if the ethers have 2 methyl substitution. Diethers are solvents with low viscosity which are desirable for high rate rechargeable lithium batteries. Synergistic, mixed solvent effects increase electrolyte conductance and rate capability of lithium intercalating cathodes.

  20. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 .

  1. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . PMID:27089434

  2. A strategic approach to recharging lithium-sulphur batteries for long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Yongzhu; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    The success of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has brought indisputable convenience to human society for the past two decades. However, unlike commercialized intercalation cathodes, high-energy-density sulphur cathodes are still in the stage of research because of the unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. The capacity degradation over extended cycles originates from the soluble polysulphides gradually diffusing out of the cathode region. Here we report an applicable way to recharge lithium-sulphur cells by a simple charge operation control that offers tremendous improvement with various lithium-sulphur battery systems. Adjusting the charging condition leads to long cycle life (over 500 cycles) with excellent capacity retention (>99%) by inhibiting electrochemical reactions along with severe polysulphide dissolution. This charging strategy and understanding of the reactions in different discharge steps will advance progress in the development of lithium-sulphur batteries.

  3. A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

  4. Implantable wireless battery recharging system for bladder pressure chronic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Young, Darrin J; Cong, Peng; Suster, Michael A; Damaser, Margot

    2015-11-21

    This paper presents an implantable wireless battery recharging system design for bladder pressure chronic monitoring. The wireless recharging system consists of an external 15 cm-diameter 6-turn powering coil and a silicone-encapsulated implantable rectangular coil with a dimension of 7 mm × 17 mm × 2.5 mm and 18 turns, which further encloses a 3 mm-diameter and 12 mm-long rechargeable battery, two ferrite rods, an ASIC, and a tuning capacitor. For a constant recharging current of 100 μA, an RF power of 700 μW needs to be coupled into the implantable module through the tuned coils. Analyses and experiments confirm that with the two coils aligned coaxially or with a 6 cm axial offset and a tilting angle of 30°, an external power of 3.5 W or 10 W is required, respectively, at an optimal frequency of 3 MHz to cover a large implant depth of 20 cm.

  5. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  6. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  7. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. PMID:24926965

  8. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  9. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  10. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the

  11. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the

  12. A novel dry bipolar rechargeable battery based on polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Mousavi, Mir Fazlollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    Polyaniline powder of high conductivity is prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline in solutions containing 0.10 M aniline, 2 M perchloric acid and 0.15 M ammonium persulfate at 5 °C. The powder is mixed with graphite and acetylene black for obtaining high conductivity. The chemically-synthesized polyaniline doped with perchloric acid is then used as a cathode in the construction of a bipolar rechargeable battery which employs anti-acid stainless steel as a conductive substrate for a bipolar electrode. The proposed battery contains electrochemically-synthesized zinc powder as an anode material and a solution which contains 1 M Zn(ClO 4) 2 and 0.5 M NClO 4 and 1.0×10 -4 M Triton-X100 at pH of 3.2 as a battery electrolyte. To prevent hydrogen reduction, 1 wt.% of electrochemically-synthesized optalloy is mixed with zinc powder which contains 2 wt.% MgO, 4 wt.% ZnO and 1 wt.% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. To investigate the effect of separator thickness on battery efficiency, three batteries are constructed with one, two and three layers of separators. Each sub-cell from the battery has an open-circuit voltage of 1.6 V. Two bipolar batteries with open-circuit voltages of 3.2 and 6.4 V are constructed and tested successfully for 100 charge-discharge cycles. The batteries have a capacity of 110 mA h g -1 and Coulombic efficiency of >90%.

  13. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  14. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  16. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium–air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium–air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium–air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium–air batteries.

  17. Rechargeable battery which combats shape change of the zinc anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, E. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A rechargeable cell or battery is provided in which shape change of the zinc anode is combatted by profiling the ionic conductivity of the paths between the electrodes. The ion flow is greatest at the edges of the electrodes and least at the centers, thereby reducing migration of the zinc ions from edges to the center of the anode. A number of embodiments are disclosed in which the strength and/or amount of electrolyte, and/or the number and/or size of the paths provided by the separator between the electrodes, are varied to provide the desired ionic conductivity profile.

  18. Hybrid two-dimensional materials in rechargeable battery applications and their microscopic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Weng, Qunhong; Yang, Yijun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2016-08-01

    Integration of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and their composites into energy storage devices, especially rechargeable batteries, offers opportunities to timely tackle the challenges of ever growing clean and sustainable energy demands. Therefore, it is crucial to design hybrid 2D electrode materials for high performance rechargeable batteries and to fundamentally understand their storage mechanisms at the atomic or nanoscopic levels. This review firstly describes some of the exciting progress achieved in the economic production of graphenes, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and their composites. Then we survey the recent developments in their electrochemical energy storage pathways and present the associated three kinds of storage mechanisms. In addition, we highlight the uncovered structure-performance relationships while utilizing advanced microscopic techniques, such as in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spherical aberration-corrected scanning TEM (STEM), both leading to deep unveiling and understanding of the atomic-scale ion storage/release mechanisms and hence providing clear guidance for designing optimized 2D nanostructured electrode materials. Finally, the major challenges and opportunities that researchers have to face in this field are outlined. We hope that this review can deepen the Chemical and Material Science Communities' understanding of this field and thus effectively contribute to the smart design of future-generation 2D nanostructured electrodes and exploitation of their microscopic mechanisms toward novel high-performance rechargeable batteries.

  19. Hybrid two-dimensional materials in rechargeable battery applications and their microscopic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Weng, Qunhong; Yang, Yijun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2016-08-01

    Integration of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and their composites into energy storage devices, especially rechargeable batteries, offers opportunities to timely tackle the challenges of ever growing clean and sustainable energy demands. Therefore, it is crucial to design hybrid 2D electrode materials for high performance rechargeable batteries and to fundamentally understand their storage mechanisms at the atomic or nanoscopic levels. This review firstly describes some of the exciting progress achieved in the economic production of graphenes, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and their composites. Then we survey the recent developments in their electrochemical energy storage pathways and present the associated three kinds of storage mechanisms. In addition, we highlight the uncovered structure-performance relationships while utilizing advanced microscopic techniques, such as in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spherical aberration-corrected scanning TEM (STEM), both leading to deep unveiling and understanding of the atomic-scale ion storage/release mechanisms and hence providing clear guidance for designing optimized 2D nanostructured electrode materials. Finally, the major challenges and opportunities that researchers have to face in this field are outlined. We hope that this review can deepen the Chemical and Material Science Communities' understanding of this field and thus effectively contribute to the smart design of future-generation 2D nanostructured electrodes and exploitation of their microscopic mechanisms toward novel high-performance rechargeable batteries. PMID:27196691

  20. New nanostructured Li2S/silicon rechargeable battery with high specific energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li(2)S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg(-1), which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO(2) cathodes and graphite anodes (approximately 410 Wh kg(-1)). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg(-1) based on the mass of the active electrode materials.

  1. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  2. Micro-nano structured Ni-MOFs as high-performance cathode catalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Fangyi; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Rechargeable Li-O2 batteries with high theoretical energy density urgently require efficient cathode catalysts to improve their electrochemical performance. Here we first demonstrated the application of Ni-based organic frameworks of Ni(4,4'-bipy)(H3BTC) (4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) (Ni-MOFs) as high-performance cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. It is found that Ni-MOFs with a three-dimensional (3D) micro-nano structure, open catalytic sites and large specific surface area can guarantee the free transfer of O2 and effective contact between the electrolyte and the catalytic sites. Preliminary testing of Ni-MOFs showed that they possess an extremely high capacity of 9000 mA h g-1, a high round-trip efficiency of 80%, and a respectable cycling of 170 cycles without obvious voltage drop. Furthermore, plastic rechargeable Li-O2 batteries with Ni-MOFs as the cathode catalyst have been assembled, displaying an energy density of 478 Wh kg-1. This study leads to both fundamental and technological advances of Ni-MOFs as the cathode for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.Rechargeable Li-O2 batteries with high theoretical energy density urgently require efficient cathode catalysts to improve their electrochemical performance. Here we first demonstrated the application of Ni-based organic frameworks of Ni(4,4'-bipy)(H3BTC) (4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) (Ni-MOFs) as high-performance cathode catalysts for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. It is found that Ni-MOFs with a three-dimensional (3D) micro-nano structure, open catalytic sites and large specific surface area can guarantee the free transfer of O2 and effective contact between the electrolyte and the catalytic sites. Preliminary testing of Ni-MOFs showed that they possess an extremely high capacity of 9000 mA h g-1, a high round-trip efficiency of 80%, and a respectable cycling of 170 cycles without obvious voltage drop. Furthermore

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-24

    We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

  4. Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V.; Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A.

    1996-12-01

    Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

  5. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S. (Editor); Koch, V. R. (Editor); Owens, B. B. (Editor); Smyrl, W. H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  6. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Koch, V. R.; Owens, B. B.; Smyrl, W. H.

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  7. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 197 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Rechargeable batteries. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and manufacture of rechargeable batteries. Patents cover battery control and protection, electrodes, electrolytes, and packs. Citations also discuss applications in computers, telephones, cardiac pacemakers, facsimile equipment, tissue stimulators, electrical tools, heating systems, and power back-up. Solar-powered rechargeable batteries are included. (Contains a minimum of 170 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. 3D Ordered Mesoporous Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Gyu; Lee, Dong Un; Seo, Min Ho; Cano, Zachary Paul; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-05-01

    To enhance energy efficiency and durability, a highly active and durable 3D ordered mesoporous cobalt oxide framework has been developed for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The bifunctional air electrode consisting of 3DOM Co3 O4 having high active surface area and robust structure, results in superior charge and discharge battery voltages, and durable performance for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:27043451

  11. Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications. PMID:27197721

  12. Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gonu; Oh, Misol; Park, Yiseul

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a "solar water battery". The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E(0) (O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge. PMID:27629362

  13. Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gonu; Oh, Misol; Park, Yiseul

    2016-09-15

    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a "solar water battery". The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E(0) (O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge.

  14. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  15. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  16. Perovskite-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube composite as bifunctional catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Hey Woong; Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Ahmed, Raihan; Seo, Min Ho; Nazar, Linda F; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-03-01

    Developing an effective bifunctional catalyst is a significant issue, as rechargeable metal-air batteries are very attractive for future energy systems. In this study, a facile one-pot process is introduced to prepare an advanced bifunctional catalyst (op-LN) incorporating nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) into perovskite La0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3 nanoparticles (LSCF-NPs). Confirmed by half-cell testing, op-LN exhibits synergistic effects of LSCF-NP and NCNT with excellent bifunctionality for both the oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction. Furthermore, op-LN exhibits comparable performances in these reactions to Pt/C and Ir/C, respectively, which highlights its potential for use as a commercially viable bifunctional catalyst. Moreover, the results obtained by testing op-LN in a practical Li-air battery demonstrate improved and complementary charge/discharge performance compared to those of LSCF-NP and NCNT, and this confirms that simply prepared op-LN is a promising candidate as a highly effective bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  17. Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gonu; Oh, Misol; Park, Yiseul

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a “solar water battery”. The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E0 (O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge. PMID:27629362

  18. Solar-rechargeable battery based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation: Solar water battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gonu; Oh, Misol; Park, Yiseul

    2016-09-01

    As an alternative to the photoelectrochemical water splitting for use in the fuel cells used to generate electrical power, this study set out to develop a solar energy rechargeable battery system based on photoelectrochemical water oxidation. We refer to this design as a “solar water battery”. The solar water battery integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and battery into a single device. It uses a water oxidation reaction to simultaneously convert and store solar energy. With the solar water battery, light striking the photoelectrode causes the water to be photo-oxidized, thus charging the battery. During the discharge process, the solar water battery reduces oxygen to water with a high coulombic efficiency (>90%) and a high average output voltage (0.6 V). Because the reduction potential of oxygen is more positive [E0 (O2/H2O) = 1.23 V vs. NHE] than common catholytes (e.g., iodide, sulfur), a high discharge voltage is produced. The solar water battery also exhibits a superior storage ability, maintaining 99% of its specific discharge capacitance after 10 h of storage, without any evidence of self-discharge. The optimization of the cell design and configuration, taking the presence of oxygen in the cell into account, was critical to achieving an efficient photocharge/discharge.

  19. A rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery fabricated with nickel hexacyanoferrate and nanostructured zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are very attractive as a promising alternative energy storage system, although their reversible capacity is typically limited. A new rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and the nanostructured zinc anode is fabricated. The rational combination of two materials with mild aqueous electrolyte renders the devices with an average operating voltage close to 1.5 V, higher specific capacity of 76.2 mAh g-1, and a good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention for 1000 cycles. These remarkable features can provide guidance for the development of rechargeable batteries from the naturally abundant electrode materials with neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  20. Recharging the battery of implantable biomedical devices by light.

    PubMed

    Algora, Carlos; Peña, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    This article describes a new powering system for implantable medical devices that could significantly increase their lifetime. The idea is based on the substitution of the usual implantable device battery for an electric accumulator (rechargeable battery), which is fed by the electric power generated by a photovoltaic converter inside the implantable device. Light impinges on the photovoltaic device through an optical fiber going from the photovoltaic device to just beneath the patient's epidermis. Light can enter the optical fiber by passing through the skin. A complete power-by-light system has been developed and tested with a real implantable pulse generator for spinal cord stimulation. The feasibility of the proposed system has been evaluated theoretically. For example, after 13 h/week of laser exposure, the lifetime of the implantable device would increase by 50%. Other combinations resulting in lifetime increases of more than 100% are also possible. So, the proposed system is now ready to take a further step forward: in vivo animal testing. PMID:19624580

  1. Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, M.; Meyers, J.P.; Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of lithium into the active electrode material. The impedance model assumes steady-state conditions and a linear response with the perturbation applied about the open-circuit condition for the battery. The simulated impedance response of a specific system, the lithium-polymer cell Li{vert{underscore}bar}PEO{sub 18}LiCF{sub 3}So{sub 3}{vert{underscore}bar}LiTiS{sub 2}, is analyzed in more detail to illustrate several features of the impedance behavior. Particular attention is paid to the measurement of solid-phase lithium-ion diffusion coefficients in the insertion electrodes using impedance techniques. A number of complications that can lead to errors in diffusion-coefficient measurements based on impedance techniques are discussed.

  2. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  3. Aqueous Rechargeable Zinc/Aluminum Ion Battery with Good Cycling Performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faxing; Yu, Feng; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wen, Zubiao; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-13

    Developing rechargeable batteries with low cost is critically needed for the application in large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Here, an aqueous rechargeable zinc//aluminum ion battery is reported on the basis of zinc as the negative electrode and ultrathin graphite nanosheets as the positive electrode in an aqueous Al2(SO4)3/Zn(CHCOO)2 electrolyte. The positive electrode material was prepared through a simple electrochemically expanded method in aqueous solution. The cost for the aqueous electrolyte together with the Zn negative electrode is low, and their raw materials are abundant. The average working voltage of this aqueous rechargeable battery is 1.0 V, which is higher than those of most rechargeable Al ion batteries in an ionic liquid electrolyte. It could also be rapidly charged within 2 min while maintaining a high capacity. Moreover, its cycling behavior is also very good, with capacity retention of nearly 94% after 200 cycles.

  4. The chemistry and status of rechargeable molten-salt batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Mamantov, G.; Tischer, R.P.; Vissers, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The chemistry and the state of development of rechargeable molten salt cells and batteries of current interest are reviewed in this work. Molten-salt cells offer the most attractive combination of high specific energy (100-200 Wh/kg), high specific power (50-200 W/kg), and long cycle life (300-1500 cycles) of any rechargeable cells under investigation at this time. It is these important features that justify the development and application of cells that have the disadvantages of operation at elevated temperatures, and difficult materials problems. There are two major categories of molten-salt cells: those in which the molten salt is the sole electrolyte, and those in which the molten salt serves as a reactant and as an auxiliary electrolyte (the main electrolyte is a solid). In the first category are such cells as LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS, LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/, and Li/sub 4/Si/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub 2/; in the second category are Na/Na/sub 2/O . xAl/sub 2/O/sub 3//Na/sub 2/S /SUB n/ -S, Na/Na/sup +/ glass/Na/sub 2/S /SUB n/ -S, Na/Na/sub 2/O . xAl/sub 2/O/sub 3//SCl/sub 3/AlCl/sub 4/ in NaCl-AlCl/sub 3/, and Li/Li/sub 2/O/LiNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3//V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. These cells have operating temperatures ranging from 150 to 475/sup 0/C, and all must be sealed from the atmosphere because of the alkali metal reactants and hydrolytic degradation of molten salt electrolytes.

  5. Recycling application of Li-MnO₂ batteries as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tianran; Cheng, Fangyi; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-27

    The ever-increasing consumption of a huge quantity of lithium batteries, for example, Li-MnO2 cells, raises critical concern about their recycling. We demonstrate herein that decayed Li-MnO2 cells can be further utilized as rechargeable lithium-air cells with admitted oxygen. We further investigated the effects of lithiated manganese dioxide on the electrocatalytic properties of oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR/OER). The catalytic activity was found to be correlated with the composition of Li(x)MnO2 electrodes (0batteries can be prolonged by their application as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

  6. A Highly Active Low Voltage Redox Mediator for Enhanced Rechargeability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Dipan; Black, Robert; Adams, Brian; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-12-23

    Owing to its high theoretical specific energy, the Li-oxygen battery is one of the fundamentally most promising energy storage systems, but also one of the most challenging. Poor rechargeability, involving the oxidation of insoluble and insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), has remained the "Achilles' heel" of this electrochemical energy storage system. We report here on a new redox mediator tris[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]amine (TDPA), that-at 3.1 V-exhibits the lowest and closest potential redox couple compared to the equilibrium voltage of the Li-oxygen cell of those reported to date, with a second couple also at a low potential of 3.5 V. We show it is a soluble "catalyst" capable of lowering the Li2O2 charging potential by >0.8 V without requiring direct electrical contact of the peroxide and that it also facilitates high discharge capacities. Its chemical and electrochemical stability, fast diffusion kinetics, and two dynamic redox potentials represent a significant advance in oxygen-evolution catalysis. It enables Li-O2 cells that can be recharged more than 100 cycles with average round-trip efficiencies >80%, opening a new avenue for practical Li-oxygen batteries.

  7. A Highly Active Low Voltage Redox Mediator for Enhanced Rechargeability of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high theoretical specific energy, the Li-oxygen battery is one of the fundamentally most promising energy storage systems, but also one of the most challenging. Poor rechargeability, involving the oxidation of insoluble and insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), has remained the “Achilles’ heel” of this electrochemical energy storage system. We report here on a new redox mediator tris[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]amine (TDPA), that—at 3.1 V—exhibits the lowest and closest potential redox couple compared to the equilibrium voltage of the Li-oxygen cell of those reported to date, with a second couple also at a low potential of 3.5 V. We show it is a soluble “catalyst” capable of lowering the Li2O2 charging potential by >0.8 V without requiring direct electrical contact of the peroxide and that it also facilitates high discharge capacities. Its chemical and electrochemical stability, fast diffusion kinetics, and two dynamic redox potentials represent a significant advance in oxygen-evolution catalysis. It enables Li–O2 cells that can be recharged more than 100 cycles with average round-trip efficiencies >80%, opening a new avenue for practical Li-oxygen batteries. PMID:27163015

  8. Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-10-01

    The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533 Wh kg-1 within 1 h and 348 Wh kg-1 within 1 min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10 A g-1. Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres.

  9. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; DeLuca, W.H.; Vissers, D.R. )

    1994-11-01

    The idea of battery-powered vehicles is an old one that took on new importance during the oil crisis of 1973 and after California passed laws requiring vehicles that would produce no emissions (so-called zero-emission vehicles). In this overview of battery technologies, the authors review the major existing or near-term systems as well as advanced systems being developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, this overview does not cover all the advanced batteries being developed currently throughout the world. Comparative characteristics for the following batteries are given: lead-acid; nickel/cadmium; nickel/iron; nickel/metal hydride; zinc/bromine; sodium/sulfur; sodium/nickel chloride; zinc/air; lithium/iron sulfide; and lithium-polymer.

  10. Evaluation of selected potential electric utility opportunities associated with rechargeable battery use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.

    1998-07-01

    This report offers a look at key market segments in rechargeable batteries and discusses trends in small cell and non-road vehicle battery technologies. The report provides numerous tables that offer a quick view of the worldwide rechargeable battery market today and its potential for future development, given specifically targeted promotional efforts. Models project that the 1998 total US annual electricity consumption associated with all small cell rechargeable batteries will be {approximately}187.9 million kWh or {approximately}$18.8 million (at $0.10/kWh). In this small cell market, notebook computer and cellular phone applications represented the largest electricity consumption. Due to the surprisingly small annual consumption, promotional efforts to increase small cell rechargeable battery use and associated electricity consumption cannot be considered to have adequate payback. Conversely, the 1996 total US annual electricity consumption of selected recharging non-road electric vehicles -- including lift trucks, golf cars, lawn mowers, floor care equipment, personnel/burden carriers, and airline ground support equipment applications -- was {approximately}3.02 billion kWh or {approximately}$301.5 million (at $0.10/kWh), about 16 times that associated with portable batteries. Because the battery associated with each of these applications is quite large and because the duty cycle for the use of these batteries is quite high, the electricity consumption associated with rechargeable battery-powered non-road electric vehicles appears to have much more impact than that of small cell portable applications. This study concludes that lift truck, golf car, and floor care equipment applications present the most promising promotional opportunities in this market.

  11. Recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter describes briefly the nature and measurement of recharge in support of the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project. Appendix C (Recharge) and the Recharge Data Package (Fayer and Keller 2007) provide a more thorough and extensive review of the recharge process and the estimation of recharge rates for the forthcoming RCRA Facility Investigation report for Hanford single-shell tank (SST) Waste Management Areas (WMAs).

  12. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  13. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  14. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  15. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  16. Flexible High-Energy Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Lee, Dong Un; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Yang, Lin; Bai, Zhengyu; Park, Moon Gyu; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-01

    A thin-film, flexible, and rechargeable zinc-air battery having high energy density is reported particularly for emerging portable and wearable electronic applications. This freeform battery design is the first demonstrated by sandwiching a porous-gelled polymer electrolyte with a freestanding zinc film and a bifunctional catalytic electrode film. The flexibility of both the electrode films and polymer electrolyte membrane gives great freedom in tailoring the battery geometry and performance. PMID:26305154

  17. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal[trademark

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA's ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal[trademark] Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal[trademark] batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  18. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA`s ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal{trademark} Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal{trademark} batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  19. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  20. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  1. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  2. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g−1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na–SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  3. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g-1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  4. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 41142). No comments were received, and the special... rechargeable lithium-ion main batteries and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) start batteries on the Model 680, and...

  5. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  6. Selection of a rechargeable internal back-up battery for a totally implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Shiba, K; Shu, E; Koshiji, K; Murai, T; Nakamura, T; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Takano, H

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of rechargeable batteries, NiCd, NiMH, and Li+, were compared for the purpose of selecting the most appropriate battery for use in a Rechargeable Internal Back-up Battery (RIBB) unit for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart. Batteries of each kind were connected in series to obtain the required driving voltage of 24 V. The NiCd and NiMH batteries were charged by a constant current of 1 C, and the Li+ batteries were charged first by a constant current of 1 C and later by a constant voltage of 28.7 V. All three types of batteries were discharged using a dummy electronic pulsatile load consuming 20 W of power. The tests showed that the Li+ batteries were capable of supplying the required energy for more than 60 minutes. The Li+ batteries had a specific energy of 121.5 Wh/kg, which was more than 3x that of the NiCd and NiMH, and an energy density of 282.5 Wh/L more than double that of the other two. In addition, the Li+ batteries recorded the least temperature rise during charging and discharging. The results of our tests conclusively showed that the Li+ battery is the best among the three for use in an RIBB from the viewpoint of energy density and temperature rise.

  7. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries.

  8. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  9. Carbyne polysulfide as a novel cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

    PubMed

    NuLi, Yanna; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Weikun; Wang, Ying; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiulin

    2014-01-01

    We report the formation of carbyne polysulfide by coheating carbon containing carbyne moieties and elemental sulfur. The product is proved to have a sp2 hybrid carbon skeleton with polysulfide attached on it. The electrochemical performance of carbyne polysulfide as a novel cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries is firstly investigated. The material exhibits a high discharge capacity of 327.7 mAh g(-1) at 3.9 mA g(-1). These studies show that carbyne polysulfide is a promising candidate as cathode material for rechargeable Mg batteries if the capacity retention can be significantly improved.

  10. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  11. Ionic liquid electrolytes as a platform for rechargeable metal-air batteries: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Simons, Tristan J; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-09-21

    Metal-air batteries are a well-established technology that can offer high energy densities, low cost and environmental responsibility. Despite these favourable characteristics and utilisation of oxygen as the cathode reactant, these devices have been limited to primary applications, due to a number of problems that occur when the cell is recharged, including electrolyte loss and poor efficiency. Overcoming these obstacles is essential to creating a rechargeable metal-air battery that can be utilised for efficiently capturing renewable energy. Despite the first metal-air battery being created over 100 years ago, the emergence of reactive metals such as lithium has reinvigorated interest in this field. However the reactivity of some of these metals has generated a number of different philosophies regarding the electrolyte of the metal-air battery. Whilst much is already known about the anode and cathode processes in aqueous and organic electrolytes, the shortcomings of these electrolytes (i.e. volatility, instability, flammability etc.) have led some of the metal-air battery community to study room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as non-volatile, highly stable electrolytes that have the potential to support rechargeable metal-air battery processes. In this perspective, we discuss how some of these initial studies have demonstrated the capabilities of RTILs as metal-air battery electrolytes. We will also show that much of the long-held mechanistic knowledge of the oxygen electrode processes might not be applicable in RTIL based electrolytes, allowing for creative new solutions to the traditional irreversibility of the oxygen reduction reaction. Our understanding of key factors such as the effect of catalyst chemistry and surface structure, proton activity and interfacial reactions is still in its infancy in these novel electrolytes. In this perspective we highlight the key areas that need the attention of electrochemists and battery engineers, in order to progress

  12. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature.

  13. Effects of battery type and age on performance of rechargeable laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Milne, Andrew D; Brousseau, Claire A

    2013-10-01

    Optimal visualization of the glottis can be crucial to successful laryngoscopy. Limited information has been published on the light intensity delivered from laryngoscopes powered by rechargeable batteries. In this study the laryngoscope light intensity delivered from 10 nickel metal hydride (NiMH), 7 nickel cadmium (NiCAD), and 2 lithium (LI) batteries with 3-5 or more years of clinical usage were tested in comparison to 5 new NiMH batteries. Each battery was charged in a new laryngoscope handle and recharging unit for 24 h before testing. Light intensity (lux) from the bulb in the laryngoscope handle was recorded at 3-min intervals under continuous loading until battery depletion. The mean times ±1 standard deviation (SD) to minimum acceptable light output (2,000 lux from the handle) were new NiMH 70 ± 1 min, 3-year-old NiMH 96 ± 2 min, 5+ year-old NiCAD 45 ± 22 min, and 5+ year-old LI 117 ± 4 min. There were significant differences in the time to minimum light intensity among all groups (p = 0.00-0.04). All new and used batteries exceeded the minimum ISO standard of light intensity for more than 10 min. These data demonstrate that rechargeable laryngoscope batteries can safely be used for several years before requiring replacement.

  14. Exploration of cobalt phosphate as a potential catalyst for rechargeable aqueous sodium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Baskar; Khan, Ziyauddin; Park, Sangmin; Seo, Inseok; Ko, Hyunhyub; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-04-01

    Bifunctional catalysts are prominent to attain high capacity, maximum energy efficiency and long cycle-life for aqueous rechargeable Na-air batteries. In this work, we report the synthesis of bi-functional noble metal free, Co3(PO4)2 nanostructures by facile precipitation technique and evaluated its electrocatalytic activity. Co3(PO4)2 nanostructure was investigated as a potential electrocatalyst for rechargeable aqueous Na-air battery for the first time. The synthesized Co3(PO4)2 grain-like nanostructures showed better oxygen evolution activity compared to Pt/C catalyst. The fabricated Na-air battery with the Co3(PO4)2 catalyst as air-cathode delivered low overpotential and its round trip energy efficiency reached up to 83%. The Na-air battery exhibited stable cycle performance up to 50 cycles.

  15. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  16. Anthraquinone-Based Polymer as Cathode in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bitenc, Jan; Pirnat, Klemen; Bančič, Tanja; Gaberšček, Miran; Genorio, Boštjan; Randon-Vitanova, Anna; Dominko, Robert

    2015-12-21

    Mg batteries are a promising battery technology that could lead to safer and significantly less expensive non-aqueous batteries with energy densities comparable or even better than state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Although the first prototype Mg battery using stable Mo6S8 as cathode was introduced over fifteen years ago, major challenges remain to be solved. In particular, the design of high energy cathode materials and the development of non-corrosive electrolytes with high oxidative stability are issues that need to be tackled. Herein, we present a new, general, and robust approach towards achieving stable cycling of Mg batteries. The core of our approach is the use of stable polymer cathode and Mg powder anode coupled with non-nucleophilic electrolytes. Our systems exhibit an excellent rate capability and significant improvement in electrochemical stability.

  17. A solar rechargeable flow battery based on photoregeneration of two soluble redox couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Cao, Yu-liang; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2013-05-01

    Storable sunshine, reusable rays: A solar rechargeable redox flow battery is proposed based on the photoregeneration of I(3)(-)/I(-) and [Fe(C(10)H(15))(2)](+)/Fe(C(10)H(15))(2) soluble redox couples, which can be regenerated by flowing from a discharged redox flow battery (RFB) into a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and then stored in tanks for subsequent RFB applications This technology enables effective solar-to-chemical energy conversion.

  18. Rechargeable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries - A status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375 to 475 C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol percent)/upper-plateau (U.P.) FeS2 cell operated at 400 C has shown exellence performance prospects: 200-Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol percent) was found to exhibit 25 percent increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS2 cell. Such a cell has attained of 95 percent utilization of U.P. FeS2 electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8 to 1.0 ohm sq cm) to that of an electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS2 cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3 to 5 mA/sq cm) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators.

  19. Rechargable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375-474{degree}C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol%)/upper-plateau (U.P). FeS{sub 2} cell operated at 400{degree}C has shown excellence performance prospects: 200 Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol%) was found to exhibit 25% increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS{sub 2} cell. Such a cell has attained of 95% utilization of U.P. FeS{sub 2} electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8-1.0 ohm -cm{sup 2}) to that of an the electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS{sub 2} cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3-5 mA/cm{sup 2}) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  1. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  2. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes.

  3. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes. PMID:20677207

  4. A New Perspective on Li-SO2 Batteries for Rechargeable Systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Hyeokjun; Kim, Hyungsub; Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Byungju; Bae, Youngjoon; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Kang, Kisuk

    2015-08-10

    Primary Li-SO2 batteries offer a high energy density in a wide operating temperature range with exceptionally long shelf life and have thus been frequently used in military and aerospace applications. Although these batteries have never been demonstrated as a rechargeable system, herein, we show that the reversible formation of Li2S2O4, the major discharge product of Li-SO2 battery, is possible with a remarkably smaller charging polarization than that of a Li-O2 battery without the use of catalysts. The rechargeable Li-SO2 battery can deliver approximately 5400 mAh g(-1) at 3.1 V, which is slightly higher than the performance of a Li-O2 battery. In addition, the Li-SO2 battery can be operated with the aid of a redox mediator, exhibiting an overall polarization of less than 0.3 V, which results in one of the highest energy efficiencies achieved for Li-gas battery systems.

  5. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  6. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  7. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  8. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  9. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-11

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 Ah · g(-1) at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  10. Using Li(+) as the electrochemical messenger to fabricate an aqueous rechargeable Zn-Cu battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanping; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xin; Zhou, Yisen; Yang, Chao; Zhu, Tian; Dong, Rulin

    2015-04-30

    We propose an aqueous rechargeable Zn-Cu Daniell-type battery. In this system, Li(+) prefers to conduct currents rather than react with the electrodes, while the Zn-Cu electrode couples engage in their electrochemical reactions free from conducting currents. Here Li(+) performs like a messenger and thus could be called the electrochemical messenger.

  11. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  12. Synergistic bifunctional catalyst design based on perovskite oxide nanoparticles and intertwined carbon nanotubes for rechargeable zinc-air battery applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Hey Woong; Park, Moon Gyu; Ismayilov, Vugar; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-14

    Advanced morphology of intertwined core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (IT-CCBC) is introduced where perovskite lanthanum nickel oxide nanoparticles (LaNiO3 NP) are encapsulated by high surface area network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) to produce highly active and durable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. The unique composite morphology of IT-CCBC not only enhances the charge transport property by providing rapid electron-conduction pathway but also facilitates in diffusion of hydroxyl and oxygen reactants through the highly porous framework. Confirmed by electrochemical half-cell testing, IT-CCBC in fact exhibits very strong synergy between LaNiO3 NP and NCNT demonstrating bifunctionality with significantly improved catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, when compared to the state-of-art catalysts, IT-CCBC outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C in terms of ORR and OER, respectively, and shows improved electrochemical stability compared to them after cycle degradation testing. The practicality of the catalyst is corroborated by testing in a realistic rechargeable zinc-air battery utilizing atmospheric air in ambient conditions, where IT-CCBC demonstrates superior charge and discharge voltages and long-term cycle stability with virtually no battery voltage fading. These improved electrochemical properties of the catalyst are attributed to the nanosized dimensions of LaNiO3 NP controlled by simple hydrothermal technique, which enables prolific growth of and encapsulation by highly porous NCNT network. The excellent electrochemical results presented in this study highlight IT-CCBC as highly efficient and commercially viable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

  13. Synergistic bifunctional catalyst design based on perovskite oxide nanoparticles and intertwined carbon nanotubes for rechargeable zinc-air battery applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Hey Woong; Park, Moon Gyu; Ismayilov, Vugar; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-14

    Advanced morphology of intertwined core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (IT-CCBC) is introduced where perovskite lanthanum nickel oxide nanoparticles (LaNiO3 NP) are encapsulated by high surface area network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) to produce highly active and durable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. The unique composite morphology of IT-CCBC not only enhances the charge transport property by providing rapid electron-conduction pathway but also facilitates in diffusion of hydroxyl and oxygen reactants through the highly porous framework. Confirmed by electrochemical half-cell testing, IT-CCBC in fact exhibits very strong synergy between LaNiO3 NP and NCNT demonstrating bifunctionality with significantly improved catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, when compared to the state-of-art catalysts, IT-CCBC outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C in terms of ORR and OER, respectively, and shows improved electrochemical stability compared to them after cycle degradation testing. The practicality of the catalyst is corroborated by testing in a realistic rechargeable zinc-air battery utilizing atmospheric air in ambient conditions, where IT-CCBC demonstrates superior charge and discharge voltages and long-term cycle stability with virtually no battery voltage fading. These improved electrochemical properties of the catalyst are attributed to the nanosized dimensions of LaNiO3 NP controlled by simple hydrothermal technique, which enables prolific growth of and encapsulation by highly porous NCNT network. The excellent electrochemical results presented in this study highlight IT-CCBC as highly efficient and commercially viable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. PMID:25494945

  14. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  15. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  16. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system.

  17. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  18. A new design for dry polyaniline rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Mousavi, Mir Fazlollah; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    Polyanilline powder of high conductivity is prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline in a solution of 0.10 M aniline, 2 M perchloric acid and 0.15 M ammonium persulfate at 5 °C. The powder is mixed with graphite and acetylene black to obtain the required conductivity and porosity. The mixed powder is compressed into a ring shape at a pressure of 2 t cm -2 for use as positive electrodes (cathodes) in batteries. Zinc powder is mixed with magnesium oxide, zinc oxide and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and then compressed into a cylindrical shape at a pressure of 7 t cm -2 for use as negative electrodes (anodes) in batteries. The battery electrolyte comprises 2 M Zn(ClO 4) 2, 1 M NH 4ClO 4, and 1.0×10 -4 M Triton-X100 at pH 3. A 1 wt.% Optalloy powder is added to the negative-electrode composite to prevent the release of hydrogen gas. The assembled battery has an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.64 V, a charge storage capacity of 125.43 m Ah g -1, and a Coulombic efficiency greater than 95% during the first 100 charge-discharge cycles. Due to the low amount of electrolyte used, the battery is considered as a dry battery.

  19. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries in recent decades. Discoveries of new electrode materials as well as new storage mechanisms have substantially improved battery performance. In particular, nanomaterials design has emerged as a promising solution to tackle many fundamental problems in conventional battery materials. Here we discuss in detail several key issues in batteries, such as electrode volume change, solid–electrolyte interphase formation, electron and ion transport, and electrode atom/molecule movement, and then analyse the advantages presented by nanomaterials design. In addition, we discuss the challenges caused by using nanomaterials in batteries, including undesired parasitic reactions with electrolytes, low volumetric and areal energy density, and high costs from complex multi-step processing, and their possible solutions.

  20. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries in recent decades. Discoveries of new electrode materials as well as new storage mechanisms have substantially improved battery performance. In particular, nanomaterials design has emerged as a promising solution to tackle many fundamental problems in conventional battery materials. Here we discuss in detail several key issues in batteries, such as electrode volume change, solid-electrolyte interphase formation, electron and ion transport, and electrode atom/molecule movement, and then analyse the advantages presented by nanomaterials design. In addition, we discuss the challenges caused by using nanomaterials in batteries, including undesired parasitic reactions with electrolytes, low volumetric and areal energy density, and high costs from complex multi-step processing, and their possible solutions.

  1. Highly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Sheets for Rechargeable Lithium Oxygen Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Kim, Byung Gon; Choi, Jang Wook; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-10-01

    Lithium oxygen batteries are one of the next generation rechargeable batteries. High energy density of lithium oxygen batteries have been considered as a very attractive power option for electric vehicles and many other electronic devices. However, they still faced substantial challenges such as short cycle life, large voltage hysteresis, low gravimetric and volumetric power. Here we developed a highly aligned CNT structured sheet for favorable lithium oxygen cathode electrodes. We fabricated highly oriented CNT sheets by rolling vertically aligned CNT arrays. Highly oriented CNT sheets provide excellent electrical conductivity with favorable mesoporous structure for cathode electrode. As a result, the CNT sheet performed maximum discharging capacity of 1810 mA/gc. We found that electrical conductivity and pore distribution plays important rolls for improving performance in lithium oxygen batteries. This study suggests new strategies of designing highly efficient porous carbon electrodes for lithium oxygen batteries. PMID:26726383

  2. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held July 16-18, 2013, from...

  3. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  4. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  5. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries. PMID:26241461

  6. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery module for underwater use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David R.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Fletcher, Michael; Stimson, Eric; Mollendorf, Joseph C.

    Portable underwater electrical power is needed for many commercial, recreational and military applications. A battery system is currently not available to meet these needs, which was the aim of this project. Lithium-ion battery cells (Panasonic (CGR18650E)) were chosen, based on their high energy density and availability. To increase their voltage, 8 battery cells were connected in series ("sticks") and protected by encapsulating them into a polycarbonate tube; and 6 sticks were housed inside a triangular aluminum case (module). Testing was performed to determine the consistency of individual cells, sticks and module and during discharge/charging cycles. The effect of ambient temperature (T A) was determined by instrumenting them with thermocouples. In addition, voltage and current were measured and used to determine the heat generated within the battery cell and were compared to theory. From these data, a radial temperature profile was determined for two battery sticks in the battery module. Collapse pressure was determined and compared to theory. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells delivered 2291 mAh each over a wide range of T A and discharge/charge rates. The theoretical and experimental data showed that the temperature within the battery sticks and modules did not rise above or below their operating temperature range (-20 and 60 °C), in agreement with the models. The tubes encapsulating the sticks withstood pressures down to 305 m of sea water (msw) which was predicted by modeling. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells, sticks and module demonstrated that they provided sufficient electrical power, reliably and safely to be used in the underwater environment (1800-2000 kPa, 305 msw) over a wide range T A, including high power requirement systems like an active thermal protection system that keeps a diver comfortable in extreme temperature conditions. The concept developed here can be modified to meet specific power requirements by varying the number of cell in series to

  7. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries for implantable devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.b.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x-ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin-film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001 %/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li-LiCoO{sub 2} thin-film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  8. Solar battery recharge options for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Paul E.

    2001-09-01

    The operational lifetime of an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) depends on the power consumption of the package and the space allocated for batteries. Solar cells have the potential of dramatically increasing operational lifetimes of UGS instruments by providing supplemental power, but in this application solar cells are subject to a number of non-traditional constraints. There are UGS applications where the solar array will need to be covert or have a high shock resistance. It is also possible that a UGS-solar array will be placed in a shaded area or randomly oriented with respect to the path of the sun. This paper will first survey conventional approaches towards solar battery charging and then discuss non-conventional approaches applicable to randomly oriented and covert UGS solar cell arrays.

  9. Polymer electrolytes for a rechargeable li-Ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Argade, S.D.; Saraswat, A.K.; Rao, B.M.L.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    Lithium-ion polymer electrolyte battery technology is attractive for many consumer and military applications. A Li{sub x}C/Li{sub y}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} battery system incorporating a polymer electrolyte separator base on novel Li-imide salts is being developed under sponsorship of US Army Research Laboratory (Fort Monmouth NJ). This paper reports on work currently in progress on synthesis of Li-imide salts, polymer electrolyte films incorporating these salts, and development of electrodes and cells. A number of Li salts have been synthesized and characterized. These salts appear to have good voltaic stability. PVDF polymer gel electrolytes based on these salts have exhibited conductivities in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sub -3} S/cm.

  10. High-energy non-rechargeable batteries and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Robert; Kruger, Ken

    1990-04-01

    Many of the more recently developed high energy battery systems employ Li anodes, which are capable of energy densities of 700 W h/kg and shelf power-losses of less than 3 percent/yr. It has been noted, however, that some Li-based systems exhibit 'voltage sag' during storage and pose some safety problems in cases of inadvertent abuse. The two highest energy-output yielding of the current Li systems, namely Li/CF(x) spiral cells and Li/thionyl chloride liquid cathode cells, are presented and compared with a Zn/AgO electrochemical (aqueous) battery system which, although of older design, is still capable of substantial energy densities.

  11. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  12. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  13. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be held July 17-19, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  14. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held February 7, 2013, from...

  15. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held April 2-5, 2013, from...

  16. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the... Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held May 1-3, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  17. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the... Systems, Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held February 28-29, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  18. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  19. Binder-free V2O5 cathode for greener rechargeable aluminum battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huali; Bai, Ying; Chen, Shi; Luo, Xiangyi; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-14

    This letter reports on the investigation of a binder-free cathode material to be used in rechargeable aluminum batteries. This cathode is synthesized by directly depositing V2O5 on a Ni foam current collector. Rechargeable aluminum coin cells fabricated using the as-synthesized binder-free cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 239 mAh/g, which is much higher than that of batteries fabricated using a cathode composed of V2O5 nanowires and binder. An obvious discharge voltage plateau appeared at 0.6 V in the discharge curves of the Ni-V2O5 cathode, which is slightly higher than that of the V2O5 nanowire cathodes with common binders. This improvement is attributed to reduced electrochemical polarization.

  20. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  1. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  2. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Wang, J.C.F.; Crocker, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.W.

    1999-03-16

    A method is described for producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of {approx_equal} 80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere. 4 figs.

  3. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries. Technical report, July 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Osaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Shiota, K.; Owens, B.B.

    1989-06-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or Platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber(NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF{sub 3}COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The Pan cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g. 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  4. High voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries having a non-aqueous electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E.; Hwang, Jaehee

    2016-03-22

    A rechargable magnesium battery having an non-aqueous electrolyte is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  5. Rechargeable Mg battery cathode TiS3 with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kouji; Gu, Yunpeng; Katsura, Yukari; Yoshino, Takafumi; Takagi, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable performance is realized in Mg batteries using a TiS3 cathode without the nanometer-scale downsizing of electrode particles. The specific capacity is about 80 mAh/g for the first 50 cycles at room temperature. This observed specific capacity is comparable to that of the prototype cathode for Mg batteries. First-principles calculation indicates that TiS3 is a semiconductor with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures around the Fermi level. The reversible electrode performance is likely assisted by the delocalized electronic distribution over metal-ligand units through d-p orbital hybridization.

  6. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  7. Aqueous Rechargeable Alkaline CoxNi2-xS2/TiO2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Ku, Zhiliang; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-26

    An electrochemical energy storage system with high energy density, stringent safety, and reliability is highly desirable for next-generation energy storage devices. Here an aqueous rechargeable alkaline CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery system is designed by integrating two reversible electrode processes associated with OH(-) insertion/extraction in the cathode part and Li ion insertion/extraction in the anode part, respectively. The prototype CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery is able to deliver high energy/power densities of 83.7 Wh/kg at 609 W/kg (based on the total mass of active materials) and good cycling stabilities (capacity retention 75.2% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). A maximum volumetric energy density of 21 Wh/l (based on the whole packaged cell) has been achieved, which is comparable to that of a thin-film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors, benefiting from the unique battery and hierarchical electrode design. This hybrid system would enrich the existing aqueous rechargeable LIB chemistry and be a promising battery technology for large-scale energy storage.

  8. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  9. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  10. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  11. Apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Coffey, Gregory W.

    2016-09-13

    The approaches and apparatuses for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  12. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Studies Of Rechargeable Batteries Under Dynamic Operating Conditions: A Retrospective And Perspective View

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.

    2015-02-14

    Since the advent of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), continuing efforts have been made to image material under native and reaction environments that typically involve liquids, gases, and external stimuli. With the advances of aberration-corrected TEM for improving the imaging resolution, steady progress has been made on developing methodologies that allow imaging under dynamic operating conditions, or in situ TEM imaging. The success of in situ TEM imaging is closely associated with advances in microfabrication techniques that enable manipulation of nanoscale objects around the objective lens of the TEM. This paper summarizes and highlights recent progress involving in situ TEM studies of energy storage materials, especially rechargeable batteries. The paper is organized to cover both the in situ TEM techniques and the scientific discoveries made possible by in situ TEM imaging.

  13. Rechargeable alkaline zinc/ferricyanide hybrid redox battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, G. B.; Hollandsworth, R. P.; Littauer, E. L.

    It is noted that the zinc/ferricyanide battery system is intended for utility load leveling and solar photovoltaic/wind applications, offering such advantages as high cell voltage, near-ambient temperature operation, flowing alkaline electrolyte, low-cost reactant storage, low toxicity, potentially long cycle life, and low projected capital costs. The system is found to demonstrate excellent electrochemical performance. Cell voltages are 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge at 35 mA/sq cm, and the peak power density is of 4.5 kW/sq m. Cell polarization losses are due almost entirely to IR within the separator material. At 40 C a mean energy efficiency of 84% is obtained after 950 4-hour cycles. An economic analysis suggests a battery selling price of $32/kWh, an installed price of $230/kW, and a footprint of 8.7 kWh per square foot as realistic goals for a 20 MW, 100 MWh system.

  14. Impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Svärd, Bo

    2003-01-20

    The use of portable rechargeable battery cells and their effects on global metal flows were assessed or the following three cases: (1) the base case, which reflects the situation in 1999 of the global production of batteries; (2) the global production of portable nickel-cadmium batteries in 1999, assumed to be replaced by other battery types; and (3) assessment of the projected battery market in 2009. The study included the following battery technologies: nickel-cadmium (NiCd); nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) (AB(5), AB(2)); and lithium-based batteries (Li-ion: Co, Ni, Mn; Li-polymer: V). Based on the lithospheric extraction indicator (LEI), which is the ratio of anthropogenic to natural metal flows, and the significance of battery production related to global metal mining, the potential environmental impact of metals used in different battery types was evaluated. The LEIs and average metal demand for the battery market in 1999, expressed as a percentage of global mining output in 1999, were estimated to be as follows: Ni 5.6 (2.0%); Cd 4.4 (37%); Li 0.65 (3.8%); V 0.33 (6.5%); Co 0.18 (15%); Nd 0.18 (8.4%); La 0.10 (9.5%); Ce 0.083 (4.4%); and Pr 0.073 (9.4%). The use of Ni and Cd is of the greatest environmental interest, due to their high LEIs. In the case of complete replacement of portable NiCd batteries by NiMH or Li-based batteries, the LEI for Ni (5.6) would change by -0.1-0.5% and the LEI for Cd would decrease from 4.4 to 3.0 (-31%). Meanwhile, the mobilization of metals considered less hazardous than Cd (LEI 0 < 5) would increase less than 7%. Based on this assessment, the replacement of NiCd batteries would result in decreased environmental impact. To decrease the impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable batteries the following points should be considered: (1) development of battery technologies should aim at high energy density and long service life; (2) metals with high natural occurrence should be used; and (3) metals from disused

  15. Impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Svärd, Bo

    2003-01-20

    The use of portable rechargeable battery cells and their effects on global metal flows were assessed or the following three cases: (1) the base case, which reflects the situation in 1999 of the global production of batteries; (2) the global production of portable nickel-cadmium batteries in 1999, assumed to be replaced by other battery types; and (3) assessment of the projected battery market in 2009. The study included the following battery technologies: nickel-cadmium (NiCd); nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) (AB(5), AB(2)); and lithium-based batteries (Li-ion: Co, Ni, Mn; Li-polymer: V). Based on the lithospheric extraction indicator (LEI), which is the ratio of anthropogenic to natural metal flows, and the significance of battery production related to global metal mining, the potential environmental impact of metals used in different battery types was evaluated. The LEIs and average metal demand for the battery market in 1999, expressed as a percentage of global mining output in 1999, were estimated to be as follows: Ni 5.6 (2.0%); Cd 4.4 (37%); Li 0.65 (3.8%); V 0.33 (6.5%); Co 0.18 (15%); Nd 0.18 (8.4%); La 0.10 (9.5%); Ce 0.083 (4.4%); and Pr 0.073 (9.4%). The use of Ni and Cd is of the greatest environmental interest, due to their high LEIs. In the case of complete replacement of portable NiCd batteries by NiMH or Li-based batteries, the LEI for Ni (5.6) would change by -0.1-0.5% and the LEI for Cd would decrease from 4.4 to 3.0 (-31%). Meanwhile, the mobilization of metals considered less hazardous than Cd (LEI 0 < 5) would increase less than 7%. Based on this assessment, the replacement of NiCd batteries would result in decreased environmental impact. To decrease the impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable batteries the following points should be considered: (1) development of battery technologies should aim at high energy density and long service life; (2) metals with high natural occurrence should be used; and (3) metals from disused

  16. Silicon anode for rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, R.; Si, Q.; Mizukoshi, F.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous lithium-air rechargeable cell with the configuration of Si/1 M LiClO4 in ethylene carbonate-diethylene carbonate/Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xP3-ySiyO12/5 M LiCl-1 M LiOH aqueous solution/carbon black, air is proposed. A silicon anode composed of mechanically milled silicon power with an average particle size of ca. 0.5 μm, vapor grown carbon fiber and a polyimide binder was examined. The open-circuit voltage at the charged state was 2.9 V at 25 °C. The discharge capacity of 700 mAh g-silicon-1 was retained for 40 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 with cut-off voltages of 3.5 and 1.5 V. Significant capacity fade was observed at deep charge and discharge cycling at 2000 mAh g-silicon-1.

  17. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte battery having overcharge protection and method of providing overcharge protection for a lithium-organic electrolyte battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, W. K.

    1985-06-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries. A further object is to prevent the undesirable oxidation of organic solvents during the overcharge of the rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by including lithium bromide in the electrolyte to provide overcharge protection during the overcharging of rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte cells. More particularly, it has been found that during overcharging, lithium bromide will be oxidized at lower potentials than the organic solvent and thereby provide overcharge protection and prevent the undesirable oxidation of organic solvents.

  18. Activated Li2S as a High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chenxi; Klein, Michael; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-11-20

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high theoretical energy density of ∼2500 Wh kg(-1) are considered as one promising rechargeable battery chemistry for next-generation energy storage. However, lithium-metal anode degradation remains a persistent problem causing safety concerns for Li-S batteries, hindering their practical utility. One possible strategy to circumvent the aforementioned problems is to use alternative, high-capacity, lithium-free anodes (e.g., Si, Sn, carbon) and a Li2S cathode. However, a large potential barrier was identified on the initial charge of insulating bulk Li2S particles, limiting the cell performance. In this work, the bulk Li2S particles were effectively activated with an electrolyte containing P2S5, resulting in a lowered initial charging voltage plateau. This permits the direct use of commercially available bulk Li2S particles as a high-capacity cathode for room-temperature, rechargeable Li-S batteries, significantly lowering the manufacturing cost of Li-S cells. PMID:26276482

  19. Flow of Cadmium from Rechargeable Batteries in the United States, 1996-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium metal has been found to be toxic to humans and the environment under certain conditions; therefore, a thorough understanding of the use and disposal of the metal is warranted. Most of the cadmium used in the United States comes from imported products. In 2007, more than 83 percent of the cadmium used in the United States was contained in batteries, mostly in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in popular consumer products such as cordless phones and power tools. The flow of cadmium contained in rechageable nickel-cadmium batteries used in the United States was tracked for the years 1996 to 2007. The amount of cadmium metal contained in imported products in 2007 was estimated to be about 1,900 metric tons, or about 160 percent higher than the reported cadmium production in the United States from all primary and secondary sources. Although more than 40,000 metric tons of cadmium was estimated to be contained in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that became obsolete during the 12-year study period, not all of this material was sent to municipal solid waste landfills. About 27 percent of the material available for recovery in the United States was recycled domestically in 2007; the balance was discarded in municipal solid waste landfills, exported for recycling, retained in temporary storage, or thrown away.

  20. A Project Assessment of Stabilizing System of WT Generation using Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Takano, Tomihiro; Tanikawa, Ryoichi; Takagi, Tetsuro; Hirooka, Koutaro; Kumagai, Sadatoshi

    The expansion of the renewable energy introduction is examined as measures for controlling global warming. Wind power generation is expected as effective power resource, but the negative impact from the difficulty of an unstable output is concerned. In recent years, WT generation with contract of cut-of with shorting adjusting power and with rechargeable battery for stabilizing control are examined, but the introduction has not been accelerated yet because there is an influence in WT generation entrepreneur's business. In this paper, we make a brief summary of relation between the fluctuation of wind power generation and stability of electric power operation, and two types of approach; cut-off contract and stabilization using rechargeable battery. For the stabilization using battery, there are two methods, one is reduction control and the other is constant control. We propose a new control method for constant control based on profit optimization considering WT generation forecast and its risk of deviation. We also propose the estimation method for the .limitation of battery installation. Simulation results show the efficiency of our proposed methods.

  1. Comparison of rechargeable versus battery-operated insulin pumps: temperature fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchetin, Paul; McCann, Thomas W; Ojha, Navdeep; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Levy, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pumps) has become increasingly important in diabetes management, and many different types of these systems are currently available. This exploratory study focused on the reported heating issues that lithium-ion battery-powered pumps may have during charging compared with battery-operated pumps. It was found that pump temperature increased by 6.4°C during a long charging cycle of a lithiumion battery-operated pump under ambient temperatures. In an environmental-chamber kept at 35°C, the pump temperature increased by 4.4°C, which indicates that the pump temperature was above that of the recommended safety limit for insulin storage of 37°C. When designing new pumps, and when using currently available rechargeable pumps in warmer climates, the implications of these temperature increases should be taken into consideration. Future studies should also further examine insulin quality after charging. PMID:27789976

  2. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  3. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:23651993

  4. TEMPO: a mobile catalyst for rechargeable Li-O₂ batteries.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Benjamin J; Schürmann, Adrian; Peppler, Klaus; Garsuch, Arnd; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-10-22

    Nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries are an intensively studied future energy storage technology because of their high theoretical energy density. However, a number of barriers prevent a practical application, and one of the major challenges is the reduction of the high charge overpotential: Whereas lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is formed during discharge at around 2.7 V (vs Li(+)/Li), its electrochemical decomposition during the charge process requires potentials up to 4.5 V. This high potential gap leads to a low round-trip efficiency of the cell, and more importantly, the high charge potential causes electrochemical decomposition of other cell constituents. Dissolved oxidation catalysts can act as mobile redox mediators (RM), which enable the oxidation of Li2O2 particles even without a direct electric contact to the positive electrode. Herein we show that the addition of 10 mM TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl), homogeneously dissolved in the electrolyte, provides a distinct reduction of the charging potentials by 500 mV. Moreover, TEMPO enables a significant enhancement of the cycling stability leading to a doubling of the cycle life. The efficiency of the TEMPO mediated catalysis was further investigated by a parallel monitoring of the cell pressure, which excludes a considerable contribution of a parasitic shuttle (i.e., internal ionic short circuit) to the anode during cycling. We prove the suitability of TEMPO by a systematic study of the relevant physical and chemical properties, i.e., its (electro)chemical stability, redox potential, diffusion coefficient and the influence on the oxygen solubility. Furthermore, the charging mechanisms of Li-O2 cells with and without TEMPO were compared by combining different electrochemical and analytical techniques.

  5. Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2007-05-23

    The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may

  6. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  7. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  8. Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-15

    GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as they’re forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

  9. Amorphous Vanadium Oxide/Carbon Composite Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Aluminum Battery.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Masanobu; Takeda, Hiroki; Matsumura, Shota; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-11-11

    Amorphous vanadium oxide/carbon composite (V2O5/C) was first applied to the positive electrode active material for rechargeable aluminum batteries. Electrochemical properties of V2O5/C were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. Reversible reduction/oxidation peaks were observed for the V2O5/C electrode and the rechargeable aluminum cell showed the maximum discharge capacity over 200 mAh g(-1) in the first discharging. The XPS analyses after discharging and the following charging exhibited that the redox of vanadium ion in the V2O5/C active material occurred during discharging and charging, and the average valence of V changed between 4.14 and 4.85.

  10. Nanostructured materials for rechargeable batteries: synthesis, fundamental understanding and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Hui; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2013-05-30

    Nanostructured materials have emerged as very attrcative electrode materials for energy storage due to their small sizes and structure/morphology related properties. The purpose of this article to discuss the opportunities and challenges of nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage devices. Nanostructured silicon (Si) anodes together with other cathode and anode materials are used as examples to illustrate the different methods available for synthesis and the range of materials that can be produced to improve the storage capacity and stability. Recent progresses in using well-defined nanostructures to gain new fundamental understanding of the complex electrochemical reactions and charge-discharge processes are also discussed. Finally, the paper addresses some key problems that are yet to be solved and the need to optimize the microstructures and control the high level architectures beyond nanoscale.

  11. Polymer-graphene nanocomposites as ultrafast-charge and -discharge cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiping; Xu, Terrence; Gordin, Mikhail L; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Donghai

    2012-05-01

    Electroactive polymers are a new generation of "green" cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We have developed nanocomposites combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide, to improve their high-rate performance. The polymer-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple in situ polymerization in the presence of graphene sheets. The highly dispersed graphene sheets in the nanocomposite drastically enhanced the electronic conductivity and allowed the electrochemical activity of the polymer cathode to be efficiently utilized. This allows for ultrafast charging and discharging; the composite can deliver more than 100 mAh/g within just a few seconds.

  12. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  13. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-16

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  14. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  15. Sn-Cu nanocomposite anodes for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Mao; Abel, Paul R; Gupta, Asha; Goodenough, John B; Heller, Adam; Mullins, C Buddie

    2013-09-11

    Sn0.9Cu0.1 nanoparticles were synthesized via a surfactant-assisted wet chemistry method, which were then investigated as an anode material for ambient temperature rechargeable sodium ion batteries. The Sn0.9Cu0.1 nanoparticle-based electrodes exhibited a stable capacity of greater than 420 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C rate, retaining 97% of their maximum observed capacity after 100 cycles of sodium insertion/deinsertion. Their performance is considerably superior to electrodes made with either Sn nanoparticles or Sn microparticles. PMID:23957266

  16. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  17. Recent advances in NiMH battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetcenko, M. A.; Ovshinsky, S. R.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Koch, J.; Zallen, A.; Mays, W.; Ouchi, T.

    Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) is a commercially important rechargeable battery technology for both consumer and industrial applications due to design flexibility, excellent energy and power, environmental acceptability and cost. [1] From the initial product introduction in 1991 of cylindrical cells having an energy of 54 Wh kg -1, today's small consumer cells have a specific energy over 100 Wh kg -1. Numerous licensed manufacturers produce a myriad of NiMH products ranging from 30 mAh button cells to a wide variety of consumer cylindrical products, prismatic cells up to 250 Ah for electric buses and 6 Ah multicell modules for hybrid electric vehicles. Power has increased from under 200 to 1200 W kg -1 commercially and up to 2000 W kg -1 at a development level [2]. Early NiMH batteries had limited operating temperatures while today's batteries can provide excellent power at cold temperatures of -30 °C and provide over 90% capacity at 70 °C. Many of these product performance advances are a result of innovations to the metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials. We will report on some of these key material advances which provide today's NiMH performance and new materials to allow higher energy, power and significant cost reduction.

  18. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  19. Li-air, rechargeable, solid-state batteries using graphene and boron nitride aerogel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergen, Onur; Thoan Pham, Thang; Demaio-Turner, Sally; Zettl, Alex

    The recent explosion of research on Li-Air batteries has provided new insights into developing more efficient air cathodes. Graphene and boron nitride aerogel matrix is anticipated to be an ideal candidate to produce a high throughput air-breathing system. We developed a Li-Air battery model that accounts for efficient O2 throughput. These unique aerogel matrices exhibit the ability to orient the O2 passing through and keep out H2O, CO2, and N2. Thus, the solid-state cells demonstrate a long cycle life, thermal stability, and high rechargeable characteristics. These cells also show an explicit discharge capacity with a constant discharge current density of 0.1mA/cm2. 1 Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Ca 94720, USA 2 Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Ca, 94720, USA 3 Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, Ca, 94720, US.

  20. A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-09-23

    Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery.

  1. A bi-functional device for self-powered electrochromic window and self-rechargeable transparent battery applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Le; Jiao, Zhihui; Xie, Huaqing; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic smart windows are regarded as a good choice for green buildings. However, conventional devices need external biases to operate, which causes additional energy consumption. Here we report a self-powered electrochromic window, which can be used as a self-rechargeable battery. We use aluminium to reduce Prussian blue (PB, blue in colour) to Prussian white (PW, colourless) in potassium chloride electrolyte, realizing a device capable of self-bleaching. Interestingly, the device can be self-recovered (gaining blue appearance again) by simply disconnecting the aluminium and PB electrodes, which is due to the spontaneous oxidation of PW to PB by the dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution. The self-operated bleaching and colouration suggest another important function of the device: a self-rechargeable transparent battery. Thus the PB/aluminium device we report here is bifunctional, that is, it is a self-powered electrochromic window as well as a self-rechargeable transparent battery. PMID:25247385

  2. Advanced battery development in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Shimotake, H.; Nelson, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Batteries for load-leveling and electric-vehicle applications are under development in the United States. The most difficult requirements for these applications are long cycle life, high power density, and low cost. Steady progress is being made in developing advanced batteries. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring development of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-chloride, and aluminum-air batteries. Exploratory research is being conducted on a variety of cell systems, such as lithium-metal sulfide, alkali metal-sulfur, glass electrolyte, and low-temperature organic electrolyte. This paper reviews the US government effort in the development of advanced batteries and discusses some of the key systems.

  3. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  4. Rechargeability of alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries: Experimental and mathematical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, Nilesh D.

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150/kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. The potential of Zn-MnO2 batteries as starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries was also investigated. The impedance contributing parameters at high discharge rates were identified and their effect at high currents was investigated. It was found that prismatic configuration; optimized electrode thickness, electrolyte concentration and electrode size help to achieve high currents for short period of time. In this work, the potential of Zn-MnO 2 batteries for energy as well as power supply has been successfully investigated.

  5. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  6. Method and system for constructing a rechargeable battery and battery structures formed with the method

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.; Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing a thin-film battery and a battery structure formed with the method utilizes a plurality of deposition stations at which thin battery component films are built up in sequence upon a web-like substrate as the substrate is automatically moved through the stations. At an initial station, cathode and anode current collector film sections are deposited upon the substrate, and at another station, a thin cathode film is deposited upon the substrate so to overlie part of the cathode current collector section. At another station, a thin electrolyte film is deposited upon so as to overlie the cathode film and part of the anode current collector film, at yet another station, a thin lithium film is deposited upon so as to overlie the electrolyte film and an additional part of the anode current collector film. Such a method accommodates the winding of a layup of battery components into a spiral configuration to provide a thin-film, high capacity battery and also accommodates the build up of thin film battery components onto a substrate surface having any of a number of shapes.

  7. Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

    2004-10-21

    In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

  8. Synergistic catalytic properties of bifunctional nanoalloy catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ning; Ng, Mei Shan; Shan, Shiyao; Wu, Jinfang; Zhao, Wei; Yin, Jun; Fang, Weiqing; Luo, Jin; Petkov, Valeri; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of factors influencing the performance of catalysts in the air cathode of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery, including overpotentials for oxygen reduction/evolution and discharge capacity, is essential for exploration of its ultimate application. This report describes new findings of an investigation of PdCu nanoalloys as cathode catalysts. Alloying Pd with oxophilic base metals such as Cu leads to reduction of the overpotentials and increase of the discharge capacity. The nanoalloy structures depend on the bimetallic composition, with an atomic ratio near 50:50 featuring mixed bcc and fcc structures. The discharge potential exhibits a maximum while the charge potential display a minimum in the range of 20-50% Cu, closer to 25% Cu, both of which correspond to a maximum reduction of the discharge-charge overpotentials. The discharge capacity displays a gradual increase with Cu%. This type of catalytic synergy is believed to be associated with a combination of ensemble and ligand effects. In particular, the activation of oxygen on Pd sites and oxygen oxophilicity at the alloyed Cu sites in the catalyst may have played an important role in effectively activating oxygen and maneuvering surface superoxide/peroxide species. These findings have implications for the design of multifunctional cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

  9. Nanostructured bilayered vanadium oxide electrodes for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Tepavcevic, S.; Xiong, H.; Stamenkovic, V.R.; Zuo, X.; Balasubramanian, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Johnson, C.S.; Rajh, T. )

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring nanoarchitecture of materials offers unprecedented opportunities in utilization of their functional properties. Nanostructures of vanadium oxide, synthesized by electrochemical deposition, are studied as a cathode material for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. Ex situ and in situ synchrotron characterizations revealed the presence of an electrochemically responsive bilayered structure with adjustable intralayer spacing that accommodates intercalation of Na{sup +} ions. Sodium intake induces organization of overall structure with appearance of both long- and short-range order, while deintercalation is accompanied with the loss of long-range order, whereas short-range order is preserved. Nanostructured electrodes achieve theoretical reversible capacity for Na{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry of 250 mAh/g. The stability evaluation during charge-discharge cycles at room temperature revealed an efficient 3 V cathode material with superb performance: energy density of {approx}760 Wh/kg and power density of 1200 W/kg. These results demonstrate feasibility of development of the ambient temperature Na-ion rechargeable batteries by employment of electrodes with tailored nanoarchitectures.

  10. Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Park, Hey Woong; Seo, Min Ho; Wang, Xiaolei; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-09-21

    A highly active and durable bifunctional electrocatalyst that consists of cobalt oxide nanocrystals (Co3 O4 NC) decorated on the surface of N-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNT) is introduced as effective electrode material for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. This active hybrid catalyst is synthesized by a facile surfactant-assisted method to produce Co3 O4 NC that are then decorated on the surface of N-CNT through hydrophobic attraction. Confirmed by half-cell testing, Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT demonstrates superior oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution catalytic activities and has a superior electrochemical stability compared to Pt/C and Ir/C. Furthermore, rechargeable zinc-air battery testing of Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT reveals superior galvanodynamic charge and discharge voltages with a significantly extended cycle life of over 100 h, which suggests its potential as a replacement for precious-metal-based catalysts for electric vehicles and grid energy storage applications. PMID:26373363

  11. Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Park, Hey Woong; Seo, Min Ho; Wang, Xiaolei; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-09-21

    A highly active and durable bifunctional electrocatalyst that consists of cobalt oxide nanocrystals (Co3 O4 NC) decorated on the surface of N-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNT) is introduced as effective electrode material for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. This active hybrid catalyst is synthesized by a facile surfactant-assisted method to produce Co3 O4 NC that are then decorated on the surface of N-CNT through hydrophobic attraction. Confirmed by half-cell testing, Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT demonstrates superior oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution catalytic activities and has a superior electrochemical stability compared to Pt/C and Ir/C. Furthermore, rechargeable zinc-air battery testing of Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT reveals superior galvanodynamic charge and discharge voltages with a significantly extended cycle life of over 100 h, which suggests its potential as a replacement for precious-metal-based catalysts for electric vehicles and grid energy storage applications.

  12. Cr2O5 as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu-Yong; Chien, Po-Hsiu; Rose, Alyssa M.; Zheng, Jin; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Hu, Yan-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Chromium oxide, Cr2O5, was synthesized by pyrolyzing CrO3 at 350 °C and employed as a new cathode in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Cr2O5/Na rechargeable batteries delivered high specific capacities up to 310 mAh/g at a current density of C/16 (or 20 mA/g). High-resolution solid-state 23Na NMR both qualitatively and quantitatively revealed the reversible intercalation of Na ions into the bulk electrode and participation of Na ions in the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase largely at low potentials. Amorphization of the electrode structure occurred during the first discharge revealed by both NMR and X-ray diffraction data. CrO3-catalyzed electrolyte degradation and loss in electronic conductivity led to gradual capacity fading. The specific capacity stabilized at >120 mAh/g after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Further improvement in electrochemical performance is possible via electrode surface modification, polymer binder incorporation, or designs of new morphologies.

  13. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  14. Zinc-Air Batteries: Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    On page 6421, Z. Chen and co-workers describe an electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human-hair array for solid-state zinc-air batteries. Grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh, the hair-like array can effectively catalyze molecular oxygen to water. Batteries equipped with this electrode show tangible benefits, including improved flexibility and performance. PMID:27493071

  15. Zinc-Air Batteries: Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array (Adv. Mater. 30/2016).

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    On page 6421, Z. Chen and co-workers describe an electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human-hair array for solid-state zinc-air batteries. Grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh, the hair-like array can effectively catalyze molecular oxygen to water. Batteries equipped with this electrode show tangible benefits, including improved flexibility and performance.

  16. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer. PMID:27250732

  17. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer.

  18. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  19. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

  20. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability. PMID:26720271

  1. An Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Battery Using Coated Li Metal as Anode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujiong; Hou, Yuyang; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l−1 Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the “cross-over” effect of Li+ ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg−1, about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries. PMID:23466633

  2. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  3. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability.

  4. New Thermoelectric Materials and New System-Level Analysis Perspectives Using Battlefield Heat Sources for Battery Recharging

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-03-30

    This paper discusses thermoelectric power systems as a solution pathway to allieviate military dependence on non-rechargeable batteries and subsequent cost and waste issues associated with battefield use. This paper also discusses the most recent progress with LAST/LASTT materials.

  5. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  6. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  7. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  8. Retrograded starches as potential anodes in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Wen, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Lin; Zhang, Kunsheng; Wang, Wanyu

    2012-11-01

    Retrograded starch is a crystal formed by starch molecules with hydrogen bonds. Many literatures have reported its physicochemical character, but its crystal structure is so far unclear. As we isolate amylose and amylopectin from retrograded maize, sweet potato and potato starches in 4.0 M KOH solutions and make them retrograde alone in neutral solution (adjusted by HCl) to form crystal, a new phenomenon appears, crystals of KCl do not appear in retrograded potato amylose, potato amylopectin, and maize amylose, indicating that those crystals may absorb K⁺ and (or) Cl⁻, and those ions probably act with aldehyde of starch or hydroxy of fatty acid attached in starch, such characteristic may make retrograded starches replace graphite as anode with high-capacity in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  9. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, EunJoo; Kim, Jedeok; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Hao-shen; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru

    2008-08-01

    The lithium storage properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) materials as high capacity anode materials for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries (LIB) were investigated. Graphite is a practical anode material used for LIB, because of its capability for reversible lithium ion intercalation in the layered crystals, and the structural similarities of GNS to graphite may provide another type of intercalation anode compound. While the accommodation of lithium in these layered compounds is influenced by the layer spacing between the graphene nanosheets, control of the intergraphene sheet distance through interacting molecules such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) or fullerenes (C60) might be crucial for enhancement of the storage capacity. The specific capacity of GNS was found to be 540 mAh/g, which is much larger than that of graphite, and this was increased up to 730 mAh/g and 784 mAh/g, respectively, by the incorporation of macromolecules of CNT and C60 to the GNS.

  10. Development of membranes and a study of their interfaces for rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Binod

    This paper describes an investigation with an objective to screen and select high performance membrane materials for a working, rechargeable lithium-air battery. Membrane laminates comprising glass-ceramic (GC) and polymer-ceramic (PC) membranes were assembled, evaluated and analyzed. A superionic conducting GC membrane with a chemical composition of Li 1+ xAl xGe 2- x(PO 4) 3 (x = 0.5) was used. Polymer membranes comprising of PC(BN), PC(AlN), PC(Si 3N 4) and PC(Li 2O) electrochemically coupled the GC membrane with the lithium anode. The cell and membrane laminates were characterized by determining cell conductivity, open circuit voltage and carrier concentration and its mobility. The measurements identified Li 2O and BN as suitable dopants in polymer matrix which catalyzed anodic charge transfer reaction, formed stable SEI layer and provided high lithium ion conductivity.

  11. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  12. An aqueous rechargeable formate-based hydrogen battery driven by heterogeneous Pd catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yong-Mei; Du, Xian-Long; Wang, Jian-Qiang; He, He-Yong; Cao, Yong

    2014-12-01

    The formate-based rechargeable hydrogen battery (RHB) promises high reversible capacity to meet the need for safe, reliable, and sustainable H2 storage used in fuel cell applications. Described herein is an additive-free RHB which is based on repetitive cycles operated between aqueous formate dehydrogenation (discharging) and bicarbonate hydrogenation (charging). Key to this truly efficient and durable H2 handling system is the use of highly strained Pd nanoparticles anchored on graphite oxide nanosheets as a robust and efficient solid catalyst, which can facilitate both the discharging and charging processes in a reversible and highly facile manner. Up to six repeated discharging/charging cycles can be performed without noticeable degradation in the storage capacity. PMID:25382034

  13. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0

  14. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  15. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  16. Nanostructured Perovskite LaCo1-xMnxO3 as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Li, Bing; Wuu, Delvin; Sumboja, Afriyanti; An, Tao; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-09-01

    Bifunctional catalyst that is active for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most important components of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Nanostructured perovskite bifunctional catalysts comprising La, Co and Mn(LaCo1-xMnxO3, LCMO) are synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The morphology, structure and electrochemical activity of the perovskite bifunctional catalysts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Nanorod, nanodisc and nanoparticle are typical morphologies of LCMO. The electrocatalytic activity of LCMO is significantly improved by the addition of conductive materials such as carbon nanotube. To demonstrate the practical utilization, LCMO in the composition of LaCo0.8Mn0.2O3(LCMO82) is used as air cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The battery prototype can sustain 470 h or 40 discharge-charge cycles equivalent.

  17. Pomegranate-Inspired Design of Highly Active and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wang, Xiaolei; Fu, Jing; Li, Jingde; Park, Moon Gyu; Zhang, Yining; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-04-11

    Rational design of highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the design and development of composite electrocatalysts based on transition metal oxide nanocrystals embedded in a nitrogen-doped, partially graphitized carbon framework. Benefiting from the unique pomegranate-like architecture, the composite catalysts possess abundant active sites, strong synergetic coupling, enhanced electron transfer, and high efficiencies in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Co3O4-based composite electrocatalyst exhibited a high half-wave potential of 0.842 V for ORR, and a low overpotential of only 450 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for OER. A single-cell zinc-air battery was also fabricated with superior durability, holding great promise in the practical implementation of rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:26970076

  18. A simple solvent method for the recovery of LixCoO2 and its applications in alkaline rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Song, Dawei; Li, Li; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, LiFang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-04-01

    A simple solvent method is proposed for the recovery of waste LixCoO2 from lithium-ion batteries, which employs inexpensive DMF to remove the binder of PVDF. This method is convenient to manipulate and low-cost to apply. Electrochemical investigations indicate that recovered LixCoO2 materials with a small amount of S-doping exhibit excellent properties as negative materials for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries. At the discharge current density of 100 mA g-1, the LixCoO2 + 1% S electrode displays the max discharge capacity of 357 mAh g-1 and outstanding capacity retention rate of 85.5% after 100 cycles. It could overcome not only the sophisticated, energy-intensive shortcomings of conventional recycling methods, but also the high-cost restriction on alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries.

  19. Pomegranate-Inspired Design of Highly Active and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wang, Xiaolei; Fu, Jing; Li, Jingde; Park, Moon Gyu; Zhang, Yining; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-04-11

    Rational design of highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the design and development of composite electrocatalysts based on transition metal oxide nanocrystals embedded in a nitrogen-doped, partially graphitized carbon framework. Benefiting from the unique pomegranate-like architecture, the composite catalysts possess abundant active sites, strong synergetic coupling, enhanced electron transfer, and high efficiencies in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Co3O4-based composite electrocatalyst exhibited a high half-wave potential of 0.842 V for ORR, and a low overpotential of only 450 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for OER. A single-cell zinc-air battery was also fabricated with superior durability, holding great promise in the practical implementation of rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  20. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. Rechargeable Metal–Air Proton‐Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rechargeable proton‐exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen‐storage media have the potential to serve as next‐generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen‐storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal‐ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn0.9In0.1P2O7‐based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V4+/V3+, V3+/V2+, and Sn4+/Sn2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g−1 for VOSO4 and SnSO4, respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles. PMID:27525212

  3. A wireless power interface for rechargeable battery operated neural recording implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Principe, Jose C; Bashirullah, Rizwan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated analog front-end for wireless powering and recharging of miniature Li-ion batteries used in implantable neural recording microsystems. DC signal extraction from a wireless carrier is accomplished using Schottky barrier contact diodes with lower forward voltage drop for improved efficiency. The battery charger employs a new control loop that relaxes comparator resolution requirements, provides simultaneous operation of constant-current and constant-voltage loops, and eliminates the external current sense resistor from the charging path. The accuracy of the end-of-charge detection is primarily determined by the voltage drop across matched resistors and current-sources and the offset voltage of the sense comparator. Experimental results in 0.6 mum bulk CMOS technology indicate that +/- 1.3% (or +/-20 microA) end-of-charge accuracy can be obtained under worst-case conditions for a comparator offset voltage of +/-5mV. The circuits occupy 1.735 mm(2) with a power dissipation of 8.4 mW when delivering a load current of 1.5 mA at 4.1 V (or 6.15 mW) for an efficiency of 73%

  4. Halogen-free boron based electrolyte solution for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Guo, Yongsheng; Yang, Jun; Nuli, Yanna; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jiulin; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    All halogen containing electrolytes for Mg battery are apt to corrode conventional metal current collectors. In this paper, a new type of halogen-free boron based electrolyte (Mg[Mes3BPh]2/THF) is designed and prepared. Electrochemical tests show that this electrolyte system possesses high ion conductivity (1.5 × 10-3 S cm-1) and good Mg deposition-dissolution reversibility. More importantly, the same electrochemical window (2.6 V vs. Mg RE) of the electrolyte on Pt and stainless steel electrodes indicates that halogen-free electrolyte indeed lessens the corrosion to conventional metal current collectors. The surface morphologies of stainless steel, aluminum and copper are further observed after their anodic potentiostatic polarization in 0.25 mol L-1 Mg[Mes3BPh]2/THF electrolyte solution for 2 days. A comparison with halogen containing electrolytes proves that the presence of halogen in electrolyte is the reason for corrosion. This work provides a stepping stone for developing new halogen-free electrolyte systems for rechargeable Mg batteries.

  5. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  7. Synthesis and characterization of cathode materials for lithium ion-rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Ramos, Santander

    Lithium intercalation materials are of special interest for cathodes in rechargeable lihium-ion batteries, because they are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions without altering the main unit. We developed a novel solution-based route for the synthesis of these lithium intercalates oxides. The first part of this work was devoted to the optimization of chemical solution process parameters in order to correlate their electrochemical properties. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystallite size increase, whereas the lattice strain decreases with the increase in calcinations temperature. Powders annealed at 700°C for 15 h yielded best electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance of substituted Li1.2Mn2O 4, Li1.2Mn1.8O4, Li1.2Cr 0.05Mn1.95O4, and Li1.2Cr0.05 Mn1.75O4 spinel electrodes in lithium cell has been studied. The electrochemical data showed that the Li and Cr dopant effect improves the cycleablility of spinel LiMn2O4 electrodes. The second part of this dissertation was devoted to improve the rate capabilities of these cathode materials by growing nano-size cathode particles and also by cation co-doping. Though the discharge capacity of these nano-crystalline cathodes was equivalent to their microcrystalline counterpart, these exhibited capacity fading in the 4V range. Through a combined X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, we correlated the observed capacity fading with the onset of Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion toward the end of the discharge in the cut-off limit between 4.2 and 3.2V. It was postulated that J-T distortion is the dominant fading mechanism of these nano-crystalline cathodes then by increasing the average oxidation state of the Mn ion in a virgin lithium manganate cathode, the onset of such distortion towards the end of the discharge could be delayed, and therefore, the cycleability of these cathodes could be improved. By synthesizing lithium

  8. Porous perovskite CaMnO3 as an electrocatalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuxiang; Yang, Jingang; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-11

    We report a facile synthesis method of preparing interconnected porous CaMnO3 nanostructures and their utilization as new cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The CaMnO3-based electrode enables much enhanced cyclability with a 620 mV smaller discharge-recharge voltage gap than that of the carbon-only cathode at a current rate of 50 mA gcarbon(-1). The improved performance is attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of CaMnO3 with a porous nanostructure.

  9. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  10. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  11. Synthesis of hierarchical porous δ-MnO2 nanoboxes as an efficient catalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Luan, Yanping; Lyu, Zhiyang; Wang, Liangjun; Xu, Leilei; Yuan, Kaidi; Pan, Feng; Lai, Min; Liu, Zhaolin; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-28

    A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery with a remarkably high theoretical energy storage capacity has attracted enormous research attention. However, the poor oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction (ORR and OER) activities in discharge and charge processes cause low energy efficiency, poor electrolyte stability and short cycle life. This requires the development of efficient cathode catalysts to dramatically improve the Li-O2 battery performances. MnO2-based materials are recognized as efficient and low-cost catalysts for a Li-O2 battery cathode. Here, we report a controllable approach to synthesize hierarchical porous δ-MnO2 nanoboxes by using Prussian blue analogues as the precursors. The obtained products possess hierarchical pore size and an extremely large surface area (249.3 m(2) g(-1)), which would favour oxygen transportation and provide more catalytically active sites to promote ORR and OER as the Li-O2 battery cathode. The battery shows enhanced discharge capacity (4368 mA h g(-1)@0.08 mA cm(-2)), reduced overpotential (270 mV), improved rate performance and excellent cycle stability (248 cycles@500 mA h g(-1) and 112 cycles@1000 mA h g(-1)), in comparison with the battery with a VX-72 carbon cathode. The superb performance of the hierarchical porous δ-MnO2 nanoboxes, together with a convenient fabrication method, presents an alternative to develop advanced cathode catalysts for the Li-O2 battery. PMID:26290962

  12. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  13. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:25920952

  14. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries.

  15. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-07

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries.

  16. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries. PMID:25563733

  17. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries. PMID:25563733

  18. Integrating NiCo Alloys with Their Oxides as Efficient Bifunctional Cathode Catalysts for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xien; Park, Minjoon; Kim, Min Gyu; Gupta, Shiva; Wu, Gang; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-08-10

    The lack of high-efficient, low-cost, and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts that act simultaneously for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is currently one of the major obstacles to commercializing the electrical rechargeability of zinc-air batteries. A nanocomposite CoO-NiO-NiCo bifunctional electrocatalyst supported by nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo) exhibits excellent activity and stability for the ORR/OER in alkaline media. More importantly, real air cathodes made from the bifunctional NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo catalysts further demonstrated superior performance to state-of-the-art Pt/C or Pt/C+IrO2 catalysts in primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:26118973

  19. Electrochemical properties of a polypyrrole/polystyrenesulfonate composite film and its application to rechargeable lithium battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Ken; Osaka, Tetsuya . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Kondo, Naoko; Nakamura, Sadako . Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science)

    1994-09-01

    The performance of a composite film of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was studied in combination with an organic electrolyte as a possible lithium battery cathode. The composite film had a fairly flat morphology and exhibited electroactivity in organic electrolyte solutions using dimethylsulfoxide and propylene carbonate (PC) solvents. The authors confirmed that during the redox process the film charge was compensated with cations. A lithium cell consisting of the composite film as a cathode and an LiClO[sub 4]-PC electrolyte worked as a rechargeable battery. The energy density of the PPy/PSS cathode was calculated to be 220 Wh/liter and the average output voltage of the rechargeable cell was 2.9 V.

  20. Novel dual-salts electrolyte solution for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries with high cycle reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Feng, Xuejiao; Jia, Hao; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2014-12-01

    Metallic lithium is the most promising negative electrode for high energy rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the low cycle efficiency and lithium dendrite formation during charge/discharge processes consistently hinder its practical application. Here a new dual-salts electrolyte composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] has been explored to simultaneously cope with these two problems. Under the unique protection of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed in this electrolyte solution and the improvement in Li crystal growth pattern, high cycle efficiency of ca. 99% and dendrite-free Li deposit have been achieved. Moreover, the excellent cycling performance and favorable lithium morphology can be retained even at high current density of 10 mA cm-2. This study will greatly promote the development of Li-metal rechargeable batteries with high power and high energy density.

  1. Cr, N-Codoped TiO2 Mesoporous Microspheres for Li-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R; Meyer III, Harry M; Bridges, Craig A; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cr,N-codoped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres synthesized using hydrothermal and subsequent nitridation treatment, exhibited higher solubility of nitrogen, and improved electrical conductivity than N-doped TiO2, as anode for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, which led to improving charge-discharge capacity at 0.1 C and twice higher rate capability compared to that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 mesoporous microsphere at 10 C

  2. An acid-free rechargeable battery based on PbSO4 and spinel LiMn2O4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wen, Zubiao; Wu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xiaowei; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2014-11-18

    An acid-free lead rechargeable battery system comprising PbSO4 as the negative electrode, LiMn2O4 as the positive electrode and a neutral Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte is reported and its electrochemical performance is very good. It shows great promise to reduce the global use of lead by 50% since it is also low cost.

  3. Lithium Batteries: Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    On page 3381, S. Sato, S. Orimo, H. Isobe, and co-workers present the first macrocyclic material to be utilized in negative electrodes of all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries. Assembled to align the molecular openings, the macrocycle paves paths for lithium to migrate to the π-stack intercalation sites for the storage. The macrocyclic nanochannel of a nanometer-scale diameter further provides extra spaces for the lithium storage to surpass conventional graphitic electrodes in the capacity.

  4. Periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and dipropyldisulfide bridging functionalities using poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) micelles. These hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si MAS NMR and (13)CP-MAS NMR), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. The benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity in the shell domain exhibit higher cycling performance of up to 300 cycles in lithium ion rechargeable batteries compared with micron-sized dense benzene-silica particles.

  5. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  6. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  7. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  8. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  9. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held November 27-29, 2012,...

  10. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held October 9-11, 2012, from...

  11. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  12. Material Use in the United States - Selected Case Studies for Cadmium, Cobalt, Lithium, and Nickel in Rechargeable Batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the changes that have taken place in the consumer electronic product sector as they relate to (1) the use of cadmium, cobalt, lithium, and nickel contained in batteries that power camcorders, cameras, cell phones, and portable (laptop) computers and (2) the use of nickel in vehicle batteries for the period 1996 through 2005 and discusses forecasted changes in their use patterns through 2010. Market penetration, material substitution, and technological improvements among nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are assessed. Consequences of these changes in light of material consumption factors related to disposal, environmental effects, retail price, and serviceability are analyzed in a series of short case studies.

  13. Gaston Planté and his invention of the lead-acid battery-The genesis of the first practical rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, P.

    In 1860, the Frenchman Gaston Planté (1834-1889) invented the first practical version of a rechargeable battery based on lead-acid chemistry-the most successful secondary battery of all ages. This article outlines Planté's fundamental concepts that were decisive for later development of practical lead-acid batteries. The 'pile secondaire' was indeed ahead its time in that an appropriate appliance for charging the accumulator was not available. The industrial success came after the invention of the Gramme machine. In 1879, Planté obtained acceptance for his work by publishing a book entitled Recherches sur l' Electricité. He never protected his inventions by patents, and spent much of his fortune on assisting impoverished scientists.

  14. Exploration of vanadium benzenedicarboxylate as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Jacobson, Allan J.

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical reaction with lithium of a vanadium-based metal-organic framework VIV(O)(bdc) [MIL-47], which is isostructural to the iron compound MIL-53(Fe), was investigated. The large open channels which can accommodate small guest species, such as Li+ ions, together with the redox properties of the tetravalent vanadium ions make this material of potential interest as a rechargeable intercalation electrode for lithium batteries. The electrochemical properties were investigated in Li|1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)|V(O)(bdc) cells between 4.0 and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. V(O)(bdc) cathodes can be reversibly cycled in Li cells with good rate capability and specific capacity. At a current density of C/12, Li/V(O)(bdc) cells can be cycled between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 in LixV(O)(bdc) with ∼100% coulombic efficiency corresponding to 82 mAh g-1 which is a higher capacity than that found for MIL-53(Fe). The cell performance and electrochemical profiles at various current conditions are discussed. Structural evolution taking place during lithium intercalation was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction on phases of LixV(O)(bdc) (0 < x ≤ 2) chemically prepared by using n-BuLi. Previous studies of the reaction of lithium with metal-organic frameworks are briefly reviewed for comparison with the data presented for LixV(O)(bdc).

  15. On the application of ionic liquids for rechargeable Li batteries: High voltage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgel, V.; Markevich, E.; Aurbach, D.; Semrau, G.; Schmidt, M.

    We examined the possible use of the following ionic liquids all having the same anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) and the following cations: 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (HMITFSI), 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium (MEMITFSI), N-ethyl- NN-dimethyl-2-methoxyethylammonium (EDMETFSI), 1-methyl-1-butylpyrrolidinium (BMPTFSI), and 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium (MPPpTFSI) solutions with LiTFSI (the source of Li ions), as electrolyte systems for 5 V, rechargeable battery systems with Li metal anodes and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 spinel cathodes. Standard solution based on alkyl carbonates and LiPF 6 was examined in this respect for comparison. The ionic liquids (ILs) based on derivatives of piperidinium and pyrrolidinium demonstrate a very wide electrochemical window (up to 5.5 V) and they can be compatible with lithium metal anodes. At low potentials in the presence of Li ions in solutions (or on Li metal surfaces), TFSI anions are reduced to insoluble Li compounds which passivate Li, noble metal and graphite electrodes in the Li salt/IL solutions. The mechanism, kinetics and effectiveness of electrodes' passivation in these systems depend on the nature of both IL and electrode used. It was possible to demonstrate reversible behavior of Li/LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 cells (4.8 V) with solutions based on BMPTFSI and MPPpTFSI. Possible parasitic anodic reactions upon charging at the high potentials are much lower in the ILs than in standard solutions.

  16. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  17. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  19. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the...--Small and Medium Size for the fifth meeting. DATES: The meeting will be held November 30-December...

  20. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI. PMID:25397991

  1. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI.

  2. Reliability modelling system for analysis of advanced battery technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, C. H.; Hostick, C. J.; Nakaoka, R. K.

    1985-05-01

    Key considerations in evaluating the reliability of advanced battery technologies include the impact of cell failures on battery performance and cost. Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed interactive microcomputer based simulation models to help battery developers use cell reliability data to calculate the expected performance of new battery technologies. Key benefits of this model include its capability to estimate the effect of cell failures upon: (1) battery system discharge performance, (2) system cycle life, and (3) system economic performance (tradeoffs between capital investment and lifetime operating costs).

  3. Flexible, Stretchable, and Rechargeable Fiber-Shaped Zinc-Air Battery Based on Cross-Stacked Carbon Nanotube Sheets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifan; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Ziyang; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-14

    The fabrication of flexible, stretchable and rechargeable devices with a high energy density is critical for next-generation electronics. Herein, fiber-shaped Zn-air batteries, are realized for the first time by designing aligned, cross-stacked and porous carbon nanotube sheets simultaneously that behave as a gas diffusion layer, a catalyst layer, and a current collector. The combined remarkable electronic and mechanical properties of the aligned carbon nanotube sheets endow good electrochemical properties. They display excellent discharge and charge performances at a high current density of 2 A g(-1) . They are also flexible and stretchable, which is particularly promising to power portable and wearable electronic devices.

  4. Graphene-wrapped sulfur particles as a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery cathode material with high capacity and cycling stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-13

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated submicrometer sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates, and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ∼600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  5. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 < x < 1/2) are promising alternatives for Li2CoO2, the commercial positive electrode materials in Li ion batteries, because of their lower cost and higher safety and abuse tolerance, when lithium is removed from their structure. Compounds with x<1/2, in which the total Li content is higher than transition metal content, are referred as "Li-excess" materials. The "Li2MnO3-like" region is always present in this type of materials, and the overcapacity is obtained in the first charge process, which is not reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the

  6. Small angle x-ray scattering studies of carbon anodes used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.; Seifert, S.; Johnson, C. S.

    1999-11-16

    In ANL laboratories, disordered carbons with predictable surface area and porosity properties have been prepared using inorganic templates containing well defined pore sizes. The carbons have been tested in electrochemical cells as anodes in lithium secondary batteries. They deliver high specific capacity and display excellent performance in terms of the number of cycles run. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during electrochemical cycling was carried out at the Advanced Photon Source, at ANL. In order to monitor the carbon electrode structural changes upon cycling, an electrochemical cell was specially designed to allow for the application of electrical current and the collection of SAXS data at the same time. Results show that upon cycling the structure of the carbon remains unchanged, which is desirable in reversible systems.

  7. A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Hu, Jian Z.; Xu, Suochang; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable Mg batteries have been regarded as a viable battery technology for grid scale energy storage and transportation applications. However, the limited performance of Mg2+ electrolytes has been a primary technical hurdle to develop high energy density rechargeable Mg batteries. In this study, MgCl2 is demonstrated as a non-nucleophilic and cheap Mg2+ source in combining with Al Lewis acids (AlCl3, AlPh3 and AlEtCl2) to formulate a series of Mg2+ electrolytes characteristic of high oxidation stability (up to 3.4 V vs Mg), sulfur compatibility and electrochemical reversibility (up to 100% coulombic efficiency). Three electrolyte systems (MgCl2-AlCl3, MgCl2-AlPh3, and MgCl2-AlEtCl2) were prepared free of purification and fully characterized by multinuclear NMR (27Al{1H} and 25Mg{1H}) spectroscopies, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical analysis. The reaction mechanism of MgCl2 and the Al Lewis acids in THF is discussed to highlight the formation of the electrochemically active [(µ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ monocation in these electrolytes. We are grateful for the financial support from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)-Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for developing magnesium battery technology. The XRD and SEM data were collected at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. PNNL is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  8. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  9. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, Stanley C.; Evans, James W.; Salas-Morales, Juan

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  10. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  11. Disulfide-Bridged (Mo3S11) Cluster Polymer: Molecular Dynamics and Application as Electrode Material for a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Nguyen, Duc N; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tran, Phong D; Honma, Itaru

    2016-09-14

    Exploring novel electrode materials is critical for the development of a next-generation rechargeable magnesium battery with high volumetric capacity. Here, we showed that a distinct amorphous molybdenum sulfide, being a coordination polymer of disulfide-bridged (Mo3S11) clusters, has great potential as a rechargeable magnesium battery cathode. This material provided good reversible capacity, attributed to its unique structure with high flexibility and capability of deformation upon Mg insertion. Free-terminal disulfide moiety may act as the active site for reversible insertion and extraction of magnesium.

  12. Disulfide-Bridged (Mo3S11) Cluster Polymer: Molecular Dynamics and Application as Electrode Material for a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Nguyen, Duc N; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tran, Phong D; Honma, Itaru

    2016-09-14

    Exploring novel electrode materials is critical for the development of a next-generation rechargeable magnesium battery with high volumetric capacity. Here, we showed that a distinct amorphous molybdenum sulfide, being a coordination polymer of disulfide-bridged (Mo3S11) clusters, has great potential as a rechargeable magnesium battery cathode. This material provided good reversible capacity, attributed to its unique structure with high flexibility and capability of deformation upon Mg insertion. Free-terminal disulfide moiety may act as the active site for reversible insertion and extraction of magnesium. PMID:27479582

  13. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  14. Semi-rechargeable Aluminum-Air Battery with a TiO2 Internal Layer with Plain Salt Water as an Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum-air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation-reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum-air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer.

  15. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed.

  16. The First Introduction of Graphene to Rechargeable Li-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yanan; Bao, Jie; Zhou, Xianlong; Xie, Zhaojun; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of the greenhouse gas CO2 in energy-storage systems is highly desirable. It is now shown that the introduction of graphene as a cathode material significantly improves the performance of Li-CO2 batteries. Such batteries display a superior discharge capacity and enhanced cycle stability. Therefore, graphene can act as an efficient cathode in Li-CO2 batteries, and it provides a novel approach for simultaneously capturing CO2 and storing energy.

  17. Ambient-temperature, rechargeable, all-solid lithium/polypyrrole polymer battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuda, Satoko; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Appetecchi, G.B.; Scrosati, B. . Dipt. di Chimica)

    1995-01-01

    An ambient-temperature, all-solid lithium battery was fabricated by combining a poly(acrylonitrile), PAN-based polymer electrolyte with a lithium metal anode and a polypyrrole, PPy, film cathode. The influence of the morphology of the PPy film cathode on the battery performance was investigated. The results show that the electrode morphology does not considerably influence the charge-discharge cycling response and that the solid-state, Li/PPy battery exhibits high coulombic efficiency, approaching 90%. However, at the present time, the battery has a poor shelf life, and work is in progress for overcoming this drawback.

  18. First principle computational and experimental studies of cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra Arias, Jose Javier

    We have studied the properties of spinel and layered cathode materials for Li ion rechargeable batteries. The analysis was done by first principle calculations, and experimental techniques to elucidate materials that can substitute the presently commercialized material, namely LiCoO 2. We have studied the influence of Ni substitution for Mn in spinel Li 2MnO4. To understand the effects of this substitution on the crystal structure and electronic properties, first principle DFT calculations were performed using VASP. The substitution was done systematically for up to 25% of Mn replacement by Ni in a super cell configuration. Furthermore, the influence of Ni substitution on lithium hoping pathways between the two stable Li positions was also studied by first principle calculations in LiMn 2-xNixO4. These calculations revealed that Ni substitution for Mn in LiMn2O4 indeed improved Li ion mobility. Thereafter, systematic experimental studies were performed on LiMn 2-xNixO4 (0

  19. Atomic-scale structure evolution in a quasi-equilibrated electrochemical process of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin; Xiao, Dongdong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have proven to be extremely attractive candidates for applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grid in terms of energy density, power density, and service life. Further performance optimization to satisfy ever-increasing demands on energy storage of such applications is highly desired. In most of cases, the kinetics and stability of electrode materials are strongly correlated to the transport and storage behaviors of lithium ions in the lattice of the host. Therefore, information about structural evolution of electrode materials at an atomic scale is always helpful to explain the electrochemical performances of batteries at a macroscale. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows simultaneous imaging of light and heavy elements, providing an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nearly equilibrated local structure of electrode materials after electrochemical cycling at atomic resolution. Recent progress toward unraveling the atomic-scale structure of selected electrode materials with different charge and/or discharge state to extend the current understanding of electrochemical reaction mechanism with the ABF and high angle annular dark field STEM imaging is presented here. Future research on the relationship between atomic-level structure evolution and microscopic reaction mechanisms of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries is envisaged. PMID:25677246

  20. Atomic-scale structure evolution in a quasi-equilibrated electrochemical process of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin; Xiao, Dongdong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have proven to be extremely attractive candidates for applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grid in terms of energy density, power density, and service life. Further performance optimization to satisfy ever-increasing demands on energy storage of such applications is highly desired. In most of cases, the kinetics and stability of electrode materials are strongly correlated to the transport and storage behaviors of lithium ions in the lattice of the host. Therefore, information about structural evolution of electrode materials at an atomic scale is always helpful to explain the electrochemical performances of batteries at a macroscale. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows simultaneous imaging of light and heavy elements, providing an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nearly equilibrated local structure of electrode materials after electrochemical cycling at atomic resolution. Recent progress toward unraveling the atomic-scale structure of selected electrode materials with different charge and/or discharge state to extend the current understanding of electrochemical reaction mechanism with the ABF and high angle annular dark field STEM imaging is presented here. Future research on the relationship between atomic-level structure evolution and microscopic reaction mechanisms of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries is envisaged.

  1. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  2. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  3. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  4. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  5. In Situ Powder Diffraction Studies of Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Pang, Wei Kong; Guo, Zaiping; Peterson, Vanessa K

    2015-09-01

    The ability to directly track the charge carrier in a battery as it inserts/extracts from an electrode during charge/discharge provides unparalleled insight for researchers into the working mechanism of the device. This crystallographic-electrochemical information can be used to design new materials or modify electrochemical conditions to improve battery performance characteristics, such as lifetime. Critical to collecting operando data used to obtain such information in situ while a battery functions are X-ray and neutron diffractometers with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture complex and subtle structural changes. The number of operando battery experiments has dramatically increased in recent years, particularly those involving neutron powder diffraction. Herein, the importance of structure-property relationships to understanding battery function, why in situ experimentation is critical to this, and the types of experiments and electrochemical cells required to obtain such information are described. For each battery type, selected research that showcases the power of in situ and operando diffraction experiments to understand battery function is highlighted and future opportunities for such experiments are discussed. The intention is to encourage researchers to use in situ and operando techniques and to provide a concise overview of this area of research.

  6. An Update on the Performance of Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries on Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumara, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Ewell, R. C.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last thirty months, far exceeding the primary mission life of three months, performing astounding geological studies to examine the habitability of Mars. Such an extended mission life may be attributed to impressive performances of several subsystems, including power subsystem components, i.e., solar array and batteries. The novelty and challenge for this mission in terms of energy storage is the use of lithium-ion batteries, for the first time in a major NASA mission, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has considerably enhanced or even enabled these rovers, by providing greater mass and volume allocations for the payload and wider range of operating temperatures for the power subsystem and thus reduced thermal management. After about 800 days of exploration, there is only marginal change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages of the batteries or in their capacities, as estimated from in-flight voltage data and corroborated by ground testing of prototype batteries. Enabled by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from a cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond 1000 sols, though other components have started showing signs of decay. In this paper, we will update the performance characteristics of these batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity.

  7. Thermal batteries - Recent advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, K. K.; Laakso, E. R.

    A development status evaluation is presented for lithium aluminum-iron disulfide thermal battery systems employing inorganic salt eutectic electrolytes. A performance comparison is conducted between an LiAl/FeS2 battery and a similarly constructed Ca/CaCrO4 battery; it is found that the former is superior in virtue of both greater service life and greater energy density; energy densities of LiAl/FeS2 cells will with further development reach an energy density four times greater than that of the Ca/CaCrO4 type. In addition, LiAl/FeS2 batteries exhibit little or no electrical noise under low drain.

  8. Flexible, Stretchable, and Rechargeable Fiber-Shaped Zinc-Air Battery Based on Cross-Stacked Carbon Nanotube Sheets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifan; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Ziyang; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-14

    The fabrication of flexible, stretchable and rechargeable devices with a high energy density is critical for next-generation electronics. Herein, fiber-shaped Zn-air batteries, are realized for the first time by designing aligned, cross-stacked and porous carbon nanotube sheets simultaneously that behave as a gas diffusion layer, a catalyst layer, and a current collector. The combined remarkable electronic and mechanical properties of the aligned carbon nanotube sheets endow good electrochemical properties. They display excellent discharge and charge performances at a high current density of 2 A g(-1) . They are also flexible and stretchable, which is particularly promising to power portable and wearable electronic devices. PMID:26514937

  9. Rechargeable magnesium-ion battery based on a TiSe2-cathode with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structure

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yunpeng; Katsura, Yukari; Yoshino, Takafumi; Takagi, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable ion-batteries, in which ions such as Li+ carry charges between electrodes, have been contributing to the improvement of power-source performance in a wide variety of mobile electronic devices. Among them, Mg-ion batteries are recently attracting attention due to possible low cost and safety, which are realized by abundant natural resources and stability of Mg in the atmosphere. However, only a few materials have been known to work as rechargeable cathodes for Mg-ion batteries, owing to strong electrostatic interaction between Mg2+ and the host lattice. Here we demonstrate rechargeable performance of Mg-ion batteries at ambient temperature by selecting TiSe2 as a model cathode by focusing on electronic structure. Charge delocalization of electrons in a metal-ligand unit through d-p orbital hybridization is suggested as a possible key factor to realize reversible intercalation of Mg2+ into TiSe2. The viewpoint from the electronic structure proposed in this study might pave a new way to design electrode materials for multivalent-ion batteries. PMID:26228263

  10. Rechargeable magnesium-ion battery based on a TiSe2-cathode with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yunpeng; Katsura, Yukari; Yoshino, Takafumi; Takagi, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Kouji

    2015-07-01

    Rechargeable ion-batteries, in which ions such as Li+ carry charges between electrodes, have been contributing to the improvement of power-source performance in a wide variety of mobile electronic devices. Among them, Mg-ion batteries are recently attracting attention due to possible low cost and safety, which are realized by abundant natural resources and stability of Mg in the atmosphere. However, only a few materials have been known to work as rechargeable cathodes for Mg-ion batteries, owing to strong electrostatic interaction between Mg2+ and the host lattice. Here we demonstrate rechargeable performance of Mg-ion batteries at ambient temperature by selecting TiSe2 as a model cathode by focusing on electronic structure. Charge delocalization of electrons in a metal-ligand unit through d-p orbital hybridization is suggested as a possible key factor to realize reversible intercalation of Mg2+ into TiSe2. The viewpoint from the electronic structure proposed in this study might pave a new way to design electrode materials for multivalent-ion batteries.

  11. Rhombohedral Prussian White as Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Song, J; Qiao, RM; Wray, LA; Hossain, MA; Chuang, YD; Yang, WL; Lu, YH; Evans, D; Lee, JJ; Vail, S; Zhao, X; Nishijima, M; Kakimoto, S; Goodenough, JB

    2015-02-25

    A novel air-stable sodium iron hexacyanoferrate (R-Na1.92Fe[Fe(CN)(6)]) with rhombohedral structure is demonstrated to be a scalable, low-cost cathode material for sodium-ion batteries exhibiting high capacity, long cycle life, and good rate capability. The cycling mechanism of the iron redox is clarified and understood through synchrotron-based soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which also reveals the correlation between the physical properties and the cell performance of this novel material. More importantly, successful preparation of a dehydrated iron hexacyanoferrate with high sodium-ion concentration enables the fabrication of a discharged sodium-ion battery with a non-sodium metal anode, and the manufacturing feasibility of low cost sodium-ion batteries with existing lithium-ion battery infrastructures has been tested.

  12. Nanoscale alloying effect of gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts on the performance of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Fang, Bin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid; Mott, Derrick; Loukrakpam, Rameshowri; Ng, Mei Shan; Li, Zheng; Hong, Jian; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2012-08-01

    The understanding of nanoscale alloying or the phase segregation effect of alloy nanoparticles on the catalytic properties is important for a rational design of the desired catalysts for a specific reaction. This paper describes findings of an investigation into this type of structural effect for carbon-supported bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts in a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery. The nanoscale structural characteristics in terms of size, alloying and phase segregation were shown to affect the catalytic properties of the catalysts in the Li-O(2) battery. In addition to the composition effect, the catalysts with a fully alloyed phase structure were found to exhibit a smaller discharge-charge voltage difference and a higher discharge capacity than those with a partial phase segregation structure. This finding is significant for the design of alloy nanoparticles as air cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-air batteries, demonstrating the importance of the control of the nanoscale composition and phase properties.

  13. Selenium and selenium-sulfur cathode materials for high-energy rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Lin, Xiu-Mei; Bonatto Minella, Christian; Wang, Di; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-08-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an attractive metallic anode material for next-generation batteries owing to its inherent dendrite-free electrodeposition, high capacity and low cost. Here we report a new class of Mg batteries based on both elemental selenium (Se) and selenium-sulfur solid solution (SeS2) cathode materials. Elemental Se confined into a mesoporous carbon was used as a cathode material. Coupling the Se cathode with a metallic Mg anode in a non-nucleophilic electrolyte, the Se cathode delivered a high initial volumetric discharge capacity of 1689 mA h cm-3 and a reversible capacity of 480 mA h cm-3 was retained after 50 cycles at a high current density of 2 C. The mechanistic insights into the electrochemical conversion in Mg-Se batteries were investigated by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. The structural transformation of cyclic Se8 into chainlike Sen upon battery cycling was revealed by ex-situ Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the promising battery performance with a SeS2 cathode envisages the perspective of a series of SeSn cathode materials combining the benefits of both selenium and sulfur for high energy Mg batteries.

  14. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cathode, anode and electrolyte materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shoufeng

    Two new classes of cathode materials were studied: iron phosphate/sulfate materials and layered manganese oxides, both of which are low cost and had shown some potential. The first class of materials have poor conductivity and cyclability. I studied a number of methods for increasing the conductivity, and determined that grinding the material with carbon black was as effective as special in-situ coatings. The optimum carbon loading was determined to be between 6 and 15 wt%. Too much carbon reduces the volumetric energy density, whereas too little significantly increased cell polarization (reduced the rate of reaction). The kinetic and thermodynamic stability of LiFePO 4 was also studied and it was determined that over discharge protection will be needed as irreversible Li3PO4 can be formed at low potentials. A novel hydrothermal synthesis method was developed, but the significant level of Fe on the Li site reduces the reaction rate too much. In the case of the layered manganese oxide, cation substitution with Co and Ni is found to be effective in avoiding Jahn-Teller effects and improving electrochemistry. A wide range of tin compounds have been suggested as lithium storage media for advanced anode materials, as tin can store over 4 Li per Sn atom. Lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF6, is presently the salt of choice for LiCoO2 batteries, but it is expensive and dissolves some manganese compounds. The lithium bis(oxolato)borate (BOB) salt was recently reported, and I made a study of its use in cells with the LiFePO4 cathode and the tin anode. During its synthesis, it became clear that LiBOB is very reactive with many solvents, and these complexes were characterized to better understand this new material. In LiBOB the lithium is five coordinated, an unstable configuration for the lithium ion so that water and many other solvents rapidly react to make a six coordination. Only in the case of ethylene carbonate was the lithium found to be four coordinated. The Li

  16. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Qi-Xing; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xiang-hua

    2014-12-01

    Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e- and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm-2 to 0.05 mA cm-2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

  17. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-06-04

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based "rocking chair" type battery.

  18. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based “rocking chair” type battery. PMID:26043147

  19. Molecular ion battery: a rechargeable system without using any elemental ions as a charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Masaru; Sano, Hikaru; Ando, Hisanori; Kiyobayashi, Tetsu

    2015-06-01

    Is it possible to exceed the lithium redox potential in electrochemical systems? It seems impossible to exceed the lithium potential because the redox potential of the elemental lithium is the lowest among all the elements, which contributes to the high voltage characteristics of the widely used lithium ion battery. However, it should be possible when we use a molecule-based ion which is not reduced even at the lithium potential in principle. Here we propose a new model system using a molecular electrolyte salt with polymer-based active materials in order to verify whether a molecular ion species serves as a charge carrier. Although the potential of the negative-electrode is not yet lower than that of lithium at present, this study reveals that a molecular ion can work as a charge carrier in a battery and the system is certainly a molecular ion-based “rocking chair” type battery.

  20. Sulfur-based composite cathode materials for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiulin; He, Yu-Shi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-21

    There is currently an urgent demand for highly efficient energy storage and conversion systems. Due to its high theoretical energy density, low cost, and environmental compatibility, the lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has become a typical representative of the next generation of electrochemical power sources. Various approaches have been explored to design and prepare sulfur cathode materials to enhance their electrochemical performance. This Research News article summarizes and compares different sulfur materials for Li-S batteries and particularly focuses on the fine structures, electrochemical performance, and electrode reaction mechanisms of pyrolyzed polyacrylo-nitrile sulfur (pPAN@S) and microporous-carbon/small-sulfur composite materials. PMID:25256595

  1. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jongh, P. E.; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Orimo, S.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible with Li-metal anodes, prevent Li dendrite formation, and eliminate risks associated with flammable organic solvents. Less than 10 years ago, LiBH4 was proposed as a solid-state electrolyte. It showed a high ionic conductivity, but only at elevated temperatures. Since then a range of other complex metal hydrides has been reported to show similar characteristics. Strategies have been developed to extend the high ionic conductivity of LiBH4 down to room temperature by partial anion substitution or nanoconfinement. The present paper reviews the recent developments in complex metal hydrides as solid electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries.

  2. Encapsulated monoclinic sulfur for stable cycling of li-s rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Jung, Wook Ki; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Do Kyung

    2013-12-01

    Monoclinic S8 , an uncommon allotrope of sulfur at room temperature, can be formed when common orthorhombic S8 is heat-treated under enclosed environments in nanometer dimensions. Monoclinic S8 prevents the formation of soluble polysulfides during battery operation, resulting in unprecedented cycling performance over 1000 cycles under the highest sulfur content to date.

  3. Studies of Al-Al 3Ni eutectic mixtures as insertion anodes in rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machill, S.; Rahner, D.

    This contribution will give a short overview of aluminium-nickel eutectic mixture alloys as the anode materials in lithium secondary batteries. These compounds allow to create an alloy matrix of modified grain size with stabilizing properties toward 'mechanical stressing' during charge/discharge processes of lithium. Several electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of these lithium-inserting materials.

  4. Thin film rechargeable room temperature batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses thin-film solid-state batteries consisting of lithium foils, amorphous PEO separators, and solid redox polymerization electrodes (SRPEs) that were assembled, discharged, and cycled at room temperature. No solvents were added to any of the components, nor were structural additives used. Performances were studied as a function of cathode thickness and composition of separator and SRPE. At 50 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, cells could be discharged to a depth of 0-.6 to 1.3 C/cm{sup 2} , at 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} to a depth of 0.5 C/cm{sup 2}, and at 200 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} depth of 0.25 C/cm{sup 2}. It was also possible to pulse batteries at higher current densities for short periods of time (ranging from 0.1 To 3 s) with instantaneous recovery of open-circuit potential after the performance occurred. Batteries may be designed to be paper or may consist of several cells stacked together to give a somewhat thicker device. Practical energy and power densities were calculated as a function of component dimensions (cathode and current collector thicknesses) for paper thin batteries consisting of lithium anodes, amorphous PEO separators, SRPEs, and metallized plastic current collectors. Power densities of 30 W/l (continuous discharge) and pulse 0.1 s power densities over 1000 W/l may be achieved for these ultrathin devices.

  5. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  6. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  7. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    PubMed Central

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  8. Appropriate battery technology for a new, rechargeable, micro-solar lantern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D. W. H.; Holland, R.; Crawley, K.

    A detailed market survey in Kenya has assessed the performance of currently available domestic lighting systems, for example, kerosene 'hurricane` lamps and (generally poorly constructed) solar lanterns, against end-user expectations. Following this survey, the UK Government's Department for International Development approved a project to design and develop an affordable, reliable and efficient solar lantern, which would provide improved lighting to rural households. This paper provides an overview of the end-user requirements, and corresponding lantern design features. The suitability of three commercially available alternative battery technologies, viz., nickel-metal-hydride, nickel-cadmium, and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), for use in this PV application are discussed. Finally, improvements to the VRLA batteries are proposed, which would further enhance their cycle-life and reduce the energy cost per cycle.

  9. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-01-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 and 96 mAh g−1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0–4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries. PMID:27174224

  10. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-05-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g-1 and 96 mAh g-1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0-4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries.

  11. Energetic aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery based on Na2 CuFe(CN)6 -NaTi2 (PO4 )3 intercalation chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Yong; Sun, Meng-Ying; Shen, Yi-Fei; Qian, Jiang-Feng; Cao, Yu-Liang; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2014-02-01

    Aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have the potential to meet growing demand for grid-scale electric energy storage because of the widespread availability and low cost of sodium resources. In this study, we synthesized a Na-rich copper hexacyanoferrate(II) Na2 CuFe(CN)6 as a high potential cathode and used NaTi2 (PO4 )3 as a Na-deficient anode to assemble an aqueous sodium ion battery. This battery works very well with a high average discharge voltage of 1.4 V, a specific energy of 48 Wh kg(-1) , and an excellent high-rate cycle stability with approximately 90 % capacity retention over 1000 cycles, achieving a new record in the electrochemical performance of aqueous Na-ion batteries. Moreover, all the anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are low cost and naturally abundant and are affordable for widespread applications. PMID:24464957

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of polythiocyanogen (SCN) x as a rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Palanichamy; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    Polythiocyanogen, (SCN) x, is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode material due to its high theoretical capacity (462 mAh g -1), safe operation, inexpensive raw materials, and a simple and less energy-intensive manufacturing process. The (SCN) x was prepared from the solution of trithiocyanate (SCN) 3 - in methylene dichloride (MDC), which was prepared by electrochemical oxidation of ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4SCN) in a two-phase electrolysis medium of 1.0 M NH 4SCN in 0.50 M H 2SO 4 + MDC. The (SCN) 3 - underwent auto catalytic polymerization to (SCN) x during MDC removal. Battery electrodes with (SCN) x as the active material were prepared, and tested in Swagelok cells using lithium foil as the counter and reference electrode. The cells delivered capacities in the range of 200-275 mAh g -1 at the discharge-charge rate of 0.2 C. The cells were tested up to 20 cycles and showed repeatable performance with a coulombic efficiency of 97% at the 20th cycle. The results presented here indicate that (SCN) x is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode-material candidate for further studies.

  13. First-Principles Study of Phosphorene and Graphene Heterostructure as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li Batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gen-Cai; Wang, Da; Wei, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Hao; Lau, Woon-Ming; Liu, Li-Min

    2015-12-17

    There is a great desire to develop the high-efficient anodes materials for Li batteries, which require not only large capacity but also high stability and mobility. In this work, the phosphorene/graphene heterostructure (P/G) was carefully explored based on first-principles calculations. The binding energy of Li on the pristine phosphorene is relatively weak (within 1.9 eV), whereas the phosphorene/graphene heterostructure (P/G) can greatly improve the binding energy (2.6 eV) without affecting the high mobility of Li within the layers. The electronic structures show that the large Li adsorption energy and fast diffusion ability of the P/G origin from the interfacial synergy effect. Interestingly, the P/G also displays ultrahigh stiffness (Cac = 350 N/m, Czz = 464 N/m), which can effectively avoid the distortion of the pristine phosphorene after the insertion of lithium. Thus, P/G can greatly enhance the cycle life of the battery. Owing to the high capacity, good conductivity, excellent Li mobility, and ultrahigh stiffness, P/G is a very promising anode material in Li-ion batteries (LIBs).

  14. Curly MnOx nanomembranes as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xueyi; Si, Wenping; Sun, Xiaolei; Deng, Junwen; Xi, Lixia; Liu, Bo; Yan, Chenglin; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional MnOx nanomembranes prepared by electron beam evaporation are rolled up into three-dimensional hybrid micro/nano-tubes by strain release. The material is characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and used as the cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The Li-O2 battery using such curly MnOx nanomembranes as the cathode delivers a specific discharge capacity of 4610 mAh gC-1 at a current density of 70 mA gC-1 which is higher than that of carbon black. Moreover, the MnOx nanomembrane electrode gains improved stability, being capable of cycling 112 times at a current density of 200 mA gC-1 . The encouraging performance is ascribed to the unique superiorities of nanomembranes and those inner oxygen vacancies, indicating that nanomembranes are promising materials for Li-O2 batteries.

  15. The correlation of the properties of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes with the discharge-charge performances of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhonglin; Duan, Donghong; Sun, Yanbo; Wei, Guoqiang; Hao, Xiaogang; Liu, Shibin; Han, Yunxia; Meng, Weijuan

    2016-10-01

    Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), such as PYR13TFSI, PYR14TFSI, and PYR1(2O1)TFSI, exhibit high thermal and electrochemical stability with wide electrochemical windows as electrolytes for application to rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, several fundamental properties of three ILs are measured: the ionic conductivity, oxygen solubility, and oxygen diffusion coefficient. The oxygen electro-reduction kinetics is characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The performances of Li-O2 batteries with these IL electrolytes are also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. The results demonstrate that the PYR1(2O1)TFSI electrolyte battery has a higher first-discharge voltage than the PYR13TFSI electrolyte and PYR14TFSI electrolyte batteries. Both PYR13TFSI- and PYR1(2O1)TFSI-based batteries exhibit higher first-discharge capacities and better cycling stabilities than the PYR14TFSI-based battery for 30 cycles. A theoretical analysis of the experimental results shows that the diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in the electrolyte remarkably affect the discharge capacity and cycling stability of the batteries. Particularly, the oxygen diffusion coefficient of the IL electrolyte can effectively facilitate the electrochemical oxygen electro-reduction reaction and oxygen concentration distribution in the catalyst layers of air electrodes. The oxygen diffusion coefficient and oxygen solubility improvements of IL electrolytes can enhance the discharge-charge performances of Li-O2 batteries.

  16. Self-Assembled NiO/Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes as Active Material for High-Power and High-Energy Hybrid Rechargeable Battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Fu, Jing; Park, Moon Gyu; Liu, Hao; Ghorbani Kashkooli, Ali; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Herein, a proof-of-concept of novel hybrid rechargeable battery based on electrochemical reactions of both nickel-zinc and zinc-air batteries is demonstrated using NiO/Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes self-assembled into mesoporous spheres as the active electrode material. The hybrid battery operates on two sets of fundamentally different battery reactions combined at the cell level, unlike in other hybrid systems where batteries of different reactions are simply connected through an external circuitry. As a result of combining nickel-zinc and zinc-air reactions, the hybrid battery demonstrates both remarkably high power density (volumetric, 14 000 W L(-1); gravimetric, 2700 W kg(-1)) and energy density of 980 W h kg(-1), significantly outperforming the performances of a conventional zinc-air battery. Furthermore, the hybrid battery demonstrates excellent charge rate capability up to 10 times faster than the rate of discharge without any capacity and voltage degradations, which makes it highly suited for large-scale applications such as electric vehicle propulsion and smart-grid energy storage.

  17. Self-Assembled NiO/Ni(OH)2 Nanoflakes as Active Material for High-Power and High-Energy Hybrid Rechargeable Battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Fu, Jing; Park, Moon Gyu; Liu, Hao; Ghorbani Kashkooli, Ali; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    Herein, a proof-of-concept of novel hybrid rechargeable battery based on electrochemical reactions of both nickel-zinc and zinc-air batteries is demonstrated using NiO/Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes self-assembled into mesoporous spheres as the active electrode material. The hybrid battery operates on two sets of fundamentally different battery reactions combined at the cell level, unlike in other hybrid systems where batteries of different reactions are simply connected through an external circuitry. As a result of combining nickel-zinc and zinc-air reactions, the hybrid battery demonstrates both remarkably high power density (volumetric, 14 000 W L(-1); gravimetric, 2700 W kg(-1)) and energy density of 980 W h kg(-1), significantly outperforming the performances of a conventional zinc-air battery. Furthermore, the hybrid battery demonstrates excellent charge rate capability up to 10 times faster than the rate of discharge without any capacity and voltage degradations, which makes it highly suited for large-scale applications such as electric vehicle propulsion and smart-grid energy storage. PMID:26854411

  18. A rechargeable cadmium-bromine battery using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dymek, C.J. Jr.; Reynolds, G.F.; Wilkes, J.S.

    1987-07-01

    Galvanic cells were tested using as electrolytes room temperature molten salts formed by mixing AlCl/sub 3/ with 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEICl). Zn and Cd, each with basic melt (containing Cl/sup -/ and AlCl/sub 4//sup -/) were the anodes. Br/sub 2/ dissolved in basic melt with a reticulated vitreous carbon current collector was the cathode in each case. MEI/sup +/-selective Nafion was used as a separator. The Zn electrode was found to be irreversible, while the Cd/Br/sub 2/ cell is rechargeable with an open-circuit voltage of 2.0V, an extended temperature range of operation, and potential for high specific energy.

  19. Zinc-air battery: understanding the structure and morphology changes of graphene-supported CoMn(2)O(4) bifunctional catalysts under practical rechargeable conditions.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ramakrishnan, Prakash; Nara, Hiroki; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen-doped/undoped thermally reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) decorated with CoMn2O4 (CMO) nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The activity and stability of this hybrid catalyst were evaluated by preparing air electrodes with both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume ambient air. Further, we investigated the relationship between the physical properties and the electrochemical results for hybrid electrodes at various cycles using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanodynamic charge-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structural, morphological and electrocatalytic performances confirm that CMO/N-rGO is a promising material for safe, reliable, and long-lasting air cathodes for both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume air under ambient condition. PMID:25192132

  20. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  1. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  2. Enhanced electrochemical performance of a crosslinked polyaniline-coated graphene oxide-sulfur composite for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Do Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Due to the extraordinarily high theoretical capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered a promising candidate for future high-energy battery applications. Li-S batteries, however, have suffered from limited cycle lives, mainly due to the formation of soluble polysulfides, which prevent the practical application of this attractive technology. The encapsulation of sulfur with various conductive materials has addressed this issue to some extent. Nevertheless, most approaches still present partial encapsulation of sulfur and moreover require a large quantity of conductive material (typically, >30 wt%), making the use of sulfur less desirable from the viewpoint of capacity. Here, we address these chronic issues of Li-S cells by developing a graphene oxide-sulfur composite with a thin crosslinked polyaniline (PANI) layer. Graphene oxide nanosheets with large surface area, high conductivity and a uniform conductive PANI layer, which are synthesized by a layer-by-layer method, have a synergetic interaction with a large portion of the sulfur in the active material. Furthermore, a simple crosslinking process efficiently prevents polysulfide dissolution, resulting in unprecedented electrochemical performance, even with a high sulfur content (∼75%): a high capacity retention of ∼80% is observed, in addition to 97.53% of the average Coulombic efficiency being retained after 500 cycles. The performance we demonstrate represents an advance in the field of lithium-sulfur batteries for applications such as power tools.

  3. A fully integrated wireless system for intracranial direct cortical stimulation, real-time electrocorticography data transmission, and smart cage for wireless battery recharge.

    PubMed

    Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402-405 MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

  4. A fully integrated wireless system for intracranial direct cortical stimulation, real-time electrocorticography data transmission, and smart cage for wireless battery recharge.

    PubMed

    Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402-405 MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation. PMID:25202300

  5. A Fully Integrated Wireless System for Intracranial Direct Cortical Stimulation, Real-Time Electrocorticography Data Transmission, and Smart Cage for Wireless Battery Recharge

    PubMed Central

    Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402–405 MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation. PMID:25202300

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li(1.3)Nb(0.3)V(0.4)O2 as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Ichikawa, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo

    2016-02-01

    The binary system, xLi3NbO4-(1 - x)LiVO2, was first examined as an electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. The sample (x = 0.43) crystallizes into a cation-disordered rocksalt structure and delivers a reversible capacity of ca. 230 mA h g(-1), which originates from V(3+)/V(5+) redox with electrochemically inactive niobium ions. PMID:26686804

  7. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  8. FeS/C composite as high-performance anode material for alkaline nickel-iron rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Fei; Li, Jing; Chang, Zhaorong; Li, Quanmin; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-09-01

    FeS and its composite, FeS/C, are synthesized via a simple calcination method followed by a co-precipitation process. The electrochemical properties of the bare FeS and FeS/C composite as anode materials for alkaline nickel-iron batteries are investigated. The results show that the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 325 mAh g-1 at a current density of 300 mA g-1 with a faradaic efficiency of 90.3% and retains 99.2% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles. For the first time, it is demonstrated that even at a discharge rate as high as 1500 mA g-1 (5C) the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh g-1. SEM results confirm that after 200 discharge-charge cycles, the size of FeS/C particles reduces from 5 to 15 μm to less than 300 nm in diameter and the particles are highly dispersed on the surface of carbon black, which is likely caused by the dissolution-deposition process of Fe(OH)2 and Fe via intermediate iron species. As a result, the FeS/C composite exhibits considerably high charge efficiency, high discharge capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycling stability. We believe that this composite is a potential candidate of high-performance anode materials for alkaline iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  9. Development of a high-rate, rechargeable bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Hash, M.C.; Prakash, J.; Turner, R.L.; Henriksen, G.L.

    1996-06-01

    Materials refinements have improved bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} batteries for power-demand applications. Current technology uses a two-phase Li-alloy cathode, LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte, and an upper-plateau (UP) FeS{sub 2} anode for a battery operated at 440 C; the battery is in sealed bipolar form. The two-phase Li alloy ({alpha}+{beta} Li-Al and Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}) cathode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that makes the bipolar design viable. The use of LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in ``electrolyte-starved`` cells achieves low-burdened cells with low area-specific impedance, with MgO powder separator. Combining dense UP FeS{sub 2} electrodes with a CuFeS{sub 2} additive and a LiI-modified electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, with high power capabilities. Long cycle life depends on peripheral seals for each cell in the bipolar stack. Seal composition is based on stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials that produce strong bonds between metals and ceramics. Using these seals, bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells and four-cell stacks are being built and tested (25 Ah, 13-cm dia). Adding 5 mol% LiI to the electrolyte increased specific energy by 50% under a 140 W/kg, constant power C/1 rate and a 544 W/kg power pulse (8-s) schedule. Cell capacity under the high-power pulse-demand approximates the C/3 rate discharge capacity. Cell specific energy is 155 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate.

  10. Finite linear diffusion model for design of overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethylferrocene as a redox additive. The theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  11. Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

    2014-05-20

    The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

  12. Reinstating lead for high-loaded efficient negative electrode for rechargeable sodium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwiche, Ali; Dugas, Romain; Fraisse, Bernard; Monconduit, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Due to its weight and toxicity, Pb is usually not considered as possible anode for Li- and Na-ion (NIBs) batteries. Nevertheless the toxicity is related to specific applications and its recycling is more than 99% which is one of the highest recycling rates on the planet where no other power source is utilized in more applications with such sustainability. For this reason, we have investigated micrometric lead particles as electrode for NIBs in an ether-based electrolyte (1 M NaPF6 in diglyme). The cyclability, coulombic efficiency and rate capability of lead were unexpected. A high loaded lead electrode with 98%wt of Pb and only 1% of carbon additive showed i) a capacity retention of 464 mA h/g after 50 cycles with only 1.5% of capacity loss, which represents a high volumetric capacity of 5289 mA h/cm3 due to the high density of Pb and ii) a very interesting capacity retention even at high current rate (1950 mA/g). In situ XRD study confirmed a sodiation-desodiation process in four steps. Preliminary tests in Pb//Na3V2(PO4)2F3 full cells showed promising results demonstrating that Pb could be a practical candidate for future high energy density Na-ion batteries with an efficient sodiated or non sodiated positive electrode.

  13. Phenomenological force and swelling models for rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2016-04-01

    Three phenomenological force and swelling models are developed to predict mechanical phenomena caused by Li-ion intercalation: a 1-D force model, a 1st order relaxation model, and a 3-D swelling model. The 1-D force model can estimate the Li-ion intercalation induced force for actual pack conditions with preloads. The model incorporates a nonlinear elastic stiffness to capture the mechanical consequences of Li-ion intercalation swelling. The model also separates the entire state of charge range into three regions considering phase transitions. The 1st order relaxation model predicts dynamic swelling during relaxation periods. A coefficient of relaxation is estimated from dynamic and quasi-static swelling at operational conditions. The 3-D swelling model predicts the swelling shape on the battery surface for all states of charge. This model introduces an equivalent modulus of elasticity, which is dependent on the state of charge, to capture material transformations of the electrodes, and the orthotropic expansion of the jellyroll in a direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces. Considering the simplicity of the measurements and direct physical correlations between stress and strain, the proposed models can enhance battery management systems and power management strategies.

  14. Heteroaromatic organic compound with conjugated multi-carbonyl as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meixiang; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Mujuan; Yao, Chunfeng; Nan, Junmin; Shu, Dong; Zeng, Ronghua; Zeng, Heping; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N’-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra- carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g−1 at the current density of 25 mA g−1. The capacity of 119 mAh g−1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g−1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g−1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries. PMID:27064938

  15. Heteroaromatic organic compound with conjugated multi-carbonyl as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Meixiang; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Mujuan; Yao, Chunfeng; Nan, Junmin; Shu, Dong; Zeng, Ronghua; Zeng, Heping; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2016-04-01

    The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N’-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra- carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g‑1 at the current density of 25 mA g‑1. The capacity of 119 mAh g‑1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g‑1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g‑1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries.

  16. Porous polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bo; Jiang, Qingbai; Tang, Siqi; Li, Shengliang; Chen, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Porous polymer electrolytes (PPEs) are attractive for developing lithium-ion batteries because of the combined advantages of liquid and solid polymer electrolytes. In the present study, a new porous polymer membrane doped with phytic acid (PA) is prepared, which is used as a crosslinker in polymer electrolyte matrix and can also plasticize porous polymer electrolyte membranes, changing them into soft tough flexible materials. A PEO-PMMA-LiClO4-x wt.% PA (x = weight of PA/weight of polymer, PEO: poly(ethylene oxide); PMMA: poly(methyl methacrylate)) polymer membrane is prepared by a simple evaporation method. The effects of the ratio of PA to PEO-PMMA on the properties of the porous membrane, including morphology, porous structure, and mechanical property, are systematically studied. PA improves the porous structure and mechanical properties of polymer membrane. The maximum tensile strength and elongation of the porous polymer membranes are 20.71 MPa and 45.7% at 15 wt.% PA, respectively. Moreover, the PPEs with 15 wt.% PA has a conductivity of 1.59 × 10-5 S/cm at 20 °C, a good electrochemical window (>5 V), and a low interfacial resistance. The results demonstrate the compatibility of the mechanical properties and conductivity of the PPEs, indicating that PPEs have good application prospects for lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Long-lived Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C Anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; He, Kejian; Ren, Yu; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The instability of anode materials during cycling has been greatly limiting the lifetime of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). Here, to tackle this issue, mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C composites with a pore size of 4 nm and a large BET surface area of 165 m(2) g(-1) have been synthesized by a novel two-step approach. The ARLB with this type of LiTi2(PO4)3@C anode, commercial LiMn2O4 cathode and 2 M Li2(SO4) aqueous solution (oxygen was removed) exhibited superior cycling stability (a capacity retention of 88.9% after 1200 cycles at 150 mA g(-1) and 82.7% over 5500 cycles at 750 mA g(-1)) and excellent rate capability (discharge capacities of 121, 110, 90, and 80 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of LiTi2(PO4)3 at 30, 150, 1500, and 3000 mA g(-1), respectively). As verified, the mesoporous structure, large surface area and high-quality carbon coating layer of the LiTi2(PO4)3@C composite contribute to the breakthrough in achieving excellent electrochemical properties for ARLB. PMID:26648263

  18. Energy Systems Based on Polyacetylene: Rechargeable Batteries and Schottky Barrier Solar Cells. Final Report, March 1, 1981-February 29, 1984

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    The chief thrust of the research has been directed towards the evaluation of polyacetylene (CH){sub x}, the prototype conducting polymer as an electrode- active material in novel, rechargeable batteries employing nonaqueous electrolytes. The p-doped material, [(CH{sup +y})A{sub y}{sup -}]{sub x}, (where A{sup -} is an anion) in conjunction with a Li anode, shows excellent discharge characteristics, e.g., very little change in discharge voltage with change in discharge current and a high power density. Its energy density is also good but it shows poor shelf life. When (CH){sub x} is used as a cathode (Li anode), which results in the formation of the n-doped polymer, [Li{sub y} {sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x}, during discharge, good discharge plateaus and power densities are obtained together with excellent shelf life and good recyclability. The energy density is, however only moderate. Cells employing an [M{sub y}{sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x} (where M = Li, Na) anode and a TiS{sub 2} cathode show very good discharge and recycling characteristics but their energy density is poor.

  19. Dendrite-Free Nanocrystalline Zinc Electrodeposition from an Ionic Liquid Containing Nickel Triflate for Rechargeable Zn-Based Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Cui, Tong; Pulletikurthi, Giridhar; Lahiri, Abhishek; Carstens, Timo; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-18

    Metallic zinc is a promising anode material for rechargeable Zn-based batteries. However, the dendritic growth of zinc has prevented practical applications. Herein it is demonstrated that dendrite-free zinc deposits with a nanocrystalline structure can be obtained by using nickel triflate as an additive in a zinc triflate containing ionic liquid. The formation of a thin layer of Zn-Ni alloy (η- and γ-phases) on the surface and in the initial stages of deposition along with the formation of an interfacial layer on the electrode strongly affect the nucleation and growth of zinc. A well-defined and uniform nanocrystalline zinc deposit with particle sizes of about 25 nm was obtained in the presence of Ni(II) . Further, it is shown that the nanocrystalline Zn exhibits a high cycling stability even after 50 deposition/stripping cycles. This strategy of introducing an inorganic metal salt in ionic liquid electrolytes can be considered as an efficient way to obtain dendrite-free zinc. PMID:26822484

  20. Dendrite-Free Nanocrystalline Zinc Electrodeposition from an Ionic Liquid Containing Nickel Triflate for Rechargeable Zn-Based Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Cui, Tong; Pulletikurthi, Giridhar; Lahiri, Abhishek; Carstens, Timo; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-18

    Metallic zinc is a promising anode material for rechargeable Zn-based batteries. However, the dendritic growth of zinc has prevented practical applications. Herein it is demonstrated that dendrite-free zinc deposits with a nanocrystalline structure can be obtained by using nickel triflate as an additive in a zinc triflate containing ionic liquid. The formation of a thin layer of Zn-Ni alloy (η- and γ-phases) on the surface and in the initial stages of deposition along with the formation of an interfacial layer on the electrode strongly affect the nucleation and growth of zinc. A well-defined and uniform nanocrystalline zinc deposit with particle sizes of about 25 nm was obtained in the presence of Ni(II) . Further, it is shown that the nanocrystalline Zn exhibits a high cycling stability even after 50 deposition/stripping cycles. This strategy of introducing an inorganic metal salt in ionic liquid electrolytes can be considered as an efficient way to obtain dendrite-free zinc.

  1. A fundamental study on the [(μ-Cl)3 Mg2 (THF)6 ]+ dimer electrolytes for rechargeable Mg batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Tianbiao; Cox, Jonathan T.; Hu, Dehong; Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Jianzhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Tang, Keqi; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-05

    We present a fundamental study on [(μ-Cl)3 Mg2 (THF)6 ]+ dimer electrolytes using various physical methods including Subambient Pressure Ionization with Nanoelectrospray Mass spectrometry (SPIN-MS), Raman spectroscopy, 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, long time sought THF solvated [MgCl]+ species was experimentally characterized by SPIN mass spectrometry in the solution of the Mgdimer containing electrolyte, confirming the mono-Cl- abstraction reaction between MgCl2 and an Al Lewis acid. Solvated MgCl2 in the electrolyte was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results establish the previously proposed dimerization equilibrium of solvated [MgCl]+ and MgCl2 with [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+.more » 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis on chloration reaction of [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]AlPh3Cl with external Cl- led to further insights on the coordination chemistry of the dimer electrolyte. Finally, a comprehensive mechanism is proposed for the reversible electrochemical Mg deposition and stripping and Mg2+ and Cl- ion transports of the Mg dimer electrolytes in rechargeable Mg batteries.« less

  2. Long-lived Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C Anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; He, Kejian; Ren, Yu; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The instability of anode materials during cycling has been greatly limiting the lifetime of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). Here, to tackle this issue, mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C composites with a pore size of 4 nm and a large BET surface area of 165 m2 g−1 have been synthesized by a novel two-step approach. The ARLB with this type of LiTi2(PO4)3@C anode, commercial LiMn2O4 cathode and 2 M Li2(SO4) aqueous solution (oxygen was removed) exhibited superior cycling stability (a capacity retention of 88.9% after 1200 cycles at 150 mA g−1 and 82.7% over 5500 cycles at 750 mA g−1) and excellent rate capability (discharge capacities of 121, 110, 90, and 80 mAh g−1 based on the mass of LiTi2(PO4)3 at 30, 150, 1500, and 3000 mA g−1, respectively). As verified, the mesoporous structure, large surface area and high-quality carbon coating layer of the LiTi2(PO4)3@C composite contribute to the breakthrough in achieving excellent electrochemical properties for ARLB. PMID:26648263

  3. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  4. Polypyrrole-encapsulated vanadium pentoxide nanowires on a conductive substrate for electrode in aqueous rechargeable lithium battery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaowei; Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Zhou, Qunhua; Xiong, Chuanxi; Xu, Weilin

    2015-02-01

    Precursors of ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4V4O10) nanowires assembled on a conductive substrate were prepared by a hydrothermal method. After calcination at 360°C, the NH4V4O10 precursor transformed to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires, which presented a high initial capacity of 135.0mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50mA g(-1) in 5M LiNO3 aqueous solution; while the specific capacity faded quickly over 50 cycles. By coating the surface of V2O5 nanowires with water-insoluble polypyrrole (PPy), the formed nanocomposite electrode exhibited a specific discharge capacity of 89.9mA h g(-1) at 50mA g(-1) (after 100 cycles). A V2O5@PPy //LiMn2O4 rechargeable lithium battery exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 95.2mA h g(-1); and after 100 cycles, a specific discharge capacity of 81.5mA h g(-1) could retain at 100mA g(-1).

  5. Rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries with an auxiliary electrode for the oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunahiro, S.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2014-09-01

    A rechargeable aqueous lithium-air cell with a third auxiliary electrode for the oxygen evolution reaction was developed. The cell consists of a lithium metal anode, a lithium conducting solid electrolyte of Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xSiyP3-yO12, a carbon black oxygen reduction air electrode, a RuO2 oxygen evolution electrode, and a saturated aqueous solution of LiOH with 10 M LiCl. The cell was successfully operated for several cycles at 0.64 mA cm-2 and 25 °C under air, where the capacity of air electrode was 2000 mAh gcathod-1. The cell performance was degraded gradually by cycling under open air. The degradation was reduced under CO2-free air and pure oxygen. The specific energy density was calculated to be 810 Wh kg-1 from the weight of water, lithium, oxygen, and carbon in the air electrode.

  6. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  7. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-01-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  8. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  9. Development of rechargeable lithium-bromine batteries with lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Koshin; Yamada, Hirotoshi

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical performances of a prototype lithium-bromine battery (LBB) employing a solid electrolyte is investigated. The discharge capacity decreases with repeating charge/discharge cycles. Electrochemical impedance analysis reveals that the capacity fading is mainly due to increase in the interfacial resistance between an aqueous active material solution and a solid electrolyte. Based on the results of symmetric cells and structural analysis of the surface of the solid electrolyte immersed in Br2 solutions, it is suggested that a Li+-depletion layer is formed on the surface of the solid electrolyte as a result of contact with bromine. Addition of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEABr) depresses the interfacial resistance, which results in improved cycleability. LBB with 1.0 M LiBr and 0.25 M TEABr shows discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g-LiBr and Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% at 5th cycle.

  10. B₂O₃-added lithium aluminium germanium phosphate solid electrolyte for Li-O₂ rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Jang, Seong-Yong; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Chan-Jin

    2014-08-14

    B2O3-added Li(1.5)Al(0.5)Ge(1.5)(PO4)3 (LAGP) glass ceramics showing a room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.67 mS cm(-1) have been synthesized by using a melt-quenching method. The prepared glass ceramics are observed to be stable in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide. The augmented conductivity of the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramic has improved the plateau potential during discharge. Furthermore, the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramics are successfully employed as a solid electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery to obtain a stable cycling lifetime of up to 15 cycles with the limited capacity protocol.

  11. TUNING SILICON NANORODS FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Au, M.

    2010-11-23

    Silicon is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries in regarding of high capacity, low cost and safety, but it suffers poor cycling stability due to the pulverization induced by severe volume expansion/shrinkage (297%) during lithium insertion/extraction. In our previous investigation on aluminum nanorods anodes, it is found the selection of substrates in which Al nanorods grown plays the role in prevention of pulverization resulting in the increase of cycling life. Adapting this knowledge, we investigated the Si based nanorods anodes by tuning its composition and element distribution. Our results show that although the Si nanorods demonstrated higher initial anodic capacity of 1500 mAh/g, it diminished after 50 cycles due to morphology change and pulverization. By codepositing Cu, the Si-Cu composite nanorods demonstrated sustainable capacity of 500 mAh/g in 100 cycles attributing to its flexible and less brittle nature.

  12. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  13. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  14. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-03-21

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes.

  15. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-03-21

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. PMID:24496578

  16. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  17. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  18. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  19. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  20. A half millimeter thick coplanar flexible battery with wireless recharging capability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Seong; Ko, Dongah; Yoo, Dong-Joo; Jung, Dae Soo; Yavuz, Cafer T; Kim, Nam-In; Choi, In-Suk; Song, Jae Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-04-01

    Most of the existing flexible lithium ion batteries (LIBs) adopt the conventional cofacial cell configuration where anode, separator, and cathode are sequentially stacked and so have difficulty in the integration with emerging thin LIB applications, such as smart cards and medical patches. In order to overcome this shortcoming, herein, we report a coplanar cell structure in which anodes and cathodes are interdigitatedly positioned on the same plane. The coplanar electrode design brings advantages of enhanced bending tolerance and capability of increasing the cell voltage by in series-connection of multiple single-cells in addition to its suitability for the thickness reduction. On the basis of these structural benefits, we develop a coplanar flexible LIB that delivers 7.4 V with an entire cell thickness below 0.5 mm while preserving stable electrochemical performance throughout 5000 (un)bending cycles (bending radius = 5 mm). Also, even the pouch case serves as barriers between anodes and cathodes to prevent Li dendrite growth and short-circuit formation while saving the thickness. Furthermore, for convenient practical use wireless charging via inductive electromagnetic energy transfer and solar cell integration is demonstrated.

  1. A multifunctional 3.5V iron-based phosphate cathode for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. L.; Makahnouk, W. R. M.; Makimura, Y.; Toghill, K.; Nazar, L. F.

    2007-10-01

    In the search for new positive-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries, recent research has focused on nanostructured lithium transition-metal phosphates that exhibit desirable properties such as high energy storage capacity combined with electrochemical stability. Only one member of this class-the olivine LiFePO4 (ref. 3)-has risen to prominence so far, owing to its other characteristics, which include low cost, low environmental impact and safety. These are critical for large-capacity systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Nonetheless, olivine has some inherent shortcomings, including one-dimensional lithium-ion transport and a two-phase redox reaction that together limit the mobility of the phase boundary. Thus, nanocrystallites are key to enable fast rate behaviour. It has also been suggested that the long-term economic viability of large-scale Li-ion energy storage systems could be ultimately limited by global lithium reserves, although this remains speculative at present. (Current proven world reserves should be sufficient for the hybrid electric vehicle market, although plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and electric vehicle expansion would put considerable strain on resources and hence cost effectiveness.) Here, we report on a sodium/lithium iron phosphate, A2FePO4F (A=Na, Li), that could serve as a cathode in either Li-ion or Na-ion cells. Furthermore, it possesses facile two-dimensional pathways for Li+ transport, and the structural changes on reduction-oxidation are minimal. This results in a volume change of only 3.7% that-unlike the olivine-contributes to the absence of distinct two-phase behaviour during redox, and a reversible capacity that is 85% of theoretical.

  2. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  3. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  4. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  5. Analysis of a hydrometallurgical route to recover base metals from spent rechargeable batteries by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantuano, Danuza Pereira; Dorella, Germano; Elias, Renata Cristina Alves; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    A hydrometallurgical route is proposed to recover zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries in order to separate base metals such as nickel, copper, aluminium, cadmium, lithium and cobalt which constitute the main metallic species of spent NiCd, NiMH and Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The route comprises the following main steps: (1) sorting batteries by type, (2) battery dismantling to separate the spent battery dust from plastic, iron scrap and paper, (3) leaching of the dust with sulphuric acid and (4) metal separation by a liquid-liquid extraction using Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) as extractant. The metal content of NiCd, NiMH and Li-ion batteries from three distinct manufacturers has been evaluated. A factorial design of experiments was used to investigate the leaching step using operational variables such as temperature, H 2SO 4 concentration, S/L ratio and H 2O 2 concentration. Analysis of metal separation by the liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272 identified a pH 1/2 2.5-3.0 for zinc and aluminium, pH 1/2 4.0-4.5 for manganese, cadmium, copper and cobalt, pH 1/2 6.5 for nickel and pH 1/2 8.0 for lithium. These results indicate that batteries must be previously sorted by type and treated separately. In addition, data fitting to an equilibrium model proposed for the reactive test system by the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFChE) have indicated that MR 2(RH) 2 and MR 2 complexes (where M = Zn, Mn, Co, Cd and Cu) co-exist in the organic phase with Cyanex 272 depending on the loading conditions. The route has been found technically viable to separate the main metallic species of all batteries considered in this study.

  6. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature. PMID:22543301

  7. P2-type Nax[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g-1. Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2, that delivers 190 mAh g-1 of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe3+/Fe4+ redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  8. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-04-29

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  9. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  10. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  12. Study, selection, and preparation of solid cationic conductors. [characteristics of solid electrolytes for rechargeable high energy and high power density batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, W. L.; Muller, O.

    1974-01-01

    Crystal chemical principles and transport theory have been used to predict structures and specific compounds which might find application as solid electrolytes in rechargeable high energy and high power density batteries operating at temperatures less than 200 C. Structures with 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional channels were synthesized and screened by nuclear magnetic resonance, dielectric loss, and conductivity. There is significant conductivity at room temperature in some of the materials but none attain a level that is comparable to beta-alumina. Microwave and fast pulse methods were developed to measure conductivity in powders and in small crystals.

  13. Magnesium(II) bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide-based electrolytes with wide electrochemical windows for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

    PubMed

    Ha, Se-Young; Lee, Yong-Won; Woo, Sang Won; Koo, Bonjae; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Cho, Jaephil; Lee, Kyu Tae; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2014-03-26

    We present a promising electrolyte candidate, Mg(TFSI)2 dissolved in glyme/diglyme, for future design of advanced magnesium (Mg) batteries. This electrolyte shows high anodic stability on an aluminum current collector and allows Mg stripping at the Mg electrode and Mg deposition on the stainless steel or the copper electrode. It is clearly shown that nondendritic and agglomerated Mg secondary particles composed of ca. 50 nm primary particles alleviating safety concern are formed in glyme/diglyme with 0.3 M Mg(TFSI)2 at a high rate of 1C. Moreover, a Mg(TFSI)2-based electrolyte presents the compatibility toward a Chevrel phase Mo6S8, a radical polymer charged up to a high voltage of 3.4 V versus Mg/Mg(2+) and a carbon-sulfur composite as cathodes. PMID:24559269

  14. Improving the electrochemical performance of the li4 ti5 o12 electrode in a rechargeable magnesium battery by lithium-magnesium co-intercalation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Yao, Hu-Rong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted recent research attention because of abundant raw materials and their relatively low-price and high-safety characteristics. However, the sluggish kinetics of the intercalated Mg(2+) ions in the electrode materials originates from the high polarizing ability of the Mg(2+) ion and hinders its electrochemical properties. Here we report a facile approach to improve the electrochemical energy storage capability of the Li4 Ti5 O12 electrode in a Mg battery system by the synergy between Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions. By tuning the hybrid electrolyte of Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions, both the reversible capacity and the kinetic properties of large Li4 Ti5 O12 nanoparticles attain remarkable improvement.

  15. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-02-01

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes.A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a

  16. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  17. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  18. Design of a thermophotovoltaic battery substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Edward F.; Becker, Frederick E.; Shukla, Kailash C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1999-03-01

    Many military platforms that currently use the BA-5590 primary battery or the BB-390A/U rechargeable battery are limited in performance by low storage capacity and long recharge times. Thermo Power Corporation, with team members JX Crystals and Essential Research Inc. is developing an advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) battery substitute that will provide higher storage capacity, lower weight, and instantaneous recharging (by refueling). The TPV battery substitute incorporates several advanced design features including: an evacuated and sealed enclosure for the emitter and PV cells to minimize unwanted convection heat transfer from the emitter to PV cells; selective tungsten emitter with a well matched gallium antimonide PV cell receiver; optical filter to recycle nonconvertible radiant energy; and a silicon carbide thermal recuperator to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases.

  19. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  20. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of a manganese dioxide electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn alkaline battery environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.; Hu, Y.; Bae, I.T.; Miller, B.; Scherson, D.A.; Antonio, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    Electronic and structural aspects of a MnO{sub 2} electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn battery environment have been investigated by in situ Mn K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The relative amplitudes of the three major Fourier transform shells of the EXAFS (extended XAFS) function of the rechargeable MnO{sub 2} electrode in the undischarged state were found to be similar to those found for ramsdellite, a MnO{sub 2} polymorph with substantial corner-sharing linkages among the basic MnO{sub 6} octahedral units. The analyses of the background-subtracted pre-edge peaks and absorption edge regions for the nominally 1-e{sup {minus}} discharged electrode were consistent with Mn{sup 3+} as being the predominant constituent species, rather than a mixture of Mn{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} sites. Furthermore, careful inspection of both the XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS indicated that the full recharge of MnO, which had been previously discharged either by a 1- or 2-equivalent corner-sharing linkages compared to the original undischarged MnO{sub 2}.

  1. Co3O4 nanoparticle-modified MnO2 nanotube bifunctional oxygen cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guojun; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun; Hor, T. S. Andy; Yu, Aishui; Liu, Zhaolin

    2013-05-01

    We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone.We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Zinc-air cell device, XPS survey scan and power density of the cell. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00300k

  2. Preliminary studies of biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2 O4 as a cathode material on electrochemical performances for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vediappan, Kumaran; Lee, Chang Woo

    2010-05-01

    Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is an inexpensive and pollution-free cathode material for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. In this study, spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material was coated with biomineral powders by the mechano-chemical method. In the course of the material synthesis, citric acid and acryl amide were added to serve as a complexing agent and a gelling agent, respectively, followed by a calcination process at 700 °C for 6 h in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The spinel LiMn2O4 and biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials were, from diverse viewpoints, characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the electrochemical cycling method to understand the mechanism of improvements in electrochemical performances. We suggest that the biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 is a good candidate as a low cost and environmentally friendly cathode material showing the enlarged capacity characteristic of Li-ion rechargeable batteries.

  3. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  4. Surface-Tuned Co3O4 Nanoparticles Dispersed on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as an Efficient Cathode Electrocatalyst for Mechanical Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Application.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh K; Dhavale, Vishal M; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-09-30

    The most vital component of the fuel cells and metal-air batteries is the electrocatalyst, which can facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a significantly reduced overpotential. The present work deals with the development of surface-tuned cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene as a potential ORR electrocatalyst possessing some unique advantages. The thermally reduced nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) was decorated with three different morphologies of Co3O4 nanoparticles, viz., cubic, blunt edged cubic, and spherical, by using a simple hydrothermal method. We found that the spherical Co3O4 nanoparticle supported NGr catalyst (Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h) has acquired a significant activity makeover to display the ORR activity closely matching with the state-of-the-art Pt supported carbon (PtC) catalyst in alkaline medium. Subsequently, the Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has been utilized as the air electrode in a Zn-air battery, which was found to show comparable performance to the system derived from PtC. Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has shown several hours of flat discharge profile at the discharge rates of 10, 20, and 50 mA/cm(2) with a specific capacity and energy density of ~590 mAh/g-Zn and ~840 Wh/kg-Zn, respectively, in the primary Zn-air battery system. In conjunction, Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h has outperformed as an air electrode in mechanical rechargeable Zn-air battery as well, which has shown consistent flat discharge profile with minimal voltage loss at a discharge rate of 50 mA/cm(2). The present results, thus demonstrate that the proper combination of the tuned morphology of Co3O4 with NGr will be a promising and inexpensive material for efficient and ecofriendly cathodes for Zn-air batteries.

  5. Exploratory battery technology development report for FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Butler, P.C.; Akhil, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Freese, J.M.; Lott, S.E.

    1991-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of advanced rechargeable batteries for stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1990. 82 figs., 40 tabs.

  6. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.; Hammel, C.; Altemos, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  7. Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) as a sodium-bearing anode for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Ravnsbaek, DB; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM

    2014-07-01

    Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) synthesized as fine carbon-coated powders is demonstrated for the first time to be a suitable sodium-bearing anode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries (ANaBs). Importantly, Na3Ti2(PO4)(3) is found to be stable in deoxygenated water, enabling use of this material in aqueous systems. As a sodiated anode, it allows use of sodium-depleted cathode materials that require supply of sodium-ions from the anode. As an example, we demonstrate for the first time the use of olivine FePO4 as a cathode in an ANaB. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ε-MnO2 nanostructures directly grown on Ni foam: a cathode catalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuxiang; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    A sponge-like ε-MnO2 nanostructure was synthesized by direct growth of ε-MnO2 on Ni foam through a facile electrodeposition route. When applied as a self-supporting, binder-free cathode material for rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries, the ε-MnO2/Ni electrode exhibits considerable high-rate capability (discharge capacity of ~6300 mA h g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1) and enhanced cyclability (exceeding 120 cycles) without controlling the discharge depth. The superior performance is proposed to be associated with the 3D nanoporous structures and abundant oxygen defects as well as the absence of side reactions related to carbon-based conductive additives and binders.A sponge-like ε-MnO2 nanostructure was synthesized by direct growth of ε-MnO2 on Ni foam through a facile electrodeposition route. When applied as a self-supporting, binder-free cathode material for rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries, the ε-MnO2/Ni electrode exhibits considerable high-rate capability (discharge capacity of ~6300 mA h g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1) and enhanced cyclability (exceeding 120 cycles) without controlling the discharge depth. The superior performance is proposed to be associated with the 3D nanoporous structures and abundant oxygen defects as well as the absence of side reactions related to carbon-based conductive additives and binders. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis procedures and material characterizations, additional SEM, CV, TGA, BET, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06361e

  9. Na0.282V2O5: A high-performance cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries and sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yangsheng; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Cai, Gemei; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-10-01

    Na0.282V2O5 nanorods have been successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by a calcination treatment, which is then used as a cathode for lithium batteries and sodium batteries for the first time. The crystal structure is refined to be a monoclinic lattice, which contains 3D tunnels along the b-axis. The Na ions are located inside the tunnels and form "pillar effect" to prevent the collapse of the crystal structure. As cathode material for lithium batteries, the Na0.282V2O5 nanorods deliver a high discharge specific capacity of 264, 186, 191 and 149 mA h g-1 at the current density of 50, 500, 1000 and 1500 mA g-1, respectively. The Na0.282V2O5 nanorods demonstrate the excellent cycling performance up to 400 cycles at 1 and 1.5 A g-1. Importantly, as cathode material for sodium batteries, Na0.282V2O5 exhibits superior long-term cyclic stability up to 1000 cycles at 0.3 A g-1. The results of ex-situ XRD, EIS and first-principle calculation indicate that the Na0.282V2O5 possesses good electrical conductivity and structural stability. Our work demonstrates that the Na0.282V2O5 material could be considered as a potential cathode for lithium-ion batteries, and even sodium ion batteries.

  10. The development of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Szymborski, J.; Jungst, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Technical advances in lead-acid battery design have created new opportunities for battery systems in telecommunications, computer backup power and vehicle propulsion power. Now the lead-acid battery has the opportunity to become a major element in the mix of technologies used by electric utilities for several power quality and energy and resource management functions within the network. Since their introduction into industrial applications, Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries have received widespread acceptance and use in critical telecommunications and computer installations, and have developed over 10 years of reliable operational history. As further enhancements in performance, reliability and manufacturing processes are made, these VRLA batteries are expanding the role of battery-based energy storage systems within utility companies portfolios. This paper discusses the rationale and process of designing, optimizing and testing VRLA batteries for specific utility application requirements.

  11. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  12. Proceedings of the tenth annual battery conference on applications and advances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This is a collection of papers presented at the 1995 Annual Battery Conference on Application and Advances. The goal of the conference is to fill the need for improved communication between the developers and users of battery systems and the designers of interfacing electronic power conversion and control components and systems. The Conference attempts to attain that goal through deliberations on issues involving the interactions between those battery and electronic systems in commercial, industrial, space and military applications.

  13. Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 2nd, California State University, Long Beach, Jan. 14-16, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L. (Editor); Frank, H. A. (Editor); Pickett, D. F., Jr. (Editor); Eliash, B. M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on battery applications and advances are presented. The general topics considered include: power systems in biomedical applications, batteries in electronic and computer applications, batteries in transportation and energy systems, space power systems, aircraft power systems, applications in defense systems, battery safety issues, and quality assurance and manufacturing.

  14. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F W Thomas; Hor, T S Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-02-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm(-2)) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.

  15. Discharge/charge reaction mechanisms of FeS2 cathode material for aluminum rechargeable batteries at 55°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Nakanishi, Koji; Kezheng, Chen; Hattori, Masashi; Ohta, Toshiaki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    The aluminum rechargeable battery is a desirable device for large-scale energy storage owing to the high capacity derived from the properties of the aluminum metal anode. The development of cathode materials is needed to compose battery systems. However, the design principles of the cathode materials have not been determined. We focus on the high capacity FeS2 cathode materials and investigate the discharge/charge reaction mechanisms in chloroaluminate ionic liquids as the electrolyte at 55°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements are performed for the discharged and charged samples. S 3p-orbitals are shown to play an important role in the redox reactions from the results of the S and Fe K-edge XANES spectra. As a result of the redox reaction, FeS2 is transformed into low crystalline FeS and amorphous Al2S3, as shown by the XRD and S, Al, and Fe K-edge XANES spectra. This reaction mechanism is different from the reaction observed with lithium ion.

  16. Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Menchhofer, Paul A; Dehoff, Ryan R; Bridges, Craig A; Chi, Miaofang; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

  17. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F W Thomas; Hor, T S Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-02-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm(-2)) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications. PMID:25522330

  19. Advances in Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries Powering the Electronic Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skotheim, Terje; Akridge, Jim; Hyland, Bob

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the Moltech Corporation's history and structure, power systems development, product attributes, Li-S adapted products, cell construction, specific energy comparisons, and product requirements necessary for use in spacecraft applications.

  20. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... following listing of intellectual property in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3118). A... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing...

  1. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Hor, T. S. Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm-2) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization

  2. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  3. Surface-Tuned Co3O4 Nanoparticles Dispersed on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as an Efficient Cathode Electrocatalyst for Mechanical Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Application.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh K; Dhavale, Vishal M; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-09-30

    The most vital component of the fuel cells and metal-air batteries is the electrocatalyst, which can facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a significantly reduced overpotential. The present work deals with the development of surface-tuned cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene as a potential ORR electrocatalyst possessing some unique advantages. The thermally reduced nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) was decorated with three different morphologies of Co3O4 nanoparticles, viz., cubic, blunt edged cubic, and spherical, by using a simple hydrothermal method. We found that the spherical Co3O4 nanoparticle supported NGr catalyst (Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h) has acquired a significant activity makeover to display the ORR activity closely matching with the state-of-the-art Pt supported carbon (PtC) catalyst in alkaline medium. Subsequently, the Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has been utilized as the air electrode in a Zn-air battery, which was found to show comparable performance to the system derived from PtC. Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has shown several hours of flat discharge profile at the discharge rates of 10, 20, and 50 mA/cm(2) with a specific capacity and energy density of ~590 mAh/g-Zn and ~840 Wh/kg-Zn, respectively, in the primary Zn-air battery system. In conjunction, Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h has outperformed as an air electrode in mechanical rechargeable Zn-air battery as well, which has shown consistent flat discharge profile with minimal voltage loss at a discharge rate of 50 mA/cm(2). The present results, thus demonstrate that the proper combination of the tuned morphology of Co3O4 with NGr will be a promising and inexpensive material for efficient and ecofriendly cathodes for Zn-air batteries. PMID:26376490

  4. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

  5. Magnum(R) NiCd advanced nickel-cadmium battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoles, Darren

    1995-01-01

    The Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, had developed a long-life advanced Nickel-Cadmium battery cell for aerospace applications. This battery cell, known as the MAGNUM NiCd cell, offers significant life expectancy increase over traditional NiCd battery cells. In addition, it offers significant cost reduction from the Super NiCd battery cell (developed by Hughes Aircraft Company and manufactured by the Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.).

  6. Sulfur-impregnated activated carbon fiber cloth as a binder-free cathode for rechargeable Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Elazari, Ran; Salitra, Gregory; Garsuch, Arnd; Panchenko, Alexander; Aurbach, Doron

    2011-12-15

    A route for the preparation of binder-free sulfur-carbon cathodes is developed for lithium sulfur batteries. The method is based on the impregnation of elemental sulfur into the micropores of activated carbon fibers. These electrodes demonstrate good electrochemical performance at high current density attributed to the uniform dispersion of sulfur inside the carbon fiber. PMID:22052740

  7. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  8. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  9. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  10. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge.

  12. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  13. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  14. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  15. Structural Stability and Electronic Properties of Na2C6O6 for a Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Fujii, Akihiro; Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2014-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been explored as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries owing to a significant advantage of a natural abundance of sodium. Recently, it has been reported that disodium rhodizonate, Na2C6O6, exhibit good electrochemical properties and cycle performance as a minor-metal free organic cathode for sodium-ion batteries. However, its crystal structures during discharge/charge cycle still remain unclear. In this work, we theoretically propose feasible crystal structures of Na2+xC6O6 using first principles calculations. A structural phase transition has been found: Na4C6O6 has a different C6O6 packing arrangement from Na2C6O6. Electronic structures of Na2+xC6O6 during discharge/charge cycle are also discussed. Our predictions could be the key to understanding the discharge/charge process of Na2C6O6. Supported by MEXT program ``Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Rersearch Center'' (since 2012), MEXT; Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  16. A high-capacity and long-life aqueous rechargeable zinc battery using a metal oxide intercalation cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Dipan; Adams, Brian D.; Duffort, Victor; Vajargah, Shahrzad Hosseini; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-10-01

    Although non-aqueous Li-ion batteries possess significantly higher energy density than their aqueous counterparts, the latter can be more feasible for grid-scale applications when cost, safety and cycle life are taken into consideration. Moreover, aqueous Zn-ion batteries have an energy storage advantage over alkali-based batteries as they can employ Zn metal as the negative electrode, dramatically increasing energy density. However, their development is plagued by a limited choice of positive electrodes, which often show poor rate capability and inadequate cycle life. Here we report a vanadium oxide bronze pillared by interlayer Zn2+ ions and water (Zn0.25V2O5.nH2O), as the positive electrode for a Zn cell. A reversible Zn2+ ion (de)intercalation storage process at fast rates, with more than one Zn2+ per formula unit (a capacity up to 300 mAh g‑1), is characterized. The Zn cell offers an energy density of ∼450 Wh l‑1 and exhibits a capacity retention of more than 80% over 1,000 cycles, with no dendrite formation at the Zn electrode.

  17. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  18. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  19. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  20. Electrospun FeS2@Carbon Fiber Electrode as a High Energy Density Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Luo, Chao; Gao, Tao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-26

    In this study, an FeS2@carbon fiber electrode is developed with FeS2 nanoparticles either embedded in or attached to carbon fibers by using an electrospinning method. By applying this binder-free, metal-current-collector-free FeS2@carbon fiber electrode, both the redox reaction and capacity decay mechanisms for the Li-FeS2 system are revealed by changing the electrolyte (conventional carbonate electrolyte and a "solvent-in-salt"-type Li-S battery electrolyte) and working voltage ranges (1.0-3.0 V and 1.5-3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)). The FeS2@carbon fiber electrode shows stable cycling performance in both the conventional carbonate electrolyte and the solvent-in-salt-type Li-S battery electrolyte in the voltage range of 1.5-3.0 V. Electrochemical tests in the solvent-in-salt-type Li-S battery electrolyte indicate that the Li-FeS2 system becomes a hybrid of the Li-S cell and Li-iron sulfide cell after the initial cycle. Based on the understanding on the capacity decay mechanisms, the cycling stability of the Li-FeS2 system in the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V is then significantly enhanced by coating the FeS2@carbon fiber electrode with a thin layer of Al2O3. The Al2O3-coated electrode demonstrates excellent cycling performance with high discharge energy densities at both the material level (∼1300 Wh/kg-FeS2) and the electrode level (∼1000 Wh/kg-FeS2 electrode). PMID:26700975

  1. Carbon nanofibers derived from cellulose nanofibers as a long-life anode material for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Schardt, J; Bommier, C; Wang, B; Razink, J; Simonsen, J; Ji, XL

    2013-01-01

    A highly reversible anode is indispensable to the future success of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) derived from cellulose nanofibers are investigated as an anode material for SIBs. The CNFs exhibit very promising electrochemical properties, including a high reversible capacity (255 mA h g(-1) at 40 mA g(-1)), good rate capability (85 mA h g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)), and excellent cycling stability (176 mA h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) over 600 cycles).

  2. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  4. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  5. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-12

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense β"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4→ Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  6. Electronic structure of lithium borocarbide as a cathode material for a rechargeable Li-ion battery: First-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Ban, Chunmei; Dillon, Anne; Wei, Suhuai; Zhao, Yufeng

    2011-03-01

    Traditional cathode materials, such as transition-metal oxides, are heavy, expensive, and often not benign. Therefore, alternative materials without transition metal elements are highly desirable in order to design high-capacity Li-ion batteries of light weight and low price. Here we report on potential application of the LiBC compound as cathode materials, in which graphene-like BC sheets are intercalated by Li ions. The crystal structure and properties of LiBC were firstly reported by Wörle et al. in 1995. Importantly, it was found that the 75% Li ions can be retrieved out of the compound without changing the layered structure. We have performed first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, as implemented in the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package. According to our calculation, the layered Li x BC structure can be well preserved at x > 0.5 . Thereversibleelectrochemicalreaction , LiBC <--> Li 0.5 , gives an energy capacity of 609mAh/g and an open-circuit voltage of 2.42V. The volume change is only about 5% during the charging and discharging process. All these results point to a potentially promising application of LiBC as a novel cathode material for high-capacity Li-ion batteries in replacement of the transition metal oxides.

  7. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  8. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  9. Ascorbic Acid-Assisted Synthesis of Mesoporous Sodium Vanadium Phosphate Nanoparticles with Highly sp(2) -Coordinated Carbon Coatings as Efficient Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tai-Feng; Cheng, Wei-Jen; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Chang-Chung; Shen, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Yu-Lin

    2016-07-18

    Herein, mesoporous sodium vanadium phosphate nanoparticles with highly sp(2) -coordinated carbon coatings (meso-Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C) were successfully synthesized as efficient cathode material for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries by using ascorbic acid as both the reductant and carbon source, followed by calcination at 750 °C in an argon atmosphere. Their crystalline structure, morphology, surface area, chemical composition, carbon nature and amount were systematically explored. Following electrochemical measurements, the resultant meso-Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C not only delivered good reversible capacity (98 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) ) and superior rate capability (63 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) ) but also exhibited comparable cycling performance (capacity retention: ≈74 % at 450 cycles at 0.4 A g(-1) ). Moreover, the symmetrical sodium-ion full cell with excellent reversibility and cycling stability was also achieved (capacity retention: 92.2 % at 0.1 A g(-1) with 99.5 % coulombic efficiency after 100 cycles). These attributes are ascribed to the distinctive mesostructure for facile sodium-ion insertion/extraction and their continuous sp(2) -coordinated carbon coatings, which facilitate electronic conduction.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano-V2O5 by flame spray pyrolysis, and its cathodic performance in Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sel, Sinem; Duygulu, Ozgur; Kadiroglu, Umit; Machin, Nesrin E.

    2014-11-01

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nano-particles have been synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method to investigate their cathodic performance in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. They were characterized by surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Spherical, crystalline (orthorhombic) nano-V2O5 particles were produced. The electrochemical tests, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ac impedance spectroscopy (IS), were performed to obtain the reversibility and conductivity kinetic parameters. From IS measurements, nano film conductivity was found to be 2.42 × 10-6 S cm-1, which is 10-fold higher than the commercial micro-particle V2O5 counterparts. From spectra, it was also found that the interfacial resistance became stable after 7200 s. The impedance results indicated that the rate of reaction at the interphase was controlled by both charge transfer and diffusion processes. The cyclic voltammogram showed high reversibility rate and low polarization.

  11. AlF3-coated LiMn2O4 as cathode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with improved cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tron, Artur; Park, Yeong Don; Mun, Junyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we introduce AlF3-coated LiMn2O4 cathodes, which are cost-effective and environmentally benign, for use in the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery. The homogeneous AlF3 coating on the LiMn2O4 powder is synthesized by a simple chemical deposition method. The thickness of the coating is controlled by varying the quantity of AlF3 used, in order to optimize the balance between polarization and surface stabilization. The optimized LiMn2O4, having 2 wt% coating of AlF3, exhibits a long cycle life having a capacity retention of 90% after 100 cycles, and a highly improved rate capability, when compared with the pristine LiMn2O4 material, in 1 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte solution. The systematic surface analyses, comprising scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical analyses, indicate that the AlF3 coating on the LiMn2O4 surface successfully reduces the surface deterioration of LiMn2O4 caused by side reactions between the electrolyte solution and the active material.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of high-density aluminum substituted α-nickel hydroxide cathode material for nickel-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Dan; Tian, Meng; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2014-12-01

    Positive electrode active materials, Al-substituted α-Ni(OH)2, with a high tap-density and high performance for alkaline nickel-based rechargeable batteries have successfully been synthesized using a polyacrylamide (PAM) assisted two-step drying method and subsequent hydrothermal treatment at 140 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle size analysis, tap-density measurement, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge-discharge test are used to characterize the physical and electrochemical properties of the synthesized material. The tap-density of the resulting powders reaches 1.84 g cm-3, which is significantly higher than that of α-Ni(OH)2 powders obtained by the conventional co-precipitation (CCP) and hydrothermal (HT) methods. Compared with commercial spherical β-Ni(OH)2, the resulting sample is electrochemically more active, providing discharge capacities of 315.0 and 255.2 mAh g-1, and volume capacities of 579.6 and 469.6 mAh cm-3 at rates of 0.2 C and 5 C, respectively. It is also found that although the hydrothermal treatment has a slight negative effect on the tap-density, it can improve the crystallinity of α-Ni(OH)2 and promote the anion exchange of NO3- by OH-, resulting in a much better electrochemical performance.

  13. Binder-free flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube network as high power cathode for rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao; Wu, Xianwen; Doan, The Nam Long; Tian, Ye; Zhao, Hongbin; Chen, P.

    2016-09-01

    Highly flexible LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes are developed and used as a high power cathode for the Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Battery (ReHAB). LiMn2O4 particles are entangled into CNT networks, forming a self-supported free-standing hybrid films. Such hybrid films can be used as electrodes of ARLB without using any additional binders. The binder-free LiMn2O4/CNT electrode exhibits good mechanical properties, high conductivity, and effective charge transport. High-rate capability and high cycling stability are obtained. Typically, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode achieves a discharge capacity of 72 mAh g-1 at the large-current of 20 C (1 C = 120 mAh g-1), and exhibits good cycling performance and high reversibility: Coulombic efficiency of almost 100% over 300 charge-discharge cycles at 4 C. By reducing the weight, and improving the large-current rate capability simultaneously, the LiMn2O4/CNT electrode can highly enhance the energy/power density of ARLB and hold potential to be used in ultrathin, lightweight electronic devices.

  14. Hand-drawn&written pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence immunodevice powered by rechargeable battery for low-cost point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Kong, Qingkun; Wang, Shaowei; Xu, Jinmeng; Bian, Zhaoquan; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence (PoP-ECL) device was entirely hand drawn and written in commercially available crayon and pencil in turn for the first time, and a constant potential-triggered sandwich-type immunosensor was introduced into the PoP-ECL device to form a low-cost ECL immunodevice proof. Each PoP-ECL device contained a hydrophilic paper channel and two PoP electrodes, and the PoP-ECL device was produced as follows: crayon was firstly used to draw hydrophobic regions on pure cellulose paper to create the hydrophilic paper channels followed with a baking treatment, and then a 6B-type black pencil with low resistivity was applied for precision writing, as the PoP electrodes, across the hydrophilic paper channel. For further point-of-care testing, a portable, low-cost rechargeable battery was employed as the power source to provide constant potential to the PoP electrodes to trigger the ECL. Using Carbohydrate antigen 199 as model analyte, this PoP-ECL immunodevice showed a good linear response range from 0.01-200 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0055 U mL(-1), a high sensitivity and stability. The proposed PoP-ECL immunodevice could be used in point-of-care testing of other tumor markers for remote regions and developing countries.

  15. Hand-drawn&written pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence immunodevice powered by rechargeable battery for low-cost point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongmei; Kong, Qingkun; Wang, Shaowei; Xu, Jinmeng; Bian, Zhaoquan; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, a pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence (PoP-ECL) device was entirely hand drawn and written in commercially available crayon and pencil in turn for the first time, and a constant potential-triggered sandwich-type immunosensor was introduced into the PoP-ECL device to form a low-cost ECL immunodevice proof. Each PoP-ECL device contained a hydrophilic paper channel and two PoP electrodes, and the PoP-ECL device was produced as follows: crayon was firstly used to draw hydrophobic regions on pure cellulose paper to create the hydrophilic paper channels followed with a baking treatment, and then a 6B-type black pencil with low resistivity was applied for precision writing, as the PoP electrodes, across the hydrophilic paper channel. For further point-of-care testing, a portable, low-cost rechargeable battery was employed as the power source to provide constant potential to the PoP electrodes to trigger the ECL. Using Carbohydrate antigen 199 as model analyte, this PoP-ECL immunodevice showed a good linear response range from 0.01-200 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0055 U mL(-1), a high sensitivity and stability. The proposed PoP-ECL immunodevice could be used in point-of-care testing of other tumor markers for remote regions and developing countries. PMID:24841090

  16. Novel synthesis process and structure refinements of Li 4Mn 5O 12 for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Toshimi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Akiba, Etsuo; Izumi, Fujio; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.

    Well-crystallized Li 4Mn 5O 12 powder with grain size of 0.1-0.4 μm was prepared by heating a eutectic mixture of lithium acetate (LiOAc), and manganese nitrate (Mn(NO 3) 2), in an oxygen atmosphere. The structure of Li 4Mn 5O 12 crystallites was found to be a cubic spinel using Rietveld refinement of both neutron and X-ray powder diffraction data. We confirmed that lithium ions occupy both the tetrahedral 8 a sites, and part of the octahedral 16 d sites, but not the 16 c sites in the space group Fd3m, while all the manganese ions occupy the 16 d sites. The lattice parameter was found to be sensitive to the synthesis temperature as a result of the variation in manganese valence. Samples prepared at 500 °C showed better electrode performance. A rechargeable capacity of about 135 mAh/g for the cell Li/Li 4Mn 5O 12 was obtained in the 2.5-3.6 V range of cell voltages.

  17. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  18. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  19. Nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere-decorated separators for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Wang, Guanchao; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have a distinct advantage over other rechargeable battery systems since their high specific energy and low cost. However, the diffusion of polysulfides from cathode to anode leads to poor electrochemical stability of Li-S batteries, which is a main factor that restricts their further development. Herein, for the first time we present a separator with nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere (NHC) coating, with which Li-S cells enormously improve the utilization of active material and enhance excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 1656 mAh g-1 (0.2 C) and a low fading rate of 0.11% per cycle within 500 cycles (1 C) are achieved, which ascribe to the chemical and physical adsorption properties of porous and nitrogen-doped NHCs. The NHC-decorated separator is of low cost and can effectively improve energy density of Li-S cells, exhibiting potential for further development of Li-S batteries.

  20. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotube anodes with superior Li+ storage performance for lithium rechargeable battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifei; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yongliang; Liu, Hao; Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Jinli; Geng, Dongsheng; Wang, Dongniu; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to synthesize carbon nanotubes doped with a high concentration of nitrogen. Their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen content reaches as high as 16.4 at.%. Bamboo-like compartments were fabricated as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (HN-CNTs) show approximately double reversible capacity of CNTs: 494 mAh g-1 vs. 260 mAh g-1, and present a much better rate capability than CNTs. The significantly superior electrochemical performance could be related to the high electrical conductivity and the larger number of defect sites in HN-CNTs for anodes of LIBs.