Science.gov

Sample records for advanced rechargeable lithium

  1. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  2. Rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, M.; Plichta, E. J.

    1984-09-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF6 or LiAlC14 in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

  3. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  4. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  5. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  6. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  7. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  8. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  9. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  10. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  11. Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

  12. Rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The cycling performance of a secondary lithium cell with a 2-methyl THF lithium hectofluorarsenate electrolyte is discussed. Stripping efficiency, dendritization, passivation on standing, and discharge efficiency are considered.

  13. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  14. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  15. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  16. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  17. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  18. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g−1 and 84% at 150 mA g−1 over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g−1 (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  19. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g(-1) and 84% at 150 mA g(-1) over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g(-1) (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g(-1), respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  20. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2008-08-04

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development.

  1. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  2. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  3. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  4. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research and development technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical considerations predict increased stability of cyclic ethers and diethers against reductive cleavage by lithium if the ethers have 2 methyl substitution. Diethers are solvents with low viscosity which are desirable for high rate rechargeable lithium batteries. Synergistic, mixed solvent effects increase electrolyte conductance and rate capability of lithium intercalating cathodes.

  5. Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

  6. Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

  7. A strategic approach to recharging lithium-sulphur batteries for long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Yongzhu; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    The success of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has brought indisputable convenience to human society for the past two decades. However, unlike commercialized intercalation cathodes, high-energy-density sulphur cathodes are still in the stage of research because of the unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. The capacity degradation over extended cycles originates from the soluble polysulphides gradually diffusing out of the cathode region. Here we report an applicable way to recharge lithium-sulphur cells by a simple charge operation control that offers tremendous improvement with various lithium-sulphur battery systems. Adjusting the charging condition leads to long cycle life (over 500 cycles) with excellent capacity retention (>99%) by inhibiting electrochemical reactions along with severe polysulphide dissolution. This charging strategy and understanding of the reactions in different discharge steps will advance progress in the development of lithium-sulphur batteries.

  8. Conductivity of electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, J. T.; Wilkinson, D. P.; Thomas, G.; Levae, R.; Woo, S.

    1991-06-01

    The conductivity of 150 nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries between -60 and 80 C is reported. A wide range of solvents including esters, ethers, aromatics, chlorinated solvents, etc., and mixtures thereof, were studied. Results for five electrolyte salts which have some promise for rechargeable Li cells are presented. Several of the trends in the data are discussed, and the importance of solvent viscosity in determining electrolyte conductivity is shown.

  9. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  10. Rechargable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.

    1989-10-01

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375 to 474 C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol percent)/upper-plateau (U.P.) FeS2 cell operated at 400 C has shown excellence performance prospects: 200 Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol percent) was found to exhibit 25 percent increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS2 cell. Such a cell has attained of 95 percent utilization of U.P. FeS2 electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8 to 1.0 ohm sq cm) to that of an electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS2 cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3 to 5 mA/sq cm) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators.

  11. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  12. Charge Control Investigation of Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.; Somoano, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are identified.

  13. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  14. The MOLICEL(R) rechargeable lithium system: Multicell battery aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouchard, D.; Taylor, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    MOLICEL rechargeable lithium cells were cycled in batteries using series, parallel, and series/parallel connections. The individual cell voltages and branch currents were measured to understand the cell interactions. The observations were interpreted in terms of the inherent characteristics of the Li/MoS2 system and in terms of a singular cell failure mode. The results confirm that correctly configured multicell batteries using MOLICELs have performance characteristics comparable to those of single cells.

  15. Cycle life sensor for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjundiah, C.; Koch, V. R.

    The problem of characterizing the state of a rechargeable Li battery as a function of cycle life history was addressed. A 50-micron dia Pt microelectrode embedded in the cell package was used as a sensing electrode. Good correlations between Li stripping currents and cycle life were achieved in Li/Li half cells. However, no systematic trends were observed in Li/TiS2 ful cells. Additionally, Li-electrolyte degradation products were found to be either insoluble or electroinactive over the available electrochemical window.

  16. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  17. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  18. Long cycle life rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquariello, D. M.; Willstaedt, E. B.; Abraham, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Cycle life and safety of delta-LiAl/TiS2 cells were evaluated using laboratory and AA-size cells. Analysis of the alloys (which contained 60, 70, 80, or 85 wt-pct. lithium and are designated 60 LiAl etc.) showed them to contain a mixture of elemental Li and Al4Li9. Cycling efficiencies correlated with the amount of free lithium in the anode. Using an electrolyte with the composition 48 v/o THF:48 v/o 2-MeTHF:4 v/o 2-MeF/LiAsF6(1.5M), a 70 LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell yielded a cycling efficiency of 96.4 pct. when cycled at a 100 pct. discharge depth which compares well with Li anode cycling efficiencies of 96 to 97.5 pct. obtained previously in this electrolyte. The highest cycling efficiency of any delta-LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell was 96.7 pct. when the 60 LiAl alloy was used with the 35 v/o PC:35 v/o EC:30 v/o triglyme/LiAsF6(1.0M) electrolyte. The 70 LiAl alloy was selected for further testing in AA cells since it was malleable for the fabrication of spirally wound electrodes, and its overall cycling performance was sufficiently good. AA-size 70 LiAl/TiS2 cells appear to have capacity/rate properties similar to those for identical Li/TiS2 cells. The use of the delta-LiAl alloy anodes does not appear to offer any safety advantage when cycled cells are shorted or heated.

  19. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  20. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  2. The design analysis of a rechargeable lithium cell for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subba Rao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Ambient temperature rechargeable lithium batteries are needed by NASA for advanced space power applications for future missions. Specific energies of not less than 100 Wh/kg and long cycle life are critical performance goals. A design analysis of a 35 Ah Li-TiS2 cell was carried out using literature and experimental data to identify key design parameters governing specific energy. It is found that high specific energies are achievable in prismatic cells, especially with the use of advanced hardware materials. There is a serious need for a greatly expanded engineering database in order to enable more quantitative design analysis.

  3. A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

  4. Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

  5. Computer simulations of the impedance response of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, M.; Meyers, J.P.; Newman, J.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the impedance response of a wide range of lithium rechargeable battery systems. The mathematical model is a macroscopic model of a full-cell sandwich utilizing porous electrode theory to treat the electrode region and concentrated solution theory for transport processes in solution. Insertion processes are described with charge-transfer kinetic expressions and solid-phase diffusion of lithium into the active electrode material. The impedance model assumes steady-state conditions and a linear response with the perturbation applied about the open-circuit condition for the battery. The simulated impedance response of a specific system, the lithium-polymer cell Li{vert{underscore}bar}PEO{sub 18}LiCF{sub 3}So{sub 3}{vert{underscore}bar}LiTiS{sub 2}, is analyzed in more detail to illustrate several features of the impedance behavior. Particular attention is paid to the measurement of solid-phase lithium-ion diffusion coefficients in the insertion electrodes using impedance techniques. A number of complications that can lead to errors in diffusion-coefficient measurements based on impedance techniques are discussed.

  6. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  7. Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Welker, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively. In contrast, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 fibers can be pressed and sintered to form a cathode, without need for a binder or a conductive additive. The inter-grain contacts of the fibers are stronger and have fewer defects than do those of powder particles. These characteristics translate to increased flexibility and greater resilience on cycling and, consequently, to reduced loss of capacity from cycle to cycle. Moreover, in comparison with a powder-based cathode, a fiber-based cathode is expected to exhibit significantly greater ionic and electronic conduction along the axes of the fibers. Results of preliminary charge/discharge-cycling tests suggest that energy densities of LiCoO2- and LiNiO2-fiber cathodes are approximately double those of the corresponding powder-based cathodes.

  8. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  9. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  10. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  11. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  12. Silicon anode for rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, R.; Si, Q.; Mizukoshi, F.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous lithium-air rechargeable cell with the configuration of Si/1 M LiClO4 in ethylene carbonate-diethylene carbonate/Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xP3-ySiyO12/5 M LiCl-1 M LiOH aqueous solution/carbon black, air is proposed. A silicon anode composed of mechanically milled silicon power with an average particle size of ca. 0.5 μm, vapor grown carbon fiber and a polyimide binder was examined. The open-circuit voltage at the charged state was 2.9 V at 25 °C. The discharge capacity of 700 mAh g-silicon-1 was retained for 40 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 with cut-off voltages of 3.5 and 1.5 V. Significant capacity fade was observed at deep charge and discharge cycling at 2000 mAh g-silicon-1.

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Shen, D. H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled 5 times were compared with the parameters of cells cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a tenfold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS2/electrolyte interface are not significantIy affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode.

  14. Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammone, R. J.; Binder, M.

    1986-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a rechargeable electrochemical cell that permits the oxidation of dithionite to occur without using chlorine as an intermediate oxidizing agent. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by providing an electrolyte including bromine dissolved in the liquid complex Li(s02)3A1C14.

  15. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte battery having overcharge protection and method of providing overcharge protection for a lithium-organic electrolyte battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, W. K.

    1985-06-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries. A further object is to prevent the undesirable oxidation of organic solvents during the overcharge of the rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by including lithium bromide in the electrolyte to provide overcharge protection during the overcharging of rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte cells. More particularly, it has been found that during overcharging, lithium bromide will be oxidized at lower potentials than the organic solvent and thereby provide overcharge protection and prevent the undesirable oxidation of organic solvents.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  17. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain...

  18. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries.

  19. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  20. A Highly Active Low Voltage Redox Mediator for Enhanced Rechargeability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Dipan; Black, Robert; Adams, Brian; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-12-23

    Owing to its high theoretical specific energy, the Li-oxygen battery is one of the fundamentally most promising energy storage systems, but also one of the most challenging. Poor rechargeability, involving the oxidation of insoluble and insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), has remained the "Achilles' heel" of this electrochemical energy storage system. We report here on a new redox mediator tris[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]amine (TDPA), that-at 3.1 V-exhibits the lowest and closest potential redox couple compared to the equilibrium voltage of the Li-oxygen cell of those reported to date, with a second couple also at a low potential of 3.5 V. We show it is a soluble "catalyst" capable of lowering the Li2O2 charging potential by >0.8 V without requiring direct electrical contact of the peroxide and that it also facilitates high discharge capacities. Its chemical and electrochemical stability, fast diffusion kinetics, and two dynamic redox potentials represent a significant advance in oxygen-evolution catalysis. It enables Li-O2 cells that can be recharged more than 100 cycles with average round-trip efficiencies >80%, opening a new avenue for practical Li-oxygen batteries.

  1. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  2. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  3. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  4. Rechargeable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries - A status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375 to 475 C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol percent)/upper-plateau (U.P.) FeS2 cell operated at 400 C has shown exellence performance prospects: 200-Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol percent) was found to exhibit 25 percent increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS2 cell. Such a cell has attained of 95 percent utilization of U.P. FeS2 electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8 to 1.0 ohm sq cm) to that of an electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS2 cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3 to 5 mA/sq cm) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators.

  5. Rechargable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375-474{degree}C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol%)/upper-plateau (U.P). FeS{sub 2} cell operated at 400{degree}C has shown excellence performance prospects: 200 Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol%) was found to exhibit 25% increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS{sub 2} cell. Such a cell has attained of 95% utilization of U.P. FeS{sub 2} electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8-1.0 ohm -cm{sup 2}) to that of an the electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS{sub 2} cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3-5 mA/cm{sup 2}) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  6. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  7. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  8. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  9. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  10. 78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... the Boeing Model 787 (72 FR 57842; October 11, 2007). Applicability As discussed above, these special...; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...

  11. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  12. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  13. Lithium rechargeable cell with a poly 3-methylthiophene cathode. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.W.; Slane, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    A poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) cathode showed excellent coulombic efficiency during cycling in a lithium rechargeable cell. An electrolyte containing dimethyl carbonate was used since it is stable at the high anodic potentials reached during cell charging. The polymer cathode tolerated modest overcharge and was able to continue cycling after a severe short-circuit with minimal loss of capacity.

  14. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  15. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  16. Recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter describes briefly the nature and measurement of recharge in support of the CH2M HILL Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project. Appendix C (Recharge) and the Recharge Data Package (Fayer and Keller 2007) provide a more thorough and extensive review of the recharge process and the estimation of recharge rates for the forthcoming RCRA Facility Investigation report for Hanford single-shell tank (SST) Waste Management Areas (WMAs).

  17. Highly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Sheets for Rechargeable Lithium Oxygen Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Kim, Byung Gon; Choi, Jang Wook; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-10-01

    Lithium oxygen batteries are one of the next generation rechargeable batteries. High energy density of lithium oxygen batteries have been considered as a very attractive power option for electric vehicles and many other electronic devices. However, they still faced substantial challenges such as short cycle life, large voltage hysteresis, low gravimetric and volumetric power. Here we developed a highly aligned CNT structured sheet for favorable lithium oxygen cathode electrodes. We fabricated highly oriented CNT sheets by rolling vertically aligned CNT arrays. Highly oriented CNT sheets provide excellent electrical conductivity with favorable mesoporous structure for cathode electrode. As a result, the CNT sheet performed maximum discharging capacity of 1810 mA/gc. We found that electrical conductivity and pore distribution plays important rolls for improving performance in lithium oxygen batteries. This study suggests new strategies of designing highly efficient porous carbon electrodes for lithium oxygen batteries. PMID:26726383

  18. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, EunJoo; Kim, Jedeok; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Hao-shen; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru

    2008-08-01

    The lithium storage properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) materials as high capacity anode materials for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries (LIB) were investigated. Graphite is a practical anode material used for LIB, because of its capability for reversible lithium ion intercalation in the layered crystals, and the structural similarities of GNS to graphite may provide another type of intercalation anode compound. While the accommodation of lithium in these layered compounds is influenced by the layer spacing between the graphene nanosheets, control of the intergraphene sheet distance through interacting molecules such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) or fullerenes (C60) might be crucial for enhancement of the storage capacity. The specific capacity of GNS was found to be 540 mAh/g, which is much larger than that of graphite, and this was increased up to 730 mAh/g and 784 mAh/g, respectively, by the incorporation of macromolecules of CNT and C60 to the GNS.

  19. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 41142). No comments were received, and the special... rechargeable lithium-ion main batteries and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) start batteries on the Model 680, and...

  20. Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

  1. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  2. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-16

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  3. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  4. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries. Technical report, July 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Osaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Shiota, K.; Owens, B.B.

    1989-06-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or Platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber(NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF{sub 3}COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The Pan cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g. 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  5. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  6. 78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ gov/. Docket: Background... Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be used on an International Communications Group...

  7. Studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ni, C. L.; Distefano, S.; Somoano, R. B.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    NbSe3 exhibits superior characteristics such as high capacity, high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, and high discharge rate capability, as compared to other intercalating cathodes. This paper reports the preparation, characterization, and performance of NbSe3. Several electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, constant-current/constant-potential discharges, dc potentiodynamic scans, ac impedance, and ac voltammetry, have been used to give insight to the mechanisms of intercalation of three lithiums with NbSe3 and also into the rate determining process in the reduction of NbSe3.

  8. Lithium Batteries: Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    On page 3381, S. Sato, S. Orimo, H. Isobe, and co-workers present the first macrocyclic material to be utilized in negative electrodes of all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries. Assembled to align the molecular openings, the macrocycle paves paths for lithium to migrate to the π-stack intercalation sites for the storage. The macrocyclic nanochannel of a nanometer-scale diameter further provides extra spaces for the lithium storage to surpass conventional graphitic electrodes in the capacity.

  9. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  10. Development of membranes and a study of their interfaces for rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Binod

    This paper describes an investigation with an objective to screen and select high performance membrane materials for a working, rechargeable lithium-air battery. Membrane laminates comprising glass-ceramic (GC) and polymer-ceramic (PC) membranes were assembled, evaluated and analyzed. A superionic conducting GC membrane with a chemical composition of Li 1+ xAl xGe 2- x(PO 4) 3 (x = 0.5) was used. Polymer membranes comprising of PC(BN), PC(AlN), PC(Si 3N 4) and PC(Li 2O) electrochemically coupled the GC membrane with the lithium anode. The cell and membrane laminates were characterized by determining cell conductivity, open circuit voltage and carrier concentration and its mobility. The measurements identified Li 2O and BN as suitable dopants in polymer matrix which catalyzed anodic charge transfer reaction, formed stable SEI layer and provided high lithium ion conductivity.

  11. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  12. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  13. The stabilization of electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.; Koch, V. R.; Nanjundiah, C.

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of Li secondary cells are reviewed, focusing on (1) the novel anion lithium trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LTI) and (2) the use of KO2 and KOH additives to stabilize the electrolyte. Sample data are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. The charging limits of LTI were found to compare favorably with those of LiAsFe6/THF and 2-MeTHF. Significant improvements were also obtained with the additives, but the results were erratic, with 2-3-fold variations among identical preparations. These differences are tentatively attributed to Li-film inhomogeneities and reactions of O2(-) with the solvent and impurities, especially in the cathode pores.

  14. Activated Li2S as a High-Performance Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chenxi; Klein, Michael; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-11-20

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high theoretical energy density of ∼2500 Wh kg(-1) are considered as one promising rechargeable battery chemistry for next-generation energy storage. However, lithium-metal anode degradation remains a persistent problem causing safety concerns for Li-S batteries, hindering their practical utility. One possible strategy to circumvent the aforementioned problems is to use alternative, high-capacity, lithium-free anodes (e.g., Si, Sn, carbon) and a Li2S cathode. However, a large potential barrier was identified on the initial charge of insulating bulk Li2S particles, limiting the cell performance. In this work, the bulk Li2S particles were effectively activated with an electrolyte containing P2S5, resulting in a lowered initial charging voltage plateau. This permits the direct use of commercially available bulk Li2S particles as a high-capacity cathode for room-temperature, rechargeable Li-S batteries, significantly lowering the manufacturing cost of Li-S cells. PMID:26276482

  15. Recycling application of Li-MnO₂ batteries as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tianran; Cheng, Fangyi; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-27

    The ever-increasing consumption of a huge quantity of lithium batteries, for example, Li-MnO2 cells, raises critical concern about their recycling. We demonstrate herein that decayed Li-MnO2 cells can be further utilized as rechargeable lithium-air cells with admitted oxygen. We further investigated the effects of lithiated manganese dioxide on the electrocatalytic properties of oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR/OER). The catalytic activity was found to be correlated with the composition of Li(x)MnO2 electrodes (0rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

  16. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  17. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  18. Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.

  19. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery module for underwater use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David R.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Fletcher, Michael; Stimson, Eric; Mollendorf, Joseph C.

    Portable underwater electrical power is needed for many commercial, recreational and military applications. A battery system is currently not available to meet these needs, which was the aim of this project. Lithium-ion battery cells (Panasonic (CGR18650E)) were chosen, based on their high energy density and availability. To increase their voltage, 8 battery cells were connected in series ("sticks") and protected by encapsulating them into a polycarbonate tube; and 6 sticks were housed inside a triangular aluminum case (module). Testing was performed to determine the consistency of individual cells, sticks and module and during discharge/charging cycles. The effect of ambient temperature (T A) was determined by instrumenting them with thermocouples. In addition, voltage and current were measured and used to determine the heat generated within the battery cell and were compared to theory. From these data, a radial temperature profile was determined for two battery sticks in the battery module. Collapse pressure was determined and compared to theory. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells delivered 2291 mAh each over a wide range of T A and discharge/charge rates. The theoretical and experimental data showed that the temperature within the battery sticks and modules did not rise above or below their operating temperature range (-20 and 60 °C), in agreement with the models. The tubes encapsulating the sticks withstood pressures down to 305 m of sea water (msw) which was predicted by modeling. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells, sticks and module demonstrated that they provided sufficient electrical power, reliably and safely to be used in the underwater environment (1800-2000 kPa, 305 msw) over a wide range T A, including high power requirement systems like an active thermal protection system that keeps a diver comfortable in extreme temperature conditions. The concept developed here can be modified to meet specific power requirements by varying the number of cell in series to

  20. Polymer-graphene nanocomposites as ultrafast-charge and -discharge cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiping; Xu, Terrence; Gordin, Mikhail L; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Donghai

    2012-05-01

    Electroactive polymers are a new generation of "green" cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We have developed nanocomposites combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide, to improve their high-rate performance. The polymer-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple in situ polymerization in the presence of graphene sheets. The highly dispersed graphene sheets in the nanocomposite drastically enhanced the electronic conductivity and allowed the electrochemical activity of the polymer cathode to be efficiently utilized. This allows for ultrafast charging and discharging; the composite can deliver more than 100 mAh/g within just a few seconds.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cathode materials for lithium ion-rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Ramos, Santander

    Lithium intercalation materials are of special interest for cathodes in rechargeable lihium-ion batteries, because they are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions without altering the main unit. We developed a novel solution-based route for the synthesis of these lithium intercalates oxides. The first part of this work was devoted to the optimization of chemical solution process parameters in order to correlate their electrochemical properties. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystallite size increase, whereas the lattice strain decreases with the increase in calcinations temperature. Powders annealed at 700°C for 15 h yielded best electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance of substituted Li1.2Mn2O 4, Li1.2Mn1.8O4, Li1.2Cr 0.05Mn1.95O4, and Li1.2Cr0.05 Mn1.75O4 spinel electrodes in lithium cell has been studied. The electrochemical data showed that the Li and Cr dopant effect improves the cycleablility of spinel LiMn2O4 electrodes. The second part of this dissertation was devoted to improve the rate capabilities of these cathode materials by growing nano-size cathode particles and also by cation co-doping. Though the discharge capacity of these nano-crystalline cathodes was equivalent to their microcrystalline counterpart, these exhibited capacity fading in the 4V range. Through a combined X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, we correlated the observed capacity fading with the onset of Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion toward the end of the discharge in the cut-off limit between 4.2 and 3.2V. It was postulated that J-T distortion is the dominant fading mechanism of these nano-crystalline cathodes then by increasing the average oxidation state of the Mn ion in a virgin lithium manganate cathode, the onset of such distortion towards the end of the discharge could be delayed, and therefore, the cycleability of these cathodes could be improved. By synthesizing lithium

  2. Rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries with an auxiliary electrode for the oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunahiro, S.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2014-09-01

    A rechargeable aqueous lithium-air cell with a third auxiliary electrode for the oxygen evolution reaction was developed. The cell consists of a lithium metal anode, a lithium conducting solid electrolyte of Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xSiyP3-yO12, a carbon black oxygen reduction air electrode, a RuO2 oxygen evolution electrode, and a saturated aqueous solution of LiOH with 10 M LiCl. The cell was successfully operated for several cycles at 0.64 mA cm-2 and 25 °C under air, where the capacity of air electrode was 2000 mAh gcathod-1. The cell performance was degraded gradually by cycling under open air. The degradation was reduced under CO2-free air and pure oxygen. The specific energy density was calculated to be 810 Wh kg-1 from the weight of water, lithium, oxygen, and carbon in the air electrode.

  3. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  4. Synergistic catalytic properties of bifunctional nanoalloy catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ning; Ng, Mei Shan; Shan, Shiyao; Wu, Jinfang; Zhao, Wei; Yin, Jun; Fang, Weiqing; Luo, Jin; Petkov, Valeri; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of factors influencing the performance of catalysts in the air cathode of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery, including overpotentials for oxygen reduction/evolution and discharge capacity, is essential for exploration of its ultimate application. This report describes new findings of an investigation of PdCu nanoalloys as cathode catalysts. Alloying Pd with oxophilic base metals such as Cu leads to reduction of the overpotentials and increase of the discharge capacity. The nanoalloy structures depend on the bimetallic composition, with an atomic ratio near 50:50 featuring mixed bcc and fcc structures. The discharge potential exhibits a maximum while the charge potential display a minimum in the range of 20-50% Cu, closer to 25% Cu, both of which correspond to a maximum reduction of the discharge-charge overpotentials. The discharge capacity displays a gradual increase with Cu%. This type of catalytic synergy is believed to be associated with a combination of ensemble and ligand effects. In particular, the activation of oxygen on Pd sites and oxygen oxophilicity at the alloyed Cu sites in the catalyst may have played an important role in effectively activating oxygen and maneuvering surface superoxide/peroxide species. These findings have implications for the design of multifunctional cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

  5. Improvement in the capacity and safety of lithium/inorganic electrolyte sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.; Jones, Medlinda D.; Johnson, Arden P.; Torkelson, James E.; Vanschalkwijk, Walter

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to develop a prototype rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon cell, using practical AA size hardware, in which the electrolyte was to be a sulfur dioxide solution of lithium bromide or thiocyanate, together with a highly soluble cosolute, a second non-lithium salt of the same anion. The cosolute was intended to replace the organic cosolvents familiar from the primary cells, and hopefully, to improve lithium plating efficiency and electrolyte stability during cycling. The primary discharge capacities for AA size cells containing 1.25M CsBr/0.12 M LiBr/SO2 were only about 400mAh, while secondary and subsequent capacities were less than 200 mAh. The rates of solvolysis of bromide and of thiocyanate were exacerbated apparently both by the high anion concentrations and by increased lithium ion concentration. Lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon rechargeable cells were examined in which the electrolytes were mixtures of tetrachloro aluminate salts in sulfur dioxide, to take advantage of the better performance, but to face the problem of limited capacity. It was determined that the capacity of lithium/bromine soluble positive cells was being limited by the loss of electrical contact between the carbon and the positive electrode current collector. Also, lithium plating efficiency was poor.

  6. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  7. Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

    2004-10-21

    In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

  8. An Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Battery Using Coated Li Metal as Anode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujiong; Hou, Yuyang; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l−1 Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the “cross-over” effect of Li+ ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg−1, about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries. PMID:23466633

  9. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  10. 78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... battery systems special conditions adopted for the Boeing Model 787 (72 FR 57842; October 11, 2007..., -300, and -300ER series airplanes, was published in the Federal Register on August 22, 2013 (78 FR... Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal...

  11. Lithium rechargeable cell with a poly 3-methylthiophene cathode and LiAsF6-dimethyl carbonate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Charles W., Jr.; Slane, Steven M.

    1991-12-01

    A poly 3-methylthiophene cathode showed excellent coulombic efficiency during cycling in a lithium rechargeable cell. A dimethyl carbonate electrolyte was used since it is stable at the high anodic potentials reached during cell charging. The polymer cathode tolerated modest overcharge and was able to continue cycling after a severe short circuit with minimal loss in capacity.

  12. Exploration of vanadium benzenedicarboxylate as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Jacobson, Allan J.

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical reaction with lithium of a vanadium-based metal-organic framework VIV(O)(bdc) [MIL-47], which is isostructural to the iron compound MIL-53(Fe), was investigated. The large open channels which can accommodate small guest species, such as Li+ ions, together with the redox properties of the tetravalent vanadium ions make this material of potential interest as a rechargeable intercalation electrode for lithium batteries. The electrochemical properties were investigated in Li|1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)|V(O)(bdc) cells between 4.0 and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. V(O)(bdc) cathodes can be reversibly cycled in Li cells with good rate capability and specific capacity. At a current density of C/12, Li/V(O)(bdc) cells can be cycled between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 in LixV(O)(bdc) with ∼100% coulombic efficiency corresponding to 82 mAh g-1 which is a higher capacity than that found for MIL-53(Fe). The cell performance and electrochemical profiles at various current conditions are discussed. Structural evolution taking place during lithium intercalation was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction on phases of LixV(O)(bdc) (0 < x ≤ 2) chemically prepared by using n-BuLi. Previous studies of the reaction of lithium with metal-organic frameworks are briefly reviewed for comparison with the data presented for LixV(O)(bdc).

  13. Novel dual-salts electrolyte solution for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries with high cycle reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Feng, Xuejiao; Jia, Hao; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2014-12-01

    Metallic lithium is the most promising negative electrode for high energy rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, the low cycle efficiency and lithium dendrite formation during charge/discharge processes consistently hinder its practical application. Here a new dual-salts electrolyte composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] has been explored to simultaneously cope with these two problems. Under the unique protection of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed in this electrolyte solution and the improvement in Li crystal growth pattern, high cycle efficiency of ca. 99% and dendrite-free Li deposit have been achieved. Moreover, the excellent cycling performance and favorable lithium morphology can be retained even at high current density of 10 mA cm-2. This study will greatly promote the development of Li-metal rechargeable batteries with high power and high energy density.

  14. Retrograded starches as potential anodes in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Wen, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Lin; Zhang, Kunsheng; Wang, Wanyu

    2012-11-01

    Retrograded starch is a crystal formed by starch molecules with hydrogen bonds. Many literatures have reported its physicochemical character, but its crystal structure is so far unclear. As we isolate amylose and amylopectin from retrograded maize, sweet potato and potato starches in 4.0 M KOH solutions and make them retrograde alone in neutral solution (adjusted by HCl) to form crystal, a new phenomenon appears, crystals of KCl do not appear in retrograded potato amylose, potato amylopectin, and maize amylose, indicating that those crystals may absorb K⁺ and (or) Cl⁻, and those ions probably act with aldehyde of starch or hydroxy of fatty acid attached in starch, such characteristic may make retrograded starches replace graphite as anode with high-capacity in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  15. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries in recent decades. Discoveries of new electrode materials as well as new storage mechanisms have substantially improved battery performance. In particular, nanomaterials design has emerged as a promising solution to tackle many fundamental problems in conventional battery materials. Here we discuss in detail several key issues in batteries, such as electrode volume change, solid–electrolyte interphase formation, electron and ion transport, and electrode atom/molecule movement, and then analyse the advantages presented by nanomaterials design. In addition, we discuss the challenges caused by using nanomaterials in batteries, including undesired parasitic reactions with electrolytes, low volumetric and areal energy density, and high costs from complex multi-step processing, and their possible solutions.

  16. Promises and challenges of nanomaterials for lithium-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongming; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries in recent decades. Discoveries of new electrode materials as well as new storage mechanisms have substantially improved battery performance. In particular, nanomaterials design has emerged as a promising solution to tackle many fundamental problems in conventional battery materials. Here we discuss in detail several key issues in batteries, such as electrode volume change, solid-electrolyte interphase formation, electron and ion transport, and electrode atom/molecule movement, and then analyse the advantages presented by nanomaterials design. In addition, we discuss the challenges caused by using nanomaterials in batteries, including undesired parasitic reactions with electrolytes, low volumetric and areal energy density, and high costs from complex multi-step processing, and their possible solutions.

  17. Development of rechargeable lithium-bromine batteries with lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Koshin; Yamada, Hirotoshi

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical performances of a prototype lithium-bromine battery (LBB) employing a solid electrolyte is investigated. The discharge capacity decreases with repeating charge/discharge cycles. Electrochemical impedance analysis reveals that the capacity fading is mainly due to increase in the interfacial resistance between an aqueous active material solution and a solid electrolyte. Based on the results of symmetric cells and structural analysis of the surface of the solid electrolyte immersed in Br2 solutions, it is suggested that a Li+-depletion layer is formed on the surface of the solid electrolyte as a result of contact with bromine. Addition of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEABr) depresses the interfacial resistance, which results in improved cycleability. LBB with 1.0 M LiBr and 0.25 M TEABr shows discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g-LiBr and Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% at 5th cycle.

  18. FTIR features of lithium-iron phosphates as electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Ait Salah, A; Jozwiak, P; Zaghib, K; Garbarczyk, J; Gendron, F; Mauger, A; Julien, C M

    2006-12-01

    The essential structural features of lithium-metal phosphates (LMP) have been studied using FTIR spectroscopy which is a sensitive tool to probe the local environment in the solid materials. Various LMP materials where M is iron have been investigated including phospho-olivine LiFePO(4), diphosphate LiFeP(2)O(7), Nasicon-type phosphate Li(3)Fe(2)(PO(4))(3) and dihydrate FePO(4).2H(2)O. Vitreous and amorphous materials are also considered. Analysis of internal and external modes of vibration allows to distinguish between the different phases and the type of cationic environment in the framework. Results corroborate the contribution of the main factors which are responsible for the complexity of the spectra, i.e. departure from ideal symmetry, interactions between polyhedra, bridging atoms and lattice distortion.

  19. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  20. Characterization of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries using Synchrotron Based In Situ X-ray Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2007-05-23

    The emergence of portable telecommunication, computer equipment and ultimately hybrid electric vehicles has created a substantial interest in manufacturing rechargeable batteries that are less expensive, non-toxic, operate for longer time, small in size and weigh less. Li-ion batteries are taking an increasing share of the rechargeable battery market. The present commercial battery is based on a layered LiCoO{sub 2} cathode and a graphitized carbon anode. LiCoO{sub 2} is expensive but it has the advantage being easily manufactured in a reproducible manner. Other low cost layered compounds such as LiNiO{sub 2}, LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} or cubic spinels such as LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been considered. However, these suffer from cycle life and thermal stability problems. Recently, some battery companies have demonstrated a new concept of mixing two different types of insertion compounds to make a composite cathode, aimed at reducing cost and improving self-discharge. Reports clearly showed that this blending technique can prevent the decline in ·capacity caused by cycling or storage at elevated temperatures. However, not much work has been reported on the charge-discharge characteristics and phase transitions for these composite cathodes. Understanding the structure and structural changes of electrode materials during the electrochemical cycling is the key to develop better .lithium ion batteries. The successful commercialization of the· lithium-ion battery is mainly built on the advances in solid state chemistry of the intercalation compounds. Most of the progress in understanding the lithium ion battery materials has been obtained from x-ray diffraction studies. Up to now, most XRD studies on lithium-ion battery materials have been done ex situ. Although these ex situ XRD studies have provided important information· about the structures of battery materials, they do face three major problems. First of all, the pre-selected charge (discharge) states may

  1. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the NASA/OAST sponsored program on the development of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications is to develop cells with a 100 W h/kg specific energy and capable of 1000 cycles at 50-percent depth of discharge. This paper examines the performance potentials of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13, and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems at ambient temperature, together with cycle life and safety characteristics. Of these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advances made on the development of secondary lithium cells, which are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly, are summarized.

  2. Electrochemical properties of a polypyrrole/polystyrenesulfonate composite film and its application to rechargeable lithium battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Ken; Osaka, Tetsuya . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Kondo, Naoko; Nakamura, Sadako . Dept. of Chemical and Biological Science)

    1994-09-01

    The performance of a composite film of polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was studied in combination with an organic electrolyte as a possible lithium battery cathode. The composite film had a fairly flat morphology and exhibited electroactivity in organic electrolyte solutions using dimethylsulfoxide and propylene carbonate (PC) solvents. The authors confirmed that during the redox process the film charge was compensated with cations. A lithium cell consisting of the composite film as a cathode and an LiClO[sub 4]-PC electrolyte worked as a rechargeable battery. The energy density of the PPy/PSS cathode was calculated to be 220 Wh/liter and the average output voltage of the rechargeable cell was 2.9 V.

  3. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S. (Editor); Koch, V. R. (Editor); Owens, B. B. (Editor); Smyrl, W. H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  4. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Koch, V. R.; Owens, B. B.; Smyrl, W. H.

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  5. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

  6. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of cathode, anode and electrolyte materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shoufeng

    Two new classes of cathode materials were studied: iron phosphate/sulfate materials and layered manganese oxides, both of which are low cost and had shown some potential. The first class of materials have poor conductivity and cyclability. I studied a number of methods for increasing the conductivity, and determined that grinding the material with carbon black was as effective as special in-situ coatings. The optimum carbon loading was determined to be between 6 and 15 wt%. Too much carbon reduces the volumetric energy density, whereas too little significantly increased cell polarization (reduced the rate of reaction). The kinetic and thermodynamic stability of LiFePO 4 was also studied and it was determined that over discharge protection will be needed as irreversible Li3PO4 can be formed at low potentials. A novel hydrothermal synthesis method was developed, but the significant level of Fe on the Li site reduces the reaction rate too much. In the case of the layered manganese oxide, cation substitution with Co and Ni is found to be effective in avoiding Jahn-Teller effects and improving electrochemistry. A wide range of tin compounds have been suggested as lithium storage media for advanced anode materials, as tin can store over 4 Li per Sn atom. Lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF6, is presently the salt of choice for LiCoO2 batteries, but it is expensive and dissolves some manganese compounds. The lithium bis(oxolato)borate (BOB) salt was recently reported, and I made a study of its use in cells with the LiFePO4 cathode and the tin anode. During its synthesis, it became clear that LiBOB is very reactive with many solvents, and these complexes were characterized to better understand this new material. In LiBOB the lithium is five coordinated, an unstable configuration for the lithium ion so that water and many other solvents rapidly react to make a six coordination. Only in the case of ethylene carbonate was the lithium found to be four coordinated. The Li

  8. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  9. Electrochemical studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Ni, C.L.; DiStefano, S.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bankston, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium triselenide offers promise as a high energy density cathode material for ambient temperature lithium rechargeable cells. The electrochemical behavior of NbSe/sub 3/ in the battery electrolyte, i.e., 1.5m LiAsF/sub 6//2 Me-THF is reported here. A detailed study has been carried out using various ac and dc electrochemical techniques to establish the mechanism of intercalation of three equivalents of Li with NbSe/sub 3/ as well as the rate governing processes in the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/. Based on the experimental data, an equivalent circuit has been formulated to represent the NbSe/sub 3/-solution interface. The kinetic parameters for the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/ were evaluated from the ac and dc measurements. Finally, the structural change in NbSe/sub 3/ on lithiation during initial discharge which results in higher cell voltages and different electrochemical response as compared to virgin NbSe/sub 3/ was identified to be a loss of crystallographic order, i.e., amorphous by x-ray diffraction.

  10. Periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and dipropyldisulfide bridging functionalities using poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) micelles. These hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si MAS NMR and (13)CP-MAS NMR), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. The benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity in the shell domain exhibit higher cycling performance of up to 300 cycles in lithium ion rechargeable batteries compared with micron-sized dense benzene-silica particles.

  11. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  12. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  13. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  14. Perovskite-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube composite as bifunctional catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Hey Woong; Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Ahmed, Raihan; Seo, Min Ho; Nazar, Linda F; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-03-01

    Developing an effective bifunctional catalyst is a significant issue, as rechargeable metal-air batteries are very attractive for future energy systems. In this study, a facile one-pot process is introduced to prepare an advanced bifunctional catalyst (op-LN) incorporating nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) into perovskite La0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3 nanoparticles (LSCF-NPs). Confirmed by half-cell testing, op-LN exhibits synergistic effects of LSCF-NP and NCNT with excellent bifunctionality for both the oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction. Furthermore, op-LN exhibits comparable performances in these reactions to Pt/C and Ir/C, respectively, which highlights its potential for use as a commercially viable bifunctional catalyst. Moreover, the results obtained by testing op-LN in a practical Li-air battery demonstrate improved and complementary charge/discharge performance compared to those of LSCF-NP and NCNT, and this confirms that simply prepared op-LN is a promising candidate as a highly effective bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  15. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer. PMID:27250732

  16. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer.

  17. Graphene-wrapped sulfur particles as a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery cathode material with high capacity and cycling stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-13

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated submicrometer sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates, and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ∼600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  18. Small angle x-ray scattering studies of carbon anodes used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.; Seifert, S.; Johnson, C. S.

    1999-11-16

    In ANL laboratories, disordered carbons with predictable surface area and porosity properties have been prepared using inorganic templates containing well defined pore sizes. The carbons have been tested in electrochemical cells as anodes in lithium secondary batteries. They deliver high specific capacity and display excellent performance in terms of the number of cycles run. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during electrochemical cycling was carried out at the Advanced Photon Source, at ANL. In order to monitor the carbon electrode structural changes upon cycling, an electrochemical cell was specially designed to allow for the application of electrical current and the collection of SAXS data at the same time. Results show that upon cycling the structure of the carbon remains unchanged, which is desirable in reversible systems.

  19. Material Use in the United States - Selected Case Studies for Cadmium, Cobalt, Lithium, and Nickel in Rechargeable Batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the changes that have taken place in the consumer electronic product sector as they relate to (1) the use of cadmium, cobalt, lithium, and nickel contained in batteries that power camcorders, cameras, cell phones, and portable (laptop) computers and (2) the use of nickel in vehicle batteries for the period 1996 through 2005 and discusses forecasted changes in their use patterns through 2010. Market penetration, material substitution, and technological improvements among nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are assessed. Consequences of these changes in light of material consumption factors related to disposal, environmental effects, retail price, and serviceability are analyzed in a series of short case studies.

  20. Studies of Al-Al 3Ni eutectic mixtures as insertion anodes in rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machill, S.; Rahner, D.

    This contribution will give a short overview of aluminium-nickel eutectic mixture alloys as the anode materials in lithium secondary batteries. These compounds allow to create an alloy matrix of modified grain size with stabilizing properties toward 'mechanical stressing' during charge/discharge processes of lithium. Several electrochemical techniques have been used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of these lithium-inserting materials.

  1. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  2. First principle computational and experimental studies of cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra Arias, Jose Javier

    We have studied the properties of spinel and layered cathode materials for Li ion rechargeable batteries. The analysis was done by first principle calculations, and experimental techniques to elucidate materials that can substitute the presently commercialized material, namely LiCoO 2. We have studied the influence of Ni substitution for Mn in spinel Li 2MnO4. To understand the effects of this substitution on the crystal structure and electronic properties, first principle DFT calculations were performed using VASP. The substitution was done systematically for up to 25% of Mn replacement by Ni in a super cell configuration. Furthermore, the influence of Ni substitution on lithium hoping pathways between the two stable Li positions was also studied by first principle calculations in LiMn 2-xNixO4. These calculations revealed that Ni substitution for Mn in LiMn2O4 indeed improved Li ion mobility. Thereafter, systematic experimental studies were performed on LiMn 2-xNixO4 (0

  3. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  4. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  5. Crystal structure of advanced lithium titanate with lithium oxide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Kimio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-04-01

    Li 2TiO 3 is one of the most promising candidates among solid breeder materials proposed for fusion reactors. However, the mass of Li 2TiO 3 was found to decrease with time in the sweep gas mixed with hydrogen. This mass change indicates that the oxygen content of the sample decreased, suggesting the change from Ti 4+ to Ti 3+. In the present paper, the crystal structure and the non-stoichiometry of Li 2TiO 3 added with Li 2O have been extensively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry. In the case of the Li 2TiO 3 samples used in the present study, LiO-C 2H 5 or LiO-i-C 3H 7 and Ti(O-i-C 3H 7) 4 were mixed in the proportion corresponding to the molar ratio Li 2O/TiO 2 of either 2.00 or 1.00. In thermogravimetry, the mass of this sample decreased with time due to lithium deficiency, where no presence of oxygen deficiency was indicated.

  6. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  7. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  9. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Qi-Xing; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xiang-hua

    2014-12-01

    Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e- and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm-2 to 0.05 mA cm-2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

  10. Novel synthesis process and structure refinements of Li 4Mn 5O 12 for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Toshimi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Akiba, Etsuo; Izumi, Fujio; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.

    Well-crystallized Li 4Mn 5O 12 powder with grain size of 0.1-0.4 μm was prepared by heating a eutectic mixture of lithium acetate (LiOAc), and manganese nitrate (Mn(NO 3) 2), in an oxygen atmosphere. The structure of Li 4Mn 5O 12 crystallites was found to be a cubic spinel using Rietveld refinement of both neutron and X-ray powder diffraction data. We confirmed that lithium ions occupy both the tetrahedral 8 a sites, and part of the octahedral 16 d sites, but not the 16 c sites in the space group Fd3m, while all the manganese ions occupy the 16 d sites. The lattice parameter was found to be sensitive to the synthesis temperature as a result of the variation in manganese valence. Samples prepared at 500 °C showed better electrode performance. A rechargeable capacity of about 135 mAh/g for the cell Li/Li 4Mn 5O 12 was obtained in the 2.5-3.6 V range of cell voltages.

  11. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  12. Ambient-temperature, rechargeable, all-solid lithium/polypyrrole polymer battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuda, Satoko; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya . Dept. of Applied Chemistry); Appetecchi, G.B.; Scrosati, B. . Dipt. di Chimica)

    1995-01-01

    An ambient-temperature, all-solid lithium battery was fabricated by combining a poly(acrylonitrile), PAN-based polymer electrolyte with a lithium metal anode and a polypyrrole, PPy, film cathode. The influence of the morphology of the PPy film cathode on the battery performance was investigated. The results show that the electrode morphology does not considerably influence the charge-discharge cycling response and that the solid-state, Li/PPy battery exhibits high coulombic efficiency, approaching 90%. However, at the present time, the battery has a poor shelf life, and work is in progress for overcoming this drawback.

  13. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 < x < 1/2) are promising alternatives for Li2CoO2, the commercial positive electrode materials in Li ion batteries, because of their lower cost and higher safety and abuse tolerance, when lithium is removed from their structure. Compounds with x<1/2, in which the total Li content is higher than transition metal content, are referred as "Li-excess" materials. The "Li2MnO3-like" region is always present in this type of materials, and the overcapacity is obtained in the first charge process, which is not reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the

  14. Performance of MnO2 Crystallographic Phases in Rechargeable Lithium-Air Oxygen Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oloniyo, Olubukun; Kumar, Senthil; Scott, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO2) has been shown to be effective for improving the efficiency of cathodes in lithium-air cells. Different crystallographic phases including α-, β-, and γ-MnO2 nanowires, α-MnO2 nanospheres, and α-MnO2 nanowires on carbon ( α-MnO2/C) were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Their physical properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to be in agreement with the literature. Electrochemical properties of the synthesized catalyst particles were investigated by fabricating cathodes and testing them in a lithium-air cell with lithium hexafluorophosphate in propylene carbonate (LiPF6/PC) and tetra(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (LiTFSi/TEGDME) electrolytes. α-MnO2 had the highest discharge capacity in the LiTFSi/TEGDME electrolyte (2500 mAh/g), whilst α-MnO2/C in LiPF6/PC showed a significantly higher discharge capacity of 11,000 mAh/g based on total mass of the catalytic cathode. However, the latter showed poor capacity retention compared with γ-MnO2 nanowires, which was stable for up to 30 cycles. The reported discharge capacity is higher than recorded in previous studies on lithium-air cells.

  15. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held July 16-18, 2013, from...

  16. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. DATES: The meeting will be held July 17-19, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5...

  17. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held February 7, 2013, from...

  18. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held April 2-5, 2013, from...

  19. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013,...

  20. Nanoscale alloying effect of gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts on the performance of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Fang, Bin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid; Mott, Derrick; Loukrakpam, Rameshowri; Ng, Mei Shan; Li, Zheng; Hong, Jian; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2012-08-01

    The understanding of nanoscale alloying or the phase segregation effect of alloy nanoparticles on the catalytic properties is important for a rational design of the desired catalysts for a specific reaction. This paper describes findings of an investigation into this type of structural effect for carbon-supported bimetallic gold-platinum nanoparticles as cathode catalysts in a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery. The nanoscale structural characteristics in terms of size, alloying and phase segregation were shown to affect the catalytic properties of the catalysts in the Li-O(2) battery. In addition to the composition effect, the catalysts with a fully alloyed phase structure were found to exhibit a smaller discharge-charge voltage difference and a higher discharge capacity than those with a partial phase segregation structure. This finding is significant for the design of alloy nanoparticles as air cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-air batteries, demonstrating the importance of the control of the nanoscale composition and phase properties.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of polythiocyanogen (SCN) x as a rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Palanichamy; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    Polythiocyanogen, (SCN) x, is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode material due to its high theoretical capacity (462 mAh g -1), safe operation, inexpensive raw materials, and a simple and less energy-intensive manufacturing process. The (SCN) x was prepared from the solution of trithiocyanate (SCN) 3 - in methylene dichloride (MDC), which was prepared by electrochemical oxidation of ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4SCN) in a two-phase electrolysis medium of 1.0 M NH 4SCN in 0.50 M H 2SO 4 + MDC. The (SCN) 3 - underwent auto catalytic polymerization to (SCN) x during MDC removal. Battery electrodes with (SCN) x as the active material were prepared, and tested in Swagelok cells using lithium foil as the counter and reference electrode. The cells delivered capacities in the range of 200-275 mAh g -1 at the discharge-charge rate of 0.2 C. The cells were tested up to 20 cycles and showed repeatable performance with a coulombic efficiency of 97% at the 20th cycle. The results presented here indicate that (SCN) x is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode-material candidate for further studies.

  2. In situ spectroscopic applications to the study of rechargeable lithium batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gofer, Y.; Barbour, R.; Luo, Yuyan; Bae, In Tae; Li, Lin-Feng; Scherson, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    A new experimental approach has been developed and implemented for the study of various aspects of lithium electrochemistry under utmost conditions of cleanliness. This novel strategy takes advantage of the low vapor pressure of ultrapure lithium salt/polyethylene oxide electrolytes for conducting conventional electrochemical experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments with a wide variety of electrodes prepared and characterized by surface analytical techniques. Two processes were investigated using a LiClO{sub 4}/PEO electrolyte at temperatures in the range of 55-70 {degrees}C: (1) electrochemical insertion of lithium into the basal plane of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, HOPG(bp), (2) underpotential deposition (UPD) of Li onto polycrystalline Au. The results provided conclusive evidence (except for impurity effects) that the electrochemical behavior observed in UHV is indeed characteristic of the systems selected for these studies, and therefore, is not affected in any discernible way by the ultralow pressures. In the case of Li UPD on polycrystalline Au, the voltammetric curves were similar to those observed in liquid non- aqueous solvent electrolytes, displaying deposition and stripping peaks with a charge equivalent to the adsorption and desorption of a single Li{sup +} per surface site.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li(1.3)Nb(0.3)V(0.4)O2 as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Ichikawa, Shinnosuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo

    2016-02-01

    The binary system, xLi3NbO4-(1 - x)LiVO2, was first examined as an electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. The sample (x = 0.43) crystallizes into a cation-disordered rocksalt structure and delivers a reversible capacity of ca. 230 mA h g(-1), which originates from V(3+)/V(5+) redox with electrochemically inactive niobium ions. PMID:26686804

  4. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  5. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  6. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  7. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries. PMID:26241461

  8. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  9. Finite linear diffusion model for design of overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethylferrocene as a redox additive. The theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  10. Sulfur-based composite cathode materials for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiulin; He, Yu-Shi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-21

    There is currently an urgent demand for highly efficient energy storage and conversion systems. Due to its high theoretical energy density, low cost, and environmental compatibility, the lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has become a typical representative of the next generation of electrochemical power sources. Various approaches have been explored to design and prepare sulfur cathode materials to enhance their electrochemical performance. This Research News article summarizes and compares different sulfur materials for Li-S batteries and particularly focuses on the fine structures, electrochemical performance, and electrode reaction mechanisms of pyrolyzed polyacrylo-nitrile sulfur (pPAN@S) and microporous-carbon/small-sulfur composite materials. PMID:25256595

  11. Layered polyaniline composites with cation-exchanging properties for positive electrodes of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Seijiro; Ishikawa, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiharu . Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Tajima, Hidehiko . Nagasaki Research and Development Center); Adachi, Kazuyuki; Anan, Fumimiasa . Research Lab.)

    1995-01-01

    Layered polyaniline/polyaniline-polyanion composite films (PAn-X/PAn-PA) were synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of aniline in aqueous acid solutions (HCl, HClO[sub 4]) followed by polymerization in poly(styrene-4-sulfonic acid) (PSSH) solutions. The films consist of inner polyaniline (PAn) layers doped with smaller size anions (X) and outer PSS-doped PAn layers. The resulting films showed high redox activities with cation-transfer properties in organic electrolyte solutions. The improved charge/discharge characteristics of the composite films gave an expectation of higher energy density for the full cell with lithium negative electrode.

  12. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  13. Heteroaromatic organic compound with conjugated multi-carbonyl as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meixiang; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Mujuan; Yao, Chunfeng; Nan, Junmin; Shu, Dong; Zeng, Ronghua; Zeng, Heping; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N’-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra- carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g−1 at the current density of 25 mA g−1. The capacity of 119 mAh g−1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g−1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g−1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries. PMID:27064938

  14. Heteroaromatic organic compound with conjugated multi-carbonyl as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Meixiang; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Mujuan; Yao, Chunfeng; Nan, Junmin; Shu, Dong; Zeng, Ronghua; Zeng, Heping; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2016-04-01

    The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N’-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra- carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g‑1 at the current density of 25 mA g‑1. The capacity of 119 mAh g‑1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g‑1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g‑1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries.

  15. Layered manganese oxide intergrowth electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries: Part 1-substitution with Co or Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Dolle, Mickael; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca M.

    2004-09-08

    Lithium manganese oxides substituted with nickel or cobalt were characterized electrochemically in lithium cell configurations. The compounds studied were either single-phase layered structures with either primarily O2 or O3 stacking arrangements, or O2/O3 intergrowths, prepared from P2, P3 and P2/P3 sodium-containing precursors, respectively. The stacking arrangements are extremely sensitive to the Na/T. M. (T. M. = transition metal) ratios and the level of substitution. Phase diagrams showing the stability regions of the various arrangements for the Na-Ni-Mn-O system are presented. A possible correlation between vacancies and electrochemical performance is suggested. For high levels of substitution with Ni, fewer defects are possible for materials containing more O3 component and higher discharge capacities can be achieved, but spinel conversion upon cycling also occurs more rapidly as the O3 content increases. Intergrowths show intermediate behavior and represent a potential route towards designing stable, high capacity electrodes.

  16. Long-lived Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C Anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; He, Kejian; Ren, Yu; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The instability of anode materials during cycling has been greatly limiting the lifetime of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). Here, to tackle this issue, mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C composites with a pore size of 4 nm and a large BET surface area of 165 m(2) g(-1) have been synthesized by a novel two-step approach. The ARLB with this type of LiTi2(PO4)3@C anode, commercial LiMn2O4 cathode and 2 M Li2(SO4) aqueous solution (oxygen was removed) exhibited superior cycling stability (a capacity retention of 88.9% after 1200 cycles at 150 mA g(-1) and 82.7% over 5500 cycles at 750 mA g(-1)) and excellent rate capability (discharge capacities of 121, 110, 90, and 80 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of LiTi2(PO4)3 at 30, 150, 1500, and 3000 mA g(-1), respectively). As verified, the mesoporous structure, large surface area and high-quality carbon coating layer of the LiTi2(PO4)3@C composite contribute to the breakthrough in achieving excellent electrochemical properties for ARLB. PMID:26648263

  17. Long-lived Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C Anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; He, Kejian; Ren, Yu; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The instability of anode materials during cycling has been greatly limiting the lifetime of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). Here, to tackle this issue, mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C composites with a pore size of 4 nm and a large BET surface area of 165 m2 g−1 have been synthesized by a novel two-step approach. The ARLB with this type of LiTi2(PO4)3@C anode, commercial LiMn2O4 cathode and 2 M Li2(SO4) aqueous solution (oxygen was removed) exhibited superior cycling stability (a capacity retention of 88.9% after 1200 cycles at 150 mA g−1 and 82.7% over 5500 cycles at 750 mA g−1) and excellent rate capability (discharge capacities of 121, 110, 90, and 80 mAh g−1 based on the mass of LiTi2(PO4)3 at 30, 150, 1500, and 3000 mA g−1, respectively). As verified, the mesoporous structure, large surface area and high-quality carbon coating layer of the LiTi2(PO4)3@C composite contribute to the breakthrough in achieving excellent electrochemical properties for ARLB. PMID:26648263

  18. Polypyrrole-encapsulated vanadium pentoxide nanowires on a conductive substrate for electrode in aqueous rechargeable lithium battery.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chaowei; Fang, Dong; Cao, Yunhe; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Zhou, Qunhua; Xiong, Chuanxi; Xu, Weilin

    2015-02-01

    Precursors of ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4V4O10) nanowires assembled on a conductive substrate were prepared by a hydrothermal method. After calcination at 360°C, the NH4V4O10 precursor transformed to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanowires, which presented a high initial capacity of 135.0mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50mA g(-1) in 5M LiNO3 aqueous solution; while the specific capacity faded quickly over 50 cycles. By coating the surface of V2O5 nanowires with water-insoluble polypyrrole (PPy), the formed nanocomposite electrode exhibited a specific discharge capacity of 89.9mA h g(-1) at 50mA g(-1) (after 100 cycles). A V2O5@PPy //LiMn2O4 rechargeable lithium battery exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 95.2mA h g(-1); and after 100 cycles, a specific discharge capacity of 81.5mA h g(-1) could retain at 100mA g(-1).

  19. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    PubMed Central

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  20. B₂O₃-added lithium aluminium germanium phosphate solid electrolyte for Li-O₂ rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Jang, Seong-Yong; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Shin, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Chan-Jin

    2014-08-14

    B2O3-added Li(1.5)Al(0.5)Ge(1.5)(PO4)3 (LAGP) glass ceramics showing a room temperature ionic conductivity of 0.67 mS cm(-1) have been synthesized by using a melt-quenching method. The prepared glass ceramics are observed to be stable in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide. The augmented conductivity of the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramic has improved the plateau potential during discharge. Furthermore, the B2O3-added LAGP glass ceramics are successfully employed as a solid electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery to obtain a stable cycling lifetime of up to 15 cycles with the limited capacity protocol.

  1. In situ spectroscopic applications to the study of rechargeable lithium batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, R.; Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) has been employed to examine the reactivity of lithium toward polyethylene oxide (PEO) at ca. 60{degree}C. Uncertainties regarding the cleanliness of the Li surfaces were, minimized by electrodepositing a film of metallic Li directly onto a thin layer of gold (ca. 60 {Angstrom}) vapor deposited on a Ge ATR optical element during the spectroscopic measurements. The ATR/FTIR features observed upon stripping the Li layer were consistent with the formation of alkoxide-type moieties resulting from the Li-induced cleavage of the ether-type functionalities. Electronic and structural aspects of the electrochemical insertion of lithium from non-aqueous electroyltes into FeS{sub 2} have been investigated using in situ Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained indicate that the incorporation of Li{sup +} in the pyrite lattice brings about a marked decrease in the amplitude of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) oscillations, particularly for shells associated with distant atoms and a rounding of the, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region. An analysis of the EXAFS spectra yielded a value for the FeS distance of 2.29 {plus_minus} 0.02 {Angstrom}. On this basis and additional in situ room temperature {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer effect spectroscopy data for the same system it has been proposed that the electrically formed material involves a highly disordered (possibly amorphous) form of Fe{sub l-x}S (with Li+ counterbalancing the charge).

  2. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  3. Life, performance and safety of Grace rechargeable lithium-titanium disulfide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerbrod, D.; Giovannoni, R. T.; Grossman, K. R.

    The development of rechargeable Li-TiS2 cells is discussed. This proprietary process produces thin, flexible TiS2 cathodes with a life in excess of 500 cycles. TiS2 utilization of 93 percent is typically achieved at a C/5 discharge rate. A life of 200 cycles has been achieved for AA-size cells at a C/5 discharge rate and 60 cycles at the C rate. The practical energy density is 115 Wh/kg. Safety testing is underway. Vibration and high altitude did not cause venting. Crushing did not result in ignition or temperature rise. Forced overcharge and overdischarge did not result in skin temperatures above 40 C. The peak skin temperature during the short-circuit test was 120 C. Safety analyses point to the need for careful control of electrolyte volume and the benefits of a fusible separator. Grace is developing such a separator, which would shut down the electrochemical cell reaction at a temperature of 130 C.

  4. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  5. Development of an ultra-safe rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. K.

    1994-11-01

    The project activities had an official start on August 15. Based on previous work, a statement of the basic design framework to be used was an important first step. The basic cell is to be a bonded flat-pack containing all active cell components in a sealed envelope. Cell integrity is to be provided by internal bonding, and not through external support. This design approach is fundamentally different from that commonly used in wound and hard-case cells, and has the advantage of ease of scaling for a variety of different form factors. An innovative variant on the fan-fold geometry has been chosen for its manufacturability advantages. Equipment capable of handling the semi-continuous requirements of the fan-fold structure had already been outlined. There are specific advantages in at least three areas: (1) Control of dimensional tolerances; (2) Production rate; (3) Connection of power lead-outs and final assembly. Cell chemistry is viewed to be of less fundamental importance than structural considerations within the bounds of the lithium-ion concept.

  6. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  7. Copper sulfides for rechargeable lithium batteries: Linking cycling stability to electrolyte composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jache, Birte; Mogwitz, Boris; Klein, Franziska; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulfides are attractive electrode materials as their reaction with lithium offers high capacity and energy density. However, the reversibility is poor and (nano)structuring is considered necessary to achieve moderate improvements. In contrast, we show in this study that the electrolyte is a major factor that governs the reversibility of the cell reaction. All our experiments were done with commercially available copper sulfides (CuS and Cu2S) without any special nanostructure. Different electrolyte compositions were tested among LiPF6 in EC/DMC and LiTFSI in DOL/DME. While rapid capacity fading is found in cells containing carbonate-based electrolytes, cells with ether-based electrolytes show a much better electrochemical performance. For a mixture of 1 M LiTFSI in DOL/DME, Cu2S can be cycled with capacities of around 200 mAh g-1 for more than 150 cycles with coulombic efficiencies >98.4%, for example. The improved stability in the ether-based electrolyte further allowed us to study how the discharge and charge voltage change during prolonged cycling. Our study underlines that improvements in the Li/CuS and Li/Cu2S system are still possible by very simple measures, but further studies on the complex Li-Cu-S phase behavior are necessary to understand the discharging and especially the charging mechanisms.

  8. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  9. Improved discharge characteristics of tunnel-containing manganese oxide electrodes for rechargeable lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Hwang, Kwang-Taek; Anapolsky, Abraham

    2000-05-01

    LixMnO2 made from Na0.44MnO2 has an unusual tunnel structure which allows ion insertion processes to occur with minimal strain. It cycles very reversibly at an average voltage of about 3.2 vs. Li without undergoing phase conversion. The stability of this material makes it a promising candidate for use in electric vehicle applications, which not only have severe cost constraints, but also require long cycle life and abuse-tolerance. In practical lithium cells, however, the demonstrated capacity is typically less than the predicted 200 mAh/g for LixMnO2 cathode materials made by conventional solid-state reactions. This is due to kinetic limitations and to the sloping discharge characteristics. Attritor-milling of conventionally-made LixMnO2 and glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis have been used to produce powders with average particle size below 1 mm, improved rate capability, and a 15 percent improvement in utilization. Up to 55 percent of the Mn in LixMnO2 with the Na0.44MnO2 structure can also be replaced with Ti. Ti-doped analogs have modified discharge characteristics, with some exhibiting better utilization between set voltage limits than the parent compound.

  10. Layered manganese oxide intergrowth electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries: Part 2. Substitution with Al

    SciTech Connect

    Patoux, Sebastien; Dolle, Mickael; Doeff, Marca M.

    2004-09-08

    The structural and electrochemical characterization of layered Li{sub x}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} compounds prepared from sodium-containing precursors is described. A quaternary phase diagram showing composition ranges for pure P2 and P3 structures and P2/P3 intergrowths obtained in the Na-Al-Mn-O system is presented. Upon ion exchange, these compounds change to O2, O3 or O2/O3 stacking arrangements, respectively. The oxygen array in O3 and spinel structures is similar, and most of the O3 structures convert to spinel rapidly upon electrochemical cycling in lithium cells. This process is delayed somewhat by increased Al substitution, but not completely inhibited. More effective suppression of the phase transformation is observed in O2/O3 intergrowth electrodes. Additionally, the capacity retention upon cycling and the rate behavior of cells containing intergrowth electrodes is superior to those with pure O2 structures.

  11. Curly MnOx nanomembranes as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xueyi; Si, Wenping; Sun, Xiaolei; Deng, Junwen; Xi, Lixia; Liu, Bo; Yan, Chenglin; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional MnOx nanomembranes prepared by electron beam evaporation are rolled up into three-dimensional hybrid micro/nano-tubes by strain release. The material is characterized with Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and used as the cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The Li-O2 battery using such curly MnOx nanomembranes as the cathode delivers a specific discharge capacity of 4610 mAh gC-1 at a current density of 70 mA gC-1 which is higher than that of carbon black. Moreover, the MnOx nanomembrane electrode gains improved stability, being capable of cycling 112 times at a current density of 200 mA gC-1 . The encouraging performance is ascribed to the unique superiorities of nanomembranes and those inner oxygen vacancies, indicating that nanomembranes are promising materials for Li-O2 batteries.

  12. An epoxy-silane approach to prepare anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, J.S.; Myrtle, K.; Dahn, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    A series of carbonaceous materials containing silicon and oxygen have been synthesized via pyrolysis of epoxy-silane composites prepared from hardened mixtures of epoxy novolac resin and epoxy-functional silane. Chemical composition of the pyrolyzed materials has been determined to be C{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Si{sub z}O{sub y} by a combination thermogravimetric analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyses, and wet chemical analyses. Pyrolysis of the epoxy novolac resin gives pure carbon made up predominantly of single graphene sheets having lateral dimension of about 20 {angstrom} which are stacked like a house of cards. Pyrolysis of the pure epoxy-functional silane gives C{sub 0.50}Si{sub 0.19}O{sub 0.31} with a glassy structure. X-ray diffraction and electrochemical tests show that pyrolyzed materials prepared from mixtures initially containing less than 50% (by weight) silane are mixtures of the carbon single-layer phase and the glassy phase, while those initially with greater than 50% silane show predominantly the glassy phase. The reversible specific capacity of these materials increases from about 500 mAh/g for the pure disordered carbon up to about 770 mAh/g in the material which contains the most silicon and oxygen. However, the voltage profile develops hysteresis of about 1 V and the irreversible capacity associated with the first reaction within lithium increases as the silicon and oxygen contents are increased. Further work is needed to eliminate these drawbacks.

  13. Enhanced electrochemical performance of a crosslinked polyaniline-coated graphene oxide-sulfur composite for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Do Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Due to the extraordinarily high theoretical capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered a promising candidate for future high-energy battery applications. Li-S batteries, however, have suffered from limited cycle lives, mainly due to the formation of soluble polysulfides, which prevent the practical application of this attractive technology. The encapsulation of sulfur with various conductive materials has addressed this issue to some extent. Nevertheless, most approaches still present partial encapsulation of sulfur and moreover require a large quantity of conductive material (typically, >30 wt%), making the use of sulfur less desirable from the viewpoint of capacity. Here, we address these chronic issues of Li-S cells by developing a graphene oxide-sulfur composite with a thin crosslinked polyaniline (PANI) layer. Graphene oxide nanosheets with large surface area, high conductivity and a uniform conductive PANI layer, which are synthesized by a layer-by-layer method, have a synergetic interaction with a large portion of the sulfur in the active material. Furthermore, a simple crosslinking process efficiently prevents polysulfide dissolution, resulting in unprecedented electrochemical performance, even with a high sulfur content (∼75%): a high capacity retention of ∼80% is observed, in addition to 97.53% of the average Coulombic efficiency being retained after 500 cycles. The performance we demonstrate represents an advance in the field of lithium-sulfur batteries for applications such as power tools.

  14. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  15. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  16. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  17. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  18. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  19. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  20. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  1. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  2. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  3. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  4. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  5. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  6. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  7. [Advances in mechanisms of treatment for spinal cord injury with lithium].

    PubMed

    Duo, Zhang; He, Xi-jing

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord injury is a serious disabling disease caused by a series of internal and external factors in the field of orthopaedics and neuroscience, which is a big problem for doctors all over the world. Lithium has been used to treat dipolar disorder for over 100 years. It has been reported that lithium is benefit for brain neuron. The treatment effect for spinal cord injury gets more and more attention. Researches indicate that lithium is benefit for spinal cord injury by protecting neuron,reducing after-injury inflammation increasing the produce and release of neurotrophins, stimulating neurogenesis, enhancing autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis. This article summaries advances in mechanism of treatment for spinal cord injury with lithium by reviewing and analyzing researches. Therapy combined with lithium has a good application prospect.

  8. [Lithium].

    PubMed

    Sparsa, A; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2004-03-01

    The mode of action of the cation lithium is not well known. It is at present used as a topical drug in dermatology. Lithium inhibits many enzymes: Na/K ATPase, adenylcyclase, enzymes of the prostaglandines E1 synthesis, inositol-1-phosphatase. It is active on neutrophils et T lymphocytes, explaining in part its anti-inflammatory activity. It has a dose-dependent action on levures. It has possibly a direct inhibitory activity on DNA synthesis of herpes viruses. Lithium has a good local safety. Percutaneous penetration is weak and plasma concentrations are very much lower than that observed after oral intake. Lithium has been studied in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Its efficacy was primarily observed in psychotic patients. An assay with oral lithium did not confirmed the first observations. Topical lithium was found more efficient. Topical lithium succinate associated with zinc sulfate and lithium gluconate had a greater efficacy than placebo. Comparison with topical ketoconazole showed a non inferiority of lithium gluconate. Oral lithium also showed a reduction of symptoms' duration of herpes simplex. Cutaneous side-effects of oral lithium are frequent and numerous. Some of them may be explained by a lithium pharmacological cell activity (such as psoriasis). Teratogenicity is observed in mice and rats. Drug interactions are not expected after topical application. Irritants side effects are mainly observed after topical application; they are moderate and transitory. Lithium gluconate treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis is a bid application during at least 8 weeks. It may be used in renal insufficiency. It is not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Advanced carbon anode materials for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Hideto; Imoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shin'ichiro; Sekai, Koji

    Three kinds of carbon have been used for commercial cells: graphite, soft carbon and hard carbon. The difference in the structures of these three kinds of carbon is shown clearly using our new model for soft and hard carbon structure. The lithium-doped state of these three kinds of carbon is discussed using the new structural model and published 7Li NMR data. A large reversible capacity is demonstrated in the hard carbons derived from some vegetable fibers. Two mechanisms—one enhancing the adsorbing force of pseudo-metallic lithium atoms and one reducing the repulsion force between doped lithium atoms—which together produce a high reversible capacity, are explained.

  10. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held November 27-29, 2012,...

  11. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting will be held October 9-11, 2012, from...

  12. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  13. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  14. Advances in Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries Powering the Electronic Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skotheim, Terje; Akridge, Jim; Hyland, Bob

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the Moltech Corporation's history and structure, power systems development, product attributes, Li-S adapted products, cell construction, specific energy comparisons, and product requirements necessary for use in spacecraft applications.

  15. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential. PMID:27487940

  16. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Lithium in Bipolar Disorder: Recent Advances and Current Understanding.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Lithium is the most effective and well established treatment for bipolar disorder, and it has a broad array of effects within cellular pathways. However, the specific processes through which therapeutic effects occur and are maintained in bipolar disorder remain unclear. This paper provides a timely update to an authoritative review of pertinent findings that was published in CNS Drugs in 2013. A literature search was conducted using the Scopus database, and was limited by year (from 2012). There has been a resurgence of interest in lithium therapy mechanisms, perhaps driven by technical advancements in recent years that permit the examination of cellular mechanisms underpinning the effects of lithium-along with the reuptake of lithium in clinical practice. Recent research has further cemented glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibition as a key mechanism, and the inter-associations between GSK3β-mediated neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and neurotransmission mechanisms have been further elucidated. In addition to highly illustrative cellular research, studies examining higher-order biological systems, such as circadian rhythms, as well as employing innovative animal and human models, have increased our understanding of how lithium-induced changes at the cellular level possibly translate to changes at behavioural and clinical levels. Neural circuitry research is yet to identify clear mechanisms of change in bipolar disorder in response to treatment with lithium, but important structural findings have demonstrated links to the modulation of cellular mechanisms, and peripheral marker and pharmacogenetic studies are showing promising findings that will likely inform the exploration for predictors of lithium treatment response. With a deeper understanding of lithium's therapeutic mechanisms-from the cellular to clinical levels of investigation-comes the opportunity to develop predictive models of lithium treatment response and identify novel drug targets, and

  17. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Lithium in Bipolar Disorder: Recent Advances and Current Understanding.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Lithium is the most effective and well established treatment for bipolar disorder, and it has a broad array of effects within cellular pathways. However, the specific processes through which therapeutic effects occur and are maintained in bipolar disorder remain unclear. This paper provides a timely update to an authoritative review of pertinent findings that was published in CNS Drugs in 2013. A literature search was conducted using the Scopus database, and was limited by year (from 2012). There has been a resurgence of interest in lithium therapy mechanisms, perhaps driven by technical advancements in recent years that permit the examination of cellular mechanisms underpinning the effects of lithium-along with the reuptake of lithium in clinical practice. Recent research has further cemented glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibition as a key mechanism, and the inter-associations between GSK3β-mediated neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and neurotransmission mechanisms have been further elucidated. In addition to highly illustrative cellular research, studies examining higher-order biological systems, such as circadian rhythms, as well as employing innovative animal and human models, have increased our understanding of how lithium-induced changes at the cellular level possibly translate to changes at behavioural and clinical levels. Neural circuitry research is yet to identify clear mechanisms of change in bipolar disorder in response to treatment with lithium, but important structural findings have demonstrated links to the modulation of cellular mechanisms, and peripheral marker and pharmacogenetic studies are showing promising findings that will likely inform the exploration for predictors of lithium treatment response. With a deeper understanding of lithium's therapeutic mechanisms-from the cellular to clinical levels of investigation-comes the opportunity to develop predictive models of lithium treatment response and identify novel drug targets, and

  18. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  19. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  20. Preparation of C-LiFePO 4/polypyrrole lithium rechargeable cathode by consecutive potential steps electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyano, Iker; Blazquez, J. Alberto; de Meatza, Iratxe; Bengoechea, Miguel; Miguel, Oscar; Grande, Hans; Huang, Yunhui; Goodenough, John B.

    In this work carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (C-LiFePO 4)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite preparation has been carried out using electrochemical techniques. This composite has been deposited on a stainless steel mesh in order to use it as a cathode in a lithium-ion battery. When an oxidation potential is applied to the working electrode, the pyrrole monomer is polymerized and the C-LiFePO 4 particles are incorporated into the polymer matrix and bound to the polymer and mesh. An experimental procedure was performed in order to understand how the composite formation is carried out and what the oxidation state of the composite material is during the charge-discharge process. As the electrochemical method of synthesis has a big influence in the electrochemical properties of the polymer, the use of consecutive potential steps has been studied in order to improve the charge-storage capacity of the composite material. The influence on the final composite properties of the oxidation-deposition time and potential and the effect of the number of cycles has been analyzed. An improvement of about 20% has been achieved using short oxidation times (3 s) at 0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The reasons for this improvement are discussed and analyzed using different experimental techniques.

  1. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  2. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  3. AlF3-coated LiMn2O4 as cathode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with improved cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tron, Artur; Park, Yeong Don; Mun, Junyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we introduce AlF3-coated LiMn2O4 cathodes, which are cost-effective and environmentally benign, for use in the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery. The homogeneous AlF3 coating on the LiMn2O4 powder is synthesized by a simple chemical deposition method. The thickness of the coating is controlled by varying the quantity of AlF3 used, in order to optimize the balance between polarization and surface stabilization. The optimized LiMn2O4, having 2 wt% coating of AlF3, exhibits a long cycle life having a capacity retention of 90% after 100 cycles, and a highly improved rate capability, when compared with the pristine LiMn2O4 material, in 1 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte solution. The systematic surface analyses, comprising scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical analyses, indicate that the AlF3 coating on the LiMn2O4 surface successfully reduces the surface deterioration of LiMn2O4 caused by side reactions between the electrolyte solution and the active material.

  4. Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Menchhofer, Paul A; Dehoff, Ryan R; Bridges, Craig A; Chi, Miaofang; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

  5. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  6. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotube anodes with superior Li+ storage performance for lithium rechargeable battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifei; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Li, Yongliang; Liu, Hao; Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Jinli; Geng, Dongsheng; Wang, Dongniu; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    A floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to synthesize carbon nanotubes doped with a high concentration of nitrogen. Their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in comparison to pristine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen content reaches as high as 16.4 at.%. Bamboo-like compartments were fabricated as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. High concentration nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (HN-CNTs) show approximately double reversible capacity of CNTs: 494 mAh g-1 vs. 260 mAh g-1, and present a much better rate capability than CNTs. The significantly superior electrochemical performance could be related to the high electrical conductivity and the larger number of defect sites in HN-CNTs for anodes of LIBs.

  7. Flocculant-assisted synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/carbon composites for superior lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Hongyu; Xu, Youlong; Shi, Wei; Yoo, Hyun-deog; Chae, Oh B.; Oh, Seung Mo

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile flocculant-assisted fabrication of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carboxymethylcellulose acts simultaneously as the flocculant and carbon source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high capacity of 497 mA h g{sup -1} at 1000 mA g{sup -1} over 100 cycles is retained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C anode exhibits excellent rate capability and cyclability. -- Abstract: High-performance iron oxide/carbon (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C) composites for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized by the combination of flocculant-assisted process and thermo-chemical treatment. Carboxymethylcellulose is used simultaneously as the flocculant and carbon source. This facile and scalable method lends itself to the fabrication of other metal oxide/carbon composites based on the flocculation mechanism. The lithium storage mechanism and cycling performance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C composites are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. As the rates increase from 50 to 1000 mA g{sup -1}, the composites display high charge capacities of 834 mAh g{sup -1} for the first cycle at 50 mA g{sup -1} and 497 mAh g{sup -1} at 1000 mA g{sup -1} over 100 cycles. Excellent rate capability and cyclability are ascribed presumablely to the isolation and buffer functions of the conductive carbon matrix against particle aggregation and large volume variety upon cycling.

  8. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI. PMID:25397991

  9. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI.

  10. Niobium(V) oxynitride: synthesis, characterization, and feasibility as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-05-01

    The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h  kg(-1) can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05-3 and 1-3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge-discharge reaction is proposed.

  11. The effect of thin film morphology on the electrochemical performance of Cu-Sn anode for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Polat, B D; Keleş, O

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the anode performance of non ordered and ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin films deposited via electron beam deposition technique. The ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film having nano-porosities was fabricated using an oblique (co)deposition technique. Our results showed that the nano structured Cu-Sn thin film containing Cu-Sn nanorods had higher initial anodic capacity (790 mA h g(-)) than that of the non ordered thin film (330 mA h g(-)). But the capacity of the ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film diminished after the first cycle and a steady state capacity value around 300 mA h g(-) is sustainable in following up to 80th cycle, which is attributed to the composition and morphology of the thin film. The presence of copper containing Sn nanorods leading to form nano-porosities as interstitial spaces among them, enhanced lithium ions movement within thin film and increased the thin film tolerance against the stress generated because of the drastic volume change occurred during lithiation-delithiation processes; hence, homogenously distributed porosities increased the cycle life of the thin film. PMID:24734677

  12. Niobium(V) Oxynitride: Synthesis, Characterization, and Feasibility as Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h kg−1 can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05–3 and 1–3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge–discharge reaction is proposed. PMID:22461147

  13. Graphene-molybdenum oxynitride porous material with improved cyclic stability and rate capability for rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding; Wu, Haiping; Wei, Zhixiang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2013-10-21

    A graphene-molybdenum oxynitride (GMON) hybrid porous material was prepared by a thermal decomposition method and investigated as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. In the thermal decomposition reaction, a chemically homogeneous complex formed by ammonium molybdate and hexamethylenetetramine was used as the precursor for the synthesis of molybdenum oxynitride (MON), and graphene oxide was thermally reduced into graphene. Meanwhile, the graphene sheets were nitrogen doped by the ammonia generated during the thermal reaction. The GMON hybrid porous materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Nitrogen sorption analysis showed that GMON possesses an enhanced porosity compared with the MON prepared in the same method. Owing to the improvement in the porosity and the conductivity, the GMON anode exhibited a reversible capacity of about 960 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), furthermore, the rate performance and the cycling stability of the GMON anode were dramatically enhanced in comparison with thermal reduced graphene oxide and MON.

  14. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  15. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge.

  16. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  17. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  18. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  19. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  20. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  1. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  2. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties. PMID:26233377

  3. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Réfy, D.; Nam, Y. U.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  4. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Nam, Y. U.

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  5. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  6. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  7. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  8. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  9. COMPASS Final Report: Advanced Lithium Ion Venus Explorer (ALIVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Paul, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The COncurrent Multi-disciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive(power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission. Historic Soviet Venus landers have only lasted on the order of 2 hours in the extreme Venus environment: temperatures of 460 C and pressures of 93 bar. Longer duration missions have been studied using plutonium powered systems to operate and cool landers for up to a year. However, the plutonium load is very large. This NIAC study sought to still provide power and cooling but without the plutonium.

  10. Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A high-capacity electrode active material with macrocyclic nanochannels is developed for a negative electrode of lithium batteries. With appropriate design of the molecular and crystal structures, a ubiquitous chemical commonly available in reagent stocks of any chemistry laboratories, naphthalene, was transformed into a high-performance electrode material for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  11. Rational in-situ construction of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/C composite as enhanced cathode for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Xie, D.; Niu, X. Q.; Ge, X.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of advanced cathode materials is indispensable and vital for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we develop a facile in-situ route to synthesize three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/carbon composite (3D-rGO-Li2S/C). The Li2S/C nanoparticles are intimately anchored on the surface of 3D-rGO forming an integrated 3D porous composite. Due to the improved conductivity and reduced polysulfide dissolution, the 3D-rGO-Li2S/C cathode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with a high initial capacity of 819 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity retention of 415 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1C. The integrated 3D conductive network is responsible for the enhancement of the electrochemical properties by providing fast ion/electron transfer and high mechanical stability.

  12. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  13. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST. PMID:25725839

  14. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  15. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  16. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  17. Nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere-decorated separators for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Wang, Guanchao; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have a distinct advantage over other rechargeable battery systems since their high specific energy and low cost. However, the diffusion of polysulfides from cathode to anode leads to poor electrochemical stability of Li-S batteries, which is a main factor that restricts their further development. Herein, for the first time we present a separator with nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere (NHC) coating, with which Li-S cells enormously improve the utilization of active material and enhance excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 1656 mAh g-1 (0.2 C) and a low fading rate of 0.11% per cycle within 500 cycles (1 C) are achieved, which ascribe to the chemical and physical adsorption properties of porous and nitrogen-doped NHCs. The NHC-decorated separator is of low cost and can effectively improve energy density of Li-S cells, exhibiting potential for further development of Li-S batteries.

  18. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  19. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  20. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid as high-performance anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Denghu; Li, Xiaona; Zhu, Yongchun; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Kailong; Qian, Yitai

    2014-04-01

    A peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid assembled from nanosheets with the thickness of 40 nm was synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal approach from vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 180 °C for 24 h. The hybrid exhibits high performance as both anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the as-prepared Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid displayed excellent cycling stability, especially as an anode material. The resulting anode retains 100% of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles under a current density of 400 mA g-1. This phenomenon may be attributed to electron conductivity improvement by the existence of metallic silver in the hybrid in addition to the convenient access to lithium ion ingress/egress because of its unique structure.A peony-like Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid assembled from nanosheets with the thickness of 40 nm was synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal approach from vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), oxalic acid (H2C2O4), and silver nitrate (AgNO3) at 180 °C for 24 h. The hybrid exhibits high performance as both anode and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the as-prepared Ag/Ag0.68V2O5 hybrid displayed excellent cycling stability, especially as an anode material. The resulting anode retains 100% of the initial capacity after 1000 cycles under a current density of 400 mA g-1. This phenomenon may be attributed to electron conductivity improvement by the existence of metallic silver in the hybrid in addition to the convenient access to lithium ion ingress/egress because of its unique structure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00250d

  1. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  2. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  3. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those... maximum of only four lithium-ion cells or two lithium-ion batteries. c. The lithium content must not... 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION:......

  4. New nanostructured Li2S/silicon rechargeable battery with high specific energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li(2)S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg(-1), which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO(2) cathodes and graphite anodes (approximately 410 Wh kg(-1)). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg(-1) based on the mass of the active electrode materials.

  5. Development of advanced tritium breeding material with added lithium for ITER-TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kenichi; Natori, Yuri; Oikawa, Fumiaki; Nakano, Natsuko; Nakamura, Mutsumi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Lithium titanate (Li 2TiO 3) is one of the most promising candidates among tritium breeding materials because of its good tritium release characteristics. However, the mass of Li 2TiO 3 decreased with time in a hydrogen atmosphere by the reduction of Ti and Li evaporation. In order to prevent the mass decrease at high temperatures, advanced tritium breeding material with added Li (Li 2+xTiO 3+y) should be developed. For this purpose, an advanced Li 2TiO 3 with added Li was synthesized from proportionally mixed LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 with a Li/Ti ratio of 2.2. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this advanced tritium breeding material existed as the non-stoichiometric compound Li 2+xTiO 3+y. The desired molar ratio of Li/Ti was achieved by appropriate mixing of LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3. Therefore, synthesis by mixing LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 is a promising mass production method for the advanced tritium breeding material with added Li for the test blanket module of ITER.

  6. Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12: An advanced anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Liang, Guisheng; Gao, Jinxiang; Deng, Shengjue; Lin, Shiwei; Li, Jianbao

    2016-11-01

    Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12 powders with a designed nominal composition of Li3Cr7Ti2O16 have been prepared by one-step solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld refinement indicates that these powders contain 96.5wt.% spinel Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and 3.5wt.% Cr2O3. Due to the combination of Ti3+/Ti4+ and Cr2+/Cr3+ redox couples in Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and the existence of Cr2O3, the composite exhibits a large first-cycle discharge capacity of 315mAhṡg-1 at a small current density of 62.5mAṡg-1. Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 shows an improved Li+ ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity, respectively arising from the small O2- ion fractional coefficient and unpaired 3d electrons in Cr3+ ions. The majority of Cr2O3 is reduced to Cr after the first two lithiation processes, which benefits the electrical conduction between the Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 particles. Consequently, the composite exhibits a good rate performance and cyclability. Its capacity at 1000mAṡg-1 is as large as 141mAhṡg-1 with large retention of 90.1% after 100 cycles.

  7. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  10. Novel binary deep eutectic electrolytes for rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on mixtures of alkyl sulfonamides and lithium perfluoroalkylsulfonimide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiculescu, O. E.; DesMarteau, D. D.; Creager, S. E.; Haik, O.; Hirshberg, D.; Shilina, Y.; Zinigrad, E.; Levi, M. D.; Aurbach, D.; Halalay, I. C.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquids (IL's) were proposed for use in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), in order to mitigate some of the well-known drawbacks of LiPF6/mixed organic carbonates solutions. However, their large cations seriously decrease lithium transference numbers and block lithium insertion sites at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, leading to poor LIB rate performance. Deep eutectic electrolytes (DEEs) (which share some of the advantages of ILs but possess only one cation, Li+), were then proposed, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with ILs. We report herein on the preparation, thermal properties (melting, crystallization, and glass transition temperatures), transport properties (specific conductivity and viscosity) and thermal stability of binary DEEs based on mixtures of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide or lithium bis(fluoro)sulfonimide salts with an alkyl sulfonamide solvent. Promise for LIB applications is demonstrated by chronoamperometry on Al current collectors, and cycling behavior of negative and positive electrodes. Residual current densities of 12 and 45 nA cm-2 were observed at 5 V vs. Li/Li+ on aluminum, 1.5 and 16 nA cm-2 at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively for LiFSI and LiTFSI based DEEs. Capacities of 220, 130, and 175 mAh· g-1 were observed at low (C/13 or C/10) rates, respectively for petroleum coke, LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 (a.k.a. NMC 111) and LiAl0.05Co0.15Ni0.8O2 (a.k.a. NCA).

  11. Na0.282V2O5: A high-performance cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries and sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yangsheng; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Cai, Gemei; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-10-01

    Na0.282V2O5 nanorods have been successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by a calcination treatment, which is then used as a cathode for lithium batteries and sodium batteries for the first time. The crystal structure is refined to be a monoclinic lattice, which contains 3D tunnels along the b-axis. The Na ions are located inside the tunnels and form "pillar effect" to prevent the collapse of the crystal structure. As cathode material for lithium batteries, the Na0.282V2O5 nanorods deliver a high discharge specific capacity of 264, 186, 191 and 149 mA h g-1 at the current density of 50, 500, 1000 and 1500 mA g-1, respectively. The Na0.282V2O5 nanorods demonstrate the excellent cycling performance up to 400 cycles at 1 and 1.5 A g-1. Importantly, as cathode material for sodium batteries, Na0.282V2O5 exhibits superior long-term cyclic stability up to 1000 cycles at 0.3 A g-1. The results of ex-situ XRD, EIS and first-principle calculation indicate that the Na0.282V2O5 possesses good electrical conductivity and structural stability. Our work demonstrates that the Na0.282V2O5 material could be considered as a potential cathode for lithium-ion batteries, and even sodium ion batteries.

  12. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  13. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  14. Improving the electrochemical performance of the li4 ti5 o12 electrode in a rechargeable magnesium battery by lithium-magnesium co-intercalation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Yao, Hu-Rong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted recent research attention because of abundant raw materials and their relatively low-price and high-safety characteristics. However, the sluggish kinetics of the intercalated Mg(2+) ions in the electrode materials originates from the high polarizing ability of the Mg(2+) ion and hinders its electrochemical properties. Here we report a facile approach to improve the electrochemical energy storage capability of the Li4 Ti5 O12 electrode in a Mg battery system by the synergy between Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions. By tuning the hybrid electrolyte of Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions, both the reversible capacity and the kinetic properties of large Li4 Ti5 O12 nanoparticles attain remarkable improvement.

  15. Optimization of the dimensions of vapor-grown carbon fiber for use as negative electrodes in lithium-ion rechargeable cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghib, Karim; Tatsumi, Kuniaki; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Shunichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Ohsaki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemical performance examinations of a new generation of carbon whisker were carried out in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} in a 50:50 mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. The whisker has a high reversible capacity (363 mAh/g), and the coulombic efficiency was 100%. This capacity depends strongly on the diameter of the fiber and the preparation method. When the length of graphite whisker is 23 {micro}m, it gives the highest first cycle coulombic efficiency (96%). The authors investigated the charge-discharge characteristics with different current densities. When measuring the slow cyclic voltammogram of the graphite whiskers, five cathodic peaks could be seen. The kinetics of electrochemical intercalation of lithium ions into the graphite whisker was studied by impedance spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of lithium in the carbon is larger when the fibers were graphitized and then chopped, than when they were chopped first, and it decreased linearly as x in Li{sub x}C{sub 6} increased. This is related directly to the microstructure of fiber.

  16. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  17. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  18. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Safety Administration, telephone (202) 366-1074. Background On January 11, 2010 (75 FR 1302), PHMSA, in... Assessment of Bulk-Packed, Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells in Transport Category Aircraft; April 2006 (DOT/FAA... configurations of lithium batteries: 1. Lithium ion batteries (PI 965). 2. Lithium ion batteries packed...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  20. Effect of synthesizing method on the properties of LiFePO4/C composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Man-Soon; Islam, Mobinul; Park, Young Min; Ur, Soon-Chul

    2013-03-01

    Olivine-type LiFePO4/C cathode materials are fabricated with FePO4 powders that are pre-synthesized by two different processes from iron chloride solution. Process I is a modified precipitation method which is implemented by the pH control of a solution using NH4OH to form FePO4 precipitates at room temperature. Process II is a conventional precipitation method, of which H3PO4 (85%) solution is gradually added to a FeCl3 solution during the process to maintain a designated mole ratio. The solution is subsequently aged at 90°C in a water bath until FePO4 precipitates appear. In order to synthesize LiFePO4/C composites, each batch of FePO4 powders is then mixed with pre-milled lithium carbonate and glucose (8 wt. %) as a carbon source in a ball-mill. The structural characteristics of both LiFePO4/C composites fabricated using iron phospates from two different routes have been examined employing XRD and SEM. The modified precipitation process is considered to be a relatively simple and effective process for the preparation of LiFePO4/C composites owing to their excellent electrochemical properties and rate capabilities.

  1. PbLi2Ti6O14: A novel high-rate long-life anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Lin, Xiaoting; Yang, Ke; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    As a novel anode material, PbLi2Ti6O14 is prepared by a traditional solid state method at a calcination temperature of 900 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical tests prove that PbLi2Ti6O14 possesses a good crystallinity and superior performance. PbLi2Ti6O14, composed of particles with 400 nm in length and 300 nm in width, exhibits an initial charge capacity of 155.1 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and maintains at 147.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, with capacity retention as high as 95.4%. Especially, the reversible capacity of PbLi2Ti6O14 can stabilize at 101.6 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, with capacity retention of 87.5%. Besides, the lithium storage behavior in PbLi2Ti6O14 is also studied by various in-situ and ex-situ methods. It is found that the lithiation/delithiation process in PbLi2Ti6O14 is a highly reversible reaction. All these results demonstrate that PbLi2Ti6O14 may be an impressive anode material in the near future.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and application of Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles as cathode of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Taala, Foroozandeh

    2011-08-01

    This work introduces a new method to synthesize Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles in the nanopowder form and study its electrochemical performance by cyclic voltammetry and battery tests. Li3Fe2(PO4)3 is synthesized by the gel combustion method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as gel making agent. The optimum conditions of the synthesis include 8 wt% PVA, 0.34 wt% lithium slat, 1 wt% iron salt, 0.57 wt% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ethanol-water 50:50 as solvent, 675 °C combustion temperature and 4 h combustion time. Characterization of the samples is performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), EDX analysis, XRD patterns, BET specific surface area and DSL size distribution. In the optimum conditions, a nanopowder is obtained that consisting of uniform nanoparticles with an average diameter of 70 nm. The optimized sample shows 12.5 m2 g-1 specific surface areas. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that the synthesized compound has good reversibility and high cyclic stability. The CV results are confirmed by the battery tests. The obtained results show that the synthesized cathodic material has high practical discharge capacity (average 125.5 mAh g-1 approximately same with its theoretical capacity 128.2 mA h-1) and long cycle life.

  3. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  4. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E; Engelhard, Mark H; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-11-01

    The development of highly efficient catalysts is critical for the practical application of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Nanosheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) microspheres and thin films grown in situ on single-walled carbon nanotube (ZCO/SWCNT) composites as high-performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries are reported. The in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of the oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during the charging process, and led to longer cycling stability. These results indicate that in situ grown ZCO/SWCNT composites can be used as highly efficient air electrode materials for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The enhanced catalytic activity displayed by the uniformly dispersed ZCO catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire further development of other catalyzed electrodes for Li-O2 batteries and other applications. PMID:26457378

  5. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  6. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries.

    PubMed

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R Vasant

    2014-06-01

    A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector thus decreasing the weight of the cathode by typically ∼20-30 wt%. A Li-S battery with the sulphur-FLG foam cathode shows good electrochemical stability and high rate discharge capacity retention for up to 400 discharge/charge cycles at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1). Even after 400 cycles the capacity decay is only ∼0.064% per cycle relative to the early (e.g. the 5th cycle) discharge capacity, while yielding an average columbic efficiency of ∼96.2%. Our results indicate the potential suitability of graphene foam for efficient, ultra-light and high-performance batteries.

  7. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries with dramatically improved performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-07-01

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g(-1) in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g(-1) after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials. PMID:22644940

  8. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries with dramatically improved performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-07-01

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g(-1) in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g(-1) after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials.

  9. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage.

  10. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  11. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  12. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.

    1990-01-01

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The R D and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50--300 kW/kg specific power and 80--130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1--10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl{sub 2} primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  14. Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, L.

    1978-01-01

    The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

  15. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  16. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R.; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R. Vasant

    2014-05-01

    A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector thus decreasing the weight of the cathode by typically ~20-30 wt%. A Li-S battery with the sulphur-FLG foam cathode shows good electrochemical stability and high rate discharge capacity retention for up to 400 discharge/charge cycles at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. Even after 400 cycles the capacity decay is only ~0.064% per cycle relative to the early (e.g. the 5th cycle) discharge capacity, while yielding an average columbic efficiency of ~96.2%. Our results indicate the potential suitability of graphene foam for efficient, ultra-light and high-performance batteries.A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector

  17. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C).In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity

  18. Interfacial redox reaction-directed synthesis of silver@cerium oxide core-shell nanocomposites as catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Man; Cao, Lu-Jie; Yang, Ming-Yang; Ho-Sum Cheng, Samson; Cao, Chen-Wei; Leung, Kwan-Lan; Chung, Chi-Yuen; Lu, Zhou-Guang

    2015-07-01

    A facile oxidation-reduction reaction method has been implemented to prepare pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites. Under Ar atmosphere, redox reaction automatically occurs between AgNO3 and Ce(NO3)3 in an alkaline solution, where Ag+ is reduced to Ag nanopartilces and Ce3+ is simultaneously oxidized to form CeO2, followed by the self-assembly to form the pomegranate-like multicore-shell structured Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites driven by thermodynamic equilibrium. No other organic amines or surfactants are utilized in the whole reaction system and only NaOH instead of organic reducing agent is used to prevent the introduction of a secondary reducing byproduct. The as-obtained pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites have been characterized as electro-catalysts for the air cathode of lithium-air batteries operated in a simulated air environment. Superior electrochemical performance with high discharge capacity of 3415 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, stable cycling and small charge/discharge polarization voltage is achieved, which is much better than that of the CeO2 or simple mixture of CeO2 and Ag. The enhanced properties can be primarily attributed to the synergy effect between the Ag core and the CeO2 shell resulting from the unique pomegranate-like multicore-shell nanostructures possessing plenty of active sites to promote the facile formation and decomposition of Li2O2.

  19. Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  20. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  1. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL.

  2. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL. PMID:26812369

  3. Advanced Self-Potential Inversion. Development and Use for Investigating Natural Recharge Processes at the ORNL IFC

    SciTech Connect

    Revil, Andre

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the influence of coupled biological, chemical, and hydrological processes on subsurface contaminant behavior at multiple scales is a prerequisite for developing effective remedial approaches, whether they are active remediation or natural attenuation strategies. To develop this understanding, methods are needed that can measure critical components of the natural system in real time. The self-potential method corresponds to the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the surface of the Earth or in boreholes. This method is very complemetary to other geophysical methods like DC resistivity and induced polarization. In this report, we summarize of research efforts to advance the theory of low-frequency geoelectrical methods and their applications to the contaminant plumes in the vicinity of the former S-3 settling basins at Oak Ridge, TN.

  4. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  5. Recent Advances in Applicability of TEMHD Driven Liquid Lithium as a Fusion Relevant PFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szott, Matthew; Fiflis, Peter; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid lithium displays increasing promise as a replacement to solid plasma facing components (PFC) in fusion device applications. Liquid PFCs reduce erosion and thermal stress damage, prolonging device lifetime, while lithium has been shown to decrease edge recycling, reduce impurities, and enhance plasma performance. The Liquid Metal Infused Trench (LiMIT) concept developed at UIUC successfully demonstrates horizontal and vertical thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) flow of liquid lithium through metal trenches for use as a PFC. Installed in the HT-7 tokamak and at the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device, the system performed effectively in fusion relevant conditions. In high heat flux tests, trench dry-out was observed, which exposes solid trench material due to higher TEMHD force on the area with the highest heat flux. A 3D free surface fluid model of dry-out and experimental tests conducted to mitigate the detrimental effect are described. The final designs for the upcoming test of LiMIT as a limiter for the EAST tokamak are discussed, along with velocity characteristics of steady-state TEMHD driven flow through the LiMIT system inclined up to 180 degrees from horizontal, which is necessary for broad applicability of a liquid lithium PFC system.

  6. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, William L.; Dey, Arabinda N.

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  7. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  8. Superacid-Based Lithium Salts For Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Prakash, Surya; Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Olah, George

    1995-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes exhibiting high lithium-ion conductivities made by incorporating salts of superacids into thin films of polyethylene oxide (PEO). These and other solid-polymer electrolytes candidates for use in rechargeable lithium-based electrochemical cells. Increases in room-temperature lithium-ion conductivities of solid electrolytes desirable because they increase achievable power and energy densities.

  9. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  10. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  11. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  12. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  13. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  14. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  15. Modified Separator Using Thin Carbon Layer Obtained from Its Cathode for Advanced Lithium Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Naiqiang; Huang, Bicheng; Wang, Weikun; Shao, Hongyuan; Li, Chengming; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo; Huang, Yaqin

    2016-06-29

    The realization of a practical lithium sulfur battery system, despite its high theoretical specific capacity, is severely limited by fast capacity decay, which is mainly attributed to polysulfide dissolution and shuttle effect. To address this issue, we designed a thin cathode inactive material interlayer modified separator to block polysulfides. There are two advantages for this strategy. First, the coating material totally comes from the cathode, thus avoids the additional weights involved. Second, the cathode inactive material modified separator improve the reversible capacity and cycle performance by combining gelatin to chemically bond polysulfides and the carbon layer to physically block polysulfides. The research results confirm that with the cathode inactive material modified separator, the batteries retain a reversible capacity of 644 mAh g(-1) after 150 cycles, showing a low capacity decay of about 0.11% per circle at the rate of 0.5C. PMID:27267483

  16. Advances in lithium-sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li-S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li-S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li-S batteries are summarized.

  17. A Summary on Progress in Materials Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the-art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance future human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This paper on interim progress of the development efforts will present performance of materials and cell components and will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities and proposed strategies to overcome technical issues.

  18. Core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as an advanced cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Yang, Jinlong; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-18

    We report the formation of core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as a novel cathode material and its mechanism for use in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. A benefit of the amount of FeS2 nano-crystals as the core for Li-ion storage with high capacity and using coated N-doped graphene as the shell is that FeS2@N-graphene exhibits a remarkable specific energy (950 W h kg(-1) at 0.15 kW g(-1)) and higher specific power (543 W h kg(-1) at 2.79 kW g(-1)) than commercial rechargeable LIB cathodes, as well as stable cycling performance (∼600 W h kg(-1) at 0.75 kW g(-1) after 400 cycles).

  19. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  20. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g-1 and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  1. Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler

    This dissertation presents a series of studies aimed towards the development of a compelling and commercially viable Li-ion battery containing a non-flammable room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte. Each study builds upon the previous, culminating in the demonstration of a high energy Li-ion system approaching the 700 Wh/L energy density benchmark. We begin by tackling several major issues associated with RTIL compatibility with the battery's passive, non- electroactive components, engineering solutions to each and enabling the utilization of certain RTIL materials in high voltage Li-ion systems. Since enabling the simple use of our RTIL electrolytes, we have been able to explore RTIL compatibility with a number of attractive, next-generation electrode chemistries including the high capacity silicon (Si) anode and high voltage, high capacity lithium- manganese-rich (LMR) cathode. Each of these studies contributes to a deeper understanding of the interfacial mechanisms occurring between the RTIL materials and various electrode surfaces, in several cases resulting in unprecedented half- and full-cell performance. The accomplishments presented herein represent important progress in working towards a safer, higher performance Li-ion system.

  2. Recent advances in nanocrystalline intermetallic tin compounds for the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Nwokeke, Uche G.; Nacimiento, Francisco; Lavela, Pedro; Tirado, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Intermetallic compounds of tin and first-row transition metals have been considered as potential anode materials for Li-ion batteries that could improve the performance of pure tin. Particularly, the solids dispersed at the nano scale provide interesting behavior. Thus CoSn, FeSn2 and CoSn3 nanocrystalline samples have been obtained at low temperatures. As compared with micrometric particles of CoSn, significantly higher reversible capacities are found for nanocrystalline CoSn. For nanocrystalline CoSn3 maximum reversible capacities of 690 mAh g-1 were observed in lithium test cells. Nanocrystalline products in the series CoSn2-FeSn2 could be prepared by chemical reduction in polyol solvents using a "one-pot" method. Superparamagnetic nanocrystalline FeSn2 delivers reversible capacities of ca. 600 mAhg-1 by the formation of LixSn phases and superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles. A comparison between the properties of nano- FeSn2 and micro-FeSn2 shows a significantly better electrochemical behavior and electrode stability for the nanocrystalline material. For Fe1-xCoxSn2 solid solutions with x= 0.25, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8, particle diameters of about 20 nm and different morphologies were obtained. The substitution of iron by cobalt induces a contraction of the unit cell volume and the hyperfine parameters of the 57Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal a superparamagnetic behavior. The intermediate compositions exhibit better electrochemical performance than the limit compositions CoSn2 and FeSn2. To improve the performance of CoSnx intermetallics, composites in which the nanocrystalline intermetallic material is embedded in an amorphous layer based on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer were used. The PAN shell contributes to stabilize the intermetallic phases upon electrochemical cycling.

  3. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinini, M. Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.; Ambrosini, F.; Nichelatti, E.

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  4. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 1011 to 1015 protons/cm2. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F2 and F3+ laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 103 to about 106 Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  5. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs. PMID:27015357

  6. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  7. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

  8. Lithium electrode and an electrical energy storage device containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Lai, San-Cheng

    1976-07-13

    An improved lithium electrode structure comprises an alloy of lithium and silicon in specified proportions and a supporting current-collecting matrix in intimate contact with said alloy. The lithium electrode of the present invention is utilized as the negative electrode in a rechargeable electrochemical cell.

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  10. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  11. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  12. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  13. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  14. Demonstrating induced recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, B. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes an attempt by a New England community to explore for an aquifer that would yield 1 million gallons of ground water per day. After the discovery of a glacial sand and gravel aquifer, a demonstration of a hydraulic coupling between the aquifer and an adjacent stream was undertaken. This connection was needed to maintain recharge capacity of the well. The paper goes on to describe the techniques needed and used to determine the induced recharge caused by drawdown in these test wells.

  15. Recharge and Evapotranspiration Assessment In Kalahari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubczynski, M.; Obakeng, O.

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the depth at which trees take up water, lithium tracer was injected at various depths below the ground surface. The results indicated that all investigated trees were able to absorb the lithium at depths ranging from 8-70 m. Stable isotopes of soil moisture, of sapwood water and of groundwater revealed that some trees predominantly used soil water from below the main root zone of shrubs and grasses while others used water mainly from the upper layers, even if it meant exerting suctions below the widely accepted wilting point of -1.47 MPa. The results of this research indicate that the most of the water that moves down in Kalahari is lost to evapotranspiration. The main part of it is lost within the first 4 meters considered as the main root zone, majority within the upper ~25 m and some of it reaches the groundwater table where it still has the possibility to be extracted by deep rooting systems of Kalahari savannah trees such as Acacia albitrunca and Acacia erioloba. In dry semi-arid environments, typically characterized by very low recharge, ETg can represent significant component of groundwater balance, even when groundwater is at large depth.

  16. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry. PMID:26277939

  17. Advances in lithium analysis in solids by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Cécile; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Dubessy, Jean; Chabiron, Aliouka; Charoy, Bernard; Martin Crespo, Tomas

    2002-04-01

    Lithium is an important geochemical tracer for fluids or solids. However, because the electron microprobe cannot detect Li, variations of Li abundance at the micrometric scale are most often estimated from bulk analyses. In this study, the Li intense emission line at 670.706 nm in optical emission spectroscopy was used to perfect the analysis of Li at the micrometric scale by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To estimate lithium content for different geological materials, LIBS calibration of the emission line at 670.706 nm was achieved by use of synthetic glasses and natural minerals. The detection limit for this method is ˜5 ppm Li. Three applications to geological materials show the potential of LIBS for lithium determination, namely for Li-bearing minerals, melt inclusions, quartz, and associated fluid inclusions. For spodumene and petalite from granite pegmatite dikes (Portugal), the Li 2O concentrations are 7.6 ± 1.6 wt% and 6.3 ± 1.3 wt%, respectively, by use of LIBS. These values agree with ion microprobe analyses, bulk analyses, or both. For eucryptite crystals, the Li concentrations are scattered because grain size is smaller than the LIBS spatial resolution (6 to 8 μm). Lithium concentrations of melt inclusions from the Streltsovka U deposit (Siberia) are in the range of 2 to 6.2 wt% (Li 2O) for Li-rich daughter minerals. Lithium estimations on silicate glasses display values between 90 and 400 ppm. Lithium was also analyzed as a trace element in quartz. Transverse profiles were performed in hydrothermal barren quartz veins from the Spanish Central System (Sierra de Guadarrama). The highest Li concentrations (250 to 370 ppm) were found in specific growth bands in conjunction with the observed variation in optical cathodoluminescence intensity. Considering the fluid inclusion analysis, the source of fluid responsible to the Li enrichment in quartz is probably high-salinity fluids derived from sedimentary basins.

  18. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability.

  19. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability. PMID:25251871

  20. A Highly Active Low Voltage Redox Mediator for Enhanced Rechargeability of Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high theoretical specific energy, the Li-oxygen battery is one of the fundamentally most promising energy storage systems, but also one of the most challenging. Poor rechargeability, involving the oxidation of insoluble and insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), has remained the “Achilles’ heel” of this electrochemical energy storage system. We report here on a new redox mediator tris[4-(diethylamino)phenyl]amine (TDPA), that—at 3.1 V—exhibits the lowest and closest potential redox couple compared to the equilibrium voltage of the Li-oxygen cell of those reported to date, with a second couple also at a low potential of 3.5 V. We show it is a soluble “catalyst” capable of lowering the Li2O2 charging potential by >0.8 V without requiring direct electrical contact of the peroxide and that it also facilitates high discharge capacities. Its chemical and electrochemical stability, fast diffusion kinetics, and two dynamic redox potentials represent a significant advance in oxygen-evolution catalysis. It enables Li–O2 cells that can be recharged more than 100 cycles with average round-trip efficiencies >80%, opening a new avenue for practical Li-oxygen batteries. PMID:27163015

  1. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  2. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  3. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g-1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  4. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  5. Three-Dimensional Branched TiO2 Architectures in Controllable Bloom for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofu; Qu, Dandan; Jiang, Yun; Xiong, Wan-Sheng; Sang, Hong-Qian; He, Rong-Xiang; Tai, Qidong; Chen, Bolei; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-08-10

    Three-dimensional branched TiO2 architectures (3D BTA) with controllable morphologies were synthesized via a facile template-free one-pot solvothermal route. The volume ratio of deionized water (DI water) and diethylene glycol in solvothermal process is key to the formation of 3D BTA assembled by nanowire-coated TiO2 dendrites, which combines the advantages of 3D hierarchical structure and 1D nanoscale building blocks. Benefiting from such unique structural features, the BTA in full bloom achieved significantly increased specific surface areas and shortened Li(+) ion/electrons diffusion pathway. The lithium-ion batteries based on BTA in full bloom exhibited remarkably enhanced reversible specific capacity and rate performance, attributing to the high contact area with the electrolyte and the short solid state diffusion pathway for Li(+) ion/electrons promoting lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:27420343

  6. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  7. Electrolytes for Low Temperature Lithium Batteries Based on Ternary Mixtures of Aliphatic Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The success of rechargeable lithium ion batteries may be largely attributed to the surface films on the carbon anodes, which provide the anodes with adequate protection against continued reaction with electrolyte while permitting charge transfer.

  8. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications.

  9. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications. PMID:27225061

  10. Design principles for electrolytes and interfaces for stable lithium-metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Mukul D.; Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-09-01

    The future of electrochemical energy storage hinges on the advancement of science and technology that enables rechargeable batteries that utilize reactive metals as anodes. With specific capacity more than ten times that of the LiC6 anode used in present-day lithium-ion batteries, cells based on Li-metal anodes are of particular interest. Effective strategies for stabilizing the anode in such cells are now understood to be a requirement for progress on exceptional storage technologies, including Li–S and Li–O2 batteries. Multiple challenges—parasitic reactions of Li-metal with liquid electrolytes, unstable and dendritic electrodeposition, and dendrite-induced short circuits—derailed early efforts to commercialize such lithium-metal batteries. Here we consider approaches for rationally designing electrolytes and Li-metal/electrolyte interfaces for stable, dendrite-free operation of lithium-metal batteries. On the basis of fundamental understanding of the failure modes of reactive metal anodes, we discuss the key variables that govern the stability of electrodeposition at the Li anode and propose a universal framework for designing stable electrolytes and interfaces for lithium-metal batteries.

  11. Design principles for electrolytes and interfaces for stable lithium-metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Mukul D.; Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-09-01

    The future of electrochemical energy storage hinges on the advancement of science and technology that enables rechargeable batteries that utilize reactive metals as anodes. With specific capacity more than ten times that of the LiC6 anode used in present-day lithium-ion batteries, cells based on Li-metal anodes are of particular interest. Effective strategies for stabilizing the anode in such cells are now understood to be a requirement for progress on exceptional storage technologies, including Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. Multiple challenges—parasitic reactions of Li-metal with liquid electrolytes, unstable and dendritic electrodeposition, and dendrite-induced short circuits—derailed early efforts to commercialize such lithium-metal batteries. Here we consider approaches for rationally designing electrolytes and Li-metal/electrolyte interfaces for stable, dendrite-free operation of lithium-metal batteries. On the basis of fundamental understanding of the failure modes of reactive metal anodes, we discuss the key variables that govern the stability of electrodeposition at the Li anode and propose a universal framework for designing stable electrolytes and interfaces for lithium-metal batteries.

  12. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  13. Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Alan E.

    1997-12-01

    Stable isotopic techniques have been utilized to locate occurrences and trace movements of a variety of naturally and anthropogenically recharged waters in aquifers of Orange County, California. This basin is of particular interest not only because it provides the dominant water supply for the two million residents of this well-populated county, but also because it is representative of a common arid environment where natural recharge is dominated by distant, high-elevation precipitation transported by a major river. Such arid basins are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbance of their recharge and their subsurface hydrology. In order to identify distinctive waters, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios from Orange County wells have been compared with a regional database including an array of surface water samples representative of watershed runoff. Four distinctive subsurface water types can be resolved. Waters of "local" rainfall and imported, "Colorado" River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, "native" Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. Recent human interference with Santa Ana river flow and recharge is also marginally resolvable by isotopic techniques. Distinguishable isotopic signatures of "recent" Santa Ana recharge appear to be due to evaporative loss, perhaps during storage in the Prado Reservoir or in percolation ponds, prior to recharge into Orange County aquifers. Characterization of traceable isotopic signatures of distinct natural and anthropogenic recharge components provides a major advance towards use of such techniques for developing a well constrained, three-dimensional hydrologic model for this complex basin.

  14. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  15. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  16. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm(-2) for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm(-2) for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  17. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm−2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm−2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  18. Electrochemical performances of co-substituted (La and Li) LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub y}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} cathode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, P.; Paruthimal Kalaignan, G.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} powders were prepared by a sol–gel method at 600 °C for 10 h. • LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} powder materials had well defined layer structure, and no impurities. • LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} crystallite size was reduced compared with those of LiNiO{sub 2}. • Li/LiPF{sub 6}/LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} cells were of high charge/discharge capacity, with columbic efficiency at 25 °C and 45 °C. • LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} good cyclic stability, rate capability and better 45 °C. - Abstract: Co-substituted LiLa{sub x−y}Li{sub y}Ni{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by sol–gel method using aqueous solutions of metal nitrates and tartaric acid as chelating agent at 600 °C for 10 h. The structure and electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were characterized by using XRD, SEM, EDAX, TEM, cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. XRD studies revealed a well defined layer structure and a linear variation of lattice parameters with the addition of lanthanum and lithium confirmed phase pure compounds in a rhombohedral structure. TEM and SEM analysis shows that LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} has smaller particle size and regular morphological structure with narrow size distribution than those of LiNiO{sub 2}. Variations of dual mixing and hexagonal ordering with the substituted elements have enhanced the charge/discharge capacities at both room (25 °C) and elevated temperatures (45 °C), respectively. LiLa{sub 0.10}Li{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.80}O{sub 2} had high charge/discharge capacity, low irreversible capacity and better elevated temperature performance.

  19. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  20. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  1. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  2. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  3. Single electrospun porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers as anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Wang, Xinghui; Qiao, Li; Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Xiuwan; Zheng, Yunxian; He, Deyan

    2013-04-01

    Porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers were prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with subsequent heating treatment. The resultant nanofibers are composed of interconnected primary nanocrystals and numerous nanopores with heterostructures between NiO and ZnO. Such characteristics of the structure can lead to excellent electrochemical performances when the nanofiber was evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The porous NiO-ZnO nanofiber electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 949 mA h g(-1) after 120 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1), and maintains around 707 mA h g(-1) at a current density as high as 3.2 A g(-1). Even after cycling at high rates, the electrode still retains a high discharge capacity of up to 1185 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1).

  4. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  5. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  6. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Lithium-molybdenum Disulfide Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The lithium-molybdenum disulfide system offers attractive characteristics including high rate capability, successful operation up to 75 C, a very low self-discharge rate, a good cycle life and safety characteristics which compare favorably to those of other lithium cells. Moreover, the materials and manufacturing costs for the system is effectively controlled, so the cells should ultimately be competitive with currently marketed rechargeable cells.

  7. Capacity-cycle life behavior in secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Carter, B. J.; Shen, D.; Yen, S. P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The practical utilization of high energy density rechargeable lithium cells is dependent upon maintaining high capacity for the duration of the required cycle life. However, a critical, yet generic problem with room temperature lithium systems is that the capacity often declines considerably during the early stages of cycling. The results of our studies are reported on electrolyte degradation which is observed after cells have undergone 300 and 700 deep cycles with 3-methylsulfolane- and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran-LiAsF6 electrolytes, respectively.

  8. Lithium batteries: Application of neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    Several kinds of primary and secondary commercial lithium batteries, such as CR1/3 · 1H (Fujitsu), CR1220 and BR435 (Panasonic), ML1220 (Sanyo Excel) were investigated using neutron radiography; the variation of the lithium distribution inside these batteries upon discharging (and charging) were clarified by analyzing their visualized images. It was demonstrated that neutron radiography is a potential and useful method, especially in evaluating the reversibility of rechargeable batteries, which have been used under different discharging/charging conditions.

  9. A consideration of the morphology of electrochemically deposited lithium in an organic electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Katsuya; Keiichi Saito; Nemoto, Yasue; Arakawa, Masayasu

    Lithium rechargeable cells with lithium metal anodes are widely considered to have the highest energy density among comparable cells. However the life cycle and thermal stability of these cells must be improved. The poor performance of lithium metal cells is mainly explained by lithium dendrite growth. With a view to overcoming this problem, we considered the lithium deposition mechanism. We have been carrying out various experiments on the lithium deposition behavior. In this paper we used these results to propose the current and most likely lithium deposition mechanism. We suggest that lithium dendrites may be called whiskers because their shape satisfies the definition of whiskers as `fibrous crystals'. Their tip morphology remains unchanged during their growth, which means they grow from the base in the same way as whiskers of tin from thin films under stress. Lithium deposited under a protective film will experience stress because the deposition is non-uniform. The protective film will break in order to release this stress thus, lithium whiskers may then grow in the form of extrusions. To support our assumption, we calculated the possible morphology of the lithium with the boundary condition that pressure induced by the surface tension is the same throughout the lithium surface. The calculation indicated three types of shape depending on the value of the surface tension and internal pressure. If lithium deformation is limited by the creep strength of bulk lithium and the lithium whiskers, the whisker growth is described by the calculated shape.

  10. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells. PMID:27420388

  11. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  12. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  13. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  14. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  15. Solvothermal preparation of tin phosphide as a long-life anode for advanced lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Hongzhe; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Lanbing; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) nanoparticles with different sizes are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method at 180 °C for 10 h. The as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have an average size of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, their size could be easily controlled by the solvent ratio. The long cycle stability and rate performance of the as-obtained Sn4P3 nanoparticles have been tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Electrochemical measurements show that the Sn4P3 nanoparticles with a smallest size give the best cycling and rate performances. They deliver a discharge capacity of 612 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles and could still maintain 442 mAh g-1 after 320 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 within voltage limit of 0.01-3.0 V. Even after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the specific capacity still could be remained at 315 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performances of Sn4P3 electrode might be largely attributed to their small-size. Furthermore, the as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have also been tested as an anode material for Na-ion batteries, this Sn4P3 anode can deliver a reversible capacity of 305 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g-1.

  16. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O(2-) vacancies (vs. all O(2-) ions). The electronic conductivity and Li(+)ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g(-1) and charge capacity of 286 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g(-1) with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g(-1) and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  17. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes.

  18. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes. PMID:20677207

  19. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  20. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  1. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialysis (machine) Medicines to treat symptoms Whole bowel irrigation with a special solution taken by mouth or through a tube through the nose into the stomach (to flush sustained-release lithium quickly through the stomach and intestines)

  2. Evaluation of Carbon Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C-K.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both liquid phase intercalation technique and electrochemical intercalation technique were examined for the Li-carbon material preparation. The electrochemical techniques include a intermittent discharge method and a two step method. These two electrochemical techniques can ensure to achieve the maximum reversible Li capacity for common commercially available carbon materials. The carbon materials evaluated by the intercalacation method includes: pitch coke, petroleum cole, PAN fiber and graphite materials. Their reversible Li capacity were determined and compared. In this paper, we also demonstrate the importance of EPDM binder composition in the carbon electrode. Our results indicated that it can impact the Li intercalation and de-intercalation capacity in carbon materials. Finally, two possibilities that may help explain the capacity degradation during practical cell cycling were proposed.

  3. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries for implantable devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.b.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x-ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin-film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001 %/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li-LiCoO{sub 2} thin-film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  4. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  5. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  6. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  7. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  8. Recharge from a subsidence crater at the Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, G. V.; Ely, D.M.; Hokett, S. L.; Gillespie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Current recharge through the alluvial fans of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is considered to be negligible, but the impact of more than 400 nuclear subsidence craters on recharge is uncertain. Many of the craters contain a playa region, but the impact of these playas has not been addressed. It was hypothesized that a crater playa would focus infiltration through the surrounding coarser-grained material, thereby increasing recharge. Crater U5a was selected because it represented a worst case for runoff into craters. A borehole was instrumented for neutron logging beneath the playa center and immediately outside the crater. Physical and hydraulic properties were measured along a transect in the crater and outside the crater. Particle-size analysis of the 14.6 m of sediment in the crater and morphological features of the crater suggest that a large ponding event of ≈63000 m3 had occurred since crater formation. Water flow simulations with HYDRUS-2D, which were corroborated by the measured water contents, suggest that the wetting front advanced initially by as much as 30 m yr−1 with a recharge rate 32 yr after the event of 2.5 m yr−1Simulations based on the measured properties of the sediments suggest that infiltration will occur preferentially around the playa perimeter. However, these sediments were shown to effectively restrict future recharge by storing water until removal by evapotranspiration (ET). This work demonstrated that subsidence craters may be self-healing.

  9. Stabilizing the surface of lithium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, J. T.; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-05-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal anode for the next generation of high capacity rechargeable batteries, including Li-air, Li-S, and other Li-based batteries using intercalation compounds. To enable the broad applications for lithium anodes, more fundamental studies need to be conducted to simultaneously address the two barriers discussed above. One of the key breakthroughs in this field may come from the development of new electrolytes (and additives) which can form a stable SEI layer with enough mechanical strength and flexibility. The ideal electrolyte may consist of only two components; one component inhibits dendrite growth, while another component forms a stable SEI layer to improve Coulombic efficiency. In this review, the status of three approaches at manipulating and controlling the lithium metal – electrolyte interface were discussed. While previous studies concentrated on coatings with minimal surface connectivity, the approaches discussed, namely a coating that forms and dissipates into the electrolyte based on charge density, a coating bonded to the termination layer of lithium, and a conformal carbonate coating formed at the interface, all highlight new research directions. Although there are still many obstacles to be overcome, we are optimistic that Li metal can be used as an anode in rechargeable batteries in the foreseeable future. This will enable wide

  10. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  11. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage. PMID:27759005

  12. Evaluation and Testing of Commercially-Available Carbon Nanotubes as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) battery technology offers significant performance advantages over the nickel-based technologies used for energy storage for the majority of NASA's missions. Specifically Li-ion technology offers a threefold to fourfold increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and produces voltages in excess of three times the value of typical nickel-based battery systems. As part of the Advanced Battery Technology program at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a program on the evaluation of anodes for Li-ion cells and batteries was conducted. This study focused on the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes as anodes in Li-Ion cells. Candidate materials from multiple sources were evaluated. Their performance was compared to a standard anode comprised of mesocarbon microbeads. In all cases, the standard MCMB electrode exhibited superior performance. The details and results of the study are presented.

  13. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  14. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Wang, J.C.F.; Crocker, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.W.

    1999-03-16

    A method is described for producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of {approx_equal} 80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere. 4 figs.

  15. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-01

    In the work, a facile and green two-step synthetic strategy was purposefully developed to efficiently fabricate hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 microrods (MRs) with a high tap density of ∼0.85 g cm(3) , which were assembled by 1D nanofiber (NF) subunits, and further utilized as a long-life anode for advanced Li-ion batteries. The significant role of the mixed solvent of glycerin and water in the formation of such hierarchical mesoporous MRs was systematically investigated. After 488 cycles at a large current rate of 1000 mA g(-1) , the resulting ZnFe2 O4 MRs with high loading of ∼1.4 mg per electrode still preserved a reversible capacity as large as ∼542 mAh g(-1) . Furthermore, an initial charge capacity of ∼1150 mAh g(-1) is delivered by the ZnFe2 O4 anode at 100 mA g(-1) , resulting in a high Coulombic efficiency of ∼76 % for the first cycle. The superior Li-storage properties of the as-obtained ZnFe2 O4 were rationally associated with its mesoprous micro-/nanostructures and 1D nanoscaled building blocks, which accelerated the electron transportation, facilitated Li(+) transfer rate, buffered the large volume variations during repeated discharge/charge processes, and provided rich electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces for efficient lithium storage, particularly at high rates.

  16. A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

    2012-03-02

    Applications of rechargeable batteries are diverse and range from storing energy from renewable resources such as wind generators and solar arrays , powering electric vehicles and portable electronic devices. Significant R&D efforts have focused on achieving high energy density, long cycling life, low cost, and safety.1 Among all known rechargeable battery systems, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted considerable attention.2, 3 Elemental sulfur is abundant, and is a very attractive cathode material for lithium batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (1672 mAh g-1) and specific energy (2600 Wh kg-1), assuming complete reaction of lithium with sulfur to form Li2S.

  17. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  18. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. PMID:24926965

  19. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  20. Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates.

  1. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  2. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  3. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  4. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  5. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g−1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na–SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  6. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g-1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  7. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  8. Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

  9. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  10. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  11. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  12. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  13. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  14. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  15. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhlke, John-Karl

    2002-02-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3 -, N2, Cl, SO4 2-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3 -, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  16. High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Gao; McIlwrath, Kevin; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.

  17. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  18. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  19. Porous perovskite CaMnO3 as an electrocatalyst for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuxiang; Yang, Jingang; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-11

    We report a facile synthesis method of preparing interconnected porous CaMnO3 nanostructures and their utilization as new cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The CaMnO3-based electrode enables much enhanced cyclability with a 620 mV smaller discharge-recharge voltage gap than that of the carbon-only cathode at a current rate of 50 mA gcarbon(-1). The improved performance is attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of CaMnO3 with a porous nanostructure.

  20. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  1. Detection of subsurface structures underneath dendrites formed on cycled lithium metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Harry, Katherine J; Hallinan, Daniel T; Parkinson, Dilworth Y; MacDowell, Alastair A; Balsara, Nitash P

    2014-01-01

    Failure caused by dendrite growth in high-energy-density, rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anodes has prevented their widespread use in applications ranging from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. Efforts to solve the lithium dendrite problem have focused on preventing the growth of protrusions from the anode surface. Synchrotron hard X-ray microtomography experiments on symmetric lithium-polymer-lithium cells cycled at 90 °C show that during the early stage of dendrite development, the bulk of the dendritic structure lies within the electrode, underneath the polymer/electrode interface. Furthermore, we observed crystalline impurities, present in the uncycled lithium anodes, at the base of the subsurface dendritic structures. The portion of the dendrite protruding into the electrolyte increases on cycling until it spans the electrolyte thickness, causing a short circuit. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it seems that preventing dendrite formation in polymer electrolytes depends on inhibiting the formation of subsurface structures in the lithium electrode.

  2. Fumed Silica-Based Single-Ion Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Hu, Heyi; Fu, Yanbao; Baker, Gregory L; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-01

    A composite lithium electrolyte composed of polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) is synthesized and characterized. Polyanions immobilized by the silica nanoparticles have reduced anion mobility. Composite nanoparticles grafted by poly(lithium 4-styrenesulfonate) only have moderate conductivity at 60 °C. Almost an order increase of the conductivity to ∼10(-6) S/cm is achieved by co-polymerization of the poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate with sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, which enhances dissociation between lithium cation and polyanion and facilitates lithium ion transfer from the inner part of the polyelectrolyte layer. This composite electrolyte has the potential to suppress lithium dendrite growth and enable the use of lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries.

  3. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  4. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  5. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  6. Challenges facing lithium batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Soon; Chen, Zonghai; Freunberger, Stefan A; Ji, Xiulei; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil; Yushin, Gleb; Nazar, Linda F; Cho, Jaephil; Bruce, Peter G

    2012-10-01

    Energy-storage technologies, including electrical double-layer capacitors and rechargeable batteries, have attracted significant attention for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and "load leveling" of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Transforming lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors requires a step change in the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, new electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of the processes on which the devices depend. The Review will consider some of the current scientific issues underpinning lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors.

  7. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  8. Lithium iodide cardiac pacemakers: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    A new long-life cardiac pacemaker pulse generator powered by a lithium iodide fuel cell was introduced in Canada in 1973. The compact, hermetically sealed unit is easily implanted and reliable, has excellent patient acceptance and has an anticipated battery life of almost 14 years. Among 105 patients who received a lithium iodide pacemaker, complications occurred in 18. The lithium iodide pacemaker represents a significant advance in pacemaker generator technology and is recommended for long-term cardiac pacing; the manufacturer guarantees the pulse generator for 6 years. Images FIG. 1 PMID:974965

  9. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  10. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Li2FeSiO4/C composite as a high performance cathode for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengping; Liu, Jiatu; Ji, Ran; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yang, Shuanglei; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-10-01

    Li2MSiO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, et al.) has received great attention because of the theoretical possibility to reversibly deintercalate two Li+ ions from the structure. However, the silicates still suffer from low electronic conductivity, sluggish lithium ion diffusion and structural instability upon deep cycling. In order to solve these problems, a "hard-soft" templating method has been developed to synthesize three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Li2FeSiO4/C composites. The 3DOM Li2FeSiO4/C composites show a high reversible capacity (239 mAh g-1) with ∼1.50 lithium ion insertion/extraction, a capacity retention of nearly 100% after 420 cycles and excellent rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the interconnected carbon framework that improves the electronic conductivity and the 3DOM structure that offers short Li ion diffusion pathways and restrains volumetric changes.

  11. Porous nano-structured Co3O4 anode materials generated from coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Danhua; Geng, Hongbo; Wang, Jiaqing; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-21

    A simple and scalable coordination-derived method for the synthesis of porous Co3O4 hollow nanospheres is described here. The initially formed coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates (CDSAAs) could act as the precursor followed by calcination treatment. Then the porous hollow Co3O4 nanospheres are obtained, in which the primary Co3O4 nanoparticles are inter-dispersed. When the nanospheres are used as anode materials for lithium storage, they show excellent coulombic efficiency, high lithium storage capacity and superior cycling performance. In view of the facile synthesis and excellent electrochemical performance obtained, this protocol to fabricate special porous hollow frameworks could be further extended to other metal oxides and is expected to improve the practicality of superior cycle life anode materials with large volume excursions for the development of the next generation of LIBs.

  12. Stability of aluminum substrates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Plichta, Edward J.

    The stability of aluminum positive electrode substrates in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was investigated in solutions of lithium imide salt in ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (20:20:60 vol.%) using the technique of controlled potential coulometry. It was found that the protective surface film formed on aluminum in these solutions breaks down at potentials above 3.5 V during the charging of lithium-ion cells resulting in the corrosion of aluminum substrates and the premature failure of these cells. It was also found that the use of lithium tetrafluoroborate as an electrolyte additive prevents the breakdown of the protective film on aluminum substrates and prevents their corrosion at potentials above 3.5 V. In contrast to the lithium imide solutions, the aluminum substrates were found to be quite stable in lithium methide electrolyte solutions and did not undergo any significant corrosion at potentials up to about 4.25 V vs. the lithium reference electrode.

  13. Nanorod and nanoparticle shells in concentration gradient core-shell lithium oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-June; Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-12-01

    The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core-shell (CGCS) particles with different shell morphologies were evaluated and compared. We modified the shell morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods, because nanorods can result in a reduced surface area of the shell such that the outer shell would have less contact with the corrosive electrolyte, resulting in improved electrochemical properties. Electron microscopy studies coupled with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis revealed the presence of a concentration gradient shell consisting of nanoparticles and nanorods before and after thermal lithiation at high temperature. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data and the chemical analysis results showed no variations of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of both produced CGCS particles except for the degree of cation mixing (or exchange) in Li and transition metal layers. As anticipated, the dense nanorods present in the shell gave rise to a high tap density (2.5 g cm(-3) ) with a reduced pore volume and surface area. Intimate contact among the nanorods is likely to improve the resulting electric conductivity. As a result, the CGCS Li[Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 with the nanorod shell retained approximately 85.5% of its initial capacity over 150 cycles in the range of 2.7-4.5 V at 60 °C. The charged electrode consisting of Li0.16 [Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 CGCS particles with the nanorod shell also displayed a main exothermic reaction at 279.4 °C releasing 751.7 J g(-1) of heat. Due to the presence of the nanorod shell in the CGCS particles, the electrochemical and thermal properties are substantially superior to those of the CGCS particles with the nanoparticle shell.

  14. Nanorod and nanoparticle shells in concentration gradient core-shell lithium oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-June; Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-12-01

    The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core-shell (CGCS) particles with different shell morphologies were evaluated and compared. We modified the shell morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods, because nanorods can result in a reduced surface area of the shell such that the outer shell would have less contact with the corrosive electrolyte, resulting in improved electrochemical properties. Electron microscopy studies coupled with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis revealed the presence of a concentration gradient shell consisting of nanoparticles and nanorods before and after thermal lithiation at high temperature. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data and the chemical analysis results showed no variations of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of both produced CGCS particles except for the degree of cation mixing (or exchange) in Li and transition metal layers. As anticipated, the dense nanorods present in the shell gave rise to a high tap density (2.5 g cm(-3) ) with a reduced pore volume and surface area. Intimate contact among the nanorods is likely to improve the resulting electric conductivity. As a result, the CGCS Li[Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 with the nanorod shell retained approximately 85.5% of its initial capacity over 150 cycles in the range of 2.7-4.5 V at 60 °C. The charged electrode consisting of Li0.16 [Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 CGCS particles with the nanorod shell also displayed a main exothermic reaction at 279.4 °C releasing 751.7 J g(-1) of heat. Due to the presence of the nanorod shell in the CGCS particles, the electrochemical and thermal properties are substantially superior to those of the CGCS particles with the nanoparticle shell. PMID:25044175

  15. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  16. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  17. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  18. The ion transport mechanism of lithium polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongli

    Lithium polymer electrolytes are of great interest for use in polymer-electrolyte rechargeable batteries. However, the lithium transport mechanism in the polymer electrolyte has not been fully understood, due partly to the lack of a means to characterize a key lithium transport property, the transference number, correctly and efficiently. This research pioneered the use of the electrophoretic nuclear magnetic resonance technique to measure the lithium transference number (TsbLi) of polymer electrolytes. The development of this technique is described. It is shown that the technique is strictly valid regardless of the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte and the measurement protocol is relatively straightforward. As a result, the accuracy of the technique is high compared to existing techniques. The lithium transport mechanism in polymer gel electrolytes are investigated systematically with complementary techniques including vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering), nuclear magnetic resonance, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The characteristic lithium transport behavior as a function of the temperature, the salt concentration, the anion type, and the polymer matrices is established. Perfluoroimide and perfluoromethide lithium salts always lead to a larger lithium transference number compared to conventional lithium salts. In poly(vinylidene fluororide-hexfloropropylene) based gel electrolytes, the perfluoroimide anion, (CFsb3SOsb3)sb2Nsp-, results in a nearly invariant TsbLi over a wide salt concentration range. In contrast, the CFsb3SOsb3sp- anion results in TsbLi decreasing monotonically with increasing salt concentration. In poly(acrylonitrile), which binds with Lisp+, the TsbLi versus LiCFsb3SOsb3 concentration curve is nearly parabolic. A qualitative model is proposed which defines the important molecular interactions underlying the lithium transport behavior and extends the Fuoss and Onsager theory to systems with extensive ion complexation.

  19. Multi-scale experimental programs for estimating groundwater recharge in hydrologically changing basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Neil; Larsen, Josh; Reading, Lucy; Bulovic, Nevenka; Jarihani, Abdollah; Finch, Warren

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater recharge estimates are required to evaluate sustainable groundwater abstractions and to support groundwater impacts assessments associated with minerals and energy extraction. Increasingly, recharge estimates are also needed for regional and global scale water cycle modelling. This is especially the case in the great arid and semi-arid basins of the world due to increased water scarcity and dependence of ecosystems and livelihoods on their water supplies, and the considerable potential influence of groundwater on the hydrological cycle. Groundwater resources in the semi-arid Surat Basin of south-east Queensland, Australia, support extensive groundwater-dependent ecosystems and have historically been utilised for regional agriculture and urban water-use. Large volumes of water are currently being produced and will continue to do so as a part of coal seam gas extraction. There is considerable uncertainty about the impacts of gas extraction on water resources and the hydrological cycle, and much of this uncertainty stems from our limited knowledge about recharge processes and how to upscale them. Particular questions are about the role of storm events in controlling annual recharge, the relative contributions of local 'recharge zones' versus diffuse recharge and the translation of (relatively easily quantified) shallow drainage estimates to groundwater recharge. A multi-scale recharge research program is addressing these questions, using multiple approaches in estimating groundwater recharge, including plot and catchment scale monitoring, use of remote sensed data and simulation models. Results during the first year of the program have resulted in development of process hypotheses and experimental designs at three field sites representing key gaps in knowledge. The presentation will overview the process of designing the experimental program; how the results from these sites will be integrated with existing knowledge; and how results will be used to advance

  20. Novel forms of carbon as potential anodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study is to design and synthesize novel carbons as potential electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A synthetic approach which utilizes inorganic templates is described and initial characterization results are discussed. The templates also act as a catalyst enabling carbon formation at low temperatures. This synthetic approach should make it easier to control the surface and bulk characteristics of these carbons.

  1. Cr, N-Codoped TiO2 Mesoporous Microspheres for Li-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R; Meyer III, Harry M; Bridges, Craig A; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cr,N-codoped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres synthesized using hydrothermal and subsequent nitridation treatment, exhibited higher solubility of nitrogen, and improved electrical conductivity than N-doped TiO2, as anode for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, which led to improving charge-discharge capacity at 0.1 C and twice higher rate capability compared to that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 mesoporous microsphere at 10 C

  2. 3D mapping of lithium in battery electrodes using neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, R. Gregory; Wang, Howard

    2015-08-01

    The neutron depth profiling technique based on the neutron activation reaction, 6Li (n, α) 3H, was applied with two dimensional (2D) pinhole aperture scans to spatially map lithium in 3D. The technique was used to study model LiFePO4 electrodes of rechargeable batteries for spatial heterogeneities of lithium in two cathode films that had undergone different electrochemical cycling histories. The method is useful for better understanding the functioning and failure of batteries using lithium as the active element.

  3. Use of lithium batteries in biomedical devices. Technical report No. 8, July 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, B.B.

    1989-06-15

    Lithium batteries have played an important role in the development of useful implantable biomedical devices. The cardiac pacemaker is the most well known of these devices and high-energy, long-life reliable lithium primary cells have effectively replaced all of the alkaline cells previously used in these electronic systems. The recent development of higher-power devices such as drug pumps and cardiac defibrillators require the use of batteries with higher energy and power capabilities. High rate rechargeable batteries that can be configured as flat prismatic cells would be especially useful in some of these new applications. Lithium polymer electrolyte-batteries may find a useful role in these new areas.

  4. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  5. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  7. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  9. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  10. Recharge in semiarid mountain environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.W.

    1982-06-01

    A systematic investigation of tritium activity in precipitation, surface water, springs, and ground water of the Roswell artesian basin in New Mexico, has been supplemented by hydrogeologic reconnaissance of spring systems; by various statistical correlations and spectral analysis of stream flow and water level records of observation wells; by spring discharge measurements; by stable isotope determinations (oxygen 18 and deuterium); and by numerical modeling of part of the basin. Two recharge contributions to the Principal or Carbonate Aquifer have been distinguished principally on the basis of their tritium label and aquifer response characteristics. Almost all basin waters (including deep ground water) fall close to the meteoric line of hydrogen/oxygen isotope composition, and this rules out a juvenile origin or appreciable bedrock interaction.

  11. JPL lithium doped solar cell development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    One of the most significant problems encountered in the use of silicon solar cells in space is the sensitivity of the device to electron and proton radiation exposure. The p-diffused-into-n-base solar cells were replaced with the more radiation tolerant n-diffused-into-p-base solar cells. Another advancement in achieving greater radiation tolerance was the discovery that the addition of lithium to n-base silicon resulted in what appeared to be annealing of radiation-induced defects. This phenomenon is being exploited to develop a high efficiency radiation resistant lithium-doped solar cell. Lithium-doped solar cells fabricated from oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich silicon were obtained with average initial efficiencies of 11.9% at air mass zero and 28 C, as compared to state-of-the-art n-p cells fabricated from 10 ohm cm silicon with average efficiencies of 11.3% under similar conditions. Lithium-doped cells demonstrated the ability to withstand three to five times the fluence of 1-MeV electrons before degrading to a power equivalent to state-of-the-art solar cells. The principal investigations are discussed with respect to fabrication of high efficiency radiation resistant lithium-doped cells, including starting material, p-n junction diffusion, lithium source introduction, and lithium diffusion.

  12. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  13. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  15. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  16. Effects of Pulse Plating on lithium electrodeposition, morphology and cycling efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Heng; Fey, Edmond O.; Trimm, Bryan D.; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2014-12-01

    In order to address lithium dendrite formation and low cycling efficiency issues, Pulse Plating (PP) and Reverse Pulse Plating (RPP) have been systematically investigated for lithium electrodeposition with a modified button cell device. Compared with Direct Current (DC) electrodeposition, PP waveforms with short and widely spaced pulses improve lithium deposition morphology and cycling efficiency under diffusion-controlled conditions. While RPP waveforms with high current density anodic pulses further improve lithium cycling efficiency, no obvious improvement in morphology was seen under the conditions tested. This study suggests that PP and RPP could be powerful tools for utilizing lithium metal anodes in high energy density rechargeable battery systems, especially when high instant power is required.

  17. Recharge and groundwater models: An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.

    2002-01-01

    Recharge is a fundamental component of groundwater systems, and in groundwater-modeling exercises recharge is either measured and specified or estimated during model calibration. The most appropriate way to represent recharge in a groundwater model depends upon both physical factors and study objectives. Where the water table is close to the land surface, as in humid climates or regions with low topographic relief, a constant-head boundary condition is used. Conversely, where the water table is relatively deep, as in drier climates or regions with high relief, a specified-flux boundary condition is used. In most modeling applications, mixed-type conditions are more effective, or a combination of the different types can be used. The relative distribution of recharge can be estimated from water-level data only, but flux observations must be incorporated in order to estimate rates of recharge. Flux measurements are based on either Darcian velocities (e.g., stream base-flow) or seepage velocities (e.g., groundwater age). In order to estimate the effective porosity independently, both types of flux measurements must be available. Recharge is often estimated more efficiently when automated inverse techniques are used. Other important applications are the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells and the estimation of paleorecharge rates using carbon-14.

  18. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  19. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  20. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  1. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ∼ 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  2. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  3. SnO2 hollow structures and TiO2 nanosheets for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun Song; Archer, Lynden A.; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2011-01-01

    As an important energy storage platform for portable electronics, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been challenged by steadily growing demands for better performance, improved safety, and enhanced reliability. A variety of nanomaterials has emerged with good electrochemical properties and can be regarded as promising electrode materials for LIBs. In this feature article, we will specifically discuss two nanomaterials systems with unique structures, which show particular promise as anode materials for LIBs: tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow spheres and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanosheets (NSs) with exposed (001) high-energy facets. For both systems, we survey approaches for synthesizing the unique nanostructured materials required for improved LIB performance and subsequently review their lithium storage properties. By focusing on SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, we seek to provide rational understanding of the relationship between proper nanostructuring and enhanced physicochemical properties of the active anode material in LIBs; hopefully uncovering new possibilities to generate advanced materials for next generation rechargeable batteries.

  4. Selective deposition and stable encapsulation of lithium through heterogeneous seeded growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kai; Lu, Zhenda; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Xiong, Feng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Li, Yuzhang; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Lithium metal is an attractive anode material for rechargeable batteries, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity of 3,860 mAh g-1. Despite extensive research efforts, there are still many fundamental challenges in using lithium metal in lithium-ion batteries. Most notably, critical information such as its nucleation and growth behaviour remains elusive. Here we explore the nucleation pattern of lithium on various metal substrates and unravel a substrate-dependent growth phenomenon that enables selective deposition of lithium metal. With the aid of binary phase diagrams, we find that no nucleation barriers are present for metals exhibiting a definite solubility in lithium, whereas appreciable nucleation barriers exist for metals with negligible solubility. We thereafter design a nanocapsule structure for lithium metal anodes consisting of hollow carbon spheres with nanoparticle seeds inside. During deposition, the lithium metal is found to predominantly grow inside the hollow carbon spheres. Such selective deposition and stable encapsulation of lithium metal eliminate dendrite formation and enable improved cycling, even in corrosive alkyl carbonate electrolytes, with 98% coulombic efficiency for more than 300 cycles.

  5. Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, M; Kentgens, A P M; Mulder, F M

    2002-07-25

    Microcrystalline TiO(2) with an anatase crystal structure is used as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries, and also as a material for electrochromic and solar-cell devices. When intercalated with lithium, as required for battery applications, TiO(2) anatase undergoes spontaneous phase separation into lithium-poor (Li(0.01)TiO(2)) and lithium-rich (Li(0.6)TiO(2)) domains on a scale of several tens of nanometres. During discharge, batteries need to maintain a constant electrical potential between their electrodes over a range of lithium concentrations. The two-phase equilibrium system in the electrodes provides such a plateau in potential, as only the relative phase fractions vary on charging (or discharging) of the lithium. Just as the equilibrium between a liquid and a vapour is maintained by a continuous exchange of particles between the two phases, a similar exchange is required to maintain equilibrium in the solid state. But the time and length scales over which this exchange takes place are unclear. Here we report the direct observation by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of the continuous lithium-ion exchange between the intermixed crystallographic phases of lithium-intercalated TiO(2). We find that, at room temperature, the continuous flux of lithium ions across the phase boundaries is as high as 1.2 x 10(20) s(-1) m(-2).

  6. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  7. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  8. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  9. Assessment of Lithium-based Battery Electrolytes Developed under the NASA PERS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, NASA formally completed the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Program, which was established in 2000 in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The goal of this program was to ultimately develop an advanced, space-qualified battery technology, which embodied a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and complementary components, with improved performance characteristics that would address future aerospace battery requirements. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. A variety of cell and polymeric electrolyte concepts were pursued as part of the development efforts undertaken at numerous governmental, industrial and academic laboratories. Numerous candidate electrolyte materials were developed, synthesized and optimized for evaluation. Utilizing the component screening facility and the "standardized" test procedures developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, electrochemical screening and performance evaluations of promising candidate materials were completed. This overview summarizes test results for a variety of candidate electrolyte materials that were developed under the PERS Program. Electrolyte properties are contrasted and compared to the original project goals, and the strengths and weaknesses of the electrolyte chemistries are discussed. Limited cycling data for full-cells using lithium metal and vanadium oxide electrodes are also presented. Based on measured electrolyte properties, the projected performance characteristics and temperature limitations of batteries utilizing

  10. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    , and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

  11. Towards a rechargeable alcohol biobattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addo, Paul K.; Arechederra, Robert L.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    This research focused on the transition of biofuel cell technology to rechargeable biobatteries. The bioanode compartment of the biobattery consisted of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized into a carbon composite paste with butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid serving as the electrolyte. Ferrocene was added to shuttle electrons to/from the electrode surface/current collector. The bioanode catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in discharge mode. This bioanode was coupled to a cathode that consisted of Prussian Blue in a carbon composite paste with Nafion 212 acting as the separator between the two compartments. The biobattery can be fabricated in a charged mode with ethanol and have an open circuit potential of 0.8 V in the original state prior to charging or in the discharged mode with acetaldehyde and have an open circuit potential of 0.05 V. After charging it has an open circuit potential of 1.2 V and a maximum power density of 13.0 μW cm -3 and a maximum current density of 35.0 μA cm -3, respectively. The stability and efficiency of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging current of 0.4 mA and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles. This is a new type of secondary battery inspired by the metabolic processes of the living cell, which is an effective energy conversion system.

  12. The NASA Lithium Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is sponsoring research to develop advanced primary and secondary lithium cells. Lithium cells are conducive to aerospace use because they have high specific energy, volumetric energy density, and long storage capability. The primary cell research is centered on the Li/SOCl2 system. It is in the late development stage and all effort is being placed on resolving safety problems. The secondary cell, which is in the development stage, is the Li/TiS2 system. The objective is to produce a 100 wh/kg cell capable of operating in a geosynchronous orbit for 10 years. The development of improved conductivity polymeric films for electrochemical use is also being investigated. The lightweight batteries will have many applications in space and are already being prepared for the 1986 Galileo mission to Jupiter.

  13. Lithium intercalation in porous carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    Carbons derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon electrodes have a bulk density of 0.35-0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, relatively low surface areas (< 10 m{sup 2}/g), and micron-size cells. Pyrolysis temperature influences the reversible lithium intercalation and the irreversible capacity (associated with the formation of the passivating layer). Carbon electrodes pyrolyzed at 600{degrees}C have first-cycle capacity as high as 550 mAh/g as well as large irreversible capacity, 440 mAh/g. Electrodes prepared at 1050{degrees}C have reversible capacities around 270 mAh/g with relatively lower capacity losses (120 mAh/g). Doping the organic precursors with phosphoric acid, prior to pyrolysis at 1050{degrees}C, leads to carbon electrodes with reversible capacities as high as 450 mAh/g. The capacity of doped carbon increased with increasing phosphorus concentration in the samples. The doped carbon anodes exhibited good cycleability and excellent coulombic efficiency. The electrochemical performance is related to morphology, chemical composition, and local structural order.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  15. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  16. Use of environmental isotope tracer and GIS techniques to estimate basin recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odunmbaku, Abdulganiu A. A.

    The extensive use of ground water only began with the advances in pumping technology at the early portion of 20th Century. Groundwater provides the majority of fresh water supply for municipal, agricultural and industrial uses, primarily because of little to no treatment it requires. Estimating the volume of groundwater available in a basin is a daunting task, and no accurate measurements can be made. Usually water budgets and simulation models are primarily used to estimate the volume of water in a basin. Precipitation, land surface cover and subsurface geology are factors that affect recharge; these factors affect percolation which invariably affects groundwater recharge. Depending on precipitation, soil chemistry, groundwater chemical composition, gradient and depth, the age and rate of recharge can be estimated. This present research proposes to estimate the recharge in Mimbres, Tularosa and Diablo Basin using the chloride environmental isotope; chloride mass-balance approach and GIS. It also proposes to determine the effect of elevation on recharge rate. Mimbres and Tularosa Basin are located in southern New Mexico State, and extend southward into Mexico. Diablo Basin is located in Texas in extends southward. This research utilizes the chloride mass balance approach to estimate the recharge rate through collection of groundwater data from wells, and precipitation. The data were analysed statistically to eliminate duplication, outliers, and incomplete data. Cluster analysis, piper diagram and statistical significance were performed on the parameters of the groundwater; the infiltration rate was determined using chloride mass balance technique. The data was then analysed spatially using ArcGIS10. Regions of active recharge were identified in Mimbres and Diablo Basin, but this could not be clearly identified in Tularosa Basin. CMB recharge for Tularosa Basin yields 0.04037mm/yr (0.0016in/yr), Diablo Basin was 0.047mm/yr (0.0016 in/yr), and 0.2153mm/yr (0.00848in

  17. Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO4: towards a redox flow lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qizhao; Li, Hong; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2013-02-14

    Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO(4) was successfully demonstrated using ferrocene derivatives, based on which a novel energy storage system--the redox flow lithium-ion battery (RFLB), was devised by integrating the operation flexibility of a redox flow battery and high energy density of a lithium-ion battery. Distinct from the recent semi-solid lithium rechargeable flow battery, the energy storage materials of RFLB stored in separate energy tanks remain stationary upon operation, giving us a fresh perspective on building large-scale energy storage systems with higher energy density and improved safety.

  18. Phase-change enabled 2D Li3V2(PO4)3/C submicron sheets for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Ni, Xiao; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-09-01

    The exploration of cathode materials with high capacity and power, fast charge/discharge rate, long lifespan and broad temperature adaptability is a challenge for the practical application of lithium ion batteries. Here, submicro-sheet Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) cathode materials have been successfully synthesized via a simple and universal phase-change method. This designed melting process increases the crystallinity and decreases the Li+ diffusion distance, which effectively enhances the cycling stability and rate performances of the LVP/C cathode materials. The LVP/C cathode materials exhibit high discharge specific capacity of 130 mAh g-1 in the first cycle. The capacity retention is almost 100% after 100 cycles. In addition, at 10 C, more than 80% of initial discharge capacity is retained after 800 cycles, indicating excellent cycle performance at high rate. Moreover, the synthesized LVP/C materials perform excellent low-temperature properties. At -20 °C, the specific capacity can reach 105 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C. This study provides a novel template-free synthesis method for nano/micro materials.

  19. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-21

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g(-1) in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g(-1) at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities. PMID:27029963

  20. Advanced binary search pattern for impedance spectra classification for determining the state of charge of a lithium iron phosphate cell using a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Patrick; Vollnhals, Michael; Renner, Daniel; Vergossen, David; John, Werner; Götze, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Further improvements on the novel method for state of charge (SOC) determination of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells based on the impedance spectra classification are presented. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is applied to impedance spectra of a LFP cell, with each impedance spectrum representing a distinct SOC for a predefined temperature. As a SVM is a binary classifier, only the distinction between two SOC can be computed in one iteration of the algorithm. Therefore a search pattern is necessary. A balanced tree search was implemented with good results. In order to further improvements of the SVM method, this paper discusses two new search pattern, namely a linear search and an imbalanced tree search, the later one based on an initial educated guess. All three search pattern were compared under various aspects like accuracy, efficiency, tolerance of disturbances and temperature dependancy. The imbalanced search tree shows to be the most efficient search pattern if the initial guess is within less than ±5 % SOC of the original SOC in both directions and exhibits the best tolerance for high disturbances. Linear search improves the rate of exact classifications for almost every temperature. It also improves the robustness against high disturbances and can even detect a certain number of false classifications which makes this search pattern unique. The downside is a much lower efficiency as all impedance spectra have to be evaluated while the tree search pattern only evaluate those on the tree path.

  1. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm−3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 200 mA g−1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g−1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g−1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  2. A general method of fabricating flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite aerogels as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guobo; Shi, Nan; Hess, Michael; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Wei; Fan, Tongxiang; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-04-28

    High-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), such as spinel-type metal oxides, generally suffer from poor Li(+) and e(-) conductivities. Their drastic crystal structure and volume changes, as a result of the conversion reaction mechanism with Li, severely impede the high-rate and cyclability performance toward their practical application. In this article, we present a general and facile approach to fabricate flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels as binder-free anodes where the spinel nanoparticles (NPs) are integrated in an interconnected rGO network. Benefiting from the hierarchical porosity, conductive network and mechanical stability constructed by interpenetrated rGO layers, and from the pillar effect of NPs in between rGO sheets, the hybrid system synergistically enhances the intrinsic properties of each component, yet is robust and flexible. Consequently, the spinel/rGO composite aerogels demonstrate greatly enhanced rate capability and long-term stability without obvious capacity fading for 1000 cycles at high rates of up to 4.5 A g(-1) in the case of CoFe2O4. This electrode design can successfully be applied to several other spinel ferrites such as MnFe2O4, Fe3O4, NiFe2O4 or Co3O4, all of which lead to excellent electrochemical performances.

  3. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials.

  4. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm-3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 200 mA g-1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g-1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g-1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g-1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  5. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-12

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm(-3)), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g(-1) at a specific current of 200 mA g(-1). Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g(-1), about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g(-1)) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  6. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  7. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Schou, M

    1979-03-01

    A recent study by Kling et al (1978) noted the finding of higher lithium concentrations in serum and brain of rats after an intraperitoneal injection (2 mmol lithium kg-1) of lithium orotate as a slurry than of lithium carbonate in solution. The authors suggested that lithium orotate might offer advantages in the treatment of patients. We repeated the experiments of Kling et al but in addition examined the kidney function of the rats. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were markedly lower in rats given lithium orotate than in rats given lithium carbonate, sodium chloride or a sham injection. The renal lithium clearance was significantly lower, the kidney weight and the lithium concentrations in serum, kidney and heart significantly higher after injection of lithium orotate than after injection of lithium carbonate. The higher lithium concentrations could be accounted for by the lower kidney function. It seems inadvisable to use lithium orotate for the treatment of patients. PMID:34690

  8. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  9. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-17

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  10. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycledmore » at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.« less

  11. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  12. Biologically inspired pteridine redox centres for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jihyun; Lee, Minah; Lee, Byungju; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Park, Chan Beum; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-10-01

    The use of biologically occurring redox centres holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems. Yet, to become practically feasible, it is critical to explore optimization strategies of biological redox compounds, along with in-depth studies regarding their underlying energy storage mechanisms. Here we report a molecular simplification strategy to tailor the redox unit of pteridine derivatives, which are essential components of ubiquitous electron transfer proteins in nature. We first apply pteridine systems of alloxazinic structure in lithium/sodium rechargeable batteries and unveil their reversible tautomerism during energy storage. Through the molecular tailoring, the pteridine electrodes can show outstanding performance, delivering 533 Wh kg-1 within 1 h and 348 Wh kg-1 within 1 min, as well as high cyclability retaining 96% of the initial capacity after 500 cycles at 10 A g-1. Our strategy combined with experimental and theoretical studies suggests guidance for the rational design of organic redox centres.

  13. Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V.; Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A.

    1996-12-01

    Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

  14. Polypyrrole Electrodes as Cathodes in a Rechargeable Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidanapathirana, K. P.; Careem, M. A.; Skaarup, S.; West, K.

    2002-12-01

    A study on Li ion rechargeable cells fabricated with polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer cathodes is reported in this paper. The PPy was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of large surfactant anion dodecylbenzene sulphonate. Polyacrylonitrile based solid polymer electrolytes containing lithium triflate and ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticisers were used as the separators. Cycling capacities of the cells were studied using cyclic voltammetry. Continuous charge/discharge experiments were performed using a custom-made charge/discharge setup. Impedance measurements were carried out in the frequency range 1 mHz to 10 kHz to investigate the charge transfer across the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the cells have a cycling capacity close to the theoretical value at slow scan rates and the capacity was considerable even at high scan rates. According to the continuous charge/discharge results, the cells could be cycled more than 1000 times without a significant decay in cycling charge. The charge/discharge factor of the cells was close to unity.

  15. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  16. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature.

  17. Effects of battery type and age on performance of rechargeable laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Milne, Andrew D; Brousseau, Claire A

    2013-10-01

    Optimal visualization of the glottis can be crucial to successful laryngoscopy. Limited information has been published on the light intensity delivered from laryngoscopes powered by rechargeable batteries. In this study the laryngoscope light intensity delivered from 10 nickel metal hydride (NiMH), 7 nickel cadmium (NiCAD), and 2 lithium (LI) batteries with 3-5 or more years of clinical usage were tested in comparison to 5 new NiMH batteries. Each battery was charged in a new laryngoscope handle and recharging unit for 24 h before testing. Light intensity (lux) from the bulb in the laryngoscope handle was recorded at 3-min intervals under continuous loading until battery depletion. The mean times ±1 standard deviation (SD) to minimum acceptable light output (2,000 lux from the handle) were new NiMH 70 ± 1 min, 3-year-old NiMH 96 ± 2 min, 5+ year-old NiCAD 45 ± 22 min, and 5+ year-old LI 117 ± 4 min. There were significant differences in the time to minimum light intensity among all groups (p = 0.00-0.04). All new and used batteries exceeded the minimum ISO standard of light intensity for more than 10 min. These data demonstrate that rechargeable laryngoscope batteries can safely be used for several years before requiring replacement.

  18. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  19. Ultrathin nickel oxide nanosheets for enhanced sodium and lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Zhu, Jixin; Yu, Linghui; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Zhichuan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Yan, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding sodium and lithium storage capability is successfully demonstrated in ultrathin NiO nanosheets (4-5 nm in thickness) synthesized via a facile solvothermal process followed by annealing in air. For sodium storage, the NiO nanosheets deliver a high reversible specific capacity of 299 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, and the capacity still remains up to 154 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the specific capacity maintains to be as high as 266 mA h g-1 during the 100th cycle at 1 A g-1. Such sodium storage capability of NiO nanosheets is by far one of the best reported for transition metal oxides. For lithium storage, the cell achieves a high reversible specific capacity of 1242 and 250 mA h g-1 at 0.2 and 15 A g-1, respectively. The capacity for lithium storage maintains to be 851 mA h g-1 during the 170th cycle at 2 A g-1. The present results demonstrate that ultrathin NiO nanosheets are highly attractive for fast sodium/lithium diffusion with high-rate capability for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

  20. A high performance ceramic-polymer separator for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Kichambare, Padmakar; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Rodrigues, Stanley; Subramanyam, Guru

    2016-01-01

    A three-layered (ceramic-polymer-ceramic) hybrid separator was prepared by coating ceramic electrolyte [lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP)] over both sides of polyethylene (PE) polymer membrane using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) technique. Ionic conductivities of membranes were evaluated after soaking PE and LAGP/PE/LAGP membranes in a 1 Molar (1M) lithium hexafluroarsenate (LiAsF6) electrolyte in ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) in volume ratio (1:1:1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to evaluate morphology and structure of the separators before and after cycling performance tests to better understand structure-property correlation. As compared to regular PE separator, LAGP/PE/LAGP hybrid separator showed: (i) higher liquid electrolyte uptake, (ii) higher ionic conductivity, (iii) lower interfacial resistance with lithium and (iv) lower cell voltage polarization during lithium cycling at high current density of 1.3 mA cm-2 at room temperature. The enhanced performance is attributed to higher liquid uptake, LAGP-assisted faster ion conduction and dendrite prevention. Optimization of density and thickness of LAGP layer on PE or other membranes through manipulation of PVD deposition parameters will enable practical applications of this novel hybrid separator in rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy, high power, longer cycle life, and higher safety level.