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Sample records for advanced rechargeable lithium-ion

  1. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  2. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  3. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.; Lasasse, Robert R.; Cygan, Randall T.; Voigt, James A.

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode-increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode-extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  4. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  5. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  6. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  7. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life. PMID:19739146

  8. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  9. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  10. Rational material design for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Li, Wenlong; Ma, Bing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are important electrochemical energy storage devices for consumer electronics and emerging electrical/hybrid vehicles. However, one of the formidable challenges is to develop ultrafast charging LIBs with the rate capability at least one order of magnitude (>10 C) higher than that of the currently commercialized LIBs. This tutorial review presents the state-of-the-art developments in ultrafast charging LIBs by the rational design of materials. First of all, fundamental electrochemistry and related ionic/electronic conduction theories identify that the rate capability of LIBs is kinetically limited by the sluggish solid-state diffusion process in electrode materials. Then, several aspects of the intrinsic materials, materials engineering and processing, and electrode materials architecture design towards maximizing both ionic and electronic conductivity in the electrode with a short diffusion length are deliberated. Finally, the future trends and perspectives for the ultrafast rechargeable LIBs are discussed. Continuous rapid progress in this area is essential and urgent to endow LIBs with ultrafast charging capability to meet huge demands in the near future. PMID:25857819

  11. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain...

  12. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  13. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  14. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides. PMID:22344223

  15. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 41142). No comments were received, and the special... Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...

  16. Recent development of rechargeable lithium-ion cells at JPL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Surampudi, S.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this work is to identify electrode materials and electrolytes for lithium-ion cells to be used in NASA`s New Millennium spacecraft and to demonstrate the advantage of this technology. Recent progress has shown that the electrode fabrication method plays an important role. The test performance of cells containing these electrodes has led to the selection of graphite anode material, LiCoO{sub 2} cathode material, Celgard 2500 separator, and 1M LiPF{sub 6} in (30% EC + 70% DMC) electrolyte as the base line Li-ion cell materials. In addition, the evaluation of a new alternative non-carbon type anode material in Li-ion cells is also discussed. The authors also applied the Taguchi design method to assist in the identification of key cell design parameters. All of the above factors mentioned, as well as the development of low temperature Li-ion cell systems, are discussed below.

  17. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  18. Development of a BB-2590/U rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzkow, Marc

    PolyStor has teamed with Hawker Eternacell (US) to develop a BB-2590/U rechargeable lithium-ion battery under contract with the US Army CECOM (Ft. Monmouth, NJ, USA). The concept involves using commercially available ICR-18650 cylindrical lithium-ion cells. The individual cells have a high specific energy of 135 Wh kg -1 and an energy density of 335 Wh dm -3. Electronic circuitry was developed to provide pack protection, charge equalization and battery management (fuel gauging). PolyStor's rechargeable BB-2590/U battery provides 4.5 Ah at 28 V nominal or 9.0 Ah at 14 V nominal, translating into 108 Wh kg -1 and 150 Wh dm -3. The key developments are discussed in this paper.

  19. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery module for underwater use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David R.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Fletcher, Michael; Stimson, Eric; Mollendorf, Joseph C.

    Portable underwater electrical power is needed for many commercial, recreational and military applications. A battery system is currently not available to meet these needs, which was the aim of this project. Lithium-ion battery cells (Panasonic (CGR18650E)) were chosen, based on their high energy density and availability. To increase their voltage, 8 battery cells were connected in series ("sticks") and protected by encapsulating them into a polycarbonate tube; and 6 sticks were housed inside a triangular aluminum case (module). Testing was performed to determine the consistency of individual cells, sticks and module and during discharge/charging cycles. The effect of ambient temperature (T A) was determined by instrumenting them with thermocouples. In addition, voltage and current were measured and used to determine the heat generated within the battery cell and were compared to theory. From these data, a radial temperature profile was determined for two battery sticks in the battery module. Collapse pressure was determined and compared to theory. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells delivered 2291 mAh each over a wide range of T A and discharge/charge rates. The theoretical and experimental data showed that the temperature within the battery sticks and modules did not rise above or below their operating temperature range (-20 and 60 °C), in agreement with the models. The tubes encapsulating the sticks withstood pressures down to 305 m of sea water (msw) which was predicted by modeling. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells, sticks and module demonstrated that they provided sufficient electrical power, reliably and safely to be used in the underwater environment (1800-2000 kPa, 305 msw) over a wide range T A, including high power requirement systems like an active thermal protection system that keeps a diver comfortable in extreme temperature conditions. The concept developed here can be modified to meet specific power requirements by varying the number of cell in series to

  20. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  1. Advances in Wearable Fiber-Shaped Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-06-01

    It is highly desirable to develop flexible and efficient energy-storage systems for widely used wearable electronic products. To this end, fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) attract increasing interest due to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, compared with conventional bulky and planar structures. Recent advances in the fabrication, structure, mechanism, and properties of fiber-shaped LIBs are summarized here, with a focus on the electrode material. Remaining challenges and future directions are also highlighted to provide some useful insights from the viewpoint of practical applications. PMID:26643467

  2. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  3. A novel thermal swelling model for a rechargeable lithium-ion battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal swelling of rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. The thermal swelling shows significant dependency on the state of charge and the charge rate. The thermal swelling follows a quadratic form at low temperatures, and shows linear characteristics with respect to temperature at high temperatures in free-swelling conditions. Moreover, the equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion is much larger than that of each electrode and host materials, suggesting that the separator and the complex shape of the cell play a critical role in thermal expansion. Based on the experimental characterization, a novel thermal swelling model is proposed. The model introduces an equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion for the cell and also considers the temperature distribution throughout the battery by using heat transfer theory. The comparison between the proposed model and experiments demonstrates that the model accurately predicts thermal swelling at a variety of charge/discharge rates during operation and relaxation periods. The model is relatively simple yet very accurate. Hence, it can be useful for battery management applied to prolong the cycle life of cells and packs.

  4. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  5. Properties of All-Solid Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. J.; Ren, Y.; Geng, L. Q.; Chen, T.; Li, L. X.; Yuan, C. R.

    2013-08-01

    Amorphous V2O5, LiPON and Li2Mn2O4 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering methods and the morphology of thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Then with these three materials deposited as the anode, solid electrolyte, cathode, and vanadium as current collector, a rocking-chair type of all-solid-state thin-film-type Lithium-ion rechargeable battery was prepared by using the same sputtering parameters on stainless steel substrates. Electrochemical studies show that the thin film battery has a good charge-discharge characteristic in the voltage range of 0.3-3.5 V, and after 30 cycles the cell performance turned to become stabilized with the charge capacity of 9 μAh/cm2, and capacity loss of single-cycle of about 0.2%. At the same time, due to electronic conductivity of the electrolyte film, self-discharge may exist, resulting in approximately 96.6% Coulombic efficiency.

  6. Rechargeable lithium sulfide electrode for a polymer tin/sulfur lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    In this work we investigate the electrochemical behavior of a new type of carbon-lithium sulfide composite electrode. Results based on cyclic voltammetry, charge (lithium removal)-discharge (lithium acceptance) demonstrate that this electrode has a good performance in terms of reversibility, cycle life and coulombic efficiency. XRD analysis performed in situ in a lithium cell shows that lithium sulfide can be converted into sulfur during charge and re-converted back into sulfide during the following discharge process. We also show that this electrochemical process can be efficiently carried out in polymer electrolyte lithium cells and thus, that the Li 2S-C composite can be successfully used as cathode for the development of novel types of rechargeable lithium-ion sulfur batteries where the reactive and unsafe lithium metal anode is replaced by a reliable, high capacity tin-carbon composite and the unstable organic electrolyte solution is replaced by a composite gel polymer membrane that is safe, highly conductive and able to control dendrite growth across the cell. This new Sn-C/Li 2S polymer battery operates with a capacity of 600 mAh g -1 and with an average voltage of 2 V, this leading to a value of energy density amounting to 1200 Wh kg -1.

  7. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  8. Periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and dipropyldisulfide bridging functionalities using poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) micelles. These hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS NMR and 13CP-MAS NMR), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. The benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity in the shell domain exhibit higher cycling performance of up to 300 cycles in lithium ion rechargeable batteries compared with micron-sized dense benzene-silica particles.Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and

  9. Cycle life performance of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Gang

    Capacity fade of commercial Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. Battery cycled at the highest discharge rate (3 C) shows the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of fresh battery. It's been observed anode carbon loses 10.6% of its capability to intercalate or deintercalate Li+ after it was subjected to 300 cycles at discharge rate of 3 C. This loss dominates capacity fade of full battery. A mechanism considering continuous parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and film thickening has been proposed. First principles based charge-discharge models to simulate cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been developed. In the generalized model, transport in both electrolyte phase and solid phase were simultaneously taken into account. Under mild charge-discharge condition, transport of lithium in the electrolyte phase has been neglected in the simplified model. Both models are based on loss of the active lithium ions due to the electrochemical parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and on rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as depth of discharge (DOD), end of charge voltage (EOCV) and overvoltage of the parasitic reaction on the cycle life behavior of a battery has been analyzed. The experimental results obtained at a charge rate of 1 C, discharge rate of 0.5 C, EOCV of 4.0 V and DOD of 0.4 have been used to validate cycle life models. Good agreement between the simulations and the experiments has been achieved up to 1968 cycles with both models. Simulation of cycle life of battery under multiple cycling regimes has also been demonstrated.

  10. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  11. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  12. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  13. Ultralife's polymer electrolyte rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for use in the mobile electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, Edward A.; Manna, Michael E.; Wise, Ralph D.; Gavrilov, Alexei B.; Bastian, Matthew J.; Brey, Rufus M.; DeMatteis, Jeffrey

    Ultralife Polymer™ brand batteries for cellular phones as made by Nokia Mobile Phones Incorporated were introduced in July 2000. Characteristics of the UBC443483 cell and UB750N battery are described and related to the power and battery requirements of these cellular phones and chargers. Current, power, and pulse capability are presented as functions of temperature, depth of discharge, and storage at the cell level. Safety protection devices and chargers are discussed at the battery pack level, as well as performance in cellular phones under various wireless communication protocols. Performance is competitive with liquid lithium-ion systems while offering opportunity for non-traditional form factors.

  14. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Materials Prepared with Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanagh, Andrew S.

    As the world consumes the dwindling supply of fossil fuels, an alternative to gasoline powered vehicles will become necessary. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are emerging as the dominant power source for portable electronics, and are seen as a promising energy source in the development of electric vehicles. Current LIB technology is not well suited for vehicles, increases in the energy density, power density and durability are needed before LIB are ready for widespread use in electric vehicles. LiCoO2 and graphite are the dominant cathode and anode active materials, respectively in LIBs. On the cathode side, instabilities in LiCoO 2 can lead to the deterioration of the LIB. Decomposition of electrolyte on the graphite anode surface to form a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) consumes lithium from the cathode resulting in a lower battery capacity. Instabilities in the in the SEI can result in catastrophic battery failure. Previous studies have employed metal oxides films, typically grown with wet chemical techniques, to stabilize LiCoO2 and mitigate the formation of the SEI on graphite. The thicknesses of films grown with wet chemical techniques was typically ˜50--1000 A. In order to achieve higher power densities, the particle size of LIB active materials is being scaled down. As active materials get smaller the mass contribution of a protective film can become a significant fraction of the total mass. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been used to grow ultra thin films of Al2O3 on LiCoO2 and graphite. By altering the interaction between the active material and the battery electrolyte it was possible to improve the stability of both LiCoO2 and graphite electrodes in LIBs. In the case of graphite, the Al2O3 film may be thought of as an artificial SEI. During the initial charge-discharge cycle of a LIB, the electrolyte decomposes on the anode to form the SEI. The formation of the SEI is believed to prevent further decomposition of the electrolyte on the anode surface

  15. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  16. Controlled Prelithiation of Silicon Monoxide for High Performance Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Full Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Sunghun; Lee, Seung Jong; Seo, Myung Won; Lee, Jae Goo; Deniz, Erhan; Lee, Yong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-01-13

    Despite the recent considerable progress, the reversibility and cycle life of silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries are yet to be improved further to meet the commercial standards. The current major industry, instead, adopts silicon monoxide (SiOx, x ≈ 1), as this phase can accommodate the volume change of embedded Si nanodomains via the silicon oxide matrix. However, the poor Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in the early period of cycling limit the content of SiOx, usually below 10 wt % in a composite electrode with graphite. Here, we introduce a scalable but delicate prelithiation scheme based on electrical shorting with lithium metal foil. The accurate shorting time and voltage monitoring allow a fine-tuning on the degree of prelithiation without lithium plating, to a level that the CEs in the first three cycles reach 94.9%, 95.7%, and 97.2%. The excellent reversibility enables robust full-cell operations in pairing with an emerging nickel-rich layered cathode, Li[Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05]O2, even at a commercial level of initial areal capacity of 2.4 mAh cm(-2), leading to a full cell energy density 1.5-times as high as that of graphite-LiCoO2 counterpart in terms of the active material weight. PMID:26694703

  17. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  18. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  19. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  20. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  1. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  2. Reaction mechanism and thermal stability study on cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jin

    Olivine-type lithium iron phosphate has been a very promising cathode material since it was proposed by Padhi in 1997, low-cost, environmental friendly and stable structure ensure the commercialization of LiFePO 4. In LiFePO4, during charge and discharge process, Li ions are transferred between two phases, Li-poor LialphaFePO 4 and Li-rich Li1-betaFePO4, which implies a significant energy barrier for the new phase nucleation and interface growth, contrary to the fast reaction kinetics experimentally observed. The understanding of the lithiation and delithiation mechanism of this material has spurred a lot of research interests. Many theory models have been proposed to explain the reaction mechanism of LiFePO4, among them, the single phase model claims that the reaction goes through a metastable single phase, and the over potential required to form this single phase is about 30mV, so we studied the driving force to transport lithium ions between Lialpha FePO4 and Li1-betaFePO4 phases and compared the particle sizes effect. Experiment results shows that, the nano-sized (30nm) LiFePO4 has wider solid solution range, lower solid solution formation temperature and faster kinetics than normal LiFePO4 (150nm). Also a 20mV over potential was observed in both samples, either after relaxing the FePO4/LiFePO4 system to equilibrium or transport lithium from one side to the other side, the experiment result is corresponding to theoretical calculation; indicates the reaction might go through single-phase reaction mechanism. The energy and power density of lithium ion battery largely depend on cathode materials. Mn substituted LiFePO4 has a higher voltage than LiFePO4, which results a higher theoretical energy density. Safety issue is one of the most important criterions for batteries, since cathode materials need to maintain stable structure during hundreds of charge and discharge cycles and ranges of application conditions. We have reported that iron-rich compound o-Fe1-yMnyPO4

  3. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development. PMID:25026051

  4. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  5. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  6. First principle computational and experimental studies of cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra Arias, Jose Javier

    We have studied the properties of spinel and layered cathode materials for Li ion rechargeable batteries. The analysis was done by first principle calculations, and experimental techniques to elucidate materials that can substitute the presently commercialized material, namely LiCoO 2. We have studied the influence of Ni substitution for Mn in spinel Li 2MnO4. To understand the effects of this substitution on the crystal structure and electronic properties, first principle DFT calculations were performed using VASP. The substitution was done systematically for up to 25% of Mn replacement by Ni in a super cell configuration. Furthermore, the influence of Ni substitution on lithium hoping pathways between the two stable Li positions was also studied by first principle calculations in LiMn 2-xNixO4. These calculations revealed that Ni substitution for Mn in LiMn2O4 indeed improved Li ion mobility. Thereafter, systematic experimental studies were performed on LiMn 2-xNixO4 (0

  7. Recent advances in graphene and its metal-oxide hybrid nanostructures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay; Kuila, Tapas; Layek, Rama K.; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-03-01

    Today, one of the major challenges is to provide green and powerful energy sources for a cleaner environment. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are promising candidates for energy storage devices, and have attracted considerable attention due to their high energy density, rapid response, and relatively low self-discharge rate. The performance of LIBs greatly depends on the electrode materials; therefore, attention has been focused on designing a variety of electrode materials. Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon nanostructure, which has a high specific surface area and high electrical conductivity. Thus, various studies have been performed to design graphene-based electrode materials by exploiting these properties. Metal-oxide nanoparticles anchored on graphene surfaces in a hybrid form have been used to increase the efficiency of electrode materials. This review highlights the recent progress in graphene and graphene-based metal-oxide hybrids for use as electrode materials in LIBs. In particular, emphasis has been placed on the synthesis methods, structural properties, and synergetic effects of metal-oxide/graphene hybrids towards producing enhanced electrochemical response. The use of hybrid materials has shown significant improvement in the performance of electrodes.

  8. Recent advances in first principles computational research of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying Shirley; Arroyo-de Dompablo, M Elena

    2013-05-21

    To meet the increasing demands of energy storage, particularly for transportation applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, researchers will need to develop improved lithium-ion battery electrode materials that exhibit high energy density, high power, better safety, and longer cycle life. The acceleration of materials discovery, synthesis, and optimization will benefit from the combination of both experimental and computational methods. First principles (ab Initio) computational methods have been widely used in materials science and can play an important role in accelerating the development and optimization of new energy storage materials. These methods can prescreen previously unknown compounds and can explain complex phenomena observed with these compounds. Intercalation compounds, where Li(+) ions insert into the host structure without causing significant rearrangement of the original structure, have served as the workhorse for lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes. Intercalation compounds will also facilitate the development of new battery chemistries such as sodium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical discharge reaction process, the intercalating species travel from the negative to the positive electrode, driving the transition metal ion in the positive electrode to a lower oxidation state, which delivers useful current. Many materials properties change as a function of the intercalating species concentrations (at different state of charge). Therefore, researchers will need to understand and control these dynamic changes to optimize the electrochemical performance of the cell. In this Account, we focus on first-principles computational investigations toward understanding, controlling, and improving the intrinsic properties of five well known high energy density Li intercalation electrode materials: layered oxides (LiMO2), spinel oxides (LiM2O4), olivine phosphates (LiMPO4), silicates-Li2MSiO4, and the tavorite-LiM(XO4)F (M = 3d

  9. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 < x < 1/2) are promising alternatives for Li2CoO2, the commercial positive electrode materials in Li ion batteries, because of their lower cost and higher safety and abuse tolerance, when lithium is removed from their structure. Compounds with x<1/2, in which the total Li content is higher than transition metal content, are referred as "Li-excess" materials. The "Li2MnO3-like" region is always present in this type of materials, and the overcapacity is obtained in the first charge process, which is not reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the

  10. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  11. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  12. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  13. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  15. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  16. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  17. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  18. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  19. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  20. Reduced graphite oxide/nano Sn: a superior composite anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Chandrasekaran; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical performance of reduced graphite oxide (RGO) anchored with nano Sn particles, which are synthesized by a reduction method, is presented. The Sn nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surface of the RGO matrix and the size of the particles is approximately 5-10 nm. The uniform distribution effectively accommodates the volume expansion experienced by Sn particles during cycling. The observed electrochemical performance (97 % capacity retention) can be ascribed to the flexible RGO matrix with uniform distribution of Sn particles, which reduces the lithium-ion diffusion path lengths; therefore, the RGO matrix provides more stability to the Sn particles during cycling. Such studies on Sn nanoparticles anchored on RGO matrices have not been reported to date. PMID:23512863

  1. Manufacturing of advanced Li(NiMnCo)O2 electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Pröll, J.; Rakebrandt, J.-H.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2015-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries require an increase in cell life-time as well as an improvement in cycle stability in order to be used as energy storage systems, e.g. for stationary devices or electric vehicles. Nowadays, several cathode materials such as Li(NiMnCo)O2 (NMC) are under intense investigation to enhanced cell cycling behavior by simultaneously providing reasonable costs. Previous studies have shown that processing of three-dimensional (3D) micro-features in electrodes using nanosecond laser radiation further increases the active surface area and therefore, the lithium-ion diffusion cell kinetics. Within this study, NMC cathodes were prepared by tape-casting and laser-structured using nanosecond laser radiation. Furthermore, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in a first experimental attempt to analyze the lithium distribution in unstructured NMC cathodes at different state-of-charges (SOC). LIBS will be applied to laser-structured cathodes in order to investigate the lithium distribution at different SOC. The results will be compared to those obtained for unstructured electrodes to examine advantages of 3D micro-structures with respect to lithium-ion diffusion kinetics.

  2. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  3. The effect of hydrogenation on the growth of carbon nanospheres and their performance as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shijia; Fan, Yunxia; Zhu, Kai; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Shuanglong; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenated carbon nanomaterials exhibit many advantages in both mechanical and electrochemical properties, and thus have a wide range of potential applications. However, methods to control the hydrogenation and the effect of hydrogenation on the microstructure and properties of the produced nanomaterials have rarely been studied. Here we report the synthesis of hydrogenated carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) with different degrees of hydrogenation by a facile solvothermal method, in which C2H3Cl3/C2H4Cl2 was used as the carbon precursor and potassium as the reductant. The hydrogenation level of the obtained nanospheres depends on the reaction temperature and higher temperature leads to lower hydrogenation due to the fact that the breaking of C-H bonds requires more external energy. The reaction temperature also affects the diameter of the HCNSs and larger spheres are produced at higher temperatures. More importantly, the size and the degree of hydrogenation are both critical factors for determining the electrochemical properties of the HCNSs. The nanospheres synthesized at 100 °C have a smaller size and a higher hydrogenation degree and show a capacity of 821 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles, which is significantly higher than that of the HCNSs produced at 150 °C (450 mA h g-1). Our study opens a possible way for obtaining high-performance anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Gold-coated silicon nanowire-graphene core-shell composite film as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Sang Eon; Lee, Jihye; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Jun-Ho; Oh, Minsub; Hyun, Seungmin; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We designed and fabricated a gold (Au)-coated silicon nanowires/graphene (Au-SiNWs/G) hybrid composite as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A large amount of SiNWs for LIB anode materials can be prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. The Au-SiNWs/G composite film on current collector was obtained by vacuum filtration using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and hot pressing method. Our experimental results show that the Au-SiNWs/G composite has a stable reversible capacity of about 1520 mA h/g which was maintained for 20 cycles. The Au-SiNWs/G composite anode showed much better cycling performance than SiNWs/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/Super-P, SiNWs/G composite, and pure SiNWs anodes. The improved electrochemical properties of the Au-SiNWs/G composite anode material is mainly ascribed to the composite's porous network structure.

  5. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  6. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale. PMID:23336441

  7. Neutron scattering for analysis of processes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Samoylova, N. Yu; Drozhzhin, O. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The review is concerned with analysis and generalization of information on application of neutron scattering for elucidation of the structure of materials for rechargeable energy sources (mainly lithium-ion batteries) and on structural rearrangements in these materials occurring in the course of electrochemical processes. Applications of the main methods including neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, neutron reflectometry and neutron introscopy are considered. Information on advanced neutron sources is presented and a number of typical experiments are outlined. The results of some studies of lithium-containing materials for lithium-ion batteries, carried out at IBR-2 pulsed reactor, are discussed. The bibliography includes 50 references.

  8. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  9. An Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Based on a Graphene Anode and a Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Li-ion rechargeable batteries have enabled the wireless revolution transforming global communication. Future challenges, however, demands distributed energy supply at a level that is not feasible with the current energy-storage technology. New materials, capable of providing higher energy density are needed. Here we report a new class of lithium-ion batteries based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, i.e. 165 mAhg-1, estimated energy density of about 190 Whkg-1 and life, with a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. We link these unique properties to the graphene nanoflake anode displaying crystalline order and high uptake of lithium at the edges, as well as to its structural and morphological optimization in relation to the overall battery composition. Our approach, compatible with any printing technologies, is cheap and scalable and opens up new opportunities for the development of high-capacity Li-ion batteries.

  10. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  11. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  12. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion solvation behavior of sulfone-ester mixed electrolytes for high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuu; Kinoshita, Shin-ichi; Wada, Satoshi; Hoshino, Keiji; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Sulfone-ester mixed solvent electrolytes were examined for 5 V-class high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells. As the base-electrolyte, sulfolane (SL)-ethyl acetate (EA) (1:1 mixing volume ratio) containing 1 M LiBF4 solute was investigated. Electrolyte conductivity, electrochemical stability, Li+ ion solvation behavior and cycleability of lithium electrode were evaluated. 13C NMR measurement results suggest that Li+ ions are solvated with both SL and EA. Charge-discharge cycling efficiency of lithium anode in SL-EA electrolytes was poor, being due to its poor tolerance for reduction. To improve lithium charge-discharge cycling efficiency in SL-EA electrolytes, following three trials were carried out: (i) improvement of the cathodic stability of electrolyte solutions by change in polarization through modification of solvent structure; isopropyl methyl sulfone and methyl isobutyrate were investigated as alternative SL and EA, respectively, (ii) suppression of the reaction between lithium and electrolyte solutions by addition of low reactivity surfactants of cycloalkanes (decalin and adamantane) or triethylene glycol derivatives (triglyme, 1,8-bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane and triethylene glycol di(methanesulfonate)) into SL-EA electrolytes, and (iii) change in surface film by addition of surface film formation agent of vinylene carbonate (VC) into SL-EA electrolytes. These trials made lithium cycling behavior better. Lithium cycling efficiency tended to increase with a decrease in overpotential. VC addition was most effective for improvement of lithium cycling efficiency among these additives. Stable surface film is formed on lithium anode by adding VC and the resistance between anode/electrolyte interfaces showed a constant value with an increase in cycle number. When the electrolyte solutions without VC, the interfacial resistance increased with an increase in cycle number. VC addition to SL-EA was effective not only for Li/LiCoO2 cell with charge

  13. A Summary on Progress in Materials Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the-art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance future human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This paper on interim progress of the development efforts will present performance of materials and cell components and will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities and proposed strategies to overcome technical issues.

  14. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  15. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  16. Ge/GeO2-Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Long-Term Cycling Performance.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingxing; Huang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xi; Zheng, Cheng; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2016-01-13

    Germanium-based nanostructures are receiving intense interest in lithium-ion batteries because they have ultrahigh lithium ion storage ability. However, the Germanium-based anodes undergo the considerably large volume change during the charge/discharge processes, leading to a fast capacity fade. In the present work, a Ge/GeO2-ordered mesoporous carbon (Ge/GeO2-OMC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated via a facile nanocasting route by using mesoporous carbon as a nanoreactor, and was then used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from its unique three-dimensional "meso-nano" structure, the Ge/GeO2-OMC nanocomposite exhibited large reversible capacity, excellent long-time cycling stability and high rate performance. For instance, a large reversible capacity of 1018 mA h g(-1) was obtained after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), which might be attributed to the unique structure of the Ge/GeO2-OMC nanocomposite. In addition, a reversible capacity of 492 mA h g(-1) can be retained when cycled to 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1). PMID:26651359

  17. Graphene-nanosheet-wrapped LiV3O8 nanocomposites as high performance cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong-Kai; Shu, Jie; Zhu, Qian-Cheng; Cao, Bo-Yu; Chen, Hui; Wu, Xue-Yan; Bartlett, Bart M.; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    A novel graphene-nanosheet-wrapped LiV3O8 nanoflakes (GNS/LiV3O8) nanocomposite has been generated by sheet-to-sheet self-assembly of ultrathin LiV3O8 nanoflakes and graphene nanosheets. When used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the GNS/LiV3O8 nanocomposites show superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Discharge capacities of approximately 328.7, 305.3, 276.9, 251.4, and 209.3 mAh g-1 are achieved at current densities of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50C, respectively. A reversible capacity of approximately 287.2 mAh g-1 is retained even after 100 cycles at 1.0 A g-1 (about 3C), approximately 88.3% of the initial discharge capacity. It is believed that the unique nanoflake morphology of LiV3O8 and the surface modification by graphene nanosheets contribute to the improved kinetics of lithium-ion diffusion, excellent structural stability and superior electrochemical performance. The structural evolution of LiV3O8 species upon charging and discharging is investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction technique. Anisotropic lattice expansion is found occurring along a, b and c axes upon the insertion of lithium ions into the crystal structure of LiV3O8.

  18. Calendar-Life and Cycle-Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Generation 1 Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Ho, Chinh Dac; Richardson, Roger Allen; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0–4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance.

  19. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  20. Fabrication and electrochemical characteristics of all-solid-state lithium-ion rechargeable batteries composed of LiMn 2O 4 positive and V 2O 5 negative electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, M.; Kumagai, N.; Fujita, N.; Ohta, K.; Nishidate, K.; Komaba, S.; Groult, H.; Devilliers, D.; Kaplan, B.

    A new type of all-solid-state lithium-ion rechargeable batteries composed of LiMn 2O 4 positive and V 2O 5 negative electrodes were developed and their electrochemical characteristics were investigated for the first time. Both amorphous thin-filmed electrodes as well as a lithium phosphorus oxynitride electrolyte (Lipon) were deposited on a substrate by using a rf-magnetron sputtering method. The present rocking-chair type battery showed good charge and discharge characteristics with a typical charge and discharge capacities of about 18 μAh/cm 2 between 3.5 and 0.3 V. This battery revealed a remarkable forming process which means that the charge and discharge capacities dramatically increase with the cycle number in its early stages. The battery also showed a good charge-discharge operation in vacuum which is one of the advantageous properties expected for the solid-state devices.

  1. Review of lithium-ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

  2. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  3. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  4. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells. PMID:27420388

  5. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiO(x) into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g(-1) with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25865463

  6. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g-1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Self-Assembled Microspheres Formed from α-MnO2 Nanotubes as an Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jan, S Savut; Nurgul, S; Shi, Xiaoqin; Xia, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Self-assembed microspheres formed from single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal treatment of KMnO4 in the hydrochloric acid solution. The effect of the reaction time on the microstructure and morphology of the sample is investigated systemically. Meanwhile, the forming mechanism of nano-structured α-MnO2 is carefully studied by X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The MnO2 nanotube microspheres exhibit large reversible capacity up to 807 mA h g(-1) as well as good cycling stability and rate capability, making them promising as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26716307

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  9. Pre-lithiation of onion-like carbon/MoS2 nano-urchin anodes for high-performance rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Xing, Guozhong; Han, Zhao Jun; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken); Yang, Hui Ying

    2014-07-01

    Hybrid urchin-like nanostructures composed of a spherical onion-like carbon (OLC) core and MoS2 nanoleaves were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method followed by thermal annealing treatment. Compared to commercial MoS2 powder, MoS2/OLC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with a specific capacity of 853 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 60 cycles, and a moderate initial coulombic efficiency of 71.1%. Furthermore, a simple pre-lithiation method based on direct contact of lithium foil with MoS2/OLC nano-urchins was used to achieve a very high coulombic efficiency of 97.6% in the first discharge/charge cycle, which is at least 26% higher compared to that of pristine MoS2/OLC nano-urchins. This pre-lithiation method can be generalized to develop other carbon-metal sulfide nanohybrids for LIB anode materials. These results may open up a new avenue for the development of the next-generation high-performance LIBs.Hybrid urchin-like nanostructures composed of a spherical onion-like carbon (OLC) core and MoS2 nanoleaves were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method followed by thermal annealing treatment. Compared to commercial MoS2 powder, MoS2/OLC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with a specific capacity of 853 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 60 cycles, and a moderate initial coulombic efficiency of 71.1%. Furthermore, a simple pre-lithiation method based on direct contact of lithium foil with MoS2/OLC nano-urchins was used to achieve a very high coulombic efficiency of 97.6% in the first discharge/charge cycle, which is at least 26% higher compared to that of pristine MoS2/OLC nano-urchins. This pre-lithiation method can be generalized to develop other carbon-metal sulfide nanohybrids for LIB anode materials. These results may open up a new avenue for the development of the next

  10. A general strategy to construct uniform carbon-coated spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with a long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Huiqin; Liu, Yumin; Bai, Gongxun; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Control over one-dimensional growth of spinel-type LiMn2O4 nanowires is challenging in the area of materials science due to their cubic crystal structure. The current strategy is to use a self-support template to fabricate LiMn2O4 nanowires, which is time-consuming and limits their large-scale commercial production. In this paper, we propose a general strategy to construct well-defined LiMn2O4 nanowires terminated with amorphous carbon at the edges by an ingenious method without using any template. Benefited from its unique carbon-coated nanowire structure, the electrode exhibits a capacitor-like rate performance and battery-like high capacity for long-time cycling. Even after 1500 cycles at an extremely high current density of 30 C, approximately 82% of its initial capacity can still be retained. Significantly, the strategy reported here will be beneficial and revelatory to manufacture other extensive one-dimensional robust carbon-decorated nanowires, paving new ways for future developments of ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.Control over one-dimensional growth of spinel-type LiMn2O4 nanowires is challenging in the area of materials science due to their cubic crystal structure. The current strategy is to use a self-support template to fabricate LiMn2O4 nanowires, which is time-consuming and limits their large-scale commercial production. In this paper, we propose a general strategy to construct well-defined LiMn2O4 nanowires terminated with amorphous carbon at the edges by an ingenious method without using any template. Benefited from its unique carbon-coated nanowire structure, the electrode exhibits a capacitor-like rate performance and battery-like high capacity for long-time cycling. Even after 1500 cycles at an extremely high current density of 30 C, approximately 82% of its initial capacity can still be retained. Significantly, the strategy reported here will be beneficial and revelatory to manufacture other extensive one-dimensional robust

  11. Pre-lithiation of onion-like carbon/MoS2 nano-urchin anodes for high-performance rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Xing, Guozhong; Han, Zhao Jun; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Yang, Hui Ying

    2014-08-01

    Hybrid urchin-like nanostructures composed of a spherical onion-like carbon (OLC) core and MoS2 nanoleaves were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method followed by thermal annealing treatment. Compared to commercial MoS2 powder, MoS2/OLC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with a specific capacity of 853 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 60 cycles, and a moderate initial coulombic efficiency of 71.1%. Furthermore, a simple pre-lithiation method based on direct contact of lithium foil with MoS2/OLC nano-urchins was used to achieve a very high coulombic efficiency of 97.6% in the first discharge/charge cycle, which is at least 26% higher compared to that of pristine MoS2/OLC nano-urchins. This pre-lithiation method can be generalized to develop other carbon-metal sulfide nanohybrids for LIB anode materials. These results may open up a new avenue for the development of the next-generation high-performance LIBs. PMID:24962690

  12. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-28

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g(-1), 125 mA h g(-1) at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g(-1) capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C). PMID:26699079

  13. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with low ethylene carbonate content electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.; Crott, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD interagency program. For the projected missions, lithium ion batteries need to be further improved, i.e., low temperature performance for Mars Landers, Rovers, and Penetrators and cycle life for the Orbiters and LEO and GEO satellites.

  14. Three-Dimensional Branched TiO2 Architectures in Controllable Bloom for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofu; Qu, Dandan; Jiang, Yun; Xiong, Wan-Sheng; Sang, Hong-Qian; He, Rong-Xiang; Tai, Qidong; Chen, Bolei; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-08-10

    Three-dimensional branched TiO2 architectures (3D BTA) with controllable morphologies were synthesized via a facile template-free one-pot solvothermal route. The volume ratio of deionized water (DI water) and diethylene glycol in solvothermal process is key to the formation of 3D BTA assembled by nanowire-coated TiO2 dendrites, which combines the advantages of 3D hierarchical structure and 1D nanoscale building blocks. Benefiting from such unique structural features, the BTA in full bloom achieved significantly increased specific surface areas and shortened Li(+) ion/electrons diffusion pathway. The lithium-ion batteries based on BTA in full bloom exhibited remarkably enhanced reversible specific capacity and rate performance, attributing to the high contact area with the electrolyte and the short solid state diffusion pathway for Li(+) ion/electrons promoting lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:27420343

  15. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  16. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  17. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  18. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C).In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity

  19. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  20. A general strategy to construct uniform carbon-coated spinel LiMn2O4 nanowires for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with a long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Huiqin; Liu, Yumin; Bai, Gongxun; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-08-21

    Control over one-dimensional growth of spinel-type LiMn2O4 nanowires is challenging in the area of materials science due to their cubic crystal structure. The current strategy is to use a self-support template to fabricate LiMn2O4 nanowires, which is time-consuming and limits their large-scale commercial production. In this paper, we propose a general strategy to construct well-defined LiMn2O4 nanowires terminated with amorphous carbon at the edges by an ingenious method without using any template. Benefited from its unique carbon-coated nanowire structure, the electrode exhibits a capacitor-like rate performance and battery-like high capacity for long-time cycling. Even after 1500 cycles at an extremely high current density of 30 C, approximately 82% of its initial capacity can still be retained. Significantly, the strategy reported here will be beneficial and revelatory to manufacture other extensive one-dimensional robust carbon-decorated nanowires, paving new ways for future developments of ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26178631

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Enhanced resistance to oxidative decomposition of aqueous electrolytes for aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohei; Shimada, Toshiki; Ito, Satomi; Yokoyama, Yuko; Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-04-11

    An efficient electrolyte solution containing organic sulfonates for use in aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (ARLBs) is shown to provide a wide potential window and enable a high operating voltage for ARLBs. PMID:26911197

  3. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  4. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O(2-) vacancies (vs. all O(2-) ions). The electronic conductivity and Li(+)ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g(-1) and charge capacity of 286 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g(-1) with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g(-1) and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  5. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  6. Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-10-01

    Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

  7. Characteristics Of Quallion's Lithium-Ion Cells For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Hisashi; Beach, Paul; Visco, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Rechargeable batteries that are presently in use in space missions include: Silver-Zinc (Ag-Zn), Nickel- Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2), and more recently, Lithium-Ion batteries. In space applications, lithium-ion batteries offer significant mass and volume advantages (three- to four-fold) compared to standard Ni-Cd and Ni-H2 batteries. To address this need, Quallion LLC has developed custom true prismatic Li ion cells for use in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) & Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) applications: a 15Ah cell (QL015KA) and a 72Ah cell (QL075KA). In addition to using Quallion's patented long life lithium-ion chemistry, these cells are also Zero-VoltTM enabled, allowing for battery recovery in loss of spacecraft attitude and lower maintenance before launching.

  8. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  9. Hydrogenated TiO2 Branches Coated Mn3O4 Nanorods as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Chen, Liang; Qian, Yitai; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-20

    Rational design and delicate control on the component, structure, and surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries are highly important to their performances in practical applications. Compared with various components and structures for electrodes, the choices for their surface are quite limited. The most widespread surface for numerous electrodes, a carbon shell, has its own issues, which stimulates the desire to find another alternative surface. Here, hydrogenated TiO2 is exemplified as an appealing surface for advanced anodes by the growth of ultrathin hydrogenated TiO2 branches on Mn3O4 nanorods. High theoretical capacity of Mn3O4 is well matched with low volume variation (∼4%), enhanced electrical conductivity, good cycling stability, and rate capability of hydrogenated TiO2, as demonstrated in their electrochemical performances. The proof-of-concept reveals the promising potential of hydrogenated TiO2 as a next-generation material for the surface in high-performance hybrid electrodes. PMID:25928277

  10. Electrospun Nanofiber-Coated Membrane Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hun

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles due to their excellent energy and power densities, long cycle life, and enhanced safety. A separator is considered to be the critical component in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The separator is placed between the positive and negative electrodes in order to prevent the physical contact of electrodes while allowing the transportation of ions. In most commercial lithium-ion batteries, polyolefin microporous membranes are commonly used as the separator due to their good chemical stability and high mechanical strength. However, some of their intrinsic natures, such as low electrolyte uptake, poor adhesion property to the electrodes, and low ionic conductivity, can still be improved to achieve higher performance of lithium-ion batteries. In order to improve these intrinsic properties, polyolefin microporous membranes can be coated with nanofibers by using electrospinning technique. Electrospinning is a simple and efficient method to prepare nanofibers which can absorb a significant amount of liquid electrolyte to achieve low internal resistance and battery performance. This research presents the preparation and investigation of composite membrane separators prepared by coating nanofibers onto polyolefin microporous membranes via electrospinning technique. Polyvinylidene fluoride polymers and copolymers were used for the preparation of electrospun nanofiber coatings because they have excellent electrochemical stability, good adhesion property, and high temperature resistance. The nanofiber coatings prepared by electrospinning form an interconnected and randomly orientated structure on the surface of the polyolefin microporous membranes. The size of the nanofibers is on a scale that does not interfere with the micropores in the membrane substrates. The resultant nanofiber-coated membranes have the potential to combine advantages of both the polyolefin

  11. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  12. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  13. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  14. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  15. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  16. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  17. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-28

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g(-1) after 120 cycles at 1 A g(-1). The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. PMID:25629465

  19. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  20. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  1. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  3. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  4. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  5. Nanostructured Molybdenum Oxides for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Deshpande, Rohit; Parilla, Phil; Jones, Kim; To, Bobby; Mahan, Harv; Dillon, Anne

    2007-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the current power sources of choice for portable electronics. Although such batteries are commercially successful, they are not keeping pace with the rapid advances in computing technologies. Also, further improvement of performance and simultaneous reduction in cost as well as material toxicity remain the subject of intensive research. Here we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of a novel molybdenum oxide nanoparticle anode that dramatically improves current Li-ion battery technologies. Crystalline MoOx nanoparticles have been grown by an economical hot-wire chemical-vapor-deposition (HWCVD) technique and a recently developed electrophoresis technique is employed for the fabrication of porous nanoparticle anodes. Our material exhibits a high reversible capacity of ˜600 mAh/g in the range 0.005-3.0 V with excellent cycling characteristics as well as high-rate capability. Both cycling stability and rate capability issues are addressed by employing these porous molybdenum oxide films that consist of nanoscale active particles. These materials will impact the next generations of rechargeable lithium batteries, not only for applications in consumer electronics, but also for clean energy storage and use in hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  7. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  8. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  9. Evaluation and Testing of Commercially-Available Carbon Nanotubes as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) battery technology offers significant performance advantages over the nickel-based technologies used for energy storage for the majority of NASA's missions. Specifically Li-ion technology offers a threefold to fourfold increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and produces voltages in excess of three times the value of typical nickel-based battery systems. As part of the Advanced Battery Technology program at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a program on the evaluation of anodes for Li-ion cells and batteries was conducted. This study focused on the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes as anodes in Li-Ion cells. Candidate materials from multiple sources were evaluated. Their performance was compared to a standard anode comprised of mesocarbon microbeads. In all cases, the standard MCMB electrode exhibited superior performance. The details and results of the study are presented.

  10. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  13. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1)). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling. PMID:26781747

  14. Recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter describes briefly the nature and measurement of recharge in support of the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project. Appendix C (Recharge) and the Recharge Data Package (Fayer and Keller 2007) provide a more thorough and extensive review of the recharge process and the estimation of recharge rates for the forthcoming RCRA Facility Investigation report for Hanford single-shell tank (SST) Waste Management Areas (WMAs).

  15. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  16. Lithium-Ion Cell Storage Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues concerning storage of lithium ion batteries. The presentation outlines tests used to establish a best long term storage for the lithium ion cells. Another objective of the study was to determine the preferred solstice condition for the lithium ion chemistry (polymer and liquid electrolyte). It also compared voltage clamped with trickle charge storage. The tests and results are reviewed

  17. Lithium-ion cell technology demonstration for future NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Dalton, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to their attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including planetary orbiters, rovers and landers. For example, under the Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01 lithium-ion batteries were developed by Lithion (each being 28 V, 25 Ah, 8-cells. and 9 kg) and fully qualified prior to mission cancellation. In addition to the requirement of being able to supply at least 90 cycles on the surface of Mars, the battery demonstrated operational capability (both charge and discharge) over a large temperature range (-2O'C to +4OoC), with tolerance to non-operational excursions to -30nd 50Currently, JPL is implementing lithium-ion technology on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), which will be coupled with a solar array. This mission has similar performance requirements to that of the 2001 Lander in that high energy density and a wide operating temperature range are necessitated. In addition to planetary rover and lander applications, we are also engaged in determining the viability of using lithium-ion technology for orbiter applications that require exceptionally long life (>20,000 cydes at partial depth of discharge). To assess the viabili of lithium-ion cells for these applications, a number of performance characterization tests have been performed (at the cell and battery level) on state-of-art prototype lihium- ion cells, induding: assessing the cycle life performance (at varying DODs), life characteristics at extreme temperatures (< -10nd >+4OoC), rate capability as a function of temperature (-30' to 4OoC), pulse capability, self-discharge and storage characteristics, as well as, mission profile capability. This paper will describe the current and

  18. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  19. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  20. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  1. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g(-1) at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  2. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-04-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g-1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances.

  3. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  4. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  5. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

  6. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  7. Phase-change enabled 2D Li3V2(PO4)3/C submicron sheets for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Ni, Xiao; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-09-01

    The exploration of cathode materials with high capacity and power, fast charge/discharge rate, long lifespan and broad temperature adaptability is a challenge for the practical application of lithium ion batteries. Here, submicro-sheet Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) cathode materials have been successfully synthesized via a simple and universal phase-change method. This designed melting process increases the crystallinity and decreases the Li+ diffusion distance, which effectively enhances the cycling stability and rate performances of the LVP/C cathode materials. The LVP/C cathode materials exhibit high discharge specific capacity of 130 mAh g-1 in the first cycle. The capacity retention is almost 100% after 100 cycles. In addition, at 10 C, more than 80% of initial discharge capacity is retained after 800 cycles, indicating excellent cycle performance at high rate. Moreover, the synthesized LVP/C materials perform excellent low-temperature properties. At -20 °C, the specific capacity can reach 105 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C. This study provides a novel template-free synthesis method for nano/micro materials.

  8. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-21

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g(-1) with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g(-1) capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g(-1). More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g(-1), a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g(-1) even at 20 A g(-1). Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices. PMID:27049639

  9. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials. PMID:26748911

  10. A general method of fabricating flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite aerogels as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guobo; Shi, Nan; Hess, Michael; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Wei; Fan, Tongxiang; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-04-28

    High-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), such as spinel-type metal oxides, generally suffer from poor Li(+) and e(-) conductivities. Their drastic crystal structure and volume changes, as a result of the conversion reaction mechanism with Li, severely impede the high-rate and cyclability performance toward their practical application. In this article, we present a general and facile approach to fabricate flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels as binder-free anodes where the spinel nanoparticles (NPs) are integrated in an interconnected rGO network. Benefiting from the hierarchical porosity, conductive network and mechanical stability constructed by interpenetrated rGO layers, and from the pillar effect of NPs in between rGO sheets, the hybrid system synergistically enhances the intrinsic properties of each component, yet is robust and flexible. Consequently, the spinel/rGO composite aerogels demonstrate greatly enhanced rate capability and long-term stability without obvious capacity fading for 1000 cycles at high rates of up to 4.5 A g(-1) in the case of CoFe2O4. This electrode design can successfully be applied to several other spinel ferrites such as MnFe2O4, Fe3O4, NiFe2O4 or Co3O4, all of which lead to excellent electrochemical performances. PMID:25783818

  11. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm-3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 200 mA g-1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g-1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g-1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g-1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  12. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm(-3)), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g(-1) at a specific current of 200 mA g(-1). Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g(-1), about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g(-1)) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  13. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm−3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 200 mA g−1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g−1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g−1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  14. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs. PMID:27015357

  15. Raising the cycling stability of aqueous lithium-ion batteries by eliminating oxygen in the electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia-Yan; Cui, Wang-Jun; He, Ping; Xia, Yong-Yao

    2010-09-01

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries may solve the safety problem associated with lithium-ion batteries that use highly toxic and flammable organic solvents, and the poor cycling life associated with commercialized aqueous rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride systems. But all reported aqueous lithium-ion battery systems have shown poor stability: the capacity retention is typically less than 50% after 100 cycles. Here, the stability of electrode materials in an aqueous electrolyte was extensively analysed. The negative electrodes of aqueous lithium-ion batteries in a discharged state can react with water and oxygen, resulting in capacity fading upon cycling. By eliminating oxygen, adjusting the pH values of the electrolyte and using carbon-coated electrode materials, LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3)/Li(2)SO(4)/LiFePO(4) aqueous lithium-ion batteries exhibited excellent stability with capacity retention over 90% after 1,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged in 10 minutes and 85% after 50 cycles even at a very low current rate of 8 hours for a full charge/discharge offering an energy storage system with high safety, low cost, long cycling life and appropriate energy density. PMID:20729897

  16. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  17. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-01

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries. PMID:26278438

  18. Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

  19. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  20. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

  1. Modeling Diffusion Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu Huang, Cheng-Kai

    Advancing lithium-ion battery technology is of paramount importance for satisfying the energy storage needs in the U.S., especially for the application in the electric vehicle industry. To provide a better acceleration for electric vehicles, a fast and repeatable discharging rate is required. However, particle fractures and capacity loss have been reported under high current rate (C-rate) during charging/discharging and after a period of cycling. During charging and discharging, lithium ions extract from and intercalate into electrode materials accompanied with the volume change and phase transition between Li-rich phase and Li-poor phase. It is suggested that the diffusion-induced-stress is one of the main reasons causing capacity loss due to the mechanical degradation of electrode particles. Therefore, there is a fundamental need to provide a mechanistic understanding by considering the structure-mechanics-property interactions in lithium-ion battery materials. Among many cathode materials, the olivine-based lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) with an orthorhombic crystal structure is one of the promising cathode materials for the application in electric vehicles. In this research we first use a multiphysic approach to investigate the stress evolution, especially on the phase boundary during lithiation in single LiFePO4 particles. A diffusion-controlled finite element model accompanied with the experimentally observed phase boundary propagation is developed via a finite element package, ANSYS, in which lithium ion concentration-dependent anisotropic material properties and volume misfits are incorporated. The stress components on the phase boundary are used to explain the Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III fracture propensities in LiFePO4 particles. The elastic strain energy evolution is also discussed to explain why a layer-by-layer lithium insertion mechanism (i.e. first-order phase transformation) is energetically preferred. Another importation issue is how current

  2. Electrochemical Study of Hollow Carbon Nanospheres as High-Rate and Low Temperature Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jonathan David

    The continued advancements in portable electronics have demanded more advanced power sources. To date, lithium ion batteries have been the state-of-the-art for portable devices. One significant drawback of lithium ion batteries is the slow charging times and their performance at low temperatures. In this dissertation, we explore the electrochemical behavior of a new lithium ion, negative electrode active material, hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNS). HCNS are ˜50 nm in diameter hollow spheres with ˜5 - 10 nm graphic walls which have a nominal reversible capacity of ˜220 mAh/g. We assembled and cycled HCNS as a lithium ion anode material and compared it to graphite, currently used as the anode material in most commercial lithium ion batteries. The charging mechanism of HCNS is an intercalation of the lithium ions into the graphitic walls of the spheres, similar to graphite, determined by diffraction and electroanalytical techniques. However, the HCNS electrodes cycled at much higher charge and discharge rates than graphite. Additionally, we demonstrated HCNS cycling at low temperatures (-20 *C) in electrolytes not obtainable by graphite due to material exfoliation during cycling. Although, due to the large surface area of HCNS, the first cycle coulombic losses are very high. This work has resulted in an understanding of a potentially new lithium ion battery anode material with significantly better cycling attributes than the current anode material.

  3. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  4. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  5. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  6. Graphene-encapsulated Si on ultrathin-graphite foam as anode for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junyi; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Zhao, Xin; Bai, Xin; Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Fengbao; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2013-09-01

    A Si/graphene composite is drop-casted on an ultrathin-graphite foam (UGF) with three dimensional conductive network. The Si/graphene/UGF composite presents excellent stability and relatively high overall capacity when tested as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. PMID:23847098

  7. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  8. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  9. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  10. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100-1000 m2 g-1) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m2 g-1), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs.

  11. Memory effect in a lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Ukyo, Yoshio; Novák, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Memory effects are well known to users of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. If these batteries are recharged repeatedly after being only partially discharged, they gradually lose usable capacity owing to a reduced working voltage. Lithium-ion batteries, in contrast, are considered to have no memory effect. Here we report a memory effect in LiFePO4-one of the materials used for the positive electrode in Li-ion batteries-that appears already after only one cycle of partial charge and discharge. We characterize this memory effect of LiFePO4 and explain its connection to the particle-by-particle charge/discharge model. This effect is important for most battery uses, as the slight voltage change it causes can lead to substantial miscalculations in estimating the state of charge of batteries. PMID:23584142

  12. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  13. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  14. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  15. Validation of Lithium-ion cell technology for JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    n early 2004 JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling >300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +40 C), withstanding long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of Lithium-ion technology to meet these stringent requirements, a comprehensive test program was implemented aimed at demonstrating the performance capability of prototype cells fabricated by Lithion, Inc. (Yardney Technical Products, Inc.). The testing performed includes, determining the (a) room temperature cycle life, (b) pulse capability as a function of temperature, (e) self-discharge and storage characteristics mission profile capability, (f) cycle life under mission simulation conditions, (g) impedance characteristics, (h) impact of cell orientation, and (i) performance in 8-cell engineering batteries. As will be discussed, the Lithium-ion prototype cells and batteries were demonstrated to meet, as well as, exceed the requirements defined by the mission.

  16. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Performance and Safety of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report evaluates the performance and safety of Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells when used in batteries. Issues discussed include the cycle life, energy efficiency, tolerance to higher charge voltage, tolerance to extended tapered charge voltage, charge on cycling, specific energy, low temperature discharge, low temperature charge, various charge characteristics, storage characteristics, and more of Li-Ion cells.

  18. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  19. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  20. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  1. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material. PMID:26726470

  2. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  3. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications: I. Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Owens, B. B.; Coustier, F.

    Rechargeable batteries have been designed for powering hearing aid devices (HAD). The cells, based on the lithium-ion chemistry, were designed in a size that is compatible with the existing HAD. The 10 mA h batteries were tested to characterize the design and the electrochemical performance from the point of view of a typical HAD application. Results are presented for constant-current tests, first-cycle conditions, charge voltage cut-off, rate performance, and cycle life. The pulse capabilities and the preliminary safety tests of the batteries will be presented in a following report. The results of the lithium-ion HAD cells developed in this project are compared with other battery chemistries: lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries and Zn-air primary batteries.

  4. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  5. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge. PMID:26535786

  6. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-07-01

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  7. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  8. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  9. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. PMID:26293692

  10. Visualizing lithium-ion migration pathways in battery materials.

    PubMed

    Filsø, Mette Ø; Turner, Michael J; Gibbs, Gerald V; Adams, Stefan; Spackman, Mark A; Iversen, Bo B

    2013-11-11

    The understanding of lithium-ion migration through the bulk crystal structure is crucial in the search for novel battery materials with improved properties for lithium-ion conduction. In this paper, procrystal calculations are introduced as a fast, intuitive way of mapping possible migration pathways, and the method is applied to a broad range of lithium-containing materials, including the well-known battery cathode materials LiCoO2 , LiMn2 O4 , and LiFePO4 . The outcome is compared with both experimental and theoretical studies, as well as the bond valence site energy approach, and the results show that the method is not only a strong, qualitative visualization tool, but also provides a quantitative measure of electron-density thresholds for migration, which are correlated with theoretically obtained activation energies. In the future, the method may be used to guide experimental and theoretical research towards materials with potentially high ionic conductivity, reducing the time spent investigating nonpromising materials with advanced theoretical methods. PMID:24123661

  11. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  12. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  13. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability. PMID:25459154

  14. Synthesis and characterization of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Zhang, K.; Mundle, R.; Arslan, M.; Amponsah, O.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    Layered lithiated transition metal oxides have been extensively developed and investigated as a cathode materials for lithium ion batteries due to the following advantages, such as high output voltage of 3.6 V, high energy density larger than 450Wh/dm3, low self-discharge rate less than 10%, no memory effect resulting in long cycle lives for more than 1000 times charging and discharging, free maintenance and no environmental pollution. The cathode materials in lithium ion battery are generally in the form of LiMO2 (M= Co, Ni, Mn, etc). Currently, lithium vanadium oxides also were studied. It is well known that the synthetic condition and methods are closely related to the electrochemical properties of lithium ion batteries. In this work, the wet chemical sol gel techniques have been used to synthesize LiNiO2 and LiV3O8. In this study, the LiNiO2 particles and LiV3O8 nanorods were successfully synthesized by sol-gel wet chemical methods. Annealing heat treatment influence the crystallinity of the final product, which may be consequently affected their electrochemical performance.

  15. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  16. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  17. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  18. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  19. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future. PMID:26996438

  20. Prediction and Characterization of MXenes for non-lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Paul; Xie, Yu; Zhuang, Houlong; Dall'Agnese, Yohan; Naguib, Michael; Barsoum, Michel; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-01

    Rechargeable non-lithium-ion (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Al3+) batteries have attracted great attention as emerging low-cost and high energy-density technologies for energy storage applications. However, their development is hindered by the limited choice of high-performance electrode materials. Building on our previous work for lithium-ion applications, here we show that MXene nanosheets, a class of two-dimensional transition-metal carbides, may serve as high-performing anodes for non-lithium-ion batteries by combined first-principles simulations and experimental measurements. Both O-terminated and bare MXenes are shown to be promising anode materials with high capacities and good rate capabilities, while bare MXenes show better performance. Our experiments clearly demonstrate the feasibility of Na- and K-ion intercalation into terminated MXenes. Moreover, stable multilayer adsorption is predicted for Mg and Al, which significantly increases their theoretical capacities. Our results provide insight into metal ion storage mechanisms on two-dimensional materials and also suggest a route to preparing bare MXene nanosheets. This work was supported as part of the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Hierarchical porous anatase TiO2 derived from a titanium metal-organic framework as a superior anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Zhiliang; Alfaruqi, Muhammad Hilmy; Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Vu Thi, Trang; Duong, Pham Tung; Baboo, Joseph Paul; Mathew, Vinod; Kim, Jaekook

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical meso-/macroporous anatase TiO2 was synthesized by the hydrolysis of a titanium metal-organic framework precursor followed by calcination in air. This unique porous feature enables the superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability of anatase TiO2 as an anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26137998

  2. Electrochemical characteristics of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, C.; Roth, P.; Jungst, R.G.; Clark, N.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe below the electrochemical performance characteristics, including charge-discharge characteristics at different rates, of cylindrical 18650 (18 mm diameter, 65 mm high) and prismatic lithium ion cells at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures. Ragone plots of power and energy data for these cells are compared and indicate that at room temperature the prismatic lithium ion cells (approx. 500 mAh) exhibit higher specific power and power density than the 18650 cells (approx. 1,100 mAhr). The cell impedance was measured between 35 C and {minus}40 C at three open circuit voltages: 4.1 v (fully charged), 3.6 v (partially discharged), and 3.1 v (almost completely discharged). Over the temperature range from 35 C to {minus}20 C, the cell impedance is nearly constant for both cell types and increases by 2 to 3 times at {minus}40 C. The impedance doesn`t vary significantly with open circuit voltage (OCV). These cells show very little voltage drop at room temperature for current pulses up to 1 A. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cells are being studied at different rates as a function of temperature to compute the power, energy, and capacity outputs. This will not only broaden the database on lithium ion cells, but will also allow us to evaluate the suitability of the cells as power sources for low temperature applications. Other electrochemical characteristics of these cells including pulse response are being evaluated. Impedance measurements of the cells under load are planned to make meaningful correlations between the voltage drop and the current pulse amplitude.

  3. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  4. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  5. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  6. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  7. Electroanalytical Evaluation of Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Daniel Jacob

    Efficient solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage have been studied widely for decades. However, as materials development and process engineering for these devices have advanced through the years, some of the traditional characterization techniques have gradually fallen short of providing quantitative information that is necessary for further significant advancements in these fields. In this work a modern electroanalytical framework for characterization of silicon solar cells and lithium ion batteries is presented. Electroanalytical characterization of lithium ion battery electrodes is achieved through a strategic combination of the D.C. techniques of slow scan cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, Ragone Analysis with the A.C. technique of impedance spectroscopy (IS) coupled with complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) analysis of impedance spectra. Primarily this investigation focuses on characterization of intercalating composite electrodes where the active material is either lithium manganese oxide (cathode,LiMn2O4) or lithium titanate (anode, Li4Ti5O12). Aspects of high power limitations are studied in detail to elucidate physical parameters that control electrode performance under rapid charge/discharge conditions. Electroanalytical evaluation of the p-n junction silicon solar cell with a back surface field (BSF) is accomplished through the use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and IS combined with CNLS analysis. Although LSV has been previously used for characterization of silicon solar cells the use of impedance techniques is relatively new. Temperature and voltage dependence of the series resistance (Rs), diode quality factor (m), minority carrier lifetime and BSF electrical parameters obtained through IS are examined. The temperature dependence of results obtained from LSV such as the open circuit potential (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency are also explored. Finally, a parative

  8. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  9. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Atomic resolution of Lithium Ions in LiCoO

    SciTech Connect

    Shao-Horn, Yang; Croguennec, Laurence; Delmas, Claude; Nelson, Chris; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2003-03-18

    LiCoO2 is the most common lithium storage material for lithium rechargeable batteries, used widely to power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers. Lithium arrangements in the CoO2 framework have a profound effect on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LixCoO2 (0 < x < 1), however, probing lithium ions has been difficult using traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Here we have succeeded in simultaneously resolving columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in layered LiCoO2 battery material using experimental focal series of LiCoO2 images obtained at sub-Angstrom resolution in a mid-voltage transmission electron microscope. Lithium atoms are the smallest and lightest metal atoms, and scatter electrons only very weakly. We believe our observations of lithium to be the first by electron microscopy, and that they show promise to direct visualization of the ordering of lithium and vacancy in LixCoO2.

  11. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  12. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed.

  13. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  14. Carbon Nanotube Doped Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Difelice, Ron; van Derveer, William R.; Gennett, Tom; Maranchi, Jeff; Kumta, Prashant; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2002-03-01

    We have characterized thin film lithium ion batteries that contain high purity single wall carbon nanotube-doped polymer anodes. Highly purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were obtained through chemical refinement of soot generated by pulsed laser ablation. The purity of the nanotubes was determined via thermogravimetric analysis, two wavelength Raman spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area and lithium capacity of the SWCNT was compared to that of other conventional anode materials (i.e., carbon black, graphite, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes). The SWCNT exhibited a specific surface area that greatly exceeded the other carbonaceous materials. Anodes were prepared by casting thin films directly onto copper foil of several ionically conductive polymers (i.e., PAN, PVDF, PEO) doped with the SWCNT. The lithium-ion capacity of the materials was measured using a standard 3-electrode cell. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the purified single walled carbon nanotubes in PVDF was in excess of 1300 mAh/g after 30 charge/discharge cycles when tested using a current density of 20µA/cm^2. The SWCNT anodes were incorporated into all-polymer thin film batteries containing LiNiCoO_2-doped polymer cathodes. Cycling results on the various SWCNT polymer combinations will be presented.

  15. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  16. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  17. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  18. Circuit for Full Charging of Series Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E.; Saunders, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced charger has been proposed for a battery that comprises several lithium-ion cells in series. The proposal is directed toward charging the cells in as nearly an optimum manner as possible despite unit-to-unit differences among the nominally identical cells. The particular aspect of the charging problem that motivated the proposal can be summarized as follows: During bulk charging (charging all the cells in series at the same current), the voltages of individual cells increase at different rates. Once one of the cells reaches full charge, bulk charging must be stopped, leaving other cells less than fully charged. To make it possible to bring all cells up to full charge once bulk charging has been completed, the proposed charger would include a number of top-off chargers one for each cell. The top-off chargers would all be powered from the same DC source, but their outputs would be DC-isolated from each other and AC-coupled to their respective cells by means of transformers, as described below. Each top-off charger would include a flyback transformer, an electronic switch, and an output diode. For suppression of undesired electromagnetic emissions, each top-off charger would also include (1) a resistor and capacitor configured to act as a snubber and (2) an inductor and capacitor configured as a filter. The magnetic characteristics of the flyback transformer and the duration of its output pulses determine the energy delivered to the lithium-ion cell. It would be necessary to equip the cell with a precise voltage monitor to determine when the cell reaches full charge. In response to a full-charge reading by this voltage monitor, the electronic switch would be held in the off state. Other cells would continue to be charged similarly by their top-off chargers until their voltage monitors read full charge.

  19. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  20. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  1. Latest advances in the manufacturing of 3D rechargeable lithium microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Loveridge, Melanie; Beattie, Shane D.; Jahn, Marcus; Dashwood, Richard J.; Bhagat, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) technology have led to a niche industry of diverse small-scale devices that include microsensors, micromachines and drug-delivery systems. For these devices, there is an urgent need to develop Micro Lithium Ion Batteries (MLIBs) with dimensions on the scale 1-10 mm3 enabling on-board power delivery. Unfortunately, power limitations are inherent in planar 2D cells and only the advent of 3D designs and microarchitectures will lead to a real breakthrough in the microbattery technology. During the last few years, many efforts to optimise MLIBs were discussed in literature, both in the planar and 3D configurations. This review highlights the importance of 3D microarchitectured electrodes to fabricate batteries that can be device-integrated with exceptionally high specific power density coupled with exquisite miniaturisation. A wide literature overview is provided and recent advances in manufacturing routes to 3D-MLIBs comprising materials synthesis, device formulation, device testing are herein discussed. The advent of simple, economic and easily scalable fabrication processes such as 3D printing will have a decisive role in the growing field of micropower sources and microdevices.

  2. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  3. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  4. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  5. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  6. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  7. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  8. 78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ gov/. Docket: Background... Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be used on an International Communications Group...

  9. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  10. Polydopamine coated electrospun poly(vinyldiene fluoride) nanofibrous membrane as separator for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chengying; Tan, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Ma, Jiquan; Li, Lei

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polydopamine (PDA) coated electrospun poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibrous membranes used as separator for lithium-ion batteries are successfully prepared. Their morphology, chemical and electrochemical characterization are investigated. The morphology and porosity measurements of the membranes show that the PDA coating does not harm to the structure of the electrospun PVDF nanofibrous membranes. Due to the PDA coating, it makes the PVDF surface hydrophilic and thus increases the electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, resulting in the enhanced performance of batteries. The battery using the PDA coated PVDF nanofibrous separator exhibits better cycling performance and higher power capability than that the battery using the bare PVDF nanofibrous separator. This study underlines that the PDA-coating treatment provides a promising process for the fabrication of advanced electrospun nanofibers separator in the lithium-ion battery applications.

  11. Diagnosis of power fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. H.; Hyung, Y. E.; Stoll, M.; Elsen, N.; MacLaren, S.; Twesten, R.; Haasch, R.; Sammann, E.; Petrov, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  12. Identifying fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Sammann, E.; Haasch, R.; Twesten, R. D.; MacLaren, S.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  13. Tannic-Acid-Coated Polypropylene Membrane as a Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Haibin; Wu, Chaolumen; Liao, Chenbo; Li, Lei

    2015-07-29

    To solve the wetting capability issue of commercial polypropylene (PP) separators in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed a simple dipping surface-coating process based on tannic acid (TA), a natural plant polyphenol. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron measurements indicate that the TA is coated successfully on the PP separators. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the TA coating does not destroy the microporous structure of the separators. After being coated with TA, the PP separators become more hydrophilic, which not only enhances the liquid electrolyte retention ability but also increases the ionic conductivity. The battery performance, especially for power capability, is improved after being coated with TA. It indicates that this TA-coating method provides a promising process by which to develop an advanced polymer membrane separator for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26177514

  14. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-01

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications. PMID:26627913

  15. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  16. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  17. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  18. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  19. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  20. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  1. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  2. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  3. Performance analysis of lithium-ion battery/electrochemical capacitor hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikha, Godfrey

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors are the most suitable power sources for high powered applications such as electric vehicles, power distribution systems, uninterrupted power supply, hybrid vehicles and other electronic devices due to their high power densities. However, their energy densities are considerably lower than those of high energy battery systems such as Lithium-ion. Although advanced battery systems and double layer electrochemical capacitors contrast with regard to energy-power relationship, in combination they can be utilized as an effective power source for various applications. So a systematic study of the performance of the combination of these energy sources (hybrid system) is indispensable. In this thesis, a hybrid system consisting of a lithium-ion battery coupled with a network of electrochemical capacitors was constructed and investigated in detail under pulse type of discharge. The impact of various operating parameters such as duty ratio, frequency, pulse current amplitude, number of capacitors in the capacitor network on the performance of the hybrid system was studied. To further understand and optimize the hybrid system a mathematical model for a lithium-ion/electrochemical capacitor network hybrid was developed from first principles. The prominent features of the model were its capability to predict the current shared by the battery and the capacitor network during discharge and its versatility to include any number of identical capacitors/batteries in series/parallel configuration. Specific energy and power relationships were simulated to identify the regime where the performance of the hybrids was better than the battery on a mass basis. The validity of the model was also tested against experimental data obtained from a Sony US 18650 lithium-ion battery/Maxwell PC100F electrochemical capacitor hybrid system. Finally a case study on the performance of the battery-alone system against a hybrid system was done for two different high

  4. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  5. Thermal analysis of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. C.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.

    A detailed three-dimensional thermal model has been developed to examine the thermal behaviour of a lithium-ion battery. This model precisely considers the layered-structure of the cell stacks, the case of a battery pack, and the gap between both elements to achieve a comprehensive analysis. Both location-dependent convection and radiation are adopted at boundaries to reflect different heat dissipation performances on all surfaces. Furthermore, a simplified thermal model is proposed according to the examination of various simplification strategies and validation from the detailed thermal model. Based on the examination, the calculation speed of the simplified model is comparable with that of a one-dimensional model with a maximum error less than 0.54 K. These models successfully describe asymmetric temperature distribution inside a battery, and they predict an anomaly of temperature distribution on the surface if a metal case is used. Based on the simulation results from the detailed thermal model, radiation could contribute 43-63% at most to the overall heat dissipation under natural convection. Forced convection is effective in depressing the maximum temperature, and the temperature uniformity does not necessarily decrease infinitely when the extent of forced convection is enhanced. The metal battery case serves as a heat spreader, and the contact layer provides extra thermal resistance and heat capacity for the system. These factors are important and should be considered seriously in the design of battery systems.

  6. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18849978

  7. Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Tarascon, J M; Armand, M

    2001-11-15

    Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. PMID:11713543

  8. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  9. Modeling thermal management of lithium-ion PNGV batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul; Dees, Dennis; Amine, Khalil; Henriksen, Gary

    Batteries were designed with the aid of a computer modeling program to study the requirements of the thermal control system for meeting the goals set by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). The battery designs were based upon the lithium-ion cell composition designated Gen-2 in the US Department of Energy Advanced Technology Development Program. The worst-case cooling requirement that would occur during prolonged aggressive driving was estimated to be 250 W or about 5 W per cell for a 48-cell battery. Rapid heating of the battery from a very low startup temperature is more difficult than cooling during driving. A dielectric transformer fluid is superior to air for both heating and cooling the battery. A dedicated refrigeration system for cooling the battery coolant would be helpful in maintaining low temperature during driving. The use of ample insulation would effectively slow the battery temperature rise when parking the vehicle in warm weather. Operating the battery at 10 °C during the first several years when the battery has excess power would extend the battery life.

  10. Thermal Characterization Study of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Miller, Thomas B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The primary challenge in designing a full scale lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system is safety under both normal operating as well as abusive conditions. The normal conditions involve expected charge/discharge cycles and it is known that heat evolves in batteries during those cycles. This is a major concern in the design for high power applications and careful thermal management is necessary to alleviate this concern. An emerging thermal measurement technology, such as the electrochemical calorimetric of batteries, will aid in the development of advanced, safe battery system. To support this technology, several "commercial-off-the-shelf" (COTS) Li-ion cells with different chemistries and designs are being evaluated for different cycling regimes at a given operating temperature. The Accelerated Rate Calorimeter (ARC)-Arbin cycler setup is used to measure the temperature, voltage, and current of the cells at different charge/discharge rates. Initial results demonstrated good cell cyclability. During the cycle testing, the cell exhibited an endothermic cooling in the initial part of the charge cycle. The discharge portion of the cycle is exothermic during the entire discharge period. The presence of an endothermic reaction indicates a significant entropy effect during the beginning of charge cycle. Further studies will be performed to understand the thermal characteristics of the Li-ion cells at the different operating conditions. The effects on the thermal response on cell aging and states-of-charge will also be identified.

  11. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs. PMID:25640923

  12. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  13. Materials insights into low-temperature performances of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gaolong; Wen, Kechun; Lv, Weiqiang; Zhou, Xingzhi; Liang, Yachun; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhilin; Zou, Minda; Li, Jinchao; Zhang, Yuqian; He, Weidong

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been employed in many fields including cell phones, laptop computers, electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage wells due to their high energy density and pronounced recharge ability. However, energy and power capabilities of LIBs decrease sharply at low operation temperatures. In particular, the charge process becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures below -20 °C, which severely limits the applications of LIBs in some cold areas during winter. Extensive research has shown that the electrolyte/electrode composition and microstructure are of fundamental importance to low-temperature performances of LIBs. In this report, we review the recent findings in the role of electrolytes, anodes, and cathodes in the low temperature performances of LIBs. Our overview aims to understand comprehensively the fundamental origin of low-temperature performances of LIBs from a materials perspective and facilitates the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery materials that are operational at a large range of working temperatures.

  14. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  15. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  16. Development of lithium-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rajan, Sundar; Shukla, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexibility, lightness in weight, design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. A brief historical review is given of the development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, highlighting the ongoing research strategies, and highlighting the challenges regarding synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. This work is primarily focused on development of Li-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials and some of the critical issues namely, electrode preparation, synthesis, and electrochemical characterization. The purpose of this review is to act as a reference for future work in this area. PMID:23094326

  17. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead–acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  18. A novel fluorocyclophosphazene as bifunctional additive for safer lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lan; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-03-01

    A high-efficiency flame-retarding additive, (Ethoxy)pentafluorocyclotriphosphazene (N3P3F5OCH2CH3, PFPN), has been synthesized and explored as a safer protection additive for rechargeable lithium batteries. The flammability tests indicate that only the addition of 5 wt% PFPN can make the electrolyte be totally non-flammable. As far as we know, the PFPN additive is the most efficient one of any flame-retarding additive ever synthesized and reported in the literature. The charge-discharge results demonstrate that the PFPN additive shows a good electrochemical compatibility on the graphitic anode and LiCoO2 cathode. Meanwhile, the incorporated PFPN additive can greatly improve the cyclic performance of LiCoO2 electrode at a high cut-off voltage of 4.5 V, showing a prospective flame-retarding additive for the applications in high-voltage lithium ion batteries.

  19. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  20. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  1. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  2. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  3. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C.K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  4. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  5. A strategic approach to recharging lithium-sulphur batteries for long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Yongzhu; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-12-01

    The success of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has brought indisputable convenience to human society for the past two decades. However, unlike commercialized intercalation cathodes, high-energy-density sulphur cathodes are still in the stage of research because of the unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. The capacity degradation over extended cycles originates from the soluble polysulphides gradually diffusing out of the cathode region. Here we report an applicable way to recharge lithium-sulphur cells by a simple charge operation control that offers tremendous improvement with various lithium-sulphur battery systems. Adjusting the charging condition leads to long cycle life (over 500 cycles) with excellent capacity retention (>99%) by inhibiting electrochemical reactions along with severe polysulphide dissolution. This charging strategy and understanding of the reactions in different discharge steps will advance progress in the development of lithium-sulphur batteries.

  6. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  7. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  8. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  9. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  10. Model based condition monitoring in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amardeep; Izadian, Afshin; Anwar, Sohel

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a model based condition monitoring technique is developed for lithium-ion battery condition monitoring. Here a number of lithium-ion batteries are cycled using two separate over discharge test regimes and the resulting shift in battery parameters is recorded. The battery models are constructed using the equivalent circuit methodology. The condition monitoring setup consists of a model bank representing the different degree of parameter shift due to overdischarge in the lithium ion battery. Extended Kalman filters (EKF) are used to maintain increased robustness of the condition monitoring setup while estimating the terminal voltage of the battery cell. The information carrying residuals are generated and evaluation process is carried out in real-time using multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) methodology. The condition evaluation function is used to generate probabilities that indicate the presence of a particular operational condition. Using the test data, it is shown that the performance shift in lithium ion batteries due to over discharge can be accurately detected.

  11. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  12. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  13. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  14. Nanowire-graphene hybrids for lithium-ion-battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque; Khan, Md Ashiqur Rahaman; Karim, Hasanul; Morton, Philip; Wilson, Tavis; Mendoza, Miguel; Lin, Yirong

    2013-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) have been receiving extensive attention due to the high specific energy density for wide applications such as electronic vehicles, commercial mobile electronics, and military applications. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To overcome this obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown propitious results for enhanced lithium intercalation. Recently, nanowire/graphene hybrids were developed for the enhancement of LIB performance; however, almost all previous efforts employed nanowires on graphene in a random fashion, which limited lithium ion diffusion rate. Therefore, we demonstrate a new approach by hydrothermally growing uniform nanowires on graphene aerogel to further improve the performance. This nanowire/graphene aerogel hybrid not only uses the high surface area of the graphene aerogel but also increases the specific surface area for electrodeelectrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/graphene aerogel hybrid anode material could enhance the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used for materials characterization. Battery Analyzer and Potentio-galvanostat are used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results show that nanowire graphene hybrid anode gives significantly improved performance compared to graphene anode.

  15. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  16. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2014-07-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  17. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  18. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  19. Materials Challenges and Opportunities of Lithium-ion Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-03-01

    Electrical energy storage has emerged as a topic of national and global importance with respect to establishing a cleaner environment and reducing the dependence on foreign oil. Batteries are the prime candidates for electrical energy storage. They are the most viable near-term option for vehicle applications and the efficient utilization of intermittent energy sources like solar and wind. Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for these applications as they offer much higher energy density than other rechargeable battery systems. However, the adoption of lithium-ion battery technology for vehicle and stationary storage applications is hampered by high cost, safety concerns, and limitations in energy, power, and cycle life, which are in turn linked to severe materials challenges. This presentation, after providing an overview of the current status, will focus on the physics and chemistry of new materials that can address these challenges. Specifically, it will focus on the design and development of (i) high-capacity, high-voltage layered oxide cathodes, (ii) high-voltage, high-power spinel oxide cathodes, (iii) high-capacity silicate cathodes, and (iv) nano-engineered, high-capacity alloy anodes. With high-voltage cathodes, a critical issue is the instability of the electrolyte in contact with the highly oxidized cathode surface and the formation of solid-electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layers that degrade the performance. Accordingly, surface modification of cathodes with nanostructured materials and self-surface segregation during the synthesis process to suppress SEI layer formation and enhance the energy, power, and cycle life will be emphasized. With the high-capacity alloy anodes, a critical issue is the huge volume change occurring during the charge-discharge process and the consequent poor cycle life. Dispersion of the active alloy nanoparticles in an inactive metal oxide-carbon matrix to mitigate this problem and realize long cycle life will be presented.

  20. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  1. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  2. Lithium-ion batteries: Runaway risk of forming toxic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, Amer; Raymond, Nathalie; Armand, Michel

    2003-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are stabilized by an ultrathin protective film that is 10-50 nanometres thick and coats both electrodes. Here we artifically simulate the 'thermal-runaway' conditions that would arise should this coating be destroyed, which could happen in a battery large enough to overheat beyond 80 °C. We find that under these conditions the reaction of the battery electrolyte with the material of the unprotected positive electrode results in the formation of toxic fluoro-organic compounds. Although not a concern for the small units used in today's portable devices, this unexpected chemical hazard should be taken into account as larger and larger lithium-ion batteries are developed, for example for incorporation into electric-powered vehicles.

  3. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-01

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes. PMID:26799574

  4. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  5. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  6. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode. PMID:26389522

  7. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    and Ahmad Pesaran, Gi-Heon Kim

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data from accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.

  8. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  9. Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Patel, Mumukshu; Rangasamy, Baskaran; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Xia, Changlei; Shi, Sheldon; Choi, Wonbong

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered as a potential anode material for next generation Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conductivity, flexibility, surface area, and lithium-ion insertion ability. However, the low mass loading and bulk density of carbon nanomaterials hinder their use in large-scale energy storage because their high specific capacity may not scale up linearly with the thickness of the electrode. To address this issue, a novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture is rationally designed by stacking layers of free-standing CNTs with the increased areal density to 34.9 mg cm-2, which is around three-times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes. Furthermore, a thermal compression process renders the bulk density of the multi-stacked 3D CNTs to be increased by 1.85 g cm-3, which yields an excellent volumetric capacity of 465 mAh cm-3 at 0.5C. Our proposed strategy involving the stacking of 3D CNT based layers and post-thermal compression provides a powerful platform for the utilization of carbon nanomaterials in the advanced LIB technology.

  10. Accelerated calendar and pulse life analysis of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Case, Herbert L.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Urbina, Angel; Paez, Thomas L.; Doughty, Daniel H.

    Sandia National Laboratories has been studying calendar and pulse discharge life of prototype high-power lithium-ion cells as part of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. One of the goals of ATD is to establish validated accelerated life test protocols for lithium-ion cells in the hybrid electric vehicle application. In order to accomplish this, aging experiments have been conducted on 18650-size cells containing a chemistry representative of these high-power designs. Loss of power and capacity are accompanied by increasing interfacial impedance at the cathode. These relationships are consistent within a given state-of-charge (SOC) over the range of storage temperatures and times. Inductive models have been used to construct detailed descriptions of the relationships between power fade and aging time and to relate power fade, capacity loss and impedance rise. These models can interpolate among the different experimental conditions and can also describe the error surface when fitting life prediction models to the data.

  11. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  12. Evaluation of Safety and Performance of Sony Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the tests of the Sony Lithium Ion Cells. The physical, electrochemical, and Canon Battery (BP-927) characteristics of the cells are reported. The tests given include overcharge, overdischarge, high temperature, drop tests, external short circuit, crush test, thermal tests on battery pack, overcharging and overdischarging, unbalanced configuration, heat to vent, and the vibration test. The tests are described, and the results of the tests are reviewed.

  13. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. PMID:26989989

  14. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  15. Dissecting anode swelling in commercial lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ningxin; Tang, Huaqiong

    2012-11-01

    An innovative method is applied to investigate anode swelling during electrochemical processes in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Cathode surface is partially covered with a piece of paste to block the transportation of lithium ion from active material during charging/discharging, and the corresponding part on the anode film shows no formation of Li-graphite compounds during different electrochemical processes, which is confirmed by XRD analysis. The increases of anode thickness within and outside lithiated zone are measured, and defined as electrochemical swelling and physical swelling respectively. The microscopic lattice expansion of graphite due to lithiation process correlates to mesoscopic electrochemical swelling synchronically, while physical swelling tends to decrease steadily with time. The relationship among the microscopic stress due to lithium-ion intercalation, the mesoscopic stress resulting in anode swelling, and the macroscopic rippling of pouch cell after a large number of cycle test, is analyzed and correlated in terms of stress evolution across different scales, and suggestions for solving anode swelling are provided.

  16. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  17. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  18. Effects of vibrations and shocks on lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Martin J.; Schuster, Simon F.; Bach, Tobias; Fleder, Elena; Stelz, Manfred; Gläser, Simon; Müller, Jana; Sextl, Gerhard; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly used in mobile applications where mechanical vibrations and shocks are a constant companion. This work shows how these mechanical loads affect lithium-ion cells. Therefore pouch and cylindrical cells are stressed with vibrational and shock profiles according to the UN 38.3 standard. Additionally, a vibration test is set up to reflect stress in real-world applications and is carried out for 186 days. The effects of the load profiles on the tested cells are investigated by capacity measurement, impedance spectroscopy, micro-X-ray computed tomography and post mortem analyses. The mechanical stress has no effect on the investigated pouch cells. Although all tested cylindrical cells would pass the standard tests, in certain cells stressed in a vertical position the mandrel dispatched itself and struck against internal components. This caused bruised active materials, short circuits, a damaged current collector and current interrupt device. The investigations are not directly transferrable to all pouch or cylindrical cells but show that the mechanical cell design, especially the fixation of the internal components, determines whether a cell withstands vibrations and shocks. Depending on the cell design and the loading direction, long-term vibrational loads can have additional detrimental effects on lithium-ion cells compared to standard tests.

  19. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  20. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  1. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  2. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  3. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  4. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-04-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Monolayer MoS2-Graphene Hybrid Aerogels with Controllable Porosity for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Reversible Capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lianfu; Lin, Binghui; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Xiufeng; Xia, Hui; Li, Liang; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because all redox reactions take place at the surface without lithium-ion diffusion limit. However, the expanded band gap of monolayer MoS2 NSs (∼1.8 eV) compared to their bulk counterparts (∼1.2 eV) and restacking tendency due to the van der Waals forces result in poor electron transfer and loss of the structure advantage. Here, a facile approach is developed to fabricate the MoS2-graphene aerogels comprising controlled three-dimensional (3D) porous architectures constructed by interconnected monolayer MoS2-graphene hybrid NSs. The robust 3D architectures combining with the monolayer feature of the hybrid NSs not only prevent the MoS2 and graphene NSs from restacking, but also enable fast electrode kinetics due to the surface reaction mechanism and highly conductive graphene matrix. As a consequence, the 3D porous monolayer MoS2-graphene composite aerogels exhibit a large reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh g(-1) as well as outstanding cycling stability and rate performance, making them promising as advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26761564

  6. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  7. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  8. Testing of lithium-ion 18650 cells and characterizing/predicting cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, J. P.; Loeber, G. J.; Sandhu, S. S.

    The performance of lithium-ion cells, as determined from in-house testing, is primarily a function of cell design/materials, charge/discharge rate, ambient temperature, and the number of charge/discharge cycles. Testing of lithium-ion 18650 cells was performed in order to characterize their behavior and to eventually predict the performance of lithium-ion cells of various sizes. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the interfacial resistance of the lithium-ion cells as a function of temperature, state-of-charge, and cycle number. From these results, a nonisothermal mathematical model was developed and preliminary results are presented.

  9. Conductivity degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride composite binder during cycling: Measurements and simulations for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Grillet, Anne M.; Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Roberts, Scott A.; Barringer, David A.; Snyder, Chelsea M.; Janvrin, Madison R.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    2016-07-02

    The polymer-composite binder used in lithium-ion battery electrodes must both hold the electrodes together and augment their electrical conductivity while subjected to mechanical stresses caused by active material volume changes due to lithiation and delithiation. We have discovered that cyclic mechanical stresses cause significant degradation in the binder electrical conductivity. After just 160 mechanical cycles, the conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):carbon black binder dropped between 45–75%. This degradation in binder conductivity has been shown to be quite general, occurring over a range of carbon black concentrations, with and without absorbed electrolyte solvent and for different polymer manufacturers. Mechanical cycling ofmore » lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes caused a similar degradation, reducing the effective electrical conductivity by 30–40%. Mesoscale simulations on a reconstructed experimental cathode geometry predicted the binder conductivity degradation will have a proportional impact on cathode electrical conductivity, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. Lastly, ohmic resistance measurements were made on complete batteries. Direct comparisons between electrochemical cycling and mechanical cycling show consistent trends in the conductivity decline. This evidence supports a new mechanism for performance decline of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries during operation – electrochemically-induced mechanical stresses that degrade binder conductivity, increasing the internal resistance of the battery with cycling.« less

  10. Building robust architectures of carbon and metal oxide nanocrystals toward high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Xia; Peng, Yiting; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Ge; Wei, Fei; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-11-27

    Design and fabrication of effective electrode structure is essential but is still a challenge for current lithium-ion battery technology. Herein we report the design and fabrication of a class of high-performance robust nanocomposites based on iron oxide spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An efficient aerosol spray process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, where oxide nanocrystals were assembled into a continuous carbon skeleton and entangled in porous CNT networks. This material architecture offers many critical features that are required for high-performance anodes, including efficient ion transport, high conductivity, and structure durability, therefore enabling an electrode with outstanding lithium storage performance. For example, such an electrode with a thickness of ∼35 μm could deliver a specific capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) (based on total electrode weight) and high recharging rates. This effective strategy can be extended to construct many other composite electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:23046380

  11. Preparation of C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chenghao; Lu, Weili; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2013-11-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) embedded with various amounts of Ni and NiO nanoparticles (C/Ni-NiO) were prepared by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), followed by heat treatment. The structure and composition of the obtained C/Ni-NiO composite nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results suggested that the morphology, nanofiber diameter, and the content of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles in the CNFs were controlled by different amounts of nickel acetate added into the PAN. The electrochemical measurements of a charge/discharge experiment and a cyclic voltammetry test indicated that the content and the size of Ni-NiO nanoparticles embedded in the CNFs had a great influence on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. CNFs embedded with a certain content of Ni-NiO nanoparticles as binder-free anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries exhibited improved electrochemical performance, including high reversible capacities, good capacity retention, and stable cycling performance. This is mainly ascribed to the formation of a well-distributed Ni-NiO nanoparticle structure and the buffering role of the carbon nanofiber matrix, together with the high theoretical capacity of NiO and the increase in electrode connectivity caused by the formation of electrochemically inactive Ni nanoparticles.

  12. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  13. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg−1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg−1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices. PMID:24923290

  14. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  15. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  16. Emerging applications of atomic layer deposition for lithium-ion battery studies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-07-17

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are used widely in today's consumer electronics and offer great potential for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs, pure EVs, and also in smart grids as future energy-storage devices. However, many challenges must be addressed before these future applications of LIBs are realized, such as the energy and power density of LIBs, their cycle and calendar life, safety characteristics, and costs. Recently, a technique called atomic layer deposition (ALD) attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach for resolving these issues. In this article, recent advances in using ALD for LIB studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: 1) ALD for designing and synthesizing new LIB components, i.e., anodes, cathodes, and solid electrolytes, and; 2) ALD used in modifying electrode properties via surface coating. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using ALD for developing high-performance LIBs. PMID:22700328

  17. In situ tem study on anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wentao

    The growing demand for light-weight, high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronics, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and stationary energy storage systems has led to intensive research on developing new electrode materials with higher energy density, higher power density, and longer lifetime. However, a major issue with the high-capacity materials such as silicon (Si) is the rapid, irreversible capacity decay and poor cyclability due to the lithiation/delithiation induced mechanical degradation. A fundamental understanding of coupled electro-chemo-mechanical effects on the lithiation/delithiation of anode materials in LIBs is critical important for the development of advanced LIBs. In this thesis, we constructed solid cell and liquid cell nanobatteries inside highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for electrochemical tests and mechanical degradation study of anode materials in LIBs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Quantification of bottlenecks to fast charging of lithium-ion-insertion cells for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Rajeswari

    2014-12-01

    In this work, an isothermal, physics-based, dual lithium-ion insertion cell sandwich model is used for simulating the galvanostatic charge performance of a graphite (LixC6)/liquid electrolyte/Liy(NiaCobMnc)O2 at room temperature at various current densities. The modeling results are compared with experimental cell potential vs. capacity data. The validated model is used to identify the bottlenecks to fast charging by quantification of the various contributions to the cell overpotential. Lithium plating at the negative electrode is shown to be thermodynamically feasible during galvanostatic charging at 2C rate and above. This work will aid in research and development activities to overcome the hurdles to fast charging of advance electric vehicle batteries.

  19. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS-1, depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system.

  20. Engineering empty space between Si nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Carney, Thomas J; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries yet attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to pulverization of the silicon and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation during the electrochemical cycles. Despite significant advances in nanostructured Si electrodes, challenges including short cycle life and scalability hinder its widespread implementation. To address these challenges, we engineered an empty space between Si nanoparticles by encapsulating them in hollow carbon tubes. The synthesis process used low-cost Si nanoparticles and electrospinning methods, both of which can be easily scaled. The empty space around the Si nanoparticles allowed the electrode to successfully overcome these problems Our anode demonstrated a high gravimetric capacity (~1000 mAh/g based on the total mass) and long cycle life (200 cycles with 90% capacity retention). PMID:22224827

  1. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  2. Testing Update on 20 and 25-Ah Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Gregg C.; Mardikian, Pamella; Edwards, Sherri; Bugga, Kumar; Chin, Keith; Smart, Marshall; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2003-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Energy Products has worked on lithium ion batteries for approximately 8 years. During that period EPEPC developed and delivered several cell sizes on a program funded by the USAF and Canadian DND. Designs are wound cylindrical cells from 7 to 40-Ah. Most cells delivered were approximately 25-Ah due to requirements of Mars missions. Several iterations of cells were manufactured and delivered for evaluation. The first design was 20-Ah, Design I, and the second was a 25-Ah, Design II.

  3. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  4. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 . PMID:25111752

  5. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  6. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  7. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  8. Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Holland, Charles E.; White, Ralph E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Two parameter estimation methods are presented for online determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery. Loss of capacity and resistance increase are both included in the model. The first method is a hybrid combination of batch data reconciliation and moving-horizon parameter estimation. A discussion on the selection of tuning parameters for this method based on confidence intervals is included. The second method uses batch data reconciliation followed by application of discrete filtering of the resulting parameters. These methods are demonstrated using cycling data from an experimental cell with over 1600 charge-discharge cycles.

  9. Lithium ion secondary batteries; past 10 years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Yoshio

    Technologies of lithium ion secondary batteries (LIB) were pioneered by Sony. Since the introduction of LIB on the market first in the world in 1991, the LIB has been applied to consumer products as diverse as cellular phones, video cameras, notebook computers, portable minidisk players and others. Years of assiduous efforts and researches to improve LIB performances enabled LIB to play a leading role in the portable secondary battery market. In this article, the past 10 years' technological achievement is traced and future possibilities are discussed.

  10. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  11. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Polydopamine Wrapping Silicon Cross-linked with Polyacrylic Acid as High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bie, Yitian; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Lu, Wei

    2016-02-10

    A robust silicon electrode for lithium-ion battery has been developed via prepolymerizing dopamine on silicon particle surface and then chemical binding with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). In this favorable electrode, silicon nanoparticles are covered by a thin layer of polydopamine (PD) through firm hydrogen bonds between phenolic hydroxyl and hydroxyl, while the elastic polymer layer reacts with PAA binder to form three-dimensional cross-linked binding system. The Si@PD/PAA electrode exhibits more stable cycle performance than conventional electrodes. In the case of thick electrode, a capacity of 3.69 mA h cm(-2) and fairly good rechargeability for 80 cycles can be achieved. PMID:26808456

  13. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries. PMID:24782265

  14. Effect of modified elastomeric binders on the electrochemical properties of silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Yang, Juan-yu; Lu, Shi-gang

    2012-08-01

    Silicon has been investigated intensively as a promising anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The choice of a binder is very important to solve the problem of the large capacity fade observed along cycling. The effect of modified elastomeric binders on the electrochemical performance of crystalline nano-silicon powders was studied. Compared with the conventional binder (polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)), Si electrodes using the elastomeric styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) combined binder show an improved cycling performance. The reversible capacity of the Si electrode with the SCMC/SBR binder is as high as 2221 mA·h/g for 30 cycles in a voltage window between 0.005 and 2 V. The structure changes from SEM images of the silicon electrodes with different binders were used to explore the property improvement.

  15. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life. PMID:26373359

  16. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  17. Online estimation of lithium-ion battery capacity using sparse Bayesian learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig; Strief, Carrie; Sullivan, Melani

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are used as one of the major energy storage components for implantable medical devices. Reliability of Li-ion batteries used in these devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, patients and physicians. To ensure a Li-ion battery operates reliably, it is important to develop health monitoring techniques that accurately estimate the capacity of the battery throughout its life-time. This paper presents a sparse Bayesian learning method that utilizes the charge voltage and current measurements to estimate the capacity of a Li-ion battery used in an implantable medical device. Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) is employed as a probabilistic kernel regression method to learn the complex dependency of the battery capacity on the characteristic features that are extracted from the charge voltage and current measurements. Owing to the sparsity property of RVM, the proposed method generates a reduced-scale regression model that consumes only a small fraction of the CPU time required by a full-scale model, which makes online capacity estimation computationally efficient. 10 years' continuous cycling data and post-explant cycling data obtained from Li-ion prismatic cells are used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  19. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation).

  20. Evaluation of sulfur-doped aluminum-substituted manganese oxidespinels for lithium ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Hollingsworth, Joel; Shim, Joongpyo; Lee, YoungJoo; Striebel, Kathryn; Reimer, Jeffrey; Cairns, Elton

    2002-09-10

    Spinels with nominal composition Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1.75}O{sub 3.97}S{sub 0.03}, Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1.75}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 3.96}S{sub 0.04} have been evaluated for their suitability as positive electrode materials in rechargeable lithium ion batteries for electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. {sup 7}Li magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, XRD, and EDS experiments indicate that sulfur is most likely present as a trace impurity on the surface of the spinel particles rather than substituting for oxygen ions in the bulk, so it is unlikely to account for the previously reported enhanced cyclability of this material. Rather, the unusual particle morphology produced during calcination of some samples in the presence of sulfur compounds appears to impede (but does not completely prevent) conversion to the tetragonal phase that occurs at 3V vs. Li, and ameliorates the capacity fading associated with it. These materials exhibit reduced rate capability and capacity at 4 V, making them unsuitable for high energy density (EV) or high power density applications (HEV).

  1. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation). PMID:26496823

  2. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation). PMID:26496823

  3. Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

    2012-04-01

    Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35°C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of 100 Ah cylindrical lithium ion battery for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Moon, Seong-In; Yum, Duk-Hyeng; Yun, Seong-Kyu

    A total of 100 Ah class lithium ion cells with C/LiCoO 2 cell system for electric vehicles (EVs) was developed. EV-size lithium ion battery was developed by Sony, KERI/STC, SAFT, VARTA, Sanyo and Matsushita. GS battery and Hitachi have developed also stationary type large scale (70-80 Ah) lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion battery module for EVs was demonstrated by Sony/Nissan and KERI/STC in 1996. At present, the performance of developed EV-cells was up to 115 Wh/kg and 286 W/kg of specific power at 80% DOD. We assume our EV cells to have 248 and 242 km driving distance per one charge with DST-120 mode and ECE-15 mode, respectively. Finally, we performed safety/abuse tests of developed lithium ion cell.

  5. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized π electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-π type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  6. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation... design feature associated with Lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...) T00012WI for installation of Lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. The Model 680 is a twin-engine,...

  7. Functionalized graphene for high performance lithium ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Weon Ho; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Jin, Jae Kyu; Kim, Junhyung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-12-01

    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) have recently drawn considerable attention because they utilize the advantages of supercapacitors (high power) and lithium ion batteries (high energy). However, the energy densities of conventional LICs, which consist of a pair of graphite and activated carbon electrodes, are limited by the small capacities of the activated carbon cathodes. To overcome this limitation, we have engaged urea-reduced graphene oxide. The amide functional groups generated during the urea reduction facilitate the enolization processes for reversible Li binding, which improves the specific capacity by 37 % compared to those of conventional systems such as activated carbon and hydrazine-reduced graphene oxide. Utilizing the increased Li binding capability, when evaluated based on the mass of the active materials on both sides, the LICs based on urea-reduced graphene oxide deliver a specific energy density of approximately 106 Wh kg(total) (-1) and a specific power density of approximately 4200 W kg(total) (-1) with perfect capacity retention up to 1000 cycles. These values are far superior to those of previously reported LICs and supercapacitors, which suggests that appropriately treated graphene can be a promising electrode material for LICs. PMID:23112143

  8. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; et al

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  9. Graphene-based integrated electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Jing; Pei, Songfeng; Huang, Kun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-06-01

    We have prepared flexible free-standing electrodes with anode and cathode active materials deposited on a highly conductive graphene membrane by a two-step filtration method. Compared with conventional electrodes using metal as current collectors, these electrodes have displayed stronger adhesion, superior electrochemical performance, higher energy density, and better flexibility. A full lithium ion battery assembled by adopting these graphene-based electrodes has showed high rate capability and long cyclic life. We have also assembled a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery with poly-(dimethyl siloxane) sheets as packaging material to light a red light-emitting diode. This flexible battery can be easily bent without structural failure or performance loss and operated well under a bent state. The fabrication process of these graphene-based integrated electrodes only has two filtration steps; thus it is easy to scale up. These results suggest great potential for these graphene-based flexible batteries in lightweight, bendable, and wearable electronic devices.

  10. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g(-1) at 10 A g(-1)). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes. PMID:27479691

  11. Improved carbon anode materials for lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Marsh, C.

    1998-07-01

    Several carbon materials have been studied for suitability as anode materials in lithium-ion cells. Carbons that have been included in this evaluation are three grades of commercially available mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB) 6-28, 10-28 and 25-28, two specially prepared mesophase fibers (Amoco), a foreign mesophase fiber and KS-15 graphite (Lonza). Differences in cycling behavior between the three types of MCMB material are shown. Data of full lithium-ion cells demonstrate the effect that the choice of carbon material has on the cell discharge voltage and capacity. Lithium reference electrode experiments in full cells (3.0--4.0Ah capacity), elucidate the dynamics under several charge/discharge regimes and provide a comparison between the performance of carbon fiber and graphite anode materials. These test results indicate that the fibers can be charged at significantly higher rates than graphite without showing polarization at the anode. Full and half cell data also demonstrates the high coulombic efficiencies of the mesophase materials and first cycle efficiencies as compared to graphite. A comparison of two mesophase materials with different textures in full cells under strenuous cycling conditions shows significant differences in capacity retention. SEM photos of fibers showing the different textures are also presented.

  12. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  13. Bismuth Oxide: A New Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuling; Trujillo, Matthias A.; Fu, Engang; Patterson, Brian; Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth oxide directly grown on nickel foam (p-Bi2O3/Ni) was prepared by a facile polymer-assisted solution approach and was used directly as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. The Bi2O3 particles were covered with thin carbon layers, forming network-like sheets on the surface of the Ni foam. The binder-free p-Bi2O3/Ni shows superior electrochemical properties with a capacity of 668 mAh/g at a current density of 800 mA/g, which is much higher than that of commercial Bi2O3 powder (c-Bi2O3) and Bi2O3 powder prepared by the polymer-assisted solution method (p-Bi2O3). The good performance of p-Bi2O3/Ni can be attributed to higher volumetric utilization efficiency, better connection of active materials to the current collector, and shorter lithium ion diffusion path. PMID:24416506

  14. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  15. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  16. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles. PMID:26061529

  17. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g‑1 at 100 mA g‑1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g‑1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g‑1 at 10 A g‑1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  18. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  19. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. PSOC cycle testing method for lithium-ion secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Nozaki, Ken; Tsuda, Izumi; Takano, Kiyonami

    A cycle testing procedure is proposed which carries out charge and discharge in a partial state of charge (PSOC) with some testing levels such as an averaged state of charge, temperature, etc. The PSOC cycle test with this procedure was carried out for a commercial lithium-ion cell for about 20,000 cycles, and the testing procedure and test results are discussed. The features of the degradation due to PSOC cycle test in the tested lithium-ion cell were clarified as follows. The degradation during the PSOC cycle test was greater at higher environmental temperature. The degradation was greatest at a high average SOC, and smallest at SOC=50%. The degradation increased again at a low average SOC. In the test results for 2 years with 20,000 PSOC cycles, which converted to 2200 cycles of full-capacity charge and discharge, capacity degradation was 32% even at the greatest degradation at 318 K and 8% or less at 278 K. The proposed testing procedure is useful for evaluating a cell used on partial charge and discharge cycles.

  1. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  2. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  4. In Situ Analysis of Gas Generation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different Carbonate-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xin; Zhan, Chun; Bai, Ying; Ma, Lu; Liu, Qi; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Yang, Yusheng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-21

    Gas generation in lithium-ion batteries is one of the critical issues limiting their safety performance and lifetime. In this work, a set of 900 mAh pouch cells were applied to systematically compare the composition of gases generated from a serial of carbonate-based composite electrolytes, using a self-designed gas analyzing system. Among electrolytes used in this work, the composite γ-butyrolactone/ethyl methyl carbonate (GBL/EMC) exhibited remarkably less gassing because of the electrochemical stability of the GBL, which makes it a promising electrolyte for battery with advanced safety and lifetime. PMID:26417916

  5. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  6. Advanced carbon anode materials for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Hideto; Imoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shin'ichiro; Sekai, Koji

    Three kinds of carbon have been used for commercial cells: graphite, soft carbon and hard carbon. The difference in the structures of these three kinds of carbon is shown clearly using our new model for soft and hard carbon structure. The lithium-doped state of these three kinds of carbon is discussed using the new structural model and published 7Li NMR data. A large reversible capacity is demonstrated in the hard carbons derived from some vegetable fibers. Two mechanisms—one enhancing the adsorbing force of pseudo-metallic lithium atoms and one reducing the repulsion force between doped lithium atoms—which together produce a high reversible capacity, are explained.

  7. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Croft, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enable future missions involving the exploration of the surface of Mars with Landers and Rovers, NASA desires long life, high energy density rechargeable batteries which can operate well at very low temperature (down to 40(deg)C). Lithium-ion technology has been identified as being the most promising chemistry, due to high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, as well as, long life characteristics. However, the state-of-art (SOA) technology is not sufficient to meet the needs of many applications that require excellent low temperature capabilities. To further improve this technology, work at JF'L has been focused upon developing electrolytes that result in lithium-ion cells with wider temperature ranges of operation. These efforts have led to the identification of a number of ternary and quaternary, all carbonate-based electrolytes that have been demonstrated to result in improved low temperature performance in experimental three-electrode MCMB carbon/LiNio.sCoo.zOz cells. A number of electrochemical characterization techniques were performed on these cells (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further enhance our understanding of the performance limitations at low temperature. The most promising electrolyte formulations, namely 1 .O M LiPF6EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1: 1 :2 v/v) and 1 .O M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1 : 1 :3 v/v), were incorporated into SAFT prototype DD-size (9 Ahr) lithium- cells for evaluation. A number of electrical tests were performed on these cells, including rate characterization as a function of temperature, cycle life characterization at different temperatures, as well as, many mission specific characterization test to determine their viability to enable future missions to Mars. Excellent performance was observed with the prototype DD-size cells over a wide temperature range (-50 to 4OoC), with high specific energy being delivered at very

  8. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  9. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Lithium Sulfide Nanocrystals for Use in Advanced Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-30

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1-5 μm). Electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency. PMID:26633238

  11. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  12. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  13. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  14. Model-based condition monitoring for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taesic; Wang, Yebin; Fang, Huazhen; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Wada, Toshihiro; Hara, Satoshi; Qiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Condition monitoring for batteries involves tracking changes in physical parameters and operational states such as state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC), and is fundamentally important for building high-performance and safety-critical battery systems. A model-based condition monitoring strategy is developed in this paper for Lithium-ion batteries on the basis of an electrical circuit model incorporating hysteresis effect. It systematically integrates 1) a fast upper-triangular and diagonal recursive least squares algorithm for parameter identification of the battery model, 2) a smooth variable structure filter for the SOC estimation, and 3) a recursive total least squares algorithm for estimating the maximum capacity, which indicates the SOH. The proposed solution enjoys advantages including high accuracy, low computational cost, and simple implementation, and therefore is suitable for deployment and use in real-time embedded battery management systems (BMSs). Simulations and experiments validate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  16. Silicon Nanowire Fabric as a Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Chockla, Aaron M.; Harris, Justin T.; Akhavan, Vahid A.; Bogart, Timothy D.; Holmberg, Vincent C.; Steinhagen, Chet; Mullins, C. Buddie; Stevenson, Keith J.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-11-09

    A nonwoven fabric with paperlike qualities composed of silicon nanowires is reported. The nanowires, made by the supercritical-fluid–liquid–solid process, are crystalline, range in diameter from 10 to 50 nm with an average length of >100 μm, and are coated with a thin chemisorbed polyphenylsilane shell. About 90% of the nanowire fabric volume is void space. Thermal annealing of the nanowire fabric in a reducing environment converts the polyphenylsilane coating to a carbonaceous layer that significantly increases the electrical conductivity of the material. This makes the nanowire fabric useful as a self-supporting, mechanically flexible, high-energy-storage anode material in a lithium ion battery. Anode capacities of more than 800 mA h g{sup –1} were achieved without the addition of conductive carbon or binder.

  17. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  18. Robust recursive impedance estimation for automotive lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridholm, Björn; Wik, Torsten; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    Recursive algorithms, such as recursive least squares (RLS) or Kalman filters, are commonly used in battery management systems to estimate the electrical impedance of the battery cell. However, these algorithms can in some cases run into problems with bias and even divergence of the estimates. This article illuminates problems that can arise in the online estimation using recursive methods, and lists modifications to handle these issues. An algorithm is also proposed that estimates the impedance by separating the problem in two parts; one estimating the ohmic resistance with an RLS approach, and another one where the dynamic effects are estimated using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) that is novel in the battery field. The algorithm produces robust estimates of ohmic resistance and time constant of the battery cell in closed loop with SoC estimation, as demonstrated by both in simulations and with experimental data from a lithium-ion battery cell.

  19. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  20. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today's society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg(-1). It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. PMID:27328707

  1. Lithium-Ion Battery Cycling for Magnetism Control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyun; Luo, Xi; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Lifang; Khalid, Bilal; Gong, Jianghong; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-13

    Magnetization and electric-field coupling is fundamentally interesting and important. Specifically, current- or voltage-driven magnetization switching at room temperature is highly desirable from scientific and technological viewpoints. Herein, we demonstrate that magnetization can be controlled via the discharge-charge cycling of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) with rationally designed electrode nanomaterials. Reversible manipulation of magnetism over 3 orders of magnitude was achieved by controlling the lithiation/delithiation of a nanoscale α-Fe2O3-based electrode. The process was completed rapidly under room-temperature conditions. Our results indicate that in addition to energy storage LIBs, which have been under continuous development for several decades, provide exciting opportunities for the multireversible magnetization of magnetic fields. PMID:26654117

  2. Use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Patterson, D.; Camilleri, S.

    An account is given of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack used in the Northern Territory University's solar car, Fuji Xerox Desert Rose, which competed in the 1999 World Solar Challenge (WSC). The reasons for the choice of Li-ion batteries over silver-zinc batteries are outlined, and the construction techniques used, the management of the batteries, and the battery protection boards are described. Data from both pre-race trialling and race telemetry, and an analysis of both the coulombic and the energy efficiencies of the battery are presented. It is concluded that Li-ion batteries show a real advantage over other commercially available batteries for traction applications of this kind.

  3. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg−1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. PMID:27328707

  4. Design modeling of lithium-ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul; Bloom, Ira; Amine, Khalil; Henriksen, Gary

    A computer design modeling technique has been developed for lithium-ion batteries to assist in setting goals for cell components, assessing materials requirements, and evaluating thermal management strategies. In this study, the input data for the model included design criteria from Quallion, LLC for Gen-2 18650 cells, which were used to test the accuracy of the dimensional modeling. Performance measurements on these cells were done at the electrochemical analysis and diagnostics laboratory (EADL) at Argonne National Laboratory. The impedance and capacity related criteria were calculated from the EADL measurements. Five batteries were designed for which the number of windings around the cell core was increased for each succeeding battery to study the effect of this variable upon the dimensions, weight, and performance of the batteries. The lumped-parameter battery model values were calculated for these batteries from the laboratory results, with adjustments for the current collection resistance calculated for the individual batteries.

  5. Design modeling of lithium-ion battery performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P. A.; Bloom, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-08-22

    A computer design modeling technique has been developed for lithium-ion batteries to assist in setting goals for cell components, assessing materials requirements, and evaluating thermal management strategies. In this study, the input data for the model included design criteria from Quallion, LLC for Gen-2 18650 cells, which were used to test the accuracy of the dimensional modeling. Performance measurements on these cells were done at the electrochemical analysis and diagnostics laboratory (EADL) at Argonne National Laboratory. The impedance and capacity related criteria were calculated from the EADL measurements. Five batteries were designed for which the number of windings around the cell core was increased for each succeeding battery to study the effect of this variable upon the dimensions, weight, and performance of the batteries. The lumped-parameter battery model values were calculated for these batteries from the laboratory results, with adjustments for the current collection resistance calculated for the individual batteries.

  6. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The 18650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 m Omega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39 percent. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55 percent state-of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cc. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  7. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao. Gopalskrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1999-01-01

    The 18,650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 mOmega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25 C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39%. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55% state- of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cu cm. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  8. KOH etched graphite for fast chargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Yuge, Ryota; Nakahara, Kentaro; Tamura, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Shigeyuki

    2015-06-01

    Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, although it has limited power performance at high charging rates (Li-ion input). Alternative materials such as silicon and tin alloys, however, have an even more inferior rate capability. We describe here a multi-channel structure with a graphite surface etched with pores that can greatly increase the number of sites for Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation and reduce the Li-ion diffusion distance for fast chargeable Li-ion batteries by etching the graphite surface with pores. As a result, the multi-channel structure graphite anode shows better charging and discharging rate capability, cyclability, and higher coulombic efficiency than pristine graphite materials. The multi-channel anode material is proposed for use in fast chargeable Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  9. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg‑1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  10. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  11. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  12. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Anodes Being Evaluated for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Tom; VanderWal, Randy L.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is evaluating the use of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for thin-film lithium-ion (Li) batteries. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, in contrast to carbon black, directed structured nanotubes and nanofibers offer a superior intercalation media for Li-ion batteries. Carbon lamellas in carbon blacks are circumferentially oriented and block much of the particle interior, rendering much of the matrix useless as intercalation material. Nanofibers, on the other hand, can be grown so as to provide 100-percent accessibility of the entire carbon structure to intercalation. These tubes can be visualized as "rolled-up" sheets of carbon hexagons (see the following figure). One tube is approximately 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair. In addition, the high accessibility of the structure confers a high mobility to ion-exchange processes, a fundamental for the batteries to respond dynamically because of intercalation.

  14. Brief overview of electrochemical potential in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    The physical fundamentals and influences upon electrode materials’ open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the spatial distribution of electrochemical potential in the full cell are briefly reviewed. We hope to illustrate that a better understanding of these scientific problems can help to develop and design high voltage cathodes and interfaces with low Ohmic drop. OCV is one of the main indices to evaluate the performance of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and the enhancement of OCV shows promise as a way to increase the energy density. Besides, the severe potential drop at the interfaces indicates high resistance there, which is one of the key factors limiting power density. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 51372228), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  15. Performance Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells for Low Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Huang, C. K.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several of NASA's future Planetary Exploration (specifically Mars) missions will require rechargeable batteries of high specific energy and energy density and more importantly of good low temperature performance.

  16. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  17. 78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... the Boeing Model 787 (72 FR 57842; October 11, 2007). Applicability As discussed above, these special...; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  19. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  20. Off-stoichiometric Li3-3xV2+x(PO4)3/C as cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pingping; Qin, Sai; Wang, Xiuzhen; An, Ruiyi; Xu, Qingyu; Cui, Xia; Sun, Yueming; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Fan, Qi

    2015-10-01

    High-rate and ultralong-life performance is one of the main objectives for the fast development of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Here we present a highly efficient design of off-stoichiometric Li3-3xV2+x(PO4)3/C (x = 0-0.12) nanocomposites as cathode material. The nanocomposites are crystallized along with one-step method by in-situ carbonization. Among them, Li3-3xV2+x(PO4)3/C nanocomposites with x = 0.10 exhibit the most excellent performance. The initial discharge capacity is 131 mAh g-1 (theoretical capacity is 133 mAh g-1) when cycled at a rate of 0.5C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V, and 121.6 mAh g-1 at 10C. Even at 20C, it still delivers an initial discharge capacity of 92.5 mAh g-1, and a remarkable capacity of 85.1 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles, corresponding to capacity retention of 92%. The excellent performance is attributed to the improved lithium ion mobility and electronic conductivity. Our work provides an efficient technique for the large-scale industrial production of Li3V2(PO4)3 for ultrafast rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Electronic localization and bad-metallicity in pure and electron-doped troilite: A local-density-approximation plus dynamical-mean-field-theory study of FeS for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, L.; Faria, J. L. B.

    2016-02-01

    Iron sulfides are promising candidates for the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion battery materials. Motivated thereby, we present a detailed study of correlation- and doping-induced electronic reconstruction in troilite. Based on local-density-approximation plus dynamical-mean-field-theory, we stress the importance of multi-orbital Coulomb interactions in concert with first-principles band structure calculations for a consistent understanding of intrinsic Mott-Hubbard insulating state in FeS. We explore the anomalous nature of electron doping-induced insulator-bad metal transition, showing that it is driven by orbital-selective dynamical spectral weight transfer. Our results are relevant for understanding charge dynamics upon electrochemical lithiation of iron monosulfides electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  3. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  4. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  5. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  6. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. High performance binderless TiO2 nanowire arrays electrode for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueming; Lv, Xiaojun; Li, Jinghong

    2009-09-01

    Binderless lithium ion battery electrode fabricated by anodizing Ti foil, in which TiO2 nanowire serves as active materials and unreacted Ti foil as the current collector, exhibited high electrochemical performance.

  8. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles. PMID:26353564

  9. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  10. Role of surface coating on cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface coating of cathode materials has been widely investigated to enhance the life and rate capability of lithium-ion batteries. The surface coating discussed here was divided into three different configurations which are rough coating, core shell structure coating and ultra thin film coating. The mechanism of surface coating in achieving improved cathode performance and strategies to carry out this surface modification is discussed. An outlook on atomic layer deposition for lithium ion battery is also presented.

  11. Capacity Fade Analysis and Model Based Optimization of Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadesigan, Venkatasailanathan

    Electrochemical power sources have had significant improvements in design, economy, and operating range and are expected to play a vital role in the future in a wide range of applications. The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This dissertation contributes to the efforts in the modeling, simulation and optimization of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries for the future. While physics-based models have been widely developed and studied for these systems, the rigorous models have not been employed for parameter estimation or dynamic optimization of operating conditions. The first chapter discusses a systems engineering based approach to illustrate different critical issues possible ways to overcome them using modeling, simulation and optimization of lithium-ion batteries. The chapters 2-5, explain some of these ways to facilitate (i) capacity fade analysis of Li-ion batteries using different approaches for modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries, (ii) model based optimal design in Li-ion batteries and (iii) optimum operating conditions (current profile) for lithium-ion batteries based on dynamic optimization techniques. The major outcomes of this thesis will be, (i) comparison of different types of modeling efforts that will help predict and understand capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries that will help design better batteries for the future, (ii) a methodology for the optimal design of next-generation porous electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, with spatially graded porosity distributions with improved energy efficiency and battery lifetime and (iii) optimized operating conditions of batteries for high energy and utilization efficiency, safer operation

  12. Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

  13. Physical characterization of tin composite oxides and related anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Gillian Ruth

    2000-10-01

    This thesis addresses the issues concerning the excellent electrochemical performance exhibited by the tin-composite-oxide glass, Sn1.0Al 0.42B0.56P0.40O3.6 as an anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The debate surrounding this material focuses on the nature of the lithium-tin interaction; whether it is ionic or intermetallic. The TCO anode material has been studied electrochemically, as well as by multinuclear Solid-State-NMR, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and X-ray Scattering including Pair Distribution Function analysis. By examining electrode materials at various stages of discharge, corresponding to various levels of lithium insertion, the interactions between lithium, tin, oxygen, and the other components of the glass have been ascertained. The inserted lithium remains highly ionic throughout the first cycle of the cell, with no evidence for the formation of alloy phases. Extended cycling of the cell results in the formation of alloy-like domains in the parent material, SnO, but not in the case of TCO. This demonstrates that the required structural rearrangements for the formation of Li-Sn phases are kinetically prohibited; and this to a greater extend in TCO than in SnO. Two key factors account for the electrochemical properties of TCO: (1) the participation of the glass framework in sequestering the electrochemically active tin centers and providing a flexible framework for the reversible insertion of lithium; (2) the proximity of oxygen to tin is maintained throughout lithium insertion process, thus oxygen may act as a charge carrier. These factors are developed in the context of several models for the interactions in the electrode, drawing on the data obtained from the physical characterizations implemented here. A comparative study of the anode material NaMoO3 is also described.

  14. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  15. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  16. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  17. An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Lu, Song; Li, Kaiyuan; Liu, Changchen; Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of lithium ion battery fires and explosions enhance the need of precise risk assessments on batteries. In the current study, 18650 lithium ion batteries at different states of charge are tested using a cone calorimeter to study the burning behaviors under an incident heat flux of 50 kW m-2. Several parameters are measured, including mass loss rate, time to ignition, time to explosion, heat release rate (HRR), the surface temperature and concentration of toxic gases. Although small quantities of oxygen are released from the lithium ion battery during burning, it is estimated that the energy, consuming oxygen released from the lithium ion battery, accounts for less than 13% of total energy released by a fully charged lithium ion battery. The experimental results show that the peak HRR and concentration of toxic gases rise with the increasing the states of charge, whereas the time to ignition and time to explosion decrease. The test results of the fully charged lithium ion batteries at three different incident heat fluxes show that the peak HRR increases from 6.2 to 9.1 kW and the maximum surface temperature increases from 662 to 934 °C as the incident heat flux increases from 30 to 60 kW m-2.

  18. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate: a model lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob W; Lam, Royce K; Sheardy, Alex T; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2014-11-21

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li(+) ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li(+)-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li(+)-solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures. PMID:25175723

  19. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  20. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l-1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  2. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles. PMID:26990320

  3. Mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres for improved stability lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongxue; Cao, Liufei; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Haihui; Zheng, Chunman; Xie, Kai; Kuang, Yafei

    2015-12-01

    Polyanionic compounds are regarded as one of the most promising cathode materials for the next generation lithium-ion batteries due to their abundant resource and thermal stability. LiFeBO3 has a relatively higher capacity than olivine LiFePO4, however, moisture sensitivity and low conductivity hinder its further development. Here, we design and synthesize mesoporous LiFeBO3/C (LFB/C) hollow spheres to enhance its structural stability and electric conductivity, two LiFeBO3/C electrodes with different carbon content are prepared and tested. The experimental results show that mesoporous LiFeBO3/C hollow spheres with higher carbon content exhibit superior lithium storage capacity, cycling stability and rate capability. Particularly, the LFB/C electrode with higher carbon content demonstrates good structural stability, which can maintain its original crystal structure and Li storage properties even after three months of air exposure at room temperature. The exceptional structural stability and electrochemical performance may justify their potential use as high-performance cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the synthesis strategy demonstrated herein is simple and versatile for the fabrication of other polyanionic cathode materials with mesoporous hollow spherical structure.

  4. Thermo-electrochemical analysis of lithium ion batteries for space applications using Thermal Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W.; Ardebili, H.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are replacing the Nickel-Hydrogen batteries used on the International Space Station (ISS). Knowing that LIB efficiency and survivability are greatly influenced by temperature, this study focuses on the thermo-electrochemical analysis of LIBs in space orbit. Current finite element modeling software allows for advanced simulation of the thermo-electrochemical processes; however the heat transfer simulation capabilities of said software suites do not allow for the extreme complexities of orbital-space environments like those experienced by the ISS. In this study, we have coupled the existing thermo-electrochemical models representing heat generation in LIBs during discharge cycles with specialized orbital-thermal software, Thermal Desktop (TD). Our model's parameters were obtained from a previous thermo-electrochemical model of a 185 Amp-Hour (Ah) LIB with 1-3 C (C) discharge cycles for both forced and natural convection environments at 300 K. Our TD model successfully simulates the temperature vs. depth-of-discharge (DOD) profiles and temperature ranges for all discharge and convection variations with minimal deviation through the programming of FORTRAN logic representing each variable as a function of relationship to DOD. Multiple parametrics were considered in a second and third set of cases whose results display vital data in advancing our understanding of accurate thermal modeling of LIBs.

  5. An epoxy-silane approach to prepare anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, J.S.; Myrtle, K.; Dahn, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    A series of carbonaceous materials containing silicon and oxygen have been synthesized via pyrolysis of epoxy-silane composites prepared from hardened mixtures of epoxy novolac resin and epoxy-functional silane. Chemical composition of the pyrolyzed materials has been determined to be C{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Si{sub z}O{sub y} by a combination thermogravimetric analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyses, and wet chemical analyses. Pyrolysis of the epoxy novolac resin gives pure carbon made up predominantly of single graphene sheets having lateral dimension of about 20 {angstrom} which are stacked like a house of cards. Pyrolysis of the pure epoxy-functional silane gives C{sub 0.50}Si{sub 0.19}O{sub 0.31} with a glassy structure. X-ray diffraction and electrochemical tests show that pyrolyzed materials prepared from mixtures initially containing less than 50% (by weight) silane are mixtures of the carbon single-layer phase and the glassy phase, while those initially with greater than 50% silane show predominantly the glassy phase. The reversible specific capacity of these materials increases from about 500 mAh/g for the pure disordered carbon up to about 770 mAh/g in the material which contains the most silicon and oxygen. However, the voltage profile develops hysteresis of about 1 V and the irreversible capacity associated with the first reaction within lithium increases as the silicon and oxygen contents are increased. Further work is needed to eliminate these drawbacks.

  6. Combined NMR and PDF studies of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Julien

    Layered lithium nickel manganese oxides are promising, inexpensive and nontoxic alternative positive electrodes materials to the commercial LiCoO 2 electrode used in Li-ion batteries. Among these materials, Li(NiMn) 0.5O2 is particularly attractive due to its high theoretical capacity (280 mAh/g). The motivation for the research presented here was to understand the detailed long-range and short-range structure of these materials, particularly Li(NiMn)0.5O2, both as-synthesised and upon cycling. It is indeed important to know what the cation environments are, especially for the Li ions, since they strongly affect the electrochemical performance. The local environments and short-range ordering of Li(NiMn)0.5O 2, a potential Li-ion battery positive electrode material, were investigated by using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction and isotopic substitution (NDIS) techniques, 6Li Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy and, for the first time, X-ray and neutron Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis, associated with Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) calculations. Two Li(NiMn) 0.5O2 samples were studied in detail: one obtained from regular solid-state synthesis (SS), and another one obtained from ion-exchange routes (IE). 6Li MAS NMR experiments showed less Li/Ni site exchange (between the Li and the Ni/Mn layers) for the IE compound than for the SS compound, explaining its improved Li diffusivity and rate capability. For the SS compound, the Ni/Ni and Mn/Mn repulsion seen by PDF/RMC and the Li/Mn proximity seen by NMR were consistent with an ordering scheme intermediate between the ideal structures proposed so far (the "honey-comb" and "flower" structures). Ordering of Ni and Mn atoms in the transition metal layers was also detected in IE-Li(NiMn)0.5O2: Ni atoms tend to be surrounded by more Mn atoms in the first coordination shell, while the second coordination shell shows that zigzag ordering scheme is preferred over the chain. Ex-situ neutron diffraction and, for the first time on battery materials, in-situ X-ray PDF experiments were also performed to study the evolution of the cation arrangement during cycling. Based on this work, many applications of this joint NMR-PDF analysis approach to many battery systems may be readily envisaged.

  7. Electrochemical investigations of ionic liquids with vinylene carbonate for applications in rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Ionic liquids based on methylpropylpyrrolidinium (MPPY) and methylpropylpiperidinium (MPPI) cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfionyl)imide (TFSI) anion have been synthesized and characterized by thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy as well as gavanostatic charge/discharge tests. 10 wt% of vinylene carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolytes of 0.5 M LiTFSI/MPPY.TFSI and 0.5 M LiTFSI/MPPI.TFSI, which were evaluated in Li || natural graphite (NG) half cells at 25 oC and 50 oC under different current densities. At 25 oC, due to their intrinsic high viscosities, the charge/discharge capacities under the current density of 80 A cm-2 were much lower than those under the current density of 40 A cm-2. At 50 oC, with reduced viscosities, the charge/discharge capacities under both current densities were almost indistinguishable, which were also close to the typical values obtained using conventional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, the discharge capacities of the half cells were very stable with cycling, due to the effective formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the graphite electrode. On the contrary, the charge/discharge capacities of the Li || LiCoO2 cells using both ionic liquid electrolytes under the current density of 40 A cm-2 decreased continually with cycling, which were primarily due to the low oxidative stability of VC on the surface of LiCoO2.

  8. Development of rechargeable lithium-bromine batteries with lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Koshin; Yamada, Hirotoshi

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical performances of a prototype lithium-bromine battery (LBB) employing a solid electrolyte is investigated. The discharge capacity decreases with repeating charge/discharge cycles. Electrochemical impedance analysis reveals that the capacity fading is mainly due to increase in the interfacial resistance between an aqueous active material solution and a solid electrolyte. Based on the results of symmetric cells and structural analysis of the surface of the solid electrolyte immersed in Br2 solutions, it is suggested that a Li+-depletion layer is formed on the surface of the solid electrolyte as a result of contact with bromine. Addition of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEABr) depresses the interfacial resistance, which results in improved cycleability. LBB with 1.0 M LiBr and 0.25 M TEABr shows discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g-LiBr and Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% at 5th cycle.

  9. A novel electrolyte solvent for rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.S.; Angell, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    The authors describe a new type of electrolyte solvent which provides remarkable improvement in properties of electrolyte systems containing it. These solvents contain acidic boron atoms, in most cases linked into heterocycles by reaction of boric acid, or oxide, with glycols. Nicknamed BEG solvents (for boric acid esters of glycol), these show great propensity for dissolving salts, stabilizing alkali metals against corrosion, and in some cases, stabilizing other solvents (particularly alkene carbonates), against anodic decomposition. In the most favorable case so far, the 1,3 propylene glycol boric acid ester (GEG-1) which contains two linked borate groups, the mixed solvent formed by mixing 1 part BEG-1 with two parts ethylene carbonate provides an electrochemical stability window in excess of 5.8 V (cf. 4.5 V for ethylene carbonate along with the same salt), an ambient temperature conductivity of 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm with 1 m LiClO{sub 4}, and enduring stability against metallic Li, which remains shiny on prolonged (days) immersion at 100 C. The authors present data on various electrolyte solutions containing these components and then show their utility in devices by rubberizing them with polymers and constructing voltaic cells Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and C/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which show excellent charge/discharge characteristics and cyclability.

  10. Phenomenological force and swelling models for rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2016-04-01

    Three phenomenological force and swelling models are developed to predict mechanical phenomena caused by Li-ion intercalation: a 1-D force model, a 1st order relaxation model, and a 3-D swelling model. The 1-D force model can estimate the Li-ion intercalation induced force for actual pack conditions with preloads. The model incorporates a nonlinear elastic stiffness to capture the mechanical consequences of Li-ion intercalation swelling. The model also separates the entire state of charge range into three regions considering phase transitions. The 1st order relaxation model predicts dynamic swelling during relaxation periods. A coefficient of relaxation is estimated from dynamic and quasi-static swelling at operational conditions. The 3-D swelling model predicts the swelling shape on the battery surface for all states of charge. This model introduces an equivalent modulus of elasticity, which is dependent on the state of charge, to capture material transformations of the electrodes, and the orthotropic expansion of the jellyroll in a direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces. Considering the simplicity of the measurements and direct physical correlations between stress and strain, the proposed models can enhance battery management systems and power management strategies.

  11. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  12. Carbon nanotube film anodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sora; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Kyung-Won; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) film anodes are prepared for use in flexible lithium ion batteries, and the electrochemical performance of the CNT film anodes is evaluated. The CNT films are synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and direct spinning. The films are heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to study the effects of heat treatment on the battery performance. The electrodes made with the CNT films are characterized via charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. The results indicate that batteries with films heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere show a higher capacity, which can be a result of their high crystalline perfection. The impedance analysis shows that a lower resistance at the interface can be obtained by using heat-treated films. The charge-discharge tests are carried out by adjusting the rate from C/2 to 10C, and when the rate slows from 10C to 1C, the capacity of the samples largely recovers. The nitrogen/heat-treated CNT film electrodes present a capacity that is twice as high, such as 2C, 5C, and 10C, than untreated CNT film electrodes. These results indicate that the carbon nanotube film anodes have high potential for use in portable and wearable computers due to their flexibility.

  13. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  14. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  15. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  16. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  17. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  18. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  19. Development of a high-power lithium-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, A. N.

    1998-09-02

    Safety is a key concern for a high-power energy storage system such as will be required in a hybrid vehicle. Present lithium-ion technology, which uses a carbon/graphite negative electrode, lacks inherent safety for two main reasons: (1) carbon/graphite intercalates lithium at near lithium potential, and (2) there is no end-of-charge indicator in the voltage profile that can signal the onset of catastrophic oxygen evolution from the cathode (LiCoO{sub 2}). Our approach to solving these safety/life problems is to replace the graphite/carbon negative electrode with an electrode that exhibits stronger two-phase behavior further away from lithium potential, such as Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. Cycle-life and pulse-power capability data are presented in accordance with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) test procedures, as well as a full-scale design based on a spreadsheet model.

  20. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  1. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  2. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  3. Doping-Enhanced Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Shunnian; Wu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    We disclose a distortion-assisted diffusion mechanism in Li3N and Li2.5Co0.5N by first-principles simulations. A B2g soft mode at the Γ point is found in α-Li3N, and a more stable α'-Li3N (P3¯m1) structure, which is 0.71 meV lower in energy, is further derived. The same soft mode is inherited into Li2.5Co0.5N and is enhanced due to Co doping. Consequently, unlike the usual Peierls spin instability along Co-N chains, large lithium-ion displacements on the Li-N plane are induced by a set of soft modes. Such a distortion is expected to offer Li atoms a route to bypass the high diffusion barrier and promote Li-ion conductivity. In addition, we further illustrate abnormal Born effective charges along Co-N chains which result from the competition between the motions of electrons and ion cores. Our results provide future opportunities in both fundamental understanding and structural modifications of Li-ion battery materials.

  4. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  5. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  6. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  7. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  8. Nanostructured mesoporous materials for lithium-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaya, P.; Saravanan, K.; Hariharan, S.; Ramar, V.; Lee, H. S.; Kuezma, M.; Devaraj, S.; Nagaraju, D. H.; Ananthanarayanan, K.; Mason, C. W.

    2011-06-01

    The Energy crisis happens to be one of the greatest challenges we are facing today. In this view, much effort has been made in developing new, cost effective, environmentally friendly energy conversion and storage devices. The performance of such devices is fundamentally related to material properties. Hence, innovative materials engineering is important in solving the energy crisis problem. One such innovation in materials engineering is porous materials for energy storage. Porous electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) offer a high degree of electrolyte-electrode wettability, thus enhancing the electrochemical activity within the material. Among the porous materials, mesoporous materials draw special attention, owing to shorter diffusion lengths for Li+ and electronic movement. Nanostructured mesoporous materials also offer better packing density compared to their nanostructured counterparts such as nanopowders, nanowires, nanotubes etc., thus opening a window for developing electrode materials with high volumetric energy densities. This would directly translate into a scenario of building batteries which are much lighter than today's commercial LIBs. In this article, the authors present a simple, soft template approach for preparing both cathode and anode materials with high packing density for LIBs. The impact of porosity on the electrochemical storage performance is highlighted.

  9. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  10. Electrochemical Intercalation of Lithium Ions into Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. L.; Sumanasekera, G. U.; Rao, A. M.; Fang, S.; Eklund, P. C.

    1998-03-01

    We have investigated the electrochemical intercalation of lithium ions into ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a standard three electrode cell. The SWNT mat pressed onto a Pt plate was the working electrode. Lithium was used at both the counter and reference electrodes, and 1M LiAsF6 in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (1:1 by volume) served as the electrolyte. Raman spectra of the SWNTs were recorded in situ as a function of electrochemical charge using 514.5 nm excitation. During galvanostatic intercalation, we observed a relatively steep decrease in voltage until a plateau at around 1.2 V is reached. We attribute this initial decrease to the intercalation of lithium into SWNT and a concurrent electron doping of the SWNT π band. In the Raman spectrum, as the voltage reaches 1.2 V, the tangential mode frequency down shifted from 1593 cm-1 to 1591 cm-1 consistent with electron addition to the π^* band. We speculate that surface reactions of the lithium doped SWNT and the electrolyte are occuring during the plateau. During the evolution of the plateau, the Raman signal of the tangential mode gradually diminishes without further downshift of the its frequency and eventually disappears completely. Cyclic voltammograms show a minimum at around 1.2 V and peaks at around 0.7 V and 1.7 V. The origin of this structure is not presently understood.

  11. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V. PMID:26725040

  12. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Palm, K; Stifler, C; Steski, D; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Kanesue, T

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam. PMID:26931962

  13. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. The electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 s for all configurations (parallel or series) tested.

  14. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces. PMID:26842322

  15. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  16. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  17. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  18. 78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... battery systems special conditions adopted for the Boeing Model 787 (72 FR 57842; October 11, 2007..., -300, and -300ER series airplanes, was published in the Federal Register on August 22, 2013 (78 FR... Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...

  19. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential. PMID:27487940

  20. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:25027190

  1. Fabrication of three-dimensionally interconnected nanoparticle superlattices and their lithium-ion storage properties

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yucong; Han, Dandan; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Guannan; Hu, Jianhua; Yang, Dong; Dong, Angang

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional superlattices consisting of nanoparticles represent a new class of condensed materials with collective properties arising from coupling interactions between close-packed nanoparticles. Despite recent advances in self-assembly of nanoparticle superlattices, the constituent materials have been limited to those that are attainable as monodisperse nanoparticles. In addition, self-assembled nanoparticle superlattices are generally weakly coupled due to the surface-coating ligands. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensionally interconnected nanoparticle superlattices with face-centered cubic symmetry without the presynthesis of the constituent nanoparticles. We show that mesoporous carbon frameworks derived from self-assembled supercrystals can be used as a robust matrix for the growth of nanoparticle superlattices with diverse compositions. The resulting interconnected nanoparticle superlattices embedded in a carbon matrix are particularly suitable for energy storage applications. We demonstrate this by incorporating tin oxide nanoparticle superlattices as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, and the resulting electrochemical performance is attributable to their unique architectures. PMID:25739732

  2. Porous mixed metal oxides: design, formation mechanism, and application in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fangfang; Bai, Jing; Feng, Jinkui; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-01

    The relentless pursuit of new electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has been conducted for decades. Structures with either porous or nanostructure configurations have been confirmed as advantageous candidates for energy storage/conversion applications. The integration of the two features into one structure can provide another chance to improve the electroactivities. Recently, single-phased mixed metal oxides (MMOs) containing different metal cations, in particular, have confirmed high electrochemical activities because of their complex chemical composition, interfacial effects, and the synergic effects of the multiple metal species. In this review, we will focus on recent research advances of MMOs with porous architectures as anode materials in the matter of structural arrangement and compositional manipulation. Moreover, the application of self-supported MMO-based porous structures as LIB anodes is also explained herein. More importantly, investigations on the synthetic system and formation mechanism of porous MMOs will be highlighted. Some future trends for the innovative design of new electrode materials are also discussed in this review. The challenges and prospects will draw many researchers' attention.

  3. Thermo-electrochemical evaluation of lithium-ion batteries for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W.; Yayathi, S.; Shaw, J.; Ardebili, H.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced energy storage and power management systems designed through rigorous materials selection, testing and analysis processes are essential to ensuring mission longevity and success for space exploration applications. Comprehensive testing of Boston Power Swing 5300 lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to power humanoid robot Robonaut 2 (R2) is conducted to support the development of a test-correlated Thermal Desktop (TD) Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) (TD-S) model for evaluation of power system thermal performance. Temperature, current, working voltage and open circuit voltage measurements are taken during nominal charge-discharge operations to provide necessary characterization of the Swing 5300 cells for TD-S model correlation. Building from test data, embedded FORTRAN statements directly simulate Ohmic heat generation of the cells during charge-discharge as a function of surrounding temperature, local cell temperature and state of charge. The unique capability gained by using TD-S is demonstrated by simulating R2 battery thermal performance in example orbital environments for hypothetical extra-vehicular activities (EVA) exterior to a small satellite. Results provide necessary demonstration of this TD-S technique for thermo-electrochemical analysis of Li-ion cells operating in space environments.

  4. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. PMID:26548901

  5. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-07-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results.

  6. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use inhybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-06-22

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature.

  7. Microporous organic polymer-based lithium ion batteries with improved rate performance and energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chong; Yang, Xiao; Ren, Wenfeng; Wang, Yanhong; Su, Fabing; Jiang, Jia-Xing

    2016-06-01

    Microporous organic polymers with triphenylamine segments were employed as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. YPTPA with the highest surface area exhibits a discharge plateau at ∼3.6 V vs. Li/Li+, an initial Coulombic efficiency of 96.8% at 50 mA g-1 and a discharge capacity of 105.7 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1. Compared to the homo-coupled polymer of OPTPA with relatively low surface area (66 m2 g-1), SPTPA and YPTPA with higher surface area (544 and 1557 m2 g-1, respectively) show enhanced rate performances and energy densities. YPTPA can deliver 97.6 mAh g-1 within less than 3 min at high rate of 2000 mA g-1 and the energy density of 334 Wh kg-1 under an ultrahigh power density of 6816 W kg-1, while OPTPA only presents 48.2 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1 with an energy density of 155 Wh kg-1 under 6414 W kg-1. The great improvement in electrochemical properties of SPTPA and YPTPA demonstrates that increasing surface area of polymer cathodes by interweaving the redox-active units into microporous polymer skeleton is an efficient way to develop advanced polymer cathode materials with outstanding electrochemical performance.

  8. Multidimensional Germanium-Based Materials as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-04-20

    Metallic germanium is an ideal anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to its high theoretical capacity (1624 mA h g(-1) ) and low operating voltage. Herein, we highlight recent advances in the development of Ge-based anodes in LIBs, although improvements in their coulombic efficiency (CE), capacity retention, and rate performance are still required. One of the major concerns facing the development of Ge anodes is the controlled formation of microstructures. In this Focus Review, we summarize Ge-based materials with different structural dimensions, that is, zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D), and even monolithic and macroscale structures. Moreover, the design of Ge-based oxide materials, as an effective route for achieving higher Li-storage capacities and cycling performance, is also discussed. Finally, we briefly summarize new types of Ge-based materials, such as ternary germanium oxides, germanium sulfides, and germanium phosphides, and predict that they will bring about a reformation in the field of LIBs. PMID:26990878

  9. Chemical and structural stability of lithium-ion battery electrode materials under electron beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Doeff, Marca M; Xin, Huolin L

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.18)Ti(0.02)O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:25027190

  10. Three-dimensional free-standing carbon nanotubes for a flexible lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Cha, Eunho; Baskaran, Rangasamy; Choi, Wonbong

    2016-03-01

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have received considerable attention as energy sources for wearable electronics. In recent years, much effort has been devoted to study light-weight, robust, and flexible electrodes. However, high areal and volumetric capacities need to be achieved for practical power and energy densities. In this paper, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) free-standing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a current collector-free anode to demonstrate flexible LIBs with enhanced areal and volumetric capacities. High density CNTs grown on copper (Cu) mesh are transferred to a flexible graphene/polyethylene terephthalate film and integrated into a flexible LIB. A fully flexible LIB cell integrated with the 3D CNT anode delivers a high areal capacity of 0.25 mAh cm-2 at 0.1C and shows fairly consistent open circuit voltage under bending. These findings may provide significant advances in the application of flexible LIB based electronic devices.

  11. Fabrication of three-dimensionally interconnected nanoparticle superlattices and their lithium-ion storage properties.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yucong; Han, Dandan; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Xianfeng; Guo, Guannan; Hu, Jianhua; Yang, Dong; Dong, Angang

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional superlattices consisting of nanoparticles represent a new class of condensed materials with collective properties arising from coupling interactions between close-packed nanoparticles. Despite recent advances in self-assembly of nanoparticle superlattices, the constituent materials have been limited to those that are attainable as monodisperse nanoparticles. In addition, self-assembled nanoparticle superlattices are generally weakly coupled due to the surface-coating ligands. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensionally interconnected nanoparticle superlattices with face-centered cubic symmetry without the presynthesis of the constituent nanoparticles. We show that mesoporous carbon frameworks derived from self-assembled supercrystals can be used as a robust matrix for the growth of nanoparticle superlattices with diverse compositions. The resulting interconnected nanoparticle superlattices embedded in a carbon matrix are particularly suitable for energy storage applications. We demonstrate this by incorporating tin oxide nanoparticle superlattices as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, and the resulting electrochemical performance is attributable to their unique architectures. PMID:25739732

  12. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-09-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations.

  13. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. PMID:26387639

  14. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies.

  15. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  16. Micromechanical Modeling of Storage Particles in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi Tarun

    The effect of stress on storage particles within a lithium ion battery, while acknowledged, is not understood very well. In this work three non-dimensional parameters were identified which govern the stress response within a spherical storage particle. These parameters are developed using material properties such as the diffusion coefficient, particle radius, partial molar volume and Young's modulus. Stress maps are then generated for various values of these parameters for fixed rates of insertion, applying boundary conditions similar to those found in a battery. Stress and concentration profiles for various values of these parameters show the coupling between stress and concentration is magnified depending on the values of the parameters. These maps can be used for different materials, depending on the value of the dimensionless parameters. The value of maximum stress generated is calculated for extraction as well as insertion of lithium into the particle. The model was then used to study to ellipsoidal particles in order to ascertain the effect of geometry on the maximum stress within the particle. By performing a parameter study, we can identify those materials for which particular aspect ratios of ellipsoids are more beneficial, in terms of reducing stress. We find that the stress peaks at certain aspect ratios, mostly at 2 and 1/ 2 . A parameter study was also performed on cubic particle. The values of maximum stresses for both insertion and extraction of lithium were plotted as contour plots. It was seen that the material parameters influenced the location of the maximum stress, with the maximum stress occurring either at the center of the edge between two faces or the point at the center of a face. Newer materials such as silicon are being touted as new lithium storage materials for batteries due to their higher capacity. Their tendency to rapidly loose capacity in a short period of time has led to a variety designs such are the use of carbon nanotubes or

  17. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  18. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  19. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  20. Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.

  1. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  2. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  3. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K Y Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-09-14

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm(-3) has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm(-3) in addition to the conventional unit mA h g(-1) in the battery community. PMID:26247159

  4. Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2007-05-23

    The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may

  5. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  6. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-porous silicon composite as superior anode material for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lian-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Wu, Tong-Shun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Hao-Yu; Niu, Li

    2016-05-01

    We report a new method for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-porous silicon composite for lithium-ion battery anodes. Rice husks were used as a as a raw material source for the synthesis of porous Si through magnesiothermic reduction process. The as-obtained composite exhibits good rate and cycling performance taking advantage of the porous structure of silicon inheriting from rice husks and the outstanding characteristic of graphene. A considerably high delithiation capacity of 907 mA h g-1 can be retained even at a rate of 16 A g-1. A discharge capacity of 830 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 was delivered after 200 cycles. This may contribute to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  7. Preparation of nanocrystalline silicon from SiCl4 at 200 °C in molten salt for high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Han, Ying; Wang, Liangbiao; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-03-16

    Crystalline Si nanoparticles are prepared by reduction of SiCl4 with metallic magnesium in the molten salt of AlCl3 at 200 °C in an autoclave. AlCl3 not only acts as molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. The related experiments confirm that metallic Mg reduces AlCl3 to create nascent Al which could immediately reduce SiCl4 to Si, and the by-product MgCl2 would combine with AlCl3 forming complex of MgAl2Cl8. As anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Si delivers the reversible capacity of 3083 mAh g(-1) at 1.2 A g(-1) after 50 cycles, and 1180 mAh g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) over 500 cycles. PMID:25631549

  8. Fabrication of Fe-Doped LiCoO2 Sandwich-Like Nanocomposites as Excellent Performance Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Yang, Jiao; Mu, Yanping; Wang, Yu

    2015-12-21

    In this article, the two-layer sandwiched graphene@LiFe0.Co0.8O2 nanoparticles (SG@LFCO) have been prepared and investigated as high-rate and long-life cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The materials possess a high-surface area (267.1 m(2) g(-1)) and lots of void spaces. By combining various favorable conditions, such as Fe doping, coating graphene, and designing novel morphology, the as-prepared materials deliver a specific capacity of 115 mAh g(-1) at 10 C. At the 0.1 C cycling rate, the capacity retention of 97.2% is sustained after 250 cycles and a coulombic efficiency of around 97.6% is obtained. PMID:26552860

  9. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-01

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26457445

  10. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  11. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  12. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  13. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R.; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered. PMID:23233879

  14. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhao, Huang; Qing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e- and h+) and ionic species (Li+) at the electrode-electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li+ storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Project supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP8-2011-04).

  15. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg−1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  16. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  17. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  18. An electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Wang, Baojin; Peng, Huei; Hu, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    Accurate models of lithium-ion batteries are important for analyzing and predicting battery dynamics and aging. This paper presents an electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries to better understand the relationship between battery internal dynamics and external measurement. The proposed impedance model is a modified single particle model which balances between simplicity and accuracy. The model includes electrochemical impedance due to charge-transfer reaction, diffusion dynamics in the electrodes, effects of ion concentration, capacitance dispersion in the double layer, and anode insulating film growth, etc. The impedance tests for model validation were performed on two lithium-ion cells at ambient temperature and at different SOC levels. A particle swarm optimization method is employed to identify model parameters. The model accuracy under different conditions is compared with that of conventional Randles model and the parameter variations at different stage of the aging process are studied.

  19. Rapid charge and discharge property of high capacity lithium ion battery applying three-dimensionally patterned electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Akira; Sanada, Masakazu; Furuichi, Koji; Teraki, Kuniko; Matsuda, Takeshi; Hiramatsu, Kenta; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-01

    The cells applied with a three-dimensionally (3D) patterned Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrode showed good performance as a rechargeable lithium-ion battery. The 3D-patterned electrode was fabricated with a printing apparatus and has many lined patterns with a high aspect ratio standing in line on a current collector. The cell using 3D-patterned electrode showed much better rate capability than that using a conventional flat electrode. In this research, cyclic voltammetry was carried out to investigate the mechanism realizing the high rates of charging and discharging in 3D-patterned electrode. Various types of line patterns were fabricated for 3D electrode by using LTO electrode slurry, and the influences of basic specifications of electrode structure (the space between two neighboring electrode lines, the height and width of electrode) on the charge and discharge characteristics were evaluated to optimize the electrode pattern. In addition, the electrode performance was discussed from the viewpoints of ohmic resistance and charge-transfer resistance of the cells with 3D-patterned and conventional flat electrodes.

  20. Confined Porous Graphene/SnOx Frameworks within Polyaniline-Derived Carbon as Highly Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Tin oxides are promising anode materials for their high theoretical capacities in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, poor stability usually limits the practical application owing to the large volume variation during the cycling process. Herein, a novel carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx framework was designed using a silica template assisted nanocasting method followed by a polyaniline-derived carbon coating process. In this process, silica served as a template to anchor SnOx nanoparticles on porous framework and polyaniline was used as the carbon source for coating on the porous graphene/SnOx framework. The synthesized carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx frameworks demonstrate substantially improved rate capacities and enhanced cycling stability as the anode materials in LIBs, showing a high reversible capacity of 907 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and 555 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1). The remarkably improved electrochemical performance could be assigned to the unique porous architecture, which effectively solves the drawbacks of SnOx including poor electrical conductivity and undesirable volume expansion during cycling process. Consequently, such design concept for promoting SnOx performance could provide a novel stage for improving anode stability in LIBs. PMID:27169479