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Sample records for advanced rechargeable lithium

  1. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    3SO 2 electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 240"C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). Cathodes were placed in a Parr... LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL R.C. McDonald R. Vierra P. Harris M. Guentert F. Goebel C. Todino S. Hossain Yardney Technical Products, Inc. 82 Mechanic...61" INK rYPOT I AM 9al covmw 4 November 1991 Final Rpt: Sep 88 to Feb 91 ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL C: DAAL01-88-C-0849 R C

  2. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 2406C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). 3 Cathodes were placed in a Parr Bomb...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald, P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...Test Group 3 13 Test Group 4 22 Test Group 5 22 Test Group 6 24 Test Group 7 46 Test Group 8 52 Test Group 9 65 I CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 65 LITHIUM CYCLING

  3. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  4. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  5. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; ...

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  6. Facile Synthesis of Lithium Sulfide Nanocrystals for Use in Advanced Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-30

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1-5 μm). Electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  7. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  8. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  9. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  10. Latest advances in the manufacturing of 3D rechargeable lithium microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Stefania; Loveridge, Melanie; Beattie, Shane D.; Jahn, Marcus; Dashwood, Richard J.; Bhagat, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) technology have led to a niche industry of diverse small-scale devices that include microsensors, micromachines and drug-delivery systems. For these devices, there is an urgent need to develop Micro Lithium Ion Batteries (MLIBs) with dimensions on the scale 1-10 mm3 enabling on-board power delivery. Unfortunately, power limitations are inherent in planar 2D cells and only the advent of 3D designs and microarchitectures will lead to a real breakthrough in the microbattery technology. During the last few years, many efforts to optimise MLIBs were discussed in literature, both in the planar and 3D configurations. This review highlights the importance of 3D microarchitectured electrodes to fabricate batteries that can be device-integrated with exceptionally high specific power density coupled with exquisite miniaturisation. A wide literature overview is provided and recent advances in manufacturing routes to 3D-MLIBs comprising materials synthesis, device formulation, device testing are herein discussed. The advent of simple, economic and easily scalable fabrication processes such as 3D printing will have a decisive role in the growing field of micropower sources and microdevices.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    Nickelate in 18650 Cell 24 8. Installation of Resistance Welder 25 9. Bi-Cell Vacuum Dryer and with Activation Box 26 10. Semi...DOD lithium-ion rechargeable cells/batteries are composed of combinations using Asian 18650 cells including the BB2590. This dependence is due to the...much lower cost of the Asian and particularly the Chinese 18650 cells which are made on very large scale and also with lower labor costs. LithChem

  12. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  13. Mastering the interface for advanced all-solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Xi; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Xin, Sen; Xue, Leigang; Jia, Quanxi; Goodenough, John B

    2016-11-22

    A solid electrolyte with a high Li-ion conductivity and a small interfacial resistance against a Li metal anode is a key component in all-solid-state Li metal batteries, but there is no ceramic oxide electrolyte available for this application except the thin-film Li-P oxynitride electrolyte; ceramic electrolytes are either easily reduced by Li metal or penetrated by Li dendrites in a short time. Here, we introduce a solid electrolyte LiZr2(PO4)3 with rhombohedral structure at room temperature that has a bulk Li-ion conductivity σLi = 2 × 10(-4) S⋅cm(-1) at 25 °C, a high electrochemical stability up to 5.5 V versus Li(+)/Li, and a small interfacial resistance for Li(+) transfer. It reacts with a metallic lithium anode to form a Li(+)-conducting passivation layer (solid-electrolyte interphase) containing Li3P and Li8ZrO6 that is wet by the lithium anode and also wets the LiZr2(PO4)3 electrolyte. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 cell with a polymer catholyte shows good cyclability and a long cycle life.

  14. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  15. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  16. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  17. Light-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-04-10

    Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar energy in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-ion materials to investigate light-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium ion battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  18. All inorganic ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Schlaikjer, C.; Foster, D.; Kallianidis, M.

    Research and development was carried out on ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium batteries with inorganic SO2 electrolytes. The following solutes in SO2 were studied: tetrachloroaluminates, LiAlCl4, Li2B10Cl10, and LiGaCl4. Copper chloride (CuCl2) was used as one of the electrode materials.

  19. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  20. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  1. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  2. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g−1 and 84% at 150 mA g−1 over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g−1 (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  3. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Adams, Brian D.; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Wang, Jun; Bowden, Mark E.; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Jianzhi; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-18

    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  4. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium... public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  5. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium... public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and...

  6. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  7. Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-10-25

    Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process.

  8. Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-10-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process.

  9. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1994-11-01

    Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

  11. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  12. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research and development technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical considerations predict increased stability of cyclic ethers and diethers against reductive cleavage by lithium if the ethers have 2 methyl substitution. Diethers are solvents with low viscosity which are desirable for high rate rechargeable lithium batteries. Synergistic, mixed solvent effects increase electrolyte conductance and rate capability of lithium intercalating cathodes.

  13. Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

  14. Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

  15. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 < x ≤ 8) formed in the cycling are soluble in liquid electrolyte, which is the main reason for capacity loss and cycling instability. Functional polymers can tune the structure and property of sulfur electrodes, hold polysulfides, and improve cycle life. We have examined a

  16. 76 FR 70531 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium... public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery...

  17. 76 FR 54527 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  18. 76 FR 6180 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

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    2011-02-03

    ... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY...: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium...

  19. 76 FR 38741 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

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    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  20. 76 FR 22161 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

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    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 225 meeting: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small... Special Committee 225: Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes....

  1. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  2. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium.

  3. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  4. Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation of chlorine and thereby diminishing the capacity for corrosion. For a primary cell, greater discharge capacity was obtained with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. Since PMT becomes electrically insulating in the reduced state, this could be used as a built-in safety feature to avert the hazards associated with abuse over-discharge.

  5. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  6. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery...

  7. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eleventh meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  8. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  9. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twelfth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  10. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  11. Prototype Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    pentoxide [ V2o5 ], titanium disulfide [TiS ], vanadium V) sulfide [V2S 5 ], and lithium cobalt oxide [Li Co02]) witi high conductivity, ester-Eased...contaminated with lower oxides of vanadium. Best results are achieved using thin layers of ammonium metavanadate and forced air flow. Synthesis of V 205...b = 3.559A. c = 4.371A, orthorhombic. 3-59 NSWC TR 86-108 TABLE 3-16. X-RAY DIFFRACTION DATA FOR V2O5 STORED IN 2M LiAsF6 /MA AT 71 0 C d-spacing, A

  12. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  13. Long cycle life rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquariello, D. M.; Willstaedt, E. B.; Abraham, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    Cycle life and safety of delta-LiAl/TiS2 cells were evaluated using laboratory and AA-size cells. Analysis of the alloys (which contained 60, 70, 80, or 85 wt-pct. lithium and are designated 60 LiAl etc.) showed them to contain a mixture of elemental Li and Al4Li9. Cycling efficiencies correlated with the amount of free lithium in the anode. Using an electrolyte with the composition 48 v/o THF:48 v/o 2-MeTHF:4 v/o 2-MeF/LiAsF6(1.5M), a 70 LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell yielded a cycling efficiency of 96.4 pct. when cycled at a 100 pct. discharge depth which compares well with Li anode cycling efficiencies of 96 to 97.5 pct. obtained previously in this electrolyte. The highest cycling efficiency of any delta-LiAl/TiS2 laboratory cell was 96.7 pct. when the 60 LiAl alloy was used with the 35 v/o PC:35 v/o EC:30 v/o triglyme/LiAsF6(1.0M) electrolyte. The 70 LiAl alloy was selected for further testing in AA cells since it was malleable for the fabrication of spirally wound electrodes, and its overall cycling performance was sufficiently good. AA-size 70 LiAl/TiS2 cells appear to have capacity/rate properties similar to those for identical Li/TiS2 cells. The use of the delta-LiAl alloy anodes does not appear to offer any safety advantage when cycled cells are shorted or heated.

  14. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  15. A 65 Ah rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.

    1986-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide battery which has a number of superior performance characteristics which includes a high energy density, a high power density, and a long charge retention time was developed. The first cell sizes developed included a C size cell and an AA size cell. Over the last two years, a project to demonstrate the feasibility of the scale up to this technology to a BC size cell with 65 Ah capacity was undertaken. The objective was to develop, build, and test a .6 kWh storage battery consisting of 6 BC cells in series.

  16. Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

  17. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the fourteenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable...

  18. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain failure... certificate for installing equipment that uses rechargeable lithium-ion battery systems in Learjet Model...

  19. Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Welker, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively. In contrast, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 fibers can be pressed and sintered to form a cathode, without need for a binder or a conductive additive. The inter-grain contacts of the fibers are stronger and have fewer defects than do those of powder particles. These characteristics translate to increased flexibility and greater resilience on cycling and, consequently, to reduced loss of capacity from cycle to cycle. Moreover, in comparison with a powder-based cathode, a fiber-based cathode is expected to exhibit significantly greater ionic and electronic conduction along the axes of the fibers. Results of preliminary charge/discharge-cycling tests suggest that energy densities of LiCoO2- and LiNiO2-fiber cathodes are approximately double those of the corresponding powder-based cathodes.

  20. 77 FR 66084 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the tenth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  1. 77 FR 56253 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems-Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the ninth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium...

  2. 78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be used on an International Communications Group (ICG... applied for a supplemental type certificate for installing equipment that uses rechargeable lithium...

  3. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  4. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  5. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  6. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  7. Silicon anode for rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, R.; Si, Q.; Mizukoshi, F.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous lithium-air rechargeable cell with the configuration of Si/1 M LiClO4 in ethylene carbonate-diethylene carbonate/Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xP3-ySiyO12/5 M LiCl-1 M LiOH aqueous solution/carbon black, air is proposed. A silicon anode composed of mechanically milled silicon power with an average particle size of ca. 0.5 μm, vapor grown carbon fiber and a polyimide binder was examined. The open-circuit voltage at the charged state was 2.9 V at 25 °C. The discharge capacity of 700 mAh g-silicon-1 was retained for 40 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 with cut-off voltages of 3.5 and 1.5 V. Significant capacity fade was observed at deep charge and discharge cycling at 2000 mAh g-silicon-1.

  8. Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammone, R. J.; Binder, M.

    1986-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a rechargeable electrochemical cell that permits the oxidation of dithionite to occur without using chlorine as an intermediate oxidizing agent. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by providing an electrolyte including bromine dissolved in the liquid complex Li(s02)3A1C14.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  10. Chemical routes to synthesize lithium cobalt oxide powders for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallet, D.; Waghray, A.; Kumta, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) is known to be a good cathode material for high voltage (4V) rechargeable Li-ion batteries. New chemical routes based on aqueous solution chemistry have been developed to synthesize molecularly mixed precursors that transform to form LiCoO{sub 2} at temperatures as low as 400{degrees}C. The resultant oxide powders are nanocrystalline ({approx} 20-40 nm) and exhibit unique morphologies and microstructures depending on the molecular environment of the ions in solution. Cathodes fabricated from the oxide powders and tested in {open_quote}hockey-puck{close_quote} test cells exhibited specific capacities of about 135 mAh/g with a reversible range close to 0.5 Li ions. Results of the phase evolution and microstructural analysis are discussed in relation to the electrochemical performance of the cathodes.

  11. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries.

  12. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  13. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  14. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  16. Performance Versus Safety of Some Primary and Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Figure 3. A. Photograph of a BA-521 battery; B. a lithium - thionyl chloride ...contained lithium - thionyl chloride cells was offered to the CF for evaluation. This couple has very good low temperature performance but there are...hours VO LT A G E / v ol ts 0 batteries are not for use at low temperatures. There are other battery chemistries available, such as lithium - thionyl

  17. Lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cell performance after 35 years of storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Hamlen, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Much groundbreaking research in the field of lithium batteries occurred in the 1970s. Some of "the first" rechargeable lithium cells for commercial applications were fabricated by the Exxon Enterprises Battery Division in New Jersey. A small collection of 1978-era 25 mAh and 100 mAh button cells were preserved in the personal collections of the original researchers. This presented a unique opportunity to evaluate lithium cells after 35 years of storage. Cells were characterized for capacity, cycling, rate and impedance. Results were compared with original data as recovered from historical documents.

  18. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate... lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14, Code...

  19. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  20. 78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes special conditions for Airbus Model A350- 900 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with permanently installed rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain failure, operational, and maintenance characteristics that differ significantly from those of the nickel-cadmium and lead-acid......

  1. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  2. Electrochemical properties of doped lithium titanate compounds and their performance in lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenouda, Atef Y.; Murali, K. R.

    Several substituted titanates of formula Li 4- xMg xTi 5- xV xO 12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were synthesized (and investigated) as anode materials in rechargeable lithium batteries. Five samples labeled as S1-S5 were calcined (fired) at 900 °C for 10 h in air, and slowly cooled to room temperature in a tube furnace. The structural properties of the synthesized products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR). XRD explained that the crystal structures of all samples were monoclinic while S1 and S3 were hexagonal. The morphology of the crystal of S1 was spherical while the other samples were prismatic in shape. SEM investigations explained that S4 had larger grain size diameter of 15-16 μm in comparison with the other samples. S4 sample had the highest conductivity 2.452 × 10 -4 S cm -1. At a voltage plateau located at about 1.55 V (vs. Li +), S4 cell exhibited an initial specific discharge capacity of 198 mAh g -1. The results of cyclic voltammetry for Li 4- xMg xTi 5- xV xO 12 showed that the electrochemical reaction was based on Ti 4+/Ti 3+ redox couple at potential range from 1.5 to 1.7 V. There is a pair of reversible redox peaks corresponding to the process of Li + intercalation and de-intercalation in the Li-Ti-O oxides.

  3. Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

    1994-11-01

    Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

  4. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  5. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  6. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

  7. Effects of the electrolyte composition on the electrode characteristics of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    A variety of organic solvent-based electrolytes have been studied for ambient temperature, rechargeable lithium (ion) batteries. The ionic behavior of the electrolyte system was investigated through conductivity measurements. The electrochemical characteristics of carbon-based materials (carbon fiber and graphite) as the negative electrode were examined in different compositions of the organic electrolytes. The electrolyte composition as well as the structure of the electrode material greatly influenced the charge/discharge profiles of the electrode.

  8. Studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ni, C. L.; Distefano, S.; Somoano, R. B.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    NbSe3 exhibits superior characteristics such as high capacity, high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, and high discharge rate capability, as compared to other intercalating cathodes. This paper reports the preparation, characterization, and performance of NbSe3. Several electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, constant-current/constant-potential discharges, dc potentiodynamic scans, ac impedance, and ac voltammetry, have been used to give insight to the mechanisms of intercalation of three lithiums with NbSe3 and also into the rate determining process in the reduction of NbSe3.

  9. Sulfur-graphene composite for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Zhao; Lu, Lin; Choucair, Mohammad; Stride, John A.; Xu, Xun; Liu, Hua-Kun

    Sulfur-graphene (S-GNS) composites have been synthesized by heating a mixture of graphene nanosheets and elemental sulfur. According to field emission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray mapping, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, sulfur particles were uniformly coated onto the surface of the graphene nanosheets. The electrochemical results show that the sulfur-graphene nanosheet composite significantly improved the electrical conductivity, the capacity, and the cycle stability in a lithium cell compared with the bare sulfur electrode.

  10. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  11. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  12. Ionic modeling of lithium manganese spinel materials for use in rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Westrich, H.R.; Doughty, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    In order to understand and evaluate materials for use in lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes, the authors have modeled the crystal structures of various manganese oxide and lithium manganese oxide compounds. They have modeled the MnO{sub 2} polymorphs and several spinels with intermediate compositions based on the amount of lithium inserted into the tetrahedral site. Three-dimensional representations of the structures provide a basis for identifying site occupancies, coordinations, manganese valence, order-disorder, and potentially new dopants for enhanced cathode behavior. X-ray diffraction simulations of the crystal structures provide good agreement with observed patterns for synthesized samples. Ionic modeling of these materials consists of an energy minimization approach using Coulombic, repulsive, and van der Waals interactions. Modeling using electronic polarizability (shell model) allows a systematic analysis of changes in lattice energy, cell volume, and the relative stability of doped structures using ions such as aluminum, titanium, nickel, and cobalt.

  13. Studies of sulfur-based cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min

    Developing alternative cathodes with high capacity is critical for the next generation rechargeable batteries to meet the ever-increasing desires of global energy storage market. This thesis is focused on two sulfur-based cathode materials ranging from inorganic lithium sulfide to organotrisulfide. For lithium sulfide cathode, we developed a nano-Li2S/MWCNT paper electrode through solution filtration method, which involved a low temperature of 100 °C. The Li2S nanocrystals with a size less than 10 nm were formed uniformly in the pores of carbon paper network. These electrodes show an unprecedented low overpotential (0.1 V) in the first charges, also show high discharge capacities, good rate capability, and excellent cycling performance. This superior electrochemical performance makes them promising for use with lithium metal-free anodes in rechargeable Li-S batteries for practical applications. For organotrisulfide cathode, we use a small organotrisulfide compound, e.g. dimethyl trisulfide, to be a high capacity and high specific energy organosulfide cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Based on XRD, XPS, SEM, and GC-MS analysis, we investigated the cell reaction mechanism. The redox reaction of DMTS is a 4e- process and the major discharge products are LiSCH3 and Li2S. The following cell reaction becomes quite complicated, apart from the major product DMTS, the high order organic polysulfide dimethyl tetrasulfide (DMTtS) and low order organic polysulfide dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) are also formed and charged/discharged in the following cycles. With a LiNO3 containing ether-based electrolyte, DMTS cell delivers an initial discharge capacity of 720 mAh g -1 and retains 74% of the initial capacity over 70 cycles with high DMTS loading of 6.7 mg cm-2 at C/10 rate. When the DMTS loading is increased to 11.3 mg cm -2, the specific energy is 1025 Wh kg -1 for the active materials (DMTS and lithium) and the specific energy is 229 Wh kg-1 for the cell

  14. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  15. Recycling application of Li-MnO₂ batteries as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tianran; Cheng, Fangyi; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-27

    The ever-increasing consumption of a huge quantity of lithium batteries, for example, Li-MnO2 cells, raises critical concern about their recycling. We demonstrate herein that decayed Li-MnO2 cells can be further utilized as rechargeable lithium-air cells with admitted oxygen. We further investigated the effects of lithiated manganese dioxide on the electrocatalytic properties of oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR/OER). The catalytic activity was found to be correlated with the composition of Li(x)MnO2 electrodes (0rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

  16. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  17. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  18. Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites as Ultrafast-Charge and -Discharge Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Zhiping; Xu, Terrence; Gordin, Mikhail; Jiang, Yingbing; Bae, In-Tae; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Zhan, Hui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Donghai

    2012-05-09

    Electroactive polymers are a new generation of 'green' cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. We have developed nanocomposites combining graphene with two promising polymer cathode materials, poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) and polyimide, to improve their high-rate performance. The polymer-graphene nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple in-situ polymerization in the presence of graphene sheets. The highly dispersed graphene sheets in the nanocomposite drastically enhanced the electronic conductivity and allowed the electrochemical activity of the polymer cathode to be efficiently utilized. This allows for ultrafast charging and discharging - the composite can deliver more than 100 mAh/g within just a few seconds.

  19. High voltage, rechargeable lithium batteries using newly-developed carbon for negative electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, Junichi; Ozaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Akiyoshi; Ohta, Akira

    1993-03-01

    Carbon is a good candidate for negative electrodes because it can take the form of lithium intercalation compounds. We discussed the characteristics of typical carbon materials which have been studied as negative electrode materials. We have found that the mesophase pitch-based carbon microbead (MCMB) of high graphitization stage which have been graphitized at a high temperature such as 2800 C gives good characteristics as a negative electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries. The cylindrical 'AA-size' batteries of our trial products using LiCoO2 as the positive electrode and the M CMB graphitized at 2800 C as the negative electrode have been found to provide large capacities of 500 mA h and high voltages of 3.7 V with high energy densities of 240 W h/l, 100 W h/kg.

  20. Novel poly(methyl methacrylate)-based semi-interpenetrating polyelectrolyte gels for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Saibabu; Easteal, Allan J.

    Novel semi-interpenetrating polymer gel electrolytes designed for use in rechargeable lithium polymer batteries are synthesised from methyl methacrylate and the lithium salt of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (LiAMPS). The gels are made by first synthesising linear chains of poly(LiAMPS) by free radical polymerisation of LiAMPS dissolved in dimethyl acetamide (DMA) or DMA/ethylene carbonate mixtures, then co-polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and a cross-linking monomer (tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate) to form the semi-interpenetrating network. The electrical conductivity of the gels is determined as a function of LiAMPS and methyl methacrylate (MMA) concentrations, cross-link density, and solvent composition. The conductivity ( σ) is found to be in the range 0.2 ≤ σ ≤ 0.8 mS cm -1 at ambient temperature (20 ± 1 °C).

  1. Rechargeable lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Norio; Satoh, Asako; Hara, Michikazu; Ohsaki, Takahisa

    1995-08-01

    The electrochemistry of lithium intercalation into a graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber with a radial-like texture used as the anode material in rechargeable lithium-ion cells was characterized. The radial-like texture in the cross section of the carbon fiber contributed to the rapid diffusion of lithium ions, resulting in the high rate capability. The anode performance of the graphitized carbon fiber was superior to that of the graphite. Experimental flat-plate C/LiCoO{sub 2} lithium-ion cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode exhibited a high mid-discharge voltage of 3.7 V, a high rate capability, and a long cycle life of more than 400 cycles at 2 mA/cm{sup 2} mA/cm{sup 2} during charge-discharge cycling between 4.2 and 2.7 V. The long cycle life obtained for the cell was due to no significant change in resistance associated with the passivating films on the graphitized carbon fiber with extended cycles. It was also demonstrated that A size C/LiCoO{sub 2} cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode have excellent rate performance at discharge currents between 0.25 and 3 A, a large discharge capacity of 0.95 Ah, and a high energy density of 310 Wh/dm{sup 3} and 120 Wh/kg.

  2. Comparison of rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium battery cells for implantable circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G K; Aiken, P A; Adams, W A; Mussivand, T

    1994-04-01

    Size and weight constraints are critical areas in the design of implantable medical devices. For this reason, a study of different rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cell types was undertaken to determine which cell type, when assembled into a multicell battery pack, would provide the smallest and lightest power source for implantation. The discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of 2 different rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells and 5 different rechargeable lithium cells were determined at 37 degrees C by charge/discharge cycling, the cells using a constant discharge load of 0.87 A. Using the observed discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of the cells, along with the desired performance criteria of 30 min operating time at the end of a 1-year implant period, the projected weight and volume of the various 12-V battery packs were determined. These results showed that one of the rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells would yield the smallest (53 ml) and lightest (189 g) 12-V battery pack that met the performance criteria specified. The results also indicate that, for applications requiring long implant times, cycle life can be more important in the selection of cells for a small, lightweight battery pack than specific energy or energy density.

  3. Synergistic catalytic properties of bifunctional nanoalloy catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ning; Ng, Mei Shan; Shan, Shiyao; Wu, Jinfang; Zhao, Wei; Yin, Jun; Fang, Weiqing; Luo, Jin; Petkov, Valeri; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of factors influencing the performance of catalysts in the air cathode of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery, including overpotentials for oxygen reduction/evolution and discharge capacity, is essential for exploration of its ultimate application. This report describes new findings of an investigation of PdCu nanoalloys as cathode catalysts. Alloying Pd with oxophilic base metals such as Cu leads to reduction of the overpotentials and increase of the discharge capacity. The nanoalloy structures depend on the bimetallic composition, with an atomic ratio near 50:50 featuring mixed bcc and fcc structures. The discharge potential exhibits a maximum while the charge potential display a minimum in the range of 20-50% Cu, closer to 25% Cu, both of which correspond to a maximum reduction of the discharge-charge overpotentials. The discharge capacity displays a gradual increase with Cu%. This type of catalytic synergy is believed to be associated with a combination of ensemble and ligand effects. In particular, the activation of oxygen on Pd sites and oxygen oxophilicity at the alloyed Cu sites in the catalyst may have played an important role in effectively activating oxygen and maneuvering surface superoxide/peroxide species. These findings have implications for the design of multifunctional cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. A study of the incorporation reaction of lithium into V6O13 in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dequan; Liao, Zhenjiang; Feng, Xikang; Liu, Dangjun

    1989-05-01

    Practical C- and AA-size ambient temperature, rechargeable Li/V6O13 cells have been constructed using pure V6O13, prepared in the laboratory, as cathode active material. X-ray diffraction pattern d values of V6O13 prepared in this study are the same as those given by JCPDS, and cathodes of this material have performed satisfactorily. Cathodic discharge products of test cells have been analyzed by XRD and ESR. New expanded diffraction lines have been discovered in XRD patterns. From XRD and ESR results, it is considered that the incorporation of lithium into V6O13 is the main reduction reaction in the V6O13 cathodic process.

  5. Fabrication of all solid-state rechargeable lithium battery and its electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young Ho; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    An all solid-state rechargeable lithium battery was successfully fabricated using a ceramic electrolyte and a thin film technique. A polymer-modified sol-gel method was applied in order to prepare the electrode-coated ceramic electrolyte. Li 4Ti 5O 12 known for its outstanding electrochemical performances and the partially crystallized glass ceramics, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3-AlPO 4 were adopted as electrode and electrolyte materials, respectively. The all solid-state battery cell constructed with lithium metal, PMMA buffer, and electrode-coated ceramic electrolyte was electrochemically evaluated with ac impedance, cyclic voltammetry, and discharge-charge test. The impedance of the interface between Li 4Ti 5O 12 film and the solid electrolyte showed a relatively low resistance of ∼110 Ω cm -2 at 1.60 V. Highly reversible sharp redox peaks were observed at around 1.55 V from cyclic voltammograms, and these were still clear even at a high scan rate of 3 mV s -1, indicating a fast electrochemical response. A charge-discharge experiment showed an excellent reversibility of the cell but a relatively smaller discharge capacity of 100.49 mAh g -1 at C/5 than theoretical one of 175 mAh g -1. This may be due to formation of an interlayer at the interface, which may be caused by chemical reaction between Li 4Ti 5O 12 and the ceramic electrolyte during a firing step during preparation. In spite of the undesirable side-reaction, the ceramic electrolyte was successfully applied to the solid-state rechargeable lithium battery by means of a thin film technique using the polymer-modified sol-gel method, through increasing the interfacial contact area, i.e. reducing the interfacial resistance.

  6. Sulfur-vanadium oxide gel composites as thin film cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S.P.; Gavrilov, A.B.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1998-07-01

    A class of novel electroactive cathode materials based on composites produced from elemental sulfur and vanadium oxide xerogels or aerogels has been developed as models for lithium battery applications. The use of elemental sulfur in rechargeable lithium batteries has been hindered due to certain limitations such as, very low electronic conductivity and the out-diffusion of polysulfides during the cycling process which reduces the cycling efficiency. Vanadium oxide xerogels and aerogels have certain desirable characteristic physico-chemical properties, such as, high surface areas with nono-scale interconnecting porosity, high electronic conductivity, non- or nanocrystallinity, and oxidation reduction catalytic activity. Since these properties may improve the performance of sulfur based rechargeable batteries, a family of composite cathodes containing elemental sulfur and vanadium oxide gels were produced. The performance of the composites cathodes, in thin film form, were evaluated in coin cells and AA cells with metallic lithium anodes and liquid electrolytes. The multifunctional role of vanadium oxide gels on the cell performance of the cells having composite cathodes has been qualitatively explored. Results indicate that the cathodes having xerogel composites based on vanadium oxide sol from vanadium oxide isopropoxide can be made with high sulfur content (80 wt %) and with low carbon content (5 wt %) and without any polymer binder. This shows the contribution of adhesive properties and electronic conductivity of vanadium oxide xerogels. A significant suppression of polysulfide out-diffusion is observed with appropriate processing of the composite cathodes. It is anticipated that the nanoscale interconnecting porosity of gels plays an important role in this behavior. An excellent rate capability is observed with the vanadium-oxide sulfur composite cathodes indicating the contribution of intrinsic electrochemical properties of the vanadium oxide.

  7. Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

    2004-10-21

    In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

  8. An Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Battery Using Coated Li Metal as Anode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujiong; Hou, Yuyang; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l−1 Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the “cross-over” effect of Li+ ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg−1, about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries. PMID:23466633

  9. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  10. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  11. 78 FR 76731 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes. These airplanes as modified by the ARINC Aerospace Company will have a novel or unusual design feature, specifically the installation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and battery system that will be used on an International Communications Group (ICG) ePhone cordless cabin handset. The......

  12. Exploration of vanadium benzenedicarboxylate as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Jacobson, Allan J.

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical reaction with lithium of a vanadium-based metal-organic framework VIV(O)(bdc) [MIL-47], which is isostructural to the iron compound MIL-53(Fe), was investigated. The large open channels which can accommodate small guest species, such as Li+ ions, together with the redox properties of the tetravalent vanadium ions make this material of potential interest as a rechargeable intercalation electrode for lithium batteries. The electrochemical properties were investigated in Li|1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)|V(O)(bdc) cells between 4.0 and 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+. V(O)(bdc) cathodes can be reversibly cycled in Li cells with good rate capability and specific capacity. At a current density of C/12, Li/V(O)(bdc) cells can be cycled between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 in LixV(O)(bdc) with ∼100% coulombic efficiency corresponding to 82 mAh g-1 which is a higher capacity than that found for MIL-53(Fe). The cell performance and electrochemical profiles at various current conditions are discussed. Structural evolution taking place during lithium intercalation was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction on phases of LixV(O)(bdc) (0 < x ≤ 2) chemically prepared by using n-BuLi. Previous studies of the reaction of lithium with metal-organic frameworks are briefly reviewed for comparison with the data presented for LixV(O)(bdc).

  13. Preparation and performance of a sulfur/graphene composite for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Dong, Yunhui; Huang, Yun; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Limin

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising electrochemical system that has high theoretical capacity. The sulfur/graphene nanosheets (S/GNS) composite is prepared through thermal reduction between the sulfur (S) and graphene oxide (GO). The morphology and composition of the composite are analyzed by means of x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) characterization. It is found that the element S distributed uniformly between the layers of GNS. Graphene with a two-dimensional structure of carbon atoms is employed as a conductive and absorbing agent for the S cathode materials of rechargeable Li-S battery. The S/GNS composite cathode shows a specific electrochemical capacity, which is about 1598 mAh g-1 S at the initial discharge and remains above 670 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles.

  14. Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Yang, Yuan; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2011-10-12

    Sulfur has a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh/g as lithium battery cathodes, but its rapid capacity fading due to polysulfides dissolution presents a significant challenge for practical applications. Here we report a hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathode for effective trapping of polysulfides and demonstrate experimentally high specific capacity and excellent electrochemical cycling of the cells. The hollow carbon nanofiber arrays were fabricated using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, through thermal carbonization of polystyrene. The AAO template also facilitates sulfur infusion into the hollow fibers and prevents sulfur from coating onto the exterior carbon wall. The high aspect ratio of the carbon nanofibers provides an ideal structure for trapping polysulfides, and the thin carbon wall allows rapid transport of lithium ions. The small dimension of these nanofibers provides a large surface area per unit mass for Li(2)S deposition during cycling and reduces pulverization of electrode materials due to volumetric expansion. A high specific capacity of about 730 mAh/g was observed at C/5 rate after 150 cycles of charge/discharge. The introduction of LiNO(3) additive to the electrolyte was shown to improve the Coulombic efficiency to over 99% at C/5. The results show that the hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur structure could be a promising cathode design for rechargeable Li/S batteries with high specific energy.

  15. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  16. Carbon Cathodes in Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Based on Double-Lithium-Salt Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eunjoo; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-06-08

    The use of carbon materials as air electrodes in lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries is known to be advantageous owing to their good conductivity and because they offer sites suitable for the reversible electrode reactions. However, the exact influence of carbon materials on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries is not clear. In this study the electrochemical performance of four different types of carbon materials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), CMK-3, graphene nanosheets (GNSs), and Ketjen Black (KB)) as air electrodes is examined. We find that a Li-O2 cell based on an electrode of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) demonstrates good rate performance and cycle stability, when using LiNO3 -LiTFSI/DMSO as electrolyte. Li-O2 cells based on such MWCNT electrodes, with a cut-off capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) , can undergo around 90 cycles without obvious losses of capacity. Even when the discharge depth is increased to 2000 mA h g(-1) , stable cycling is maintained for 45 cycles at a charge potential below 4.0 V.

  17. Combining electrospinning and sputtering to improve rechargeable lithium battery cathodes: coating carbon fibre felt with nickel sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ryu, Ho Suk; Ahn, Chi Won; Jeon, Hwan-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Various nickel sulfide nanostructures have been developed for the fabrication of high surface area electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. In this study, we fabricated a nickel sulfide covered carbon fibre felt with high uniformity, high density, and large area for cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries, by using a combined electrospinning and sputtering deposition technique. In particular, the nickel sulfide/carbon fibre felt is a multi-functional material that can act as a conducting electrode itself without the use of binders and conductive materials owing to the high conductivity of the interlinked carbon fibre structures. A Li/nickel sulfide cell with current density of 100 mA g-1 exhibits good cycle performance and high first discharge capacity (970.46 mAh g-1) and good coulombic efficiency of 99% at 20 cycles. This electrode has good structural and electrochemical properties and has a potential to be commercialized when the properties are matured.

  18. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S. (Editor); Koch, V. R. (Editor); Owens, B. B. (Editor); Smyrl, W. H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  19. A review of recent developments in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Weimin; Deng, Nanping; Ju, Jingge; Li, Quanxiang; Wu, Dayong; Ma, Xiaomin; Li, Lei; Naebe, Minoo; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-09-22

    The research and development of advanced energy-storage systems must meet a large number of requirements, including high energy density, natural abundance of the raw material, low cost and environmental friendliness, and particularly reasonable safety. As the demands of high-performance batteries are continuously increasing, with large-scale energy storage systems and electric mobility equipment, lithium-sulfur batteries have become an attractive candidate for the new generation of high-performance batteries due to their high theoretical capacity (1675 mA h g(-1)) and energy density (2600 Wh kg(-1)). However, rapid capacity attenuation with poor cycle and rate performances make the batteries far from ideal with respect to real commercial applications. Outstanding breakthroughs and achievements have been made to alleviate these problems in the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in lithium-sulfur battery research. We cover the research and development to date on various components of lithium-sulfur batteries, including cathodes, binders, separators, electrolytes, anodes, collectors, and some novel cell configurations. The current trends in materials selection for batteries are reviewed and various choices of cathode, binder, electrolyte, separator, anode, and collector materials are discussed. The current challenges associated with the use of batteries and their materials selection are listed and future perspectives for this class of battery are also discussed.

  20. Cycle life performance of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Gang

    Capacity fade of commercial Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. Battery cycled at the highest discharge rate (3 C) shows the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of fresh battery. It's been observed anode carbon loses 10.6% of its capability to intercalate or deintercalate Li+ after it was subjected to 300 cycles at discharge rate of 3 C. This loss dominates capacity fade of full battery. A mechanism considering continuous parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and film thickening has been proposed. First principles based charge-discharge models to simulate cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been developed. In the generalized model, transport in both electrolyte phase and solid phase were simultaneously taken into account. Under mild charge-discharge condition, transport of lithium in the electrolyte phase has been neglected in the simplified model. Both models are based on loss of the active lithium ions due to the electrochemical parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and on rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as depth of discharge (DOD), end of charge voltage (EOCV) and overvoltage of the parasitic reaction on the cycle life behavior of a battery has been analyzed. The experimental results obtained at a charge rate of 1 C, discharge rate of 0.5 C, EOCV of 4.0 V and DOD of 0.4 have been used to validate cycle life models. Good agreement between the simulations and the experiments has been achieved up to 1968 cycles with both models. Simulation of cycle life of battery under multiple cycling regimes has also been demonstrated.

  1. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  2. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  3. Properties of All-Solid Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. J.; Ren, Y.; Geng, L. Q.; Chen, T.; Li, L. X.; Yuan, C. R.

    2013-08-01

    Amorphous V2O5, LiPON and Li2Mn2O4 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering methods and the morphology of thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Then with these three materials deposited as the anode, solid electrolyte, cathode, and vanadium as current collector, a rocking-chair type of all-solid-state thin-film-type Lithium-ion rechargeable battery was prepared by using the same sputtering parameters on stainless steel substrates. Electrochemical studies show that the thin film battery has a good charge-discharge characteristic in the voltage range of 0.3-3.5 V, and after 30 cycles the cell performance turned to become stabilized with the charge capacity of 9 μAh/cm2, and capacity loss of single-cycle of about 0.2%. At the same time, due to electronic conductivity of the electrolyte film, self-discharge may exist, resulting in approximately 96.6% Coulombic efficiency.

  4. A novel thermal swelling model for a rechargeable lithium-ion battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal swelling of rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. The thermal swelling shows significant dependency on the state of charge and the charge rate. The thermal swelling follows a quadratic form at low temperatures, and shows linear characteristics with respect to temperature at high temperatures in free-swelling conditions. Moreover, the equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion is much larger than that of each electrode and host materials, suggesting that the separator and the complex shape of the cell play a critical role in thermal expansion. Based on the experimental characterization, a novel thermal swelling model is proposed. The model introduces an equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion for the cell and also considers the temperature distribution throughout the battery by using heat transfer theory. The comparison between the proposed model and experiments demonstrates that the model accurately predicts thermal swelling at a variety of charge/discharge rates during operation and relaxation periods. The model is relatively simple yet very accurate. Hence, it can be useful for battery management applied to prolong the cycle life of cells and packs.

  5. Electrochemical studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Ni, C.L.; DiStefano, S.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bankston, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium triselenide offers promise as a high energy density cathode material for ambient temperature lithium rechargeable cells. The electrochemical behavior of NbSe/sub 3/ in the battery electrolyte, i.e., 1.5m LiAsF/sub 6//2 Me-THF is reported here. A detailed study has been carried out using various ac and dc electrochemical techniques to establish the mechanism of intercalation of three equivalents of Li with NbSe/sub 3/ as well as the rate governing processes in the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/. Based on the experimental data, an equivalent circuit has been formulated to represent the NbSe/sub 3/-solution interface. The kinetic parameters for the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/ were evaluated from the ac and dc measurements. Finally, the structural change in NbSe/sub 3/ on lithiation during initial discharge which results in higher cell voltages and different electrochemical response as compared to virgin NbSe/sub 3/ was identified to be a loss of crystallographic order, i.e., amorphous by x-ray diffraction.

  6. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

  7. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  8. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  9. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  10. Perovskite-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube composite as bifunctional catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Hey Woong; Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Ahmed, Raihan; Seo, Min Ho; Nazar, Linda F; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-03-01

    Developing an effective bifunctional catalyst is a significant issue, as rechargeable metal-air batteries are very attractive for future energy systems. In this study, a facile one-pot process is introduced to prepare an advanced bifunctional catalyst (op-LN) incorporating nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) into perovskite La0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3 nanoparticles (LSCF-NPs). Confirmed by half-cell testing, op-LN exhibits synergistic effects of LSCF-NP and NCNT with excellent bifunctionality for both the oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction. Furthermore, op-LN exhibits comparable performances in these reactions to Pt/C and Ir/C, respectively, which highlights its potential for use as a commercially viable bifunctional catalyst. Moreover, the results obtained by testing op-LN in a practical Li-air battery demonstrate improved and complementary charge/discharge performance compared to those of LSCF-NP and NCNT, and this confirms that simply prepared op-LN is a promising candidate as a highly effective bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  11. Multifunctional Nitrogen-Doped Loofah Sponge Carbon Blocking Layer for High-Performance Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Rehman, Sarish; Liu, Li-Min; Hou, Yanglong; Zhang, Shanqing

    2016-06-29

    Low-cost, long-life, and high-performance lithium batteries not only provide an economically viable power source to electric vehicles and smart electricity grids but also address the issues of the energy shortage and environmental sustainability. Herein, low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge has been synthesized via a simple calcining process and then applied as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries. As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m(2) g(-1)), high porosity (1.75 cm(3) g(-1)), high conductivity (1170 S m(-1)), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mA h g(-1) at 1675 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, 350 mA h g(-1) at 1356 mA g(-1) after 1000 cycles, and 150 mA h g(-1) at 10550 mA g(-1) after 5000 cycles, respectively. The successful application to Li-S, Li-Se, and Li-I2 batteries suggests that loofa sponge carbon could play a vital role in modern rechargeable battery industries as a universal, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and high-performance blocking layer.

  12. Materials in the Li-Mo-O ternary system of interest for use in rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of lithium molybdenum oxide bronzes, which are of interest as possible positive electrode materials for use in rechargeable lithium batteries were characterized in this study. Within the Li-Mo-O ternary system, the phases Li4Mo5O12, Li2MoO3, and Li6Mo2O7 were investigated. Based upon theoretical considerations related to electrode potentials, capacities, and weight, lithium cells using these bronze materials as positive electrode reactants, should have a relatively high specific energy. Electrochemical techniques were used in order to determine the potentials and capacities of Li4Mo5O12, Li2MoO3, and Li6Mo2O7 in lithium-based cells. Equilibrium open-circuit voltages were recorded at selected compositions. An alternative method, voltage-relazation, was used in both the Li-Mo-O and the Li-Pb systems. The chemical diffusion coefficients of lithium in selected phases were measured using the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT). Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the products formed during discharge were recorded and compared to those of the parent materials. Room temperature electrochemical experiments were conducted using cells of the following type: Li / 1M LiAsF6 in PC / LixMoOy. Powder X-ray diffraction results for the various phases formed during reaction with lithium showed that the parent framework remains largely unchanged during lithium insertion. The principles underlying the difference between the dynamic and equilibrium behavior of Li-Mo-O and related systems that can undergo both insertion and reconstitution reactions were investigated. As a result, the room temperature metastable ternary phase diagram was constructed and compared to the high temperature equilibrium ternary phase diagram.

  13. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  14. Spongelike Nanosized Mn3O4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruna, Hector D.

    2011-07-12

    Mn₃O₄ has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn₃O₄ was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn₃O₄ exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  15. Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-01

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated submicron sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ~600mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  16. Graphene-wrapped sulfur particles as a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery cathode material with high capacity and cycling stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailiang; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Yongye; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Li, Yanguang; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-07-13

    We report the synthesis of a graphene-sulfur composite material by wrapping poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated submicrometer sulfur particles with mildly oxidized graphene oxide sheets decorated by carbon black nanoparticles. The PEG and graphene coating layers are important to accommodating volume expansion of the coated sulfur particles during discharge, trapping soluble polysulfide intermediates, and rendering the sulfur particles electrically conducting. The resulting graphene-sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ∼600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density.

  17. Small angle x-ray scattering studies of carbon anodes used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.; Seifert, S.; Johnson, C. S.

    1999-11-16

    In ANL laboratories, disordered carbons with predictable surface area and porosity properties have been prepared using inorganic templates containing well defined pore sizes. The carbons have been tested in electrochemical cells as anodes in lithium secondary batteries. They deliver high specific capacity and display excellent performance in terms of the number of cycles run. In situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during electrochemical cycling was carried out at the Advanced Photon Source, at ANL. In order to monitor the carbon electrode structural changes upon cycling, an electrochemical cell was specially designed to allow for the application of electrical current and the collection of SAXS data at the same time. Results show that upon cycling the structure of the carbon remains unchanged, which is desirable in reversible systems.

  18. Material Use in the United States - Selected Case Studies for Cadmium, Cobalt, Lithium, and Nickel in Rechargeable Batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the changes that have taken place in the consumer electronic product sector as they relate to (1) the use of cadmium, cobalt, lithium, and nickel contained in batteries that power camcorders, cameras, cell phones, and portable (laptop) computers and (2) the use of nickel in vehicle batteries for the period 1996 through 2005 and discusses forecasted changes in their use patterns through 2010. Market penetration, material substitution, and technological improvements among nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are assessed. Consequences of these changes in light of material consumption factors related to disposal, environmental effects, retail price, and serviceability are analyzed in a series of short case studies.

  19. Lithium n-Doped Polyaniline as a High-Performance Electroactive Material for Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Pablo; Levillain, Eric; Alévêque, Olivier; Guyomard, Dominique; Lestriez, Bernard; Gaubicher, Joël

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of conducting lithium-doped polyaniline with reversible redox chemistry allows simultaneous unprecedented capacity and stability in a non-aqueous Li battery. This compound (lithium emeraldinate) was synthesized by lithium-proton exchange on the emeraldine base in an anhydrous lithium-based electrolyte. A combination of UV/Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry, XPS, FTIR, and EQCM characterization allowed a unified description of the chemical and electrochemical behavior, showing facile charge delocalization of the doped states and the reversibility of the redox processes in this form of polyaniline. From a practical point of view, lithium emeraldinate behaves as a high-capacity organic active material (230 mAh g(-1) ) that enables preparation of relatively thick composite electrodes with a low amount of carbon additives and high energy density (460 Wh kg(-1) ). Concomitantly, at 1C rate, 400 cycles were achieved without significant capacity loss, while the coulombic efficiency is greater than 99 %.

  20. Confined selenium within metal-organic frameworks derived porous carbon microcubes as cathode for rechargeable lithium-selenium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Jia, Min; Zhang, Yan; Han, Jin; Li, Yi; Bao, ShuJuan; Liu, Dingyu; Jiang, Jian; Xu, Maowen

    2017-02-01

    Unique hierarchically porous carbon microcubes (CMCs) consists of irregular bubbles derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis method and carbonization treatment. Selenium nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the hierarchical porous structure of CMCs by a typical melt-diffusion process, and the yielding Se/CMCs composite is enabled as a cathode material for lithium-selenium rechargeable batteries. In the carbonate-based electrolyte, with Se loading of nearly ∼50 wt%, the Se/CMCs composite exhibits an ultrahigh initial discharge specific capacity of 780.4 mAh g-1 and still retains a reversible capacity of 425.2 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Specially, these hollow structure CMCs with high conductivity contribute to the outstanding electrochemical properties by effectively decreasing the charge transfer resistance and suppressing polyselenides dissolution in carbonate electrolyte.

  1. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; ...

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  2. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  3. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  4. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions.

  5. Amorphous vanadium oxide films synthesised by ALCVD for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Van, K.; Groult, H.; Mantoux, A.; Perrigaud, L.; Lantelme, F.; Lindström, R.; Badour-Hadjean, R.; Zanna, S.; Lincot, D.

    This study addresses the lithium insertion performances of amorphous vanadium oxide films, synthesized by atomic layer chemical vapour deposition (ALCVD). AFM and SEM investigations showed that the as-deposited films are amorphous, compact and homogeneous. As revealed by XPS and Raman spectroscopy, the ALCVD oxide films after deposition are mainly composed of V 2O 5, with V 4+ surface content (about 10%). The insertion of Li + into the lattice was investigated in 1 M LiClO 4-PC. The results show that the electrochemical performances obtained with amorphous vanadium oxide films, with an optimal thickness of 200 nm (455 mAh g -1, i.e. composition of Li 2.9V 2O 5), were superior to crystalline V 2O 5 films. The amorphous films exhibit higher capacity and better cycle ability even for deep lithium insertion ratio compared to crystalline V 2O 5 films. The chemical diffusion coefficients, deduced from numerical simulation of chronopotentiograms, were comprised between 3 × 10 -12 and 10 -13 cm 2 s -1 for a lithium insertion ratio comprised between 0 and 2.9. AFM and Raman spectroscopy performed before and after lithiation showed that neither the morphology nor the local order of the amorphous films were significantly affected by the insertion/extraction of lithium. Raman measurements also revealed that a very small amount of lithium are locally trapped in the oxide lattice.

  6. A novel high-performance gel polymer electrolyte membrane basing on electrospinning technique for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Na; Cao, Qi; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Xiaoyun; Deng, Huayang

    2011-10-01

    Nonwoven films of composites of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with different proportion of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) (80, 50 and 20%, w/w) are prepared by electrospinning 9 wt% polymer solution at room temperature. Then the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are prepared by soaking the electrospun TPU-PVdF blending membranes in 1 M LiClO4/ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) for 1 h. The gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) shows a maximum ionic conductivity of 3.2 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature and electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li+/Li for the 50:50 blend ratio of TPU:PVdF system. At the first cycle, it shows a first charge-discharge capacity of 168.9 mAh g-1 when the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) is evaluated in a Li/PE/lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell at 0.1 C-rate at 25 °C. TPU-PVdF (50:50, w/w) based gel polymer electrolyte is observed much more suitable than the composite films with other ratios for high-performance lithium rechargeable batteries.

  7. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  9. Advanced High Energy Lithium Polymer Electrolyte Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the two phase nature of the latter materials.5,6 These materials are also always intrinsically ’ wet ’ in physical appearance. The above...into polymeric matrix of respectively PVC or PAN and radiation polymerized polyethers (so called gel or " wet " electrolytes). In spite of rather...The most widely studied material was polyethylene oxide ) (PEO), incorporating lithium salts such as LiC104 and LiCF3S03. This material however

  10. Application of advanced borehole geophysical logging to managed aquifer recharge investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliva, Robert G.; Clayton, Edward A.; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2009-09-01

    Communities and water utilities are increasingly being forced to implement more hydrogeologically complex alternative water supply and storage options to meet increasing freshwater demands. The performance of managed aquifer recharge projects, including aquifer storage and recovery, is controlled by the movement and mixing of stored freshwater and native groundwater, and fluid-rock interactions, which, in turn, are strongly influenced by aquifer heterogeneity. Advanced borehole geophysical logging techniques developed for the oil and gas industry such as neutron-gamma ray spectroscopy, microresistivity imaging, and nuclear magnetic resonance, can provide hitherto unavailable fine-scale data on porosity (total and effective), hydraulic conductivity, salinity, and the mineralogical composition of aquifers. Data on aquifer heterogeneity obtained from advanced borehole geophysics logs, combined with information on larger-scale aquifer hydraulics obtained from pumping tests, have the potential for improving aquifer characterization and modeling needed for feasibility assessments and the design and optimization of the operation of managed aquifer recharge systems.

  11. Two volt, high power, high energy density rechargeable lithium polymer battery

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, J.

    1997-12-01

    Research and development of organo-sulfur polymer composite cathodes has produced a family of materials which are electroactive and rechargeable in nonaqueous systems. This publication describes the latest improvements in performance of AA cells and indicates directions to be taken for further development. Applications oriented performance characteristics (including high-rate charge and GSM pulse discharge) of AA cells are described. Initial Regulatory Agency abuse tests are outlined.

  12. In situ spectroscopic applications to the study of rechargeable lithium batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gofer, Y.; Barbour, R.; Luo, Yuyan; Bae, In Tae; Li, Lin-Feng; Scherson, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    A new experimental approach has been developed and implemented for the study of various aspects of lithium electrochemistry under utmost conditions of cleanliness. This novel strategy takes advantage of the low vapor pressure of ultrapure lithium salt/polyethylene oxide electrolytes for conducting conventional electrochemical experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments with a wide variety of electrodes prepared and characterized by surface analytical techniques. Two processes were investigated using a LiClO{sub 4}/PEO electrolyte at temperatures in the range of 55-70 {degrees}C: (1) electrochemical insertion of lithium into the basal plane of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, HOPG(bp), (2) underpotential deposition (UPD) of Li onto polycrystalline Au. The results provided conclusive evidence (except for impurity effects) that the electrochemical behavior observed in UHV is indeed characteristic of the systems selected for these studies, and therefore, is not affected in any discernible way by the ultralow pressures. In the case of Li UPD on polycrystalline Au, the voltammetric curves were similar to those observed in liquid non- aqueous solvent electrolytes, displaying deposition and stripping peaks with a charge equivalent to the adsorption and desorption of a single Li{sup +} per surface site.

  13. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  14. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  15. Rechargeable Lithium-Iodine Batteries with Iodine/Nanoporous Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Lu, Yanying; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-09

    Rechargeable Li-iodine batteries are attractive electrochemical energy storage systems because iodine cathode provides the possibility of high energy density, wide abundance and low cost. However, the safety risk caused by low thermostability of iodine and the self-discharge reaction due to high solvency of iodine in aprotic solvent are target issues to be considered. Herein, we designed a room-temperature "solution-adsorption" method to prepare a thermostable iodine-carbon cathode by utilizing the strong adsorption of nanoporous carbon. Meanwhile, Li-iodine batteries constructed by the as-prepared cathode and ether-based electrolyte with the addition of LiNO3 showed negligible self-discharge reaction, high rate and long cycling performance. The reversible reactions of I2/LiI3 and LiI3/LiI in Li-iodine batteries were also proved with in situ Raman measurement. For the demonstration of application, soft-package batteries with Al-plastic film were assembled, displaying energy densities of 475 Wh/kg by mass of Li and iodine, and 136 Wh/kg by total mass of the battery. The use of nanoporous carbon to adsorb iodine at room-temperature represents a new and promising direction for realizing high-performance cathode for rechargeable Li-iodine batteries.

  16. Effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takehisa; Yoshida, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-09-01

    Sintering processes yield a mutual diffusion region at the electrode/solid electrolyte interface, which is considered as a crucial problem for developing large-sized all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with high power density. This work focuses on the interface between LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) and NASICON-structured Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (Li2Osbnd Al2O3sbnd SiO2sbnd P2O5sbnd TiO2sbnd GeO2: LATP sheet (AG-01)), and investigates the effects of sintering temperature on interfacial structure and interfacial resistance at the NMC/LATP sheet. Thin films of NMC were fabricated on the LATP sheets at 700 °C or 900 °C as a model system. We found that the thickness of the mutual diffusion region was almost the same, ca. 30 nm, in these two samples, but the NMC film prepared at 900 °C had three orders of magnitude larger interfacial resistance than the NMC film prepared at 700 °C. Around the interface between the NMC film prepared at 900 °C and the LATP sheet, Co in the NMC accumulates as a reduced valence and lithium-free impurity crystalline phase will be also formed. These two problems must contribute to drastic increasing of interfacial resistance. Formation of de-lithiated NMC around the interface and its thermal instability at higher temperature may be considerable reason to induce these problems.

  17. Sputter deposition and characterization of lithium cobalt oxide thin films and their applications in thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F.; Sales, B.C.; Zuhr, R.A.; Robertson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Li Co oxide thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of a LiCoO{sub 2} target in a 3:1 Ar/O{sub 2} mixture gas. From proton-induced gamma-ray emission analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the average composition of these films was determined to be Li{sub 1.15}CoO{sub 2.16}. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of films annealed in air at 500-700 C were consistent with regular rhombohedral structure of crystalline LiCoO{sub 2}. Discharge curves of thin film lithium cells with amoprohous LiCoO{sub 2} showed no obvious structural transition between 4.2 and 1.5 V. Shape of discharge curves of cells with polycrystalline cathodes were consistent with a two-phase voltage plateau at {similar_to}3.9 V with a relatively large capacity and two additional smaller plateaus at higher voltages. Cells with the 700 C annealed cathodes showed a capacity loss of {similar_to} after 1000 cycles between 4.2 and 3.0 V.

  18. Ultralife's polymer electrolyte rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for use in the mobile electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, Edward A.; Manna, Michael E.; Wise, Ralph D.; Gavrilov, Alexei B.; Bastian, Matthew J.; Brey, Rufus M.; DeMatteis, Jeffrey

    Ultralife Polymer™ brand batteries for cellular phones as made by Nokia Mobile Phones Incorporated were introduced in July 2000. Characteristics of the UBC443483 cell and UB750N battery are described and related to the power and battery requirements of these cellular phones and chargers. Current, power, and pulse capability are presented as functions of temperature, depth of discharge, and storage at the cell level. Safety protection devices and chargers are discussed at the battery pack level, as well as performance in cellular phones under various wireless communication protocols. Performance is competitive with liquid lithium-ion systems while offering opportunity for non-traditional form factors.

  19. Heteroaromatic organic compound with conjugated multi-carbonyl as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meixiang; Zhang, Fen; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Mujuan; Yao, Chunfeng; Nan, Junmin; Shu, Dong; Zeng, Ronghua; Zeng, Heping; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    The heteroaromatic organic compound, N,N’-diphenyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra- carboxylic diimide (DP-NTCDI-250) as the cathode material of lithium batteries is prepared through a simple one-pot N-acylation reaction of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) with phenylamine (PA) in DMF solution followed by heat treatment in 250 °C. The as prepared sample is characterized by the combination of elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical measurements show that DP-NTCDI-250 can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 170 mAh g−1 at the current density of 25 mA g−1. The capacity of 119 mAh g−1 can be retained after 100 cycles. Even at the high current density of 500 mA g−1, its capacity still reaches 105 mAh g−1, indicating its high rate capability. Therefore, the as-prepared DP-NTCDI-250 could be a promising candidate as low cost cathode materials for lithium batteries. PMID:27064938

  20. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  1. Long-lived Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C Anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Tang, Yougen; He, Kejian; Ren, Yu; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The instability of anode materials during cycling has been greatly limiting the lifetime of aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). Here, to tackle this issue, mesoporous LiTi2(PO4)3@C composites with a pore size of 4 nm and a large BET surface area of 165 m2 g−1 have been synthesized by a novel two-step approach. The ARLB with this type of LiTi2(PO4)3@C anode, commercial LiMn2O4 cathode and 2 M Li2(SO4) aqueous solution (oxygen was removed) exhibited superior cycling stability (a capacity retention of 88.9% after 1200 cycles at 150 mA g−1 and 82.7% over 5500 cycles at 750 mA g−1) and excellent rate capability (discharge capacities of 121, 110, 90, and 80 mAh g−1 based on the mass of LiTi2(PO4)3 at 30, 150, 1500, and 3000 mA g−1, respectively). As verified, the mesoporous structure, large surface area and high-quality carbon coating layer of the LiTi2(PO4)3@C composite contribute to the breakthrough in achieving excellent electrochemical properties for ARLB. PMID:26648263

  2. Surface Modification of the LiFePO4 Cathode for the Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Tron, Artur; Jo, Yong Nam; Oh, Si Hyoung; Park, Yeong Don; Mun, Junyoung

    2017-03-28

    The LiFePO4 surface is coated with AlF3 via a simple chemical precipitation for aqueous rechargeable lithium ion batteries (ARLBs). During electrochemical cycling, the unfavorable side reactions between LiFePO4 and the aqueous electrolyte (1 M Li2SO4 in water) leave a highly resistant passivation film, which causes a deterioration in the electrochemical performance. The coated LiFePO4 by 1 wt % AlF3 has a high discharge capacity of 132 mAh g(-1) and a highly improved cycle life, which shows 93% capacity retention even after 100 cycles, whereas the pristine LiFePO4 has a specific capacity of 123 mAh g(-1) and a poor capacity retention of 82%. The surface analysis results, which include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results, show that the AlF3 coating material is highly effective for reducing the detrimental surface passivation by relieving the electrochemical side reactions of the fragile aqueous electrolyte. The AlF3 coating material has good compatibility with the LiFePO4 cathode material, which mitigates the surface diffusion obstacles, reduces the charge-transfer resistances and improves the electrochemical performance and surface stability of the LiFePO4 material in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

  3. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    PubMed Central

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  4. In situ spectroscopic applications to the study of rechargeable lithium batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, R.; Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) has been employed to examine the reactivity of lithium toward polyethylene oxide (PEO) at ca. 60{degree}C. Uncertainties regarding the cleanliness of the Li surfaces were, minimized by electrodepositing a film of metallic Li directly onto a thin layer of gold (ca. 60 {Angstrom}) vapor deposited on a Ge ATR optical element during the spectroscopic measurements. The ATR/FTIR features observed upon stripping the Li layer were consistent with the formation of alkoxide-type moieties resulting from the Li-induced cleavage of the ether-type functionalities. Electronic and structural aspects of the electrochemical insertion of lithium from non-aqueous electroyltes into FeS{sub 2} have been investigated using in situ Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained indicate that the incorporation of Li{sup +} in the pyrite lattice brings about a marked decrease in the amplitude of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) oscillations, particularly for shells associated with distant atoms and a rounding of the, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region. An analysis of the EXAFS spectra yielded a value for the FeS distance of 2.29 {plus_minus} 0.02 {Angstrom}. On this basis and additional in situ room temperature {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer effect spectroscopy data for the same system it has been proposed that the electrically formed material involves a highly disordered (possibly amorphous) form of Fe{sub l-x}S (with Li+ counterbalancing the charge).

  5. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  6. Engineering hybrid nanostructures of active materials: Applications as electrode materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan

    Aiming to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of electroactive materials for lithium ion batteries, three novel hybrid nanostructures were developed in this thesis. These include nanostructure A: V2O 5 coated on polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon black, nanostructure B: electrode materials incorporated into an electronically conductive carbon web, and nanostructure C: electrode materials dispersed in a conductive porous carbon matrix. Nanocomposites possessing nanostructure A are fast electronic and ionic transport materials. The improved kinetic properties are due to the incorporated carbon core and the grafted polymer electrolyte in the unique structure. The V2O5 xerogel coated polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon blacks, or V2O5/C-PEG, can reach a capacity as high as 320 mAh/g, and exhibit outstanding rate sustainability (e.g. 190 mAh/g at 14C). This class of nanostructured composites is promising for high power/current applications. Nanostructure B was extremely successful when applied to very poorly conductive active materials, such as LiFePO4 and Li3V 2(PO4)3. In this nanostructure, the web-like carbon framework not only supplies a facile electron transport path, but also provides excellent electronic contact between carbon and the insulating active materials. At room temperature, the LiFePO4/C nanocomposite successfully reaches almost full capacity, along with greatly improved rate sustainability and excellent cycling stability. At elevated temperatures (e.g. 40°C and 60°C), the full capacity is readily accessible over a wide rate range, even at a very fast rate of 2C or 5C. The Li3V2(PO4) 3/C nanocomposite can extract all three lithium in the formula at a rate of 1C, resulting in a high capacity of 200 mAh/g. Therefore, through designing hybrid nanostructures with nanostructure B, we can make insulating active materials into good cathode materials. Nanostructure C was employed for Sn-based anode materials, in order to improve their cycling

  7. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  8. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  9. Application of a nitroxide radical as overcharge protection in rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggougui, M.; Carré, B.; Willmann, P.; Lemordant, D.

    Redox shuttle electrolyte additives have been suggested as a possible mean of internal overcharge protection of secondary lithium-ion batteries. TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) is one of these redox shuttles for overcharge protection of 3 V class Li-ion cells. The electrochemical reversibility and the diffusion coefficient of this molecule has been evaluated by mean of cyclic voltammetry. The redox shuttle voltage was found to be 3.5 V versus Li/Li + and D = cm 2 s -1. The electrochemical stability of TEMPO in different overcharging conditions has been evaluated by long-term cycling using Li/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells. Results show that the TEMPO redox system does not act as an ideal shuttle. When dissolved in the electrolyte at 0.5 M, this additive is able to level off the cell potential at 3.5 V for a long period at low overcharging current (C/200 to C/50). Nevertheless, it appears that the cell capacity fades drastically at the first cycles and with time. This phenomenon is probably related to the stability of the oxidized and reduced form of the TEMPO molecule.

  10. TiO 2-B nanowires as negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A. Robert; Armstrong, Graham; Canales, Jesus; Bruce, Peter G.

    TiO 2-B nanowires (20-40 nm diameter) may be prepared in high yield by a simple synthetic procedure. Lithium may be intercalated up to Li 0.91TiO 2-B corresponding to a capacity of 305 mAh g -1 and at a potential of 1.6 V versus Li + (1 M)/Li. This can be compared with 160 mAh g -1 for Li 4Ti 5O 12 and 165 mAh g -1 for TiO 2-anatase. Following a small irreversible capacity on the first cycle, capacity retention is excellent corresponding to a fade of <0.1% per cycle at a rate of 50 mA g -1. A capacity of 160 mAh g -1 is sustained at a rate of 500 mA g -1 in electrodes that were not optimised for rate capability. Results to date indicate that the small irreversible loss of capacity on the first cycle is not associated with a SEI layer.

  11. Selenium sulfide@mesoporous carbon aerogel composite for rechargeable lithium batteries with good electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Jiang, Shaofeng; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Junming; Song, Junxiao; Li, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Selenium sulfide (SeS2) encapsulated into 3D interconnected mesoporous carbon aerogels (MCA) as a selenium sulfide/carbon composite material was prepared for lithium batteries. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations show the mesoporous structures of the carbon aerogels and the homogeneous distribution of selenium sulfide in the composite. The electrochemical performances of the selenium sulfide@mesoporous carbon aerogel (SeS2@MCA) composite cathode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the SeS2@MCA cathode shows a better electrochemical performance than the pristine SeS2 cathode. The SeS2@MCA composite with selenium sulfide content of 49.3 wt.% displays an initial discharge capacity of 1150 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a reversible discharge capacity of 601 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The better electrochemical performance benefit from the high electron conductivity and 3D interconnected porous structures of the carbon aerogels, which contribute to dispersing SeS2 and trapping polysulfide and polyselenide intermediates within the skeleton structure of the mesoporous carbon aerogels.

  12. Copper sulfides for rechargeable lithium batteries: Linking cycling stability to electrolyte composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jache, Birte; Mogwitz, Boris; Klein, Franziska; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2014-02-01

    Copper sulfides are attractive electrode materials as their reaction with lithium offers high capacity and energy density. However, the reversibility is poor and (nano)structuring is considered necessary to achieve moderate improvements. In contrast, we show in this study that the electrolyte is a major factor that governs the reversibility of the cell reaction. All our experiments were done with commercially available copper sulfides (CuS and Cu2S) without any special nanostructure. Different electrolyte compositions were tested among LiPF6 in EC/DMC and LiTFSI in DOL/DME. While rapid capacity fading is found in cells containing carbonate-based electrolytes, cells with ether-based electrolytes show a much better electrochemical performance. For a mixture of 1 M LiTFSI in DOL/DME, Cu2S can be cycled with capacities of around 200 mAh g-1 for more than 150 cycles with coulombic efficiencies >98.4%, for example. The improved stability in the ether-based electrolyte further allowed us to study how the discharge and charge voltage change during prolonged cycling. Our study underlines that improvements in the Li/CuS and Li/Cu2S system are still possible by very simple measures, but further studies on the complex Li-Cu-S phase behavior are necessary to understand the discharging and especially the charging mechanisms.

  13. Layered manganese oxide intergrowth electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries: Part 2. Substitution with Al

    SciTech Connect

    Patoux, Sebastien; Dolle, Mickael; Doeff, Marca M.

    2004-09-08

    The structural and electrochemical characterization of layered Li{sub x}Al{sub y}Mn{sub 1-y}O{sub 2} compounds prepared from sodium-containing precursors is described. A quaternary phase diagram showing composition ranges for pure P2 and P3 structures and P2/P3 intergrowths obtained in the Na-Al-Mn-O system is presented. Upon ion exchange, these compounds change to O2, O3 or O2/O3 stacking arrangements, respectively. The oxygen array in O3 and spinel structures is similar, and most of the O3 structures convert to spinel rapidly upon electrochemical cycling in lithium cells. This process is delayed somewhat by increased Al substitution, but not completely inhibited. More effective suppression of the phase transformation is observed in O2/O3 intergrowth electrodes. Additionally, the capacity retention upon cycling and the rate behavior of cells containing intergrowth electrodes is superior to those with pure O2 structures.

  14. Reaction mechanism and thermal stability study on cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jin

    Olivine-type lithium iron phosphate has been a very promising cathode material since it was proposed by Padhi in 1997, low-cost, environmental friendly and stable structure ensure the commercialization of LiFePO 4. In LiFePO4, during charge and discharge process, Li ions are transferred between two phases, Li-poor LialphaFePO 4 and Li-rich Li1-betaFePO4, which implies a significant energy barrier for the new phase nucleation and interface growth, contrary to the fast reaction kinetics experimentally observed. The understanding of the lithiation and delithiation mechanism of this material has spurred a lot of research interests. Many theory models have been proposed to explain the reaction mechanism of LiFePO4, among them, the single phase model claims that the reaction goes through a metastable single phase, and the over potential required to form this single phase is about 30mV, so we studied the driving force to transport lithium ions between Lialpha FePO4 and Li1-betaFePO4 phases and compared the particle sizes effect. Experiment results shows that, the nano-sized (30nm) LiFePO4 has wider solid solution range, lower solid solution formation temperature and faster kinetics than normal LiFePO4 (150nm). Also a 20mV over potential was observed in both samples, either after relaxing the FePO4/LiFePO4 system to equilibrium or transport lithium from one side to the other side, the experiment result is corresponding to theoretical calculation; indicates the reaction might go through single-phase reaction mechanism. The energy and power density of lithium ion battery largely depend on cathode materials. Mn substituted LiFePO4 has a higher voltage than LiFePO4, which results a higher theoretical energy density. Safety issue is one of the most important criterions for batteries, since cathode materials need to maintain stable structure during hundreds of charge and discharge cycles and ranges of application conditions. We have reported that iron-rich compound o-Fe1-yMnyPO4

  15. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  16. An epoxy-silane approach to prepare anode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, J.S.; Myrtle, K.; Dahn, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    A series of carbonaceous materials containing silicon and oxygen have been synthesized via pyrolysis of epoxy-silane composites prepared from hardened mixtures of epoxy novolac resin and epoxy-functional silane. Chemical composition of the pyrolyzed materials has been determined to be C{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Si{sub z}O{sub y} by a combination thermogravimetric analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyses, and wet chemical analyses. Pyrolysis of the epoxy novolac resin gives pure carbon made up predominantly of single graphene sheets having lateral dimension of about 20 {angstrom} which are stacked like a house of cards. Pyrolysis of the pure epoxy-functional silane gives C{sub 0.50}Si{sub 0.19}O{sub 0.31} with a glassy structure. X-ray diffraction and electrochemical tests show that pyrolyzed materials prepared from mixtures initially containing less than 50% (by weight) silane are mixtures of the carbon single-layer phase and the glassy phase, while those initially with greater than 50% silane show predominantly the glassy phase. The reversible specific capacity of these materials increases from about 500 mAh/g for the pure disordered carbon up to about 770 mAh/g in the material which contains the most silicon and oxygen. However, the voltage profile develops hysteresis of about 1 V and the irreversible capacity associated with the first reaction within lithium increases as the silicon and oxygen contents are increased. Further work is needed to eliminate these drawbacks.

  17. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  18. Enhanced electrochemical performance of a crosslinked polyaniline-coated graphene oxide-sulfur composite for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Do Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Due to the extraordinarily high theoretical capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered a promising candidate for future high-energy battery applications. Li-S batteries, however, have suffered from limited cycle lives, mainly due to the formation of soluble polysulfides, which prevent the practical application of this attractive technology. The encapsulation of sulfur with various conductive materials has addressed this issue to some extent. Nevertheless, most approaches still present partial encapsulation of sulfur and moreover require a large quantity of conductive material (typically, >30 wt%), making the use of sulfur less desirable from the viewpoint of capacity. Here, we address these chronic issues of Li-S cells by developing a graphene oxide-sulfur composite with a thin crosslinked polyaniline (PANI) layer. Graphene oxide nanosheets with large surface area, high conductivity and a uniform conductive PANI layer, which are synthesized by a layer-by-layer method, have a synergetic interaction with a large portion of the sulfur in the active material. Furthermore, a simple crosslinking process efficiently prevents polysulfide dissolution, resulting in unprecedented electrochemical performance, even with a high sulfur content (∼75%): a high capacity retention of ∼80% is observed, in addition to 97.53% of the average Coulombic efficiency being retained after 500 cycles. The performance we demonstrate represents an advance in the field of lithium-sulfur batteries for applications such as power tools.

  19. The double perovskite oxide Sr2CrMoO(6-δ) as an efficient electrocatalyst for rechargeable lithium air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2014-12-07

    A double perovskite oxide Sr2CrMoO6-δ (SCM), synthesized using the sol-gel and annealing method with the assistance of citric acid and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, was investigated for the first time as an efficient catalyst for rechargeable lithium air batteries. The SCM cathode enables higher specific capacity, lower overpotential and a much better cyclability compared to the pure Super P electrode owing to its excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the formation/decomposition of Li2O2.

  20. Advances in Wearable Fiber-Shaped Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-06-01

    It is highly desirable to develop flexible and efficient energy-storage systems for widely used wearable electronic products. To this end, fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) attract increasing interest due to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, compared with conventional bulky and planar structures. Recent advances in the fabrication, structure, mechanism, and properties of fiber-shaped LIBs are summarized here, with a focus on the electrode material. Remaining challenges and future directions are also highlighted to provide some useful insights from the viewpoint of practical applications.

  1. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-04-03

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g(-1) (2.27 V vs Li(+) /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g(-1) (2.60 V vs Li(+) /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries.

  2. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  3. Advanced Micro/Nanostructures for Lithium Metal Anodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Nian‐Wu; Cheng, Xin‐Bing; Yin, Ya‐Xia

    2017-01-01

    Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated. Thus the electrochemical properties and lithium morphologies have been significantly improved. These micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes shed new light on the future applications for lithium metal batteries. PMID:28331792

  4. Advanced Micro/Nanostructures for Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Nian-Wu; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated. Thus the electrochemical properties and lithium morphologies have been significantly improved. These micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes shed new light on the future applications for lithium metal batteries.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical characterizations of La doped nano-size LiCo0.2Ni0.8O2 cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, D.; Paruthimal Kalaignan, G.; Vediappan, K.; Lee, C. W.

    2010-07-01

    The LiLaxCo0.20-xNi0.80O2, where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10 cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries were synthesized by simple sol-gel technique using aqueous solutions of metal nitrates and polyvinyl alcohol. The gel precursors were dried in vacuum oven for 12 h at 120 °C. After drying, the gel precursors were ground and heated at 800 °C. The structural characterization was carried out by X-ray powder diffraction. The sample exhibited a well-defined hexagonal layered structure. Surface morphology and particle size of the synthesized materials was determined by scanning electron microscope and transmittance electron microscope and it was found that the cathode materials consisted of highly-ordered single crystalline particles with layered structure. Electrochemical properties were characterized by the assembled test cells using galvanostatic charge/discharge studies which were carried out at a current rate 0.1 C at potential range of 2.75 to 4.5 V. Among them, lanthanum doped LiLa0.03Co0.17Ni0.80O2 has improved the structural stability, high reversible capacity and excellent electrochemical performance of rechargeable lithium batteries.

  6. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  7. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  8. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  9. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  10. Single lithium-ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes: advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Li, Chunmei; Piszcz, Michal; Coya, Estibaliz; Rojo, Teofilo; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Armand, Michel; Zhou, Zhibin

    2017-02-06

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges to humankind in this century. The performances of classical Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues, and the energy density of the state-of-the-art LIBs cannot satisfy the practical requirement. Therefore, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been intensively investigated considering the high theoretical capacity of lithium metal and its low negative potential. However, the progress in the field of non-aqueous liquid electrolytes for LMBs has been sluggish, with several seemingly insurmountable barriers, including dendritic Li growth and rapid capacity fading. Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) offer a perfect solution to these safety concerns and to the enhancement of energy density. Traditional SPEs are dual-ion conductors, in which both cations and anions are mobile and will cause a concentration polarization thus leading to poor performances of both LIBs and LMBs. Single lithium-ion (Li-ion) conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SLIC-SPEs), which have anions covalently bonded to the polymer, inorganic backbone, or immobilized by anion acceptors, are generally accepted to have advantages over conventional dual-ion conducting SPEs for application in LMBs. A high Li-ion transference number (LTN), the absence of the detrimental effect of anion polarization, and the low rate of Li dendrite growth are examples of benefits of SLIC-SPEs. To date, many types of SLIC-SPEs have been reported, including those based on organic polymers, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers and anion acceptors. In this review, a brief overview of synthetic strategies on how to realize SLIC-SPEs is given. The fundamental physical and electrochemical properties of SLIC-SPEs prepared by different methods are discussed in detail. In particular, special attention is paid

  11. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  12. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  13. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  15. Preparation of polyperinaphthalenic organic semiconductor thin films by excimer laser ablation and application to anode electrodes for ultrathin rechargable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Satoru; Kuriki, Sigenori; Tsujine, Yukari; Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Ando, Nobuo; Hato, Yukinori; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi

    2000-06-01

    Amorphous organic semiconductor thin films are prepared on temperature-controlled substrates by excimer laser ablation (ELA) of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) or PTCDA/Co mixture target with a 308(XeCl) pulsed excimer laser beam. Drastic increase in conductivity was observed along with decrease in the IR peak intensities related to the side groups of PTCDA monomers for films prepared on substrates above 200°C. Electric conductivity of a film prepared on a substrate at 300°C comes up to 10-1Scm-1. Although carbon radicals are detected to some extent, indicating incomplete polymerization. Raman spectroscopic measurement reveals that this film basically consists of polyperinaphthalene (PPN) structure. This material is named polyperinaphthlenic organic semiconductor (PPNOS). ELA of mixture target of PTCDA and Co enables us to obtain PPNOS at room temperature. Electrochemical doping of PPNOS films with lithium ion suggests the passable performance of this film as anode electrodes of ultra thin rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  16. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  18. Advances in lithium and calcium high-rate oxyhalide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, W. P.; Green, S.; Sargeant, D. G.; Packer, R. K.

    The characteristics of lithium and calcium oxyhalide battery systems are considered, with special attention given to those of lithium-thionyl chloride and lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells. It is shown that, for a capability of above 50 mA/sq cm, lithium-sulfuryl chloride is the preferred cell chemistry, although calcium-thionyl chloride (which is acceptable up to 50 mA/sq cm) may be preferrable if thermal management is a problem. Lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells were found to exhibit a form of concentration polarization which is strongly dependent on interelectrode separation. In such cells, interelectrode separations have to be minimized if premature failure is to be avoided.

  19. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  20. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  1. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  2. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; ...

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  3. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  4. Advances in Lithium-Sulfur Rechargeable Batteries Powering the Electronic Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skotheim, Terje; Akridge, Jim; Hyland, Bob

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the Moltech Corporation's history and structure, power systems development, product attributes, Li-S adapted products, cell construction, specific energy comparisons, and product requirements necessary for use in spacecraft applications.

  5. Rechargeable lithium battery using non-flammable electrolyte based on tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and olivine cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Carbone, Lorenzo; Gancitano, Vincenzo; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-12-01

    We propose lithium metal cells employing LiCF3SO3-tetraethylene glycol dimethy ether (TEGDME) electrolyte solution with LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 cathodes. The electrolyte is selected due to its non-flammability, herein demonstrated, and considered as a key requirement for application cells employing high energy lithium metal anode. The selected olivine cathodes, i.e., stable materials prepared by solvothermal pathway, have regular submicrometrical morphology suitable for cell operation and homogeneous composition, as confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrochemical tests reveal promising cycling performances in terms of delivered capacity, stability and rate capability. The Li/LiCF3SO3-TEGDME/LiFePO4 cell operates at 3.5 V with capacity ranging from 150 mAh g-1 at C/10 to 110 mAh g-1 at 2C, while the Li/LiCF3SO3-TEGDME/LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 cell performs following two plateaus at 4.1 V and 3.5 V with capacity ranging from 160 mAh g-1 at C/10 to 75 mAh g-1 at 2C. Hence, the results demonstrate the suitability of TEGDME-based electrolytes in combination with LiFePO4 and LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 cathodes for high performances lithium battery.

  6. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  7. Ionic liquid-based membranes as electrolytes for advanced lithium polymer batteries.

    PubMed

    Navarra, M A; Manzi, J; Lombardo, L; Panero, S; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-01-17

    Gel-type polymer electrolytes are formed by immobilizing a solution of lithium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-n-butyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Py₂₄TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with added mixtures of organic solvents, such as ethylene, propylene and dimethyl carbonates (EC, PC, and DMC, respectively), into a poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) matrix, and their properties investigated. The addition of the organic solvent mixtures results in an improvement of the ionic conductivity and in the stabilization of the interface with the lithium electrode. Conductivity values in the range of 10⁻³-10⁻²  S cm⁻¹ are obtained in a wide temperature range. These unique properties allow the effective use of these membranes as electrolytes for the development of advanced polymer batteries based on a lithium metal anode and an olivine-type lithium iron phosphate cathode.

  8. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential.

  9. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  10. Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Menchhofer, Paul A; Dehoff, Ryan R; Bridges, Craig A; Chi, Miaofang; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

  11. Gold-coated silicon nanowire-graphene core-shell composite film as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Sang Eon; Lee, Jihye; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Jun-Ho; Oh, Minsub; Hyun, Seungmin; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We designed and fabricated a gold (Au)-coated silicon nanowires/graphene (Au-SiNWs/G) hybrid composite as a polymer binder-free anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A large amount of SiNWs for LIB anode materials can be prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. The Au-SiNWs/G composite film on current collector was obtained by vacuum filtration using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and hot pressing method. Our experimental results show that the Au-SiNWs/G composite has a stable reversible capacity of about 1520 mA h/g which was maintained for 20 cycles. The Au-SiNWs/G composite anode showed much better cycling performance than SiNWs/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/Super-P, SiNWs/G composite, and pure SiNWs anodes. The improved electrochemical properties of the Au-SiNWs/G composite anode material is mainly ascribed to the composite's porous network structure.

  12. The effect of hydrogenation on the growth of carbon nanospheres and their performance as anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shijia; Fan, Yunxia; Zhu, Kai; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Shuanglong; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2015-02-07

    Hydrogenated carbon nanomaterials exhibit many advantages in both mechanical and electrochemical properties, and thus have a wide range of potential applications. However, methods to control the hydrogenation and the effect of hydrogenation on the microstructure and properties of the produced nanomaterials have rarely been studied. Here we report the synthesis of hydrogenated carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) with different degrees of hydrogenation by a facile solvothermal method, in which C2H3Cl3/C2H4Cl2 was used as the carbon precursor and potassium as the reductant. The hydrogenation level of the obtained nanospheres depends on the reaction temperature and higher temperature leads to lower hydrogenation due to the fact that the breaking of C-H bonds requires more external energy. The reaction temperature also affects the diameter of the HCNSs and larger spheres are produced at higher temperatures. More importantly, the size and the degree of hydrogenation are both critical factors for determining the electrochemical properties of the HCNSs. The nanospheres synthesized at 100 °C have a smaller size and a higher hydrogenation degree and show a capacity of 821 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles, which is significantly higher than that of the HCNSs produced at 150 °C (450 mA h g(-1)). Our study opens a possible way for obtaining high-performance anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Lithium in Bipolar Disorder: Recent Advances and Current Understanding.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Lithium is the most effective and well established treatment for bipolar disorder, and it has a broad array of effects within cellular pathways. However, the specific processes through which therapeutic effects occur and are maintained in bipolar disorder remain unclear. This paper provides a timely update to an authoritative review of pertinent findings that was published in CNS Drugs in 2013. A literature search was conducted using the Scopus database, and was limited by year (from 2012). There has been a resurgence of interest in lithium therapy mechanisms, perhaps driven by technical advancements in recent years that permit the examination of cellular mechanisms underpinning the effects of lithium-along with the reuptake of lithium in clinical practice. Recent research has further cemented glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibition as a key mechanism, and the inter-associations between GSK3β-mediated neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and neurotransmission mechanisms have been further elucidated. In addition to highly illustrative cellular research, studies examining higher-order biological systems, such as circadian rhythms, as well as employing innovative animal and human models, have increased our understanding of how lithium-induced changes at the cellular level possibly translate to changes at behavioural and clinical levels. Neural circuitry research is yet to identify clear mechanisms of change in bipolar disorder in response to treatment with lithium, but important structural findings have demonstrated links to the modulation of cellular mechanisms, and peripheral marker and pharmacogenetic studies are showing promising findings that will likely inform the exploration for predictors of lithium treatment response. With a deeper understanding of lithium's therapeutic mechanisms-from the cellular to clinical levels of investigation-comes the opportunity to develop predictive models of lithium treatment response and identify novel drug targets, and

  14. A novel nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite cathode with a dual-layered structure for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Konarov, Aishuak; Gosselink, Denise; Soboleski, Hayden Greentree; Chen, P.

    2013-11-01

    A method for synthesizing nano-sulfur/polypyrrole/graphene nanosheet (nano-S/PPy/GNS) ternary composite with a dual-layered structure is described. By taking advantage of both capillary force driven self-assembly of polypyrrole on graphene nanosheets and adhesion ability of polypyrrole to sulfur, we develop a stable and ordered nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The high dispersion of nanoscopic sulfur on the surface of PPy/GNS composite and good electrical conductivity of GNS seems to benefit the sulfur utilization and the reactivity of the composite. Furthermore, PPy plays an important role in retarding diffusion of polysulfides out of the electrode. The resulting nano-S/PPy/GNS composite cathode delivers a high initial capacity of 1415.7 mAh g-1, remaining a reversible capacity of 641.5 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles at 0.1 C rate.

  15. Reduced graphite oxide/nano Sn: a superior composite anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Chandrasekaran; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical performance of reduced graphite oxide (RGO) anchored with nano Sn particles, which are synthesized by a reduction method, is presented. The Sn nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surface of the RGO matrix and the size of the particles is approximately 5-10 nm. The uniform distribution effectively accommodates the volume expansion experienced by Sn particles during cycling. The observed electrochemical performance (97 % capacity retention) can be ascribed to the flexible RGO matrix with uniform distribution of Sn particles, which reduces the lithium-ion diffusion path lengths; therefore, the RGO matrix provides more stability to the Sn particles during cycling. Such studies on Sn nanoparticles anchored on RGO matrices have not been reported to date.

  16. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI.

  17. A new iron V[sub 2]O[sub 5] bronze as electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Maingot, S.; Baffier, N. . Lab. de Chimie Appliquee de l'Etat Solide); Baddour, R.; Pereira-Ramos, J.P. . Lab. d'Electrochimie); Willmann, P. )

    1993-11-01

    A new iron V[sub 2]O[sub 5] bronze, Fe[sub 0.12]V[sub 2]O[sub 5], has been prepared via a sol-gel process. This compound exhibits an orthorhombic structure which closely resembles that of the parent oxide V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. A preliminary investigation of its electrochemical properties as rechargeable cathodic material for Li batteries is performed. The results are discussed in relation with the electrochemical behavior known for V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. Three reversible insertion steps appear in the potential range 3.8 to 2 V vs Li/Li[sup +]. They correspond to a high faradaic yield of 2.5 F. per mole of bronze mainly due to the unusually wide Li concentration range involved in the third process located near 2.3 V ([Delta]X = 1.5). The presence of ferric ions in the orthorhombic host lattice is seen to induce interesting features especially in terms of cycle life (potential range: 3.8 to 2 V; C/4 discharge-charge rate) with a specific capacity of about 200 Ah/kg after 40 cycles.

  18. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  19. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles by flame synthesis as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Park, Hyean-Yeol; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Hyuck-Soo; Inamdar, Shaukatali N; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-01-14

    Nitrogen-doped turbostratic carbon nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared using fast single-step flame synthesis by directly burning acetonitrile in air atmosphere and investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The as-prepared N-doped carbon NPs show excellent Li-ion stoarage properties with initial discharge capacity of 596 mA h g(-1), which is 17% more than that shown by the corresponding undoped carbon NPs synthesized by identical process with acetone as carbon precursor and also much higher than that of commercial graphite anode. Further analysis shows that the charge-discharge process of N-doped carbon is highly stable and reversible not only at high current density but also over 100 cycles, retaining 71% of initial discharge capacity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy also shows that N-doped carbon has better conductivity for charge and ions than that of undoped carbon. The high specific capacity and very stable cyclic performance are attributed to large number of turbostratic defects and N and associated increased O content in the flame-synthesized N-doped carbon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which demonstrates single-step, direct flame synthesis of N-doped turbostratic carbon NPs and their application as a potential anode material with high capacity and superior battery performance. The method is extremely simple, low cost, energy efficient, very effective, and can be easily scaled up for large scale production.

  20. Niobium(V) oxynitride: synthesis, characterization, and feasibility as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-05-07

    The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h  kg(-1) can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05-3 and 1-3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge-discharge reaction is proposed.

  1. Niobium(V) Oxynitride: Synthesis, Characterization, and Feasibility as Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h kg−1 can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05–3 and 1–3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge–discharge reaction is proposed. PMID:22461147

  2. The effect of thin film morphology on the electrochemical performance of Cu-Sn anode for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Polat, B D; Keleş, O

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the anode performance of non ordered and ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin films deposited via electron beam deposition technique. The ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film having nano-porosities was fabricated using an oblique (co)deposition technique. Our results showed that the nano structured Cu-Sn thin film containing Cu-Sn nanorods had higher initial anodic capacity (790 mA h g(-)) than that of the non ordered thin film (330 mA h g(-)). But the capacity of the ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film diminished after the first cycle and a steady state capacity value around 300 mA h g(-) is sustainable in following up to 80th cycle, which is attributed to the composition and morphology of the thin film. The presence of copper containing Sn nanorods leading to form nano-porosities as interstitial spaces among them, enhanced lithium ions movement within thin film and increased the thin film tolerance against the stress generated because of the drastic volume change occurred during lithiation-delithiation processes; hence, homogenously distributed porosities increased the cycle life of the thin film.

  3. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  4. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse .,ide if necessary and Identify by block number) Batteries Thionyl Chloride Batteries Lithium ...Batteries Lithium Cells Primary Batteries Thionyl Chloride Cells Non Rechargeable Batteries Electrochemical Reactions 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS .......................................... 1 1.0 IN TRO D UC

  5. Synchrotron radiation-based 61Ni Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials of lithium ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segi, Takashi; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Takayuki; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Layered rocksalt type oxides, such as Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are widely used as the cathode active materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Because the nickel ions are associated with the role of the charge compensation at discharge and charge, the 61Ni Mössbauer measurements at 6 K using synchrotron radiation were performed to reveal the role of Ni. The Ni ions of the active materials play two roles for the redox process between the charge and discharge states of lithium-ion batteries. Half of the total Ni ions change to the low-spin Ni3+ with Jahn-Teller distortion from the Ni2+ ions of the discharge state. The remainder exhibit low-spin state divalent Ni ions.

  6. Experimental studies in natural groundwater recharge dynamics: Assessment of recent advances in instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.; Perry, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    To quantify and model the natural groundwater-recharge process, two sites in south-central Kansas, U.S.A., were instrumented with various modern sensors and data microloggers. The atmospheric-boundary layer and the unsaturated and saturated soil zones were monitored as a unified regime. Data from the various sensors were collected using microloggers in combination with magnetic-cassette tape, graphical and digital recorders, analog paper-tape recorders, and direct observations to evaluate and automate data collection and processing. Atmospheric sensors included an anemometer, a tipping-bucket raingage, an air-temperature thermistor, a relative-humidity probe, a net radiometer, and a barometric-pressure transducer. Sensors in the unsaturated zone consisted of soil-temperature thermocouples, tensiometers coupled with pressure transducers and dial gages, gypsum blocks, and a neutron moisture probe operated by an observer. The saturated-zone sensors consisted of a water-level pressure transducer, a conventional float gage connected to a variable potentiometer, soil thermocouples, and a number of multiple-depth piezometers. Evaluation of the operation of these sensors and recorders indicated that certain types of equipment such as pressure transducers are very sensitive to environmental conditions. Extraordinary steps had to be taken to protect some of the equipment, whereas other equipment seemed to be reliable under all conditions. Based on such experiences, a number of suggestions aimed at improving such investigations are outlined. ?? 1984.

  7. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  8. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  9. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  10. Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    The LiFePO4 Cathode DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Nanophase and...Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode Shoufeng Yang, Yanning Song, Peter Y. Zavalij and M. Stanley Whittingham...Institute for Materials Research, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902-1600, U.S.A. ABSTRACT LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by high temperature

  11. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  12. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Nam, Y. U.

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  13. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  14. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Réfy, D.; Nam, Y. U.; Zoletnik, S.

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  15. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  16. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  17. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g‑1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  18. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-15

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g(-1), long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  19. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-01-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g−1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials. PMID:28294179

  20. Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

    2012-01-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed.

  1. Rational in-situ construction of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/C composite as enhanced cathode for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Xie, D.; Niu, X. Q.; Ge, X.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The construction of advanced cathode materials is indispensable and vital for developing high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, we develop a facile in-situ route to synthesize three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide supported Li2S/carbon composite (3D-rGO-Li2S/C). The Li2S/C nanoparticles are intimately anchored on the surface of 3D-rGO forming an integrated 3D porous composite. Due to the improved conductivity and reduced polysulfide dissolution, the 3D-rGO-Li2S/C cathode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with a high initial capacity of 819 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity retention of 415 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1C. The integrated 3D conductive network is responsible for the enhancement of the electrochemical properties by providing fast ion/electron transfer and high mechanical stability.

  2. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  3. Advanced Separators for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yinyu; Li, Junsheng; Lei, Jiaheng; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhizhong; Qu, Deyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Tengfei; Tang, Haolin

    2016-11-09

    Li-ion and Li-S batteries find enormous applications in different fields, such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. A separator is an indispensable part of the battery design, which functions as a physical barrier for the electrode as well as an electrolyte reservoir for ionic transport. The properties of the separators directly influence the performance of the batteries. Traditional polyolefin separators showed low thermal stability, poor wettability toward the electrolyte, and inadequate barrier properties to polysulfides. To improve the performance and durability of Li-ion and Li-S batteries, development of advanced separators is required. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the fabrication and application of novel separators, including the functionalized polyolefin separator, polymeric separator, and ceramic separator, for Li-ion and Li-S batteries. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these separators are discussed. A brief outlook for the future directions of the research in the separators is also provided.

  4. COMPASS Final Report: Advanced Lithium Ion Venus Explorer (ALIVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Paul, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The COncurrent Multi-disciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive(power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission. Historic Soviet Venus landers have only lasted on the order of 2 hours in the extreme Venus environment: temperatures of 460 C and pressures of 93 bar. Longer duration missions have been studied using plutonium powered systems to operate and cool landers for up to a year. However, the plutonium load is very large. This NIAC study sought to still provide power and cooling but without the plutonium.

  5. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  6. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  7. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  8. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  9. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  10. Incorporating Sulfur Inside the Pores of Carbons for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: An Electrolysis Approach.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui; Yang, Chao; Wang, Si-Qiong; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-01-26

    We have developed an electrolysis approach that allows effective and uniform incorporation of sulfur inside the micropores of carbon nanosheets for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries. The sulfur-carbon hybrid can be prepared with a 70 wt % sulfur loading, in which no nonconductive sulfur agglomerations are formed. Because the incorporated sulfur is electrically connected to the carbon matrix in nature, the hybrid cathode shows excellent electrochemical performance, including a high reversible capacity, good rate capability, and good cycling stability, as compared to one prepared using the popular melt-diffusion method.

  11. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  12. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  13. Neutron scattering for analysis of processes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Samoylova, N. Yu; Drozhzhin, O. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The review is concerned with analysis and generalization of information on application of neutron scattering for elucidation of the structure of materials for rechargeable energy sources (mainly lithium-ion batteries) and on structural rearrangements in these materials occurring in the course of electrochemical processes. Applications of the main methods including neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, neutron reflectometry and neutron introscopy are considered. Information on advanced neutron sources is presented and a number of typical experiments are outlined. The results of some studies of lithium-containing materials for lithium-ion batteries, carried out at IBR-2 pulsed reactor, are discussed. The bibliography includes 50 references.

  14. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  15. Recent advances in first principles computational research of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying Shirley; Arroyo-de Dompablo, M Elena

    2013-05-21

    To meet the increasing demands of energy storage, particularly for transportation applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, researchers will need to develop improved lithium-ion battery electrode materials that exhibit high energy density, high power, better safety, and longer cycle life. The acceleration of materials discovery, synthesis, and optimization will benefit from the combination of both experimental and computational methods. First principles (ab Initio) computational methods have been widely used in materials science and can play an important role in accelerating the development and optimization of new energy storage materials. These methods can prescreen previously unknown compounds and can explain complex phenomena observed with these compounds. Intercalation compounds, where Li(+) ions insert into the host structure without causing significant rearrangement of the original structure, have served as the workhorse for lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes. Intercalation compounds will also facilitate the development of new battery chemistries such as sodium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical discharge reaction process, the intercalating species travel from the negative to the positive electrode, driving the transition metal ion in the positive electrode to a lower oxidation state, which delivers useful current. Many materials properties change as a function of the intercalating species concentrations (at different state of charge). Therefore, researchers will need to understand and control these dynamic changes to optimize the electrochemical performance of the cell. In this Account, we focus on first-principles computational investigations toward understanding, controlling, and improving the intrinsic properties of five well known high energy density Li intercalation electrode materials: layered oxides (LiMO2), spinel oxides (LiM2O4), olivine phosphates (LiMPO4), silicates-Li2MSiO4, and the tavorite-LiM(XO4)F (M = 3d

  16. New nanostructured Li2S/silicon rechargeable battery with high specific energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li(2)S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg(-1), which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO(2) cathodes and graphite anodes (approximately 410 Wh kg(-1)). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg(-1) based on the mass of the active electrode materials.

  17. Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12: An advanced anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Liang, Guisheng; Gao, Jinxiang; Deng, Shengjue; Lin, Shiwei; Li, Jianbao

    2016-11-01

    Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12 powders with a designed nominal composition of Li3Cr7Ti2O16 have been prepared by one-step solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld refinement indicates that these powders contain 96.5wt.% spinel Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and 3.5wt.% Cr2O3. Due to the combination of Ti3+/Ti4+ and Cr2+/Cr3+ redox couples in Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and the existence of Cr2O3, the composite exhibits a large first-cycle discharge capacity of 315mAhṡg-1 at a small current density of 62.5mAṡg-1. Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 shows an improved Li+ ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity, respectively arising from the small O2- ion fractional coefficient and unpaired 3d electrons in Cr3+ ions. The majority of Cr2O3 is reduced to Cr after the first two lithiation processes, which benefits the electrical conduction between the Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 particles. Consequently, the composite exhibits a good rate performance and cyclability. Its capacity at 1000mAṡg-1 is as large as 141mAhṡg-1 with large retention of 90.1% after 100 cycles.

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Anode Design Based on Microscale Porous Scaffolds for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Choi, Hyelim; Nam, Kyungju; Lee, Sukyung; Um, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyungbae; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub; Choe, Heeman

    2017-01-01

    Considering the increasing demands for advanced power sources, present-day lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) must provide a higher energy and power density and better cycling stability than conventional LIBs. This study suggests a promising electrode design solution to this problem using Cu, Co, and Ti scaffolds with a microscale porous structure synthesized via freeze-casting. Co3O4 and TiO2 layers are uniformly formed on the Co and Ti scaffolds, respectively, through a simple thermal heat-treatment process, and a SnO2 layer is formed on the Cu scaffold through electroless plating and thermal oxidation. This paper characterizes and evaluates the physical and electrochemical properties of the proposed electrodes using scanning electron microscopy, four-point probe and coin-cell tests to confirm the feasibility of their potential use in LIBs.

  20. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  1. Novel binary deep eutectic electrolytes for rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on mixtures of alkyl sulfonamides and lithium perfluoroalkylsulfonimide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiculescu, O. E.; DesMarteau, D. D.; Creager, S. E.; Haik, O.; Hirshberg, D.; Shilina, Y.; Zinigrad, E.; Levi, M. D.; Aurbach, D.; Halalay, I. C.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquids (IL's) were proposed for use in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), in order to mitigate some of the well-known drawbacks of LiPF6/mixed organic carbonates solutions. However, their large cations seriously decrease lithium transference numbers and block lithium insertion sites at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, leading to poor LIB rate performance. Deep eutectic electrolytes (DEEs) (which share some of the advantages of ILs but possess only one cation, Li+), were then proposed, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with ILs. We report herein on the preparation, thermal properties (melting, crystallization, and glass transition temperatures), transport properties (specific conductivity and viscosity) and thermal stability of binary DEEs based on mixtures of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide or lithium bis(fluoro)sulfonimide salts with an alkyl sulfonamide solvent. Promise for LIB applications is demonstrated by chronoamperometry on Al current collectors, and cycling behavior of negative and positive electrodes. Residual current densities of 12 and 45 nA cm-2 were observed at 5 V vs. Li/Li+ on aluminum, 1.5 and 16 nA cm-2 at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively for LiFSI and LiTFSI based DEEs. Capacities of 220, 130, and 175 mAh· g-1 were observed at low (C/13 or C/10) rates, respectively for petroleum coke, LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 (a.k.a. NMC 111) and LiAl0.05Co0.15Ni0.8O2 (a.k.a. NCA).

  2. Electrochemistry of chemically lithiated NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}: A positive electrode material for use in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Spahr, M.E. |; Novak, P.; Scheifele, W.; Haas, O.; Nesper, R.

    1998-02-01

    Monoclinic NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8} was prepared via aqueous precipitation and subsequently chemically lithiated using butyllithium in hexane as lithiation reagent. The topochemical lithiation process leads to materials with variable lithium content depending on the lithiation reaction conditions. Up to 3 Li{sup +}/mol could be inserted chemically in the lattice water-free NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8} and result in cleavage of the particles, which leads to highly dispersed materials. In contrast to the chemical insertion method, almost 3.5 Li{sup +}/mol could be electrochemically inserted in NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}, corresponding to a specific charge of about 310 mAh/g. About 2.5 Li{sup +}/mol could be deinserted potentiodynamically in the potential range from 1.5 to 4.0 V vs Li/Li{sup +} from a chemically lithiated material with the composition Li{sub 3}NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This corresponds to a specific charge of about 215 mAh/g. In galvanostatic cycling experiments, a specific charge of more than 200 mAh/g could be demonstrated for 100 cycles using this electrode material. The specific charges obtained are independent of the applied specific current up to 50 mA/g of the oxide. This behavior indicates that the sodium vanadate host material can support high lithium insertion and deinsertion rates, which make the chemically lithiated form an attractive candidate for lithium-containing positive electrode materials in high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  3. On the room temperature synthesis of monoclinic Li 3FeF 6: A new cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, E.; Kuhn, A.; García-Alvarado, F.

    The α-polymorph of Li 3FeF 6 has been obtained at room temperature by a precipitation reaction from aqueous solution. This easy procedure that does not require any further annealing at high temperature yields a white powder with particles sizes ranging from 250 to 400 nm. After proper processing by mechanical milling, particle sizes clearly below 100 nm are achieved and this fluoride reacts reversibly with lithium at an average voltage of 3.1 V, which is expected for the Fe 3+/Fe 2+ redox couple. After 12 h of ball milling observed average particle size is ca. 50 nm and a reversible capacity of 100 mA h g -1 is obtained. This corresponds to 70% of the theoretical capacity expected for the one electron reduction of Fe 3+. The mentioned capacity is fairly kept upon cycling making the new material useful as the positive electrode in lithium batteries. This is the very first time that a material for cathode application in lithium batteries is prepared at room temperature and from aqueous solution, a procedure which is easily scalable and hence of high industrial interest.

  4. Na0.282V2O5: A high-performance cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries and sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yangsheng; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Cai, Gemei; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-10-01

    Na0.282V2O5 nanorods have been successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by a calcination treatment, which is then used as a cathode for lithium batteries and sodium batteries for the first time. The crystal structure is refined to be a monoclinic lattice, which contains 3D tunnels along the b-axis. The Na ions are located inside the tunnels and form "pillar effect" to prevent the collapse of the crystal structure. As cathode material for lithium batteries, the Na0.282V2O5 nanorods deliver a high discharge specific capacity of 264, 186, 191 and 149 mA h g-1 at the current density of 50, 500, 1000 and 1500 mA g-1, respectively. The Na0.282V2O5 nanorods demonstrate the excellent cycling performance up to 400 cycles at 1 and 1.5 A g-1. Importantly, as cathode material for sodium batteries, Na0.282V2O5 exhibits superior long-term cyclic stability up to 1000 cycles at 0.3 A g-1. The results of ex-situ XRD, EIS and first-principle calculation indicate that the Na0.282V2O5 possesses good electrical conductivity and structural stability. Our work demonstrates that the Na0.282V2O5 material could be considered as a potential cathode for lithium-ion batteries, and even sodium ion batteries.

  5. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  6. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  7. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries with amorphous Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.; Hart, F.X |

    1996-01-01

    Cathode films of amorphous Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been grown by rf magnetron sputtering on unheated substrates. A low process gas pressure and a positive substrate bias were found to give the most conductive cathodes. The batteries were completed with subsequent deposition of a lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte and Li anode. These cells were cycled at 25-100 C between 4.5 and 1.5 V which corresponds to {approximately}0 to 2 Li per Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The amorphous cathodes have a highs pecific capacity and a low capacity loss per cycle.

  8. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  9. Improving the electrochemical performance of the li4 ti5 o12 electrode in a rechargeable magnesium battery by lithium-magnesium co-intercalation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Yao, Hu-Rong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Gu, Lin; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-05-04

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted recent research attention because of abundant raw materials and their relatively low-price and high-safety characteristics. However, the sluggish kinetics of the intercalated Mg(2+) ions in the electrode materials originates from the high polarizing ability of the Mg(2+) ion and hinders its electrochemical properties. Here we report a facile approach to improve the electrochemical energy storage capability of the Li4 Ti5 O12 electrode in a Mg battery system by the synergy between Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions. By tuning the hybrid electrolyte of Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions, both the reversible capacity and the kinetic properties of large Li4 Ti5 O12 nanoparticles attain remarkable improvement.

  10. Synthesis, physical and electrochemical characterization of Gd (III) doped LiMn2O4 cathode material for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Rahul; Ram, Pura; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The spinel structured LiMn2-xGdxO4 (x =0.01-0.05) have been synthesized via sol gel method. The physical and electrochemical characterization were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge studies. The reversibility of synthesized cathode was supported through cyclic voltammetry in 3.0 - 4.5 voltage range. The initial charge discharge capacity of cathode materials was found in range 130-140 mAhg-1. The fabricated coin cell was tested up to 50 charge -discharge cycles with 0.5 C rate. The small amount of rare earth metal, Gd, doping showed improvement in capacity fading compared to LiMn2O4 cathode, offer its applicability for Li-ion rechargeable battery

  11. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pan; Han, Jia-Jun; Jiang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning

    2017-04-01

    The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  12. Identifying Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recharge epodicity in arid regions provides a method to estimate annual groundwater recharge given a relationship expressed as the recharge to precipitation ratio. Traditionally, in-situ observations are required to identify aquifer recharge events, while more advanced approaches such as the water-table fluctuation method or the episodic master recession method are necessary to delineate the recharge event. Our study uses the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations to estimate monthly changes in groundwater storage which are attributed to the combination of groundwater abstraction and episodic recharge in the arid southwestern United States. Our results illustrate the ability of remote sensing technologies to identify episodic groundwater recharge in arid regions which can be used within sustainable groundwater management frameworks to effectively manage groundwater resources.

  13. Surface modification of LiV3O8 nanosheets via layer-by-layer self-assembly for high-performance rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Zhang, Naiqing; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening

    2014-07-01

    In this work, an economical route based on hydrothermal and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly processes has been developed to synthesize unique Al2O3-modified LiV3O8 nanosheets, comprising a core of LiV3O8 nanosheets and a thin Al2O3 nanolayer. The thickness of the Al2O3 nanolayer can be tuned by altering the LBL cycles. When evaluated for their lithium-storage properties, the 1 LBL Al2O3-modified LiV3O8 nanosheets exhibit a high discharge capacity of 191 mA h g-1 at 300 mA g-1 (1C) over 200 cycles and excellent rate capability, demonstrating that enhanced physical and/or chemical properties can be achieved through proper surface modification.

  14. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... requirements established for mailpieces containing equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries in... exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail. 135.63 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries. Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those used to power...

  15. Novel synthesis process and structure refinements of Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12} for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Toshimi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Akiba, Etsuo; Izumi, Fujio; Chakoumakos, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Well crystallized Li4Mn5O12 was prepared from LiOAc-Mn(NO3)2 under flowing oxygen. Rietveld refinement with XRD and neutron powder diffraction indicated that Li4Mn5O12 has cubic spinel structure in which the Li ions occupy both the tetrahedral sites 8a and part of the octahedral sites 16d but not the 16c sites, while all the Mn ions occupy the 16d sites of the space group Fd{bar 3}m. The lattice parameter was found to be sensitive to synthesis temperature owing to variation in Mn valence. Sample prepared at 500 C showed better electrode performance: a rechargeable capacity of 135 mAh/g for the cell Li/Li4Mn5O12 at cell voltages 2.5-3.6 V. It is found that Mn oxidation state in Li4Mn5O12 has a strong effect on electrode performance of Li/Li4Mn5O12 cell.

  16. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  17. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  18. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  19. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  20. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  2. High capacity retention Si/silicide nanocomposite anode materials fabricated by high-energy mechanical milling for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyoung Kyu; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Yang, Yun Mo; Kim, Jae Hyuk; Moon, Sung Whan; Cho, Jong Soo; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of different kinds of nanocomposite materials is a promising approach to alleviate the severe volume changes of Silicon anode materials for lithium-ion secondary batteries. In the present study, a novel nanocomposite Si80Fe16Cr4 was synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling without noticeable contamination. The nano-indentation results revealed that the elastic recoverable energy range of the synthesized nanocomposite is 3.43 times higher than that of Si. The proposed nanocomposite milled for 8 and 10 h recorded a noteworthy reversible capacity of 841 and 812 mAh g-1 even at 100th cycle, with excellent capacity retention. Remarkably, the nanocomposite exhibited a very low initial cycle (1st cycle) capacity loss ∼14%. The crystal separation of the less active silicide phases was determined after the extended cycling, which is advantageous for accommodating the stress produced by the volume changes of the active Si. The primary factors attributed to the excellent electrochemical performance were the size reduction of Si particles to nanometer scale, the formation of the highly elastic matrix, and separation of silicide phases after extended cycling.

  3. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries.

    PubMed

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R Vasant

    2014-06-07

    A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector thus decreasing the weight of the cathode by typically ∼20-30 wt%. A Li-S battery with the sulphur-FLG foam cathode shows good electrochemical stability and high rate discharge capacity retention for up to 400 discharge/charge cycles at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1). Even after 400 cycles the capacity decay is only ∼0.064% per cycle relative to the early (e.g. the 5th cycle) discharge capacity, while yielding an average columbic efficiency of ∼96.2%. Our results indicate the potential suitability of graphene foam for efficient, ultra-light and high-performance batteries.

  4. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a cathode for rechargeable lithium batteries with dramatically improved performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A; Conte, Sean; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-07-02

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g(-1) in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g(-1) after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials.

  5. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  6. PbLi2Ti6O14: A novel high-rate long-life anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Lin, Xiaoting; Yang, Ke; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    As a novel anode material, PbLi2Ti6O14 is prepared by a traditional solid state method at a calcination temperature of 900 °C. Structural analysis and electrochemical tests prove that PbLi2Ti6O14 possesses a good crystallinity and superior performance. PbLi2Ti6O14, composed of particles with 400 nm in length and 300 nm in width, exhibits an initial charge capacity of 155.1 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and maintains at 147.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles, with capacity retention as high as 95.4%. Especially, the reversible capacity of PbLi2Ti6O14 can stabilize at 101.6 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1, with capacity retention of 87.5%. Besides, the lithium storage behavior in PbLi2Ti6O14 is also studied by various in-situ and ex-situ methods. It is found that the lithiation/delithiation process in PbLi2Ti6O14 is a highly reversible reaction. All these results demonstrate that PbLi2Ti6O14 may be an impressive anode material in the near future.

  7. Thin film rechargeable electrodes based on conductive blends of nanostructured olivine LiFePO4 and sucrose derived nanocarbons for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Praveen, P; Jyothsna, U; Nair, Priya; Ravi, Soumya; Balakrishnan, A; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Nair, V Shantikumar; Sivakumar, N

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides the first reports of a novel approach of electrophoretic co-deposition technique by which titanium foils are coated with LiFePO4-carbon nanocomposites synthesized by sol gel route and processed into high-surface area cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The study elucidates how sucrose additions as carbon source can affect the surface morphology and the redox reaction behaviors underlying these cathodes and thereby enhance the battery performance. The phase and morphological analysis were done using XRD and XPS where the LiFePO4 formed was confirmed to be a high purity orthorhombic system. From the analysis of the relevant electrochemical parameters using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a 20% increment and 90% decrement in capacity and impedance values were observed respectively. The composite electrodes also exhibited a specific capacity of 130 mA h/g. It has been shown that cathodes based on such composite systems can allow significant room for improvement in the cycling performance at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  8. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  9. 77 FR 28488 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries and Other Dangerous Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... accordance with additional requirements listed in the Technical Instructions. Lithium-ion cells and lithium... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of... lithium-ion cells and batteries (rechargeable), regardless of quantity, size, watt hours, and...

  10. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R.; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R. Vasant

    2014-05-01

    A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector thus decreasing the weight of the cathode by typically ~20-30 wt%. A Li-S battery with the sulphur-FLG foam cathode shows good electrochemical stability and high rate discharge capacity retention for up to 400 discharge/charge cycles at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. Even after 400 cycles the capacity decay is only ~0.064% per cycle relative to the early (e.g. the 5th cycle) discharge capacity, while yielding an average columbic efficiency of ~96.2%. Our results indicate the potential suitability of graphene foam for efficient, ultra-light and high-performance batteries.A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries has been synthesised by loading sulphur on to an interconnected 3-D network of few-layered graphene (FLG) via a sulphur solution infiltration method. A free-standing FLG monolithic network foam was formed as a negative of a Ni metallic foam template by CVD followed by etching away of Ni. The FLG foam offers excellent electrical conductivity, an appropriate hierarchical pore structure for containing the electro-active sulphur and facilitates rapid electron/ion transport. This cathode system does not require any additional binding agents, conductive additives or a separate metallic current collector

  11. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C).In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity

  12. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0lithium salt in an organic-based solvent to partially replace sodium ions of a precursor material with lithium ions.

  13. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  14. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-07

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  15. Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  16. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  17. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL.

  18. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale.

  19. Advanced Self-Potential Inversion. Development and Use for Investigating Natural Recharge Processes at the ORNL IFC

    SciTech Connect

    Revil, Andre

    2013-01-15

    Understanding the influence of coupled biological, chemical, and hydrological processes on subsurface contaminant behavior at multiple scales is a prerequisite for developing effective remedial approaches, whether they are active remediation or natural attenuation strategies. To develop this understanding, methods are needed that can measure critical components of the natural system in real time. The self-potential method corresponds to the passive measurement of the distribution of the electrical potential at the surface of the Earth or in boreholes. This method is very complemetary to other geophysical methods like DC resistivity and induced polarization. In this report, we summarize of research efforts to advance the theory of low-frequency geoelectrical methods and their applications to the contaminant plumes in the vicinity of the former S-3 settling basins at Oak Ridge, TN.

  20. Advanced separators based on aromatic polymer for high energy density lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Woo, Jung-Je; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-21

    A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.

  1. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  2. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  3. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  4. An advanced lithium-air battery exploiting an ionic liquid-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Elia, G A; Hassoun, J; Kwak, W-J; Sun, Y-K; Scrosati, B; Mueller, F; Bresser, D; Passerini, S; Oberhumer, P; Tsiouvaras, N; Reiter, J

    2014-11-12

    A novel lithium-oxygen battery exploiting PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI as ionic liquid-based electrolyte medium is reported. The Li/PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI/O2 battery was fully characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, capacity-limited cycling, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of this extensive study demonstrate that this new Li/O2 cell is characterized by a stable electrode-electrolyte interface and a highly reversible charge-discharge cycling behavior. Most remarkably, the charge process (oxygen oxidation reaction) is characterized by a very low overvoltage, enhancing the energy efficiency to 82%, thus, addressing one of the most critical issues preventing the practical application of lithium-oxygen batteries.

  5. The Impact of Rechargeable Batteries: Quantifying the Cost and Weight for a Marine Infantry Battalion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    should implement policies to use rechargeable batteries when operationally feasible. Solar panels work well with rechargeable batteries and represent an... batteries because of the numerous communication and weapons systems they power. The BA-5590 is a 12v 15-ampere lithium sulfur dioxide (LiSO2) weighing...Building upon the work of Kiper, Hughley, and McClellan (2010), this thesis quantifies the Impact of Rechargeable Batteries (IRB). The IRB is defined as

  6. Corrosion inhibition in lithium bromide absorption fluid for advanced and current absorption cycle machines

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, S.K.; Mekhjian, M.S.; Sandor, G.R.; Nakada, N.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a novel corrosion inhibitor that exhibits improved protection of carbon steel over the inhibitors currently in practice. This inhibitor, formulated in 65 wt% lithium bromide solution, offers excellent corrosion protection to carbon steel. Corrosion rates were determined using autoclave coupon testing. The corrosion rate in the 300 F to 450 F range was found to be low (1 to 4 mils per year), and the product also showed very low hydrogen generation (0.03 mg/in.{sup 2} of carbon steel per week). The metal was protected with a stable and adherent film.

  7. Monitoring water storage changes using absolute gravity measurements, neutron probes and piezometer data in West Africa: advances in specific yield and recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloîtres, M.; Hinderer, J.; Wubda, M.; Luck, B.; Le Moigne, N.

    2012-04-01

    Advances in water storage monitoring are crucial to characterize the spatial variability of hydrological processes. Classical water storage investigation methods often involve point measurements (piezometers, neutron probes, humidity sensors…), which may be irrelevant in heterogeneous mediums. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of gravimeters for hydrological studies. Water mass redistribution leads to variations in the Earth's gravity field which can be measured by gravimetry. In the framework of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project, 3 years of repeated absolute gravity measurements using FG5#206 from Micro-g Solutions Inc. have been undertaken at Nalohou, a Sudanian site in northern Benin. Hydrological monitoring is carried out within the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch (an observatory of RBV, the French critical zone exploration network). Seasonal gravity variations in link with the hydrological cycle can reach 11 µgal at this site, equivalent to a 26cm thick infinite layer of water. The vadose zone and a shallow unconfined aquifer in weathered metamorphic rocks are responsible for most of the water storage variations. For the first time in the climatic context of the West African monsoon, gravity data are compared to the time evolution of the water storages deduced from neutron probes and water-table variations. The approach is two-fold: first, total storage variations are estimated from neutron probe-derived moisture through the whole vertical profile (surface to groundwater) monitored at the gravimetric site and uniformly extended according to the topography. Results show a very good fit with gravity data, enlightening the fact that absolute gravimeters are sensitive to total water storage variations from the soil surface to the aquifer. The second approach introduces a spatial variability: it was undertaken to check a structural model for specific yield of the aquifer, based on magnetic

  8. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  9. NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

  10. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  11. Advances in lithium-sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li-S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li-S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li-S batteries are summarized.

  12. A Summary on Progress in Materials Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the-art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance future human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This paper on interim progress of the development efforts will present performance of materials and cell components and will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities and proposed strategies to overcome technical issues.

  13. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  14. Core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as an advanced cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Yang, Jinlong; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-18

    We report the formation of core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as a novel cathode material and its mechanism for use in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. A benefit of the amount of FeS2 nano-crystals as the core for Li-ion storage with high capacity and using coated N-doped graphene as the shell is that FeS2@N-graphene exhibits a remarkable specific energy (950 W h kg(-1) at 0.15 kW g(-1)) and higher specific power (543 W h kg(-1) at 2.79 kW g(-1)) than commercial rechargeable LIB cathodes, as well as stable cycling performance (∼600 W h kg(-1) at 0.75 kW g(-1) after 400 cycles).

  15. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g-1 and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  16. Hierarchical micro-lamella-structured 3D porous copper current collector coated with tin for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Um, Ji Hyun; Choi, Hyelim; Yoon, Won-Sub; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman

    2017-03-01

    A Novel 3D porous Sn-Cu architecture is prepared as an anode material for use in an advanced lithium-ion battery. Micro-lamellar-structured 3D porous Cu foam, which is electroless-plated with Sn as an active material, is used as anode current collector. Compared to Sn-coated Cu foil, the 3D Sn-Cu foam exhibits superior Li-ion capacity and stable capacity retention, demonstrating the advantage of 3D porous architecture by preserving its structural integrity. In addition, the effect of heat-treatment after Sn plating is investigated. Sn/Sn6Cu5 and SnO2/Cu10Sn3 were formed on and in the 3D Sn-Cu foam under the heat-treatment at 150 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The development of Cu10Sn3 in the 3D Sn-Cu foam heat-treated at 500 °C can be a key factor for the enhanced cyclic stability because the Cu10Sn3 inactively reacts with Li-ion and alleviates the volume expansion of SnO2 as an inactive matrix.

  17. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  18. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinini, M. Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.; Ambrosini, F.; Nichelatti, E.

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  19. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

  20. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

  1. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  2. Oxidation reaction of polyether-based material and its suppression in lithium rechargeable battery using 4 V class cathode, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yo; Tabuchi, Masato; Shono, Kumi; Ohno, Yasutaka; Mita, Yuichi; Miyashiro, Hajime

    2013-12-11

    The all solid-state lithium battery with polyether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is regarded as one of next-generation lithium batteries, and has potential for sufficient safety because of the flammable-electrolyte-free system. It has been believed that polyether-based SPE is oxidized at the polymer/electrode interface with 4 V class cathodes. Therefore, it has been used for electric devices such as organic transistor, and lithium battery under 3 V. We estimated decomposition reaction of polyether used as SPE of all solid-state lithium battery. We first identified the decomposed parts of polyether-based SPE and the conservation of most main chain framework, considering the results of SPE analysis after long cycle operations. The oxidation reaction was found to occur slightly at the ether bond in the main chain with the branched side chain. Moreover, we resolved the issue by introducing a self-sacrificing buffer layer at the interface. The introduction of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to the 4 V class cathode surface led to the suppression of SPE decomposition at the interface as a result of the preformation of a buffer layer from CMC, which was confirmed by the irreversible exothermic reaction during the first charge, using electrochemical calorimetry. The attained 1500 cycle operation is 1 order of magnitude longer than those of previously reported polymer systems, and compatible with those of reported commercial liquid systems. The above results indicate to proceed to an intensive research toward the realization of 4 V class "safe" lithium polymer batteries without flammable liquid electrolyte.

  3. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  4. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  5. Lithium electrode and an electrical energy storage device containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Lai, San-Cheng

    1976-07-13

    An improved lithium electrode structure comprises an alloy of lithium and silicon in specified proportions and a supporting current-collecting matrix in intimate contact with said alloy. The lithium electrode of the present invention is utilized as the negative electrode in a rechargeable electrochemical cell.

  6. A highly reversible lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Sik; Ma, Sang Bok; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-22

    Lithium metal has shown a lot of promise for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity. However, it does not meet the cycle life and safety requirements of rechargeable batteries owing to electrolyte decomposition and dendrite formation on the surfaces of the lithium anodes during electrochemical cycling. Here, we propose a novel electrolyte system that is relatively stable against lithium metal and mitigates dendritic growth. Systematic design methods that combined simulations, model-based experiments, and in situ analyses were employed to design the system. The reduction potential of the solvent, the size of the salt anions, and the viscosity of the electrolyte were found to be critical parameters determining the rate of dendritic growth. A lithium metal anode in contact with the designed electrolyte exhibited remarkable cyclability (more than 100 cycles) at a high areal capacity of 12 mAh cm(-2).

  7. A Highly Reversible Lithium Metal Anode

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Sik; Ma, Sang Bok; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown a lot of promise for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity. However, it does not meet the cycle life and safety requirements of rechargeable batteries owing to electrolyte decomposition and dendrite formation on the surfaces of the lithium anodes during electrochemical cycling. Here, we propose a novel electrolyte system that is relatively stable against lithium metal and mitigates dendritic growth. Systematic design methods that combined simulations, model-based experiments, and in situ analyses were employed to design the system. The reduction potential of the solvent, the size of the salt anions, and the viscosity of the electrolyte were found to be critical parameters determining the rate of dendritic growth. A lithium metal anode in contact with the designed electrolyte exhibited remarkable cyclability (more than 100 cycles) at a high areal capacity of 12 mAh cm−2. PMID:24448586

  8. Fast lithium intercalation chemistry of the hierarchically porous Li2FeP2O7/C composite prepared by an iron-reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Zhang, S.; Deng, C.

    2015-02-01

    Lithium iron pyrophosphate has drawn great attention because of its interesting physical and electrochemical properties, whereas its high rate capability is far from satisfactory. We synthesize nano-Li2FeP2O7/C with hierarchical pore via a low cost method which uses iron powder instead of Vitamin C as the reducing agent. The hierarchical pore is constructed through a "combustion" mechanism according to the thermogravimetric and morphological characterizations. The phase-pure nanoparticles of Li2FeP2O7 are embedded in the three-dimensional network of amorphous carbon. The hierarchical pore together with the two-dimensional diffusion channel of lithium in Li2FeP2O7 is beneficial to lithium diffusion capability which is evaluated by the lithium diffusion coefficients calculated from the results of GITT measurements. The fast lithium intercalation chemistry facilitates the reversible de/intercalation of lithium, resulting in the high cycling stability and rate-capability. After 100 cycles at the current density of 1C, 93.8% of the initial capacity is retained. The discharge capacity is 62.1 mAh g-1 at the current density of 4C. Therefore, the hierarchically porous nano-Li2FeP2O7/C is a promising cathode material for advanced rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  9. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  10. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  11. Recharge and Evapotranspiration Assessment In Kalahari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubczynski, M.; Obakeng, O.

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the depth at which trees take up water, lithium tracer was injected at various depths below the ground surface. The results indicated that all investigated trees were able to absorb the lithium at depths ranging from 8-70 m. Stable isotopes of soil moisture, of sapwood water and of groundwater revealed that some trees predominantly used soil water from below the main root zone of shrubs and grasses while others used water mainly from the upper layers, even if it meant exerting suctions below the widely accepted wilting point of -1.47 MPa. The results of this research indicate that the most of the water that moves down in Kalahari is lost to evapotranspiration. The main part of it is lost within the first 4 meters considered as the main root zone, majority within the upper ~25 m and some of it reaches the groundwater table where it still has the possibility to be extracted by deep rooting systems of Kalahari savannah trees such as Acacia albitrunca and Acacia erioloba. In dry semi-arid environments, typically characterized by very low recharge, ETg can represent significant component of groundwater balance, even when groundwater is at large depth.

  12. Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by Sol-gel Self-combustion Reaction Method in Different Kinds of Electrolyte for High-voltage Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xinghua; Shi, Lin; Liu, Yusi; Zeng, Shuaibo; Ye, Chaochao

    2015-07-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized through sol-gel self-combustion reaction method. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders were subsequently characterized as cathode materials in a Li-ion coin cell comprising a Li anode with electrolyte A or electrolyte B. 1.0 mol/L Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in volume ration of ethylene carbonate (EC) to ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) to diethyl carbonate (DEC) corresponded to 4:3:3as electrolyte A, 1.0 mol/L LiPF6 dissolved in volume ration of EC to EMC to DEC corresponded to 4:2:4 as electrolyte B. Electrochemical performance of lithium cells was evaluated. These tests showed that no matter the cells with electrolyte A or electrolyte B has good discharge platform in 4.7V range (3.5V-4.75V) at the rate of 0.1C, the initial discharge capacity of cell with electrolyte B was higher than that with electrolyte A.

  13. Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Liao, Ting; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Ziqi

    2017-04-10

    The exponential increase in research focused on two-dimensional (2D) metal oxides has offered an unprecedented opportunity for their use in energy conversion and storage devices, especially for promising next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), as well as some post-lithium batteries, including lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries, etc. The introduction of well-designed 2D metal oxide nanomaterials into next-generation rechargeable batteries has significantly enhanced the performance of these energy-storage devices by providing higher chemically active interfaces, shortened ion-diffusion lengths, and improved in-plane carrier-/charge-transport kinetics, which have greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology and the practical application of rechargeable batteries. Here, the recent progress in the application of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in a series of rechargeable LIBs, NIBs, and other post lithium-ion batteries is reviewed relatively comprehensively. Current opportunities and future challenges for the application of 2D nanomaterials in energy-storage devices to achieve high energy density, high power density, stable cyclability, etc. are summarized and outlined. It is believed that the integration of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in these clean energy devices offers great opportunities to address challenges driven by increasing global energy demands.

  14. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  15. Exfoliated, Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanosheet Cathode for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    and lithium ion conducting electrolyte . During discharge, lithium is oxidized at the anode and oxygen is reduced at the cathode to produce...In continuation of our work on a fully solid -state, rechargeable lithium -oxygen cells [22-25], we report here the use of GNSs, N-GNSs...LAGP) in a solid -state lithium -oxygen cell and compared the cell performance with cells using cathodes prepared from mesoporous carbon

  16. Polyfluorinated boron cluster-based salts: A new electrolyte for application in Li 4Ti 5O 12/LiMn 2O 4 rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionica-Bousquet, C. M.; Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Casteel, W. J.; Pearlstein, R. M.; GirishKumar, G.; Pez, G. P.; Palacín, M. R.

    The cycling performance of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and LiMn 2O 4 electrode materials has been studied in half and complete Li-ion cells with two new polyfluorinated boron cluster lithium salts (Li 2B 12F xH 12- x) as the electrolytes. The results were compared with those obtained for the standard electrolyte, 1 M LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC; 1:1, v/v). Three different technologies were employed for electrode fabrication: powder mixture, self-standing films and films deposited on the current collector. The latter exhibit the most interesting behavior and best performance. Cells assembled using the new electrolyte salts show excellent reversibility, coulombic efficiency, rate capability and cyclability comparable with the standard electrolyte. These features confirm the feasibility of using these polyfluorinated boron cluster-based salts as new stable Li-ion battery electrolytes.

  17. Rechargeable silver-modified mercuric oxide-zinc cell for cardiac pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Tyers, G F; Hughes, H C; Brownlee, R R; Manley, N J; Gorman, I N

    1976-11-04

    Tests were conducted on rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker batteries under simulated and actual biologic conditions, using a variety of discharge rates and charging schedules. In tests on 96 cells at a 6.4 milliampere (ma) discharge, recharging once every 15 months of simulated pacing at a 25 microampere (mua) drain, the earliest cell failure occurred after an equivalent of 50 years of pacing. The mean pacing equivalent for all 96 cells was more than 140 years. In 6.4 ma discharge tests on 24 cells, recharging once every 8 days of simulated pacing, only 1 cell in 24 failed after an equivalent of more than 500 years of pacing (actual time 2 years). In tests on 13 cells pacing at a 200 mua drain without recharging, the simulated mean duration of pacing before total discharge was 4.8 years. Seven other cells at a 200 mua drain with periodic recharging continue to function normally after more than 7 years of actual time, simulating 56 years of pacing at a 25 mua drain. Cardiac pacemakers using the rechargeable mercury-zinc cell have been implanted in animals for more than 2 1/2 years and in patients for more than 1 year with all units continuing to function satisfactorily. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that a rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker will function continuously for more than 4 years without recharging and that periodic recharging will extend pacing life far beyond that predicted for lithium and nuclear primary power sources.

  18. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  19. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  20. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  1. Ambient temperature secondary lithium cells containing inorganic electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    The history and current status of rechargeable lithium cells using electrolytes based on liquid sulfur dioxide are reviewed. Three separate approaches currently under development include lithium/lithium dithionite/carbon cells with a supporting electrolyte salt; lithium/cupric chloride cells using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate; and several adaptations of a lithium/carbon cell using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate in which the discharge reaction involves the incorporation of aluminum into the positive electrode. The latter two chemistries have been studied in prototype hardware. For AA size cells with cupric chloride, 157 Whr/1 at 24 W/1 for 230 cycles was reported. For AA size cells containing 2LiCl-CaCl2-4AlCl3-12SO2, energy densities as high as 265 Whr/liter and 100 Whr/kg have been observed, but, at 26 W/1, for only 10 cycles. The advantages and remaining problems are discussed.

  2. Design principles for electrolytes and interfaces for stable lithium-metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Mukul D.; Choudhury, Snehashis; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-09-01

    The future of electrochemical energy storage hinges on the advancement of science and technology that enables rechargeable batteries that utilize reactive metals as anodes. With specific capacity more than ten times that of the LiC6 anode used in present-day lithium-ion batteries, cells based on Li-metal anodes are of particular interest. Effective strategies for stabilizing the anode in such cells are now understood to be a requirement for progress on exceptional storage technologies, including Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. Multiple challenges—parasitic reactions of Li-metal with liquid electrolytes, unstable and dendritic electrodeposition, and dendrite-induced short circuits—derailed early efforts to commercialize such lithium-metal batteries. Here we consider approaches for rationally designing electrolytes and Li-metal/electrolyte interfaces for stable, dendrite-free operation of lithium-metal batteries. On the basis of fundamental understanding of the failure modes of reactive metal anodes, we discuss the key variables that govern the stability of electrodeposition at the Li anode and propose a universal framework for designing stable electrolytes and interfaces for lithium-metal batteries.

  3. Role of solvents on the oxygen reduction and evolution of rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Maria; Arul, Anupriya; Zahoor, Awan; Moon, Kwang Uk; Oh, Mi Young; Stephan, A. Manuel; Nahm, Kee Suk

    2017-02-01

    The choice of electrolyte solvent is expected to play a key role in influencing the lithium-oxygen battery performance. The electrochemical performances of three electrolytes composed of lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt and different solvents namely, ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (EC/PC), tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated by assembling lithium oxygen cells. The electrolyte composition significantly varied the specific capacity of the battery. The choice of electrolyte also influences the overpotential, cycle life, and rechargeability of the battery. Electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were utilized to determine the reversible reactions associated with the air cathode.

  4. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  5. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  6. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  7. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  8. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm−2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm−2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  9. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  10. Free-standing CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam for advanced lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanfeng; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Wensheng; Dong, Chaoqun; Cheng, Guanhua; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-11-01

    For lithium ion batteries (LIBs), low electronic conductivity of CuO leads to rapid capacity decay and poor structural stability. Herein, we successfully fabricate three-dimensional CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam by facile and efficient electrochemical oxidation. When being applied as anode material for LIBs, the CuO electrodes deliver stable reversible capacities of 523.9 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, 376.1 mA h g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and 322.7 mA h g-1 at 2.0 A g-1 with high coulombic efficiency (>99%) after 100 cycles. A long cycle life of up to 400 cycles at 2.0 A g-1 is also achieved with the retention capacity of 193.5 mA h g-1. Moreover, the electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and can regain its original capacities as reversing to the low current densities. Noticeably, on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and in situ Raman measurements confirm the formation of solid electrolyte interface film and the conversion mechanism for the CuO electrodes, respectively. The superior lithium storage performance can be attributed to the favorable nanoflake structures with high surface area and the perfect electrical contact between CuO and Cu substrate.

  11. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  12. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  13. Hybrid system for rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Minxia; Fu, Zhengwen; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges of electrical energy storage (EES) is the development of environmentally friendly battery systems with high safety and high energy density. Rechargeable Mg batteries have been long considered as one highly promising system due to the use of low cost and dendrite-free magnesium metal. The bottleneck for traditional Mg batteries is to achieve high energy density since their output voltage is below 2.0 V. Here, we report a magnesium battery using Mg in Grignard reagent-based electrolyte as the negative electrode, a lithium intercalation compound in aqueous solution as the positive electrode, and a solid electrolyte as a separator. Its average discharge voltage is 2.1 V with stable discharge platform and good cycling life. The calculated energy density based on the two electrodes is high. These findings open another door to rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:26173624

  14. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-containing orthodontic cement.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xian-Ju; Xing, Dan; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2016-11-04

    White spot lesions (WSLs), due to enamel demineralization, occur frequently in orthodontic treatment. We recently developed a novel rechargeable dental composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) with long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release and caries-inhibiting capability. The objectives of this study were to develop the first NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement and investigate the effects of recharge duration and frequency on the efficacy of ion re-release. The rechargeable cement consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA). NACP was mixed into the resin at 40% by mass. Specimens were tested for orthodontic bracket shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel, Ca and P ion initial release, recharge and re-release. The new orthodontic cement exhibited an SBS similar to commercial orthodontic cement without CaP release (P>0.1). Specimens after one recharge treatment (e.g., 1 min immersion in recharge solution repeating three times in one day, referred to as "1 min 3 times") exhibited a substantial and continuous re-release of Ca and P ions for 14 days without further recharge. The ion re-release did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (P>0.1). The ion re-release concentrations at 14 days versus various recharge treatments were as follows: 1 min 3 times>3 min 2 times>1 min 2 times>6 min 1 time>3 min 1 time>1 min 1 time. In conclusion, although previous studies have shown that NACP nanocomposite remineralized tooth lesions and inhibited caries, the present study developed the first orthodontic cement with Ca and P ion recharge and long-term release capability. This NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement is a promising therapy to inhibit enamel demineralization and WSLs around orthodontic brackets.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication,4 November 2016; doi:10.1038/ijos.2016.40.

  15. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  16. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  17. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with low ethylene carbonate content electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.; Crott, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD interagency program. For the projected missions, lithium ion batteries need to be further improved, i.e., low temperature performance for Mars Landers, Rovers, and Penetrators and cycle life for the Orbiters and LEO and GEO satellites.

  18. TOPOTACTIC LITHIUM INSERTION/EXTRACTION PROPERTIES OF A NEW POLYANION MATERIAL LiXCo2(MoO4)3 [0 ≤ X < 3] FOR RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begam, K. M.; Michael, M. S.; Prabaharan, S. R. S.

    An open framework type new material LixCo2(MoO4)3 [0 ≤ x < 3] possessing NASICON structure was identified as positive electrode material for use in 3V class lithium batteries. The new material was synthesized in its non-lithiated phase employing a metal/organic precursor method using a soft-combustion approach. We report here on the structural and electrochemical Li+ insertion/extraction properties of the resultant product. XRD revealed a single phase Co2(MoO4)3 powders and the annealed powders were found to contain ultrafine spherical grains. The redox behavior of the new material was demonstrated in lithium containing cells using the conventional wet cell configuration under Li+ aprotic organic electrolyte environment. The material offered a discharge capacity of 110 mAh/g between 3.5V and 1.5V during the first cycle and 50% of the initial capacity was retained at the end of 20th cycle.

  19. Key Parameters Governing the Energy Density of Rechargeable Li/S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Abruña, Héctor D

    2014-03-06

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries have high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, their volumetric energy density has been believed to be lower than that of conventional lithium ion batteries employing metal oxide cathodes like LiCoO2. Here, we study the effects of sulfur loading percentage, develop a simple model and calculate the gravimetric and volumetric energy densities based on the total composition of electrodes in a lithium-sulfur cell, and compare those results with a typical graphite/LiCoO2 cell. From the model output, we have identified and established key parameters governing the energy density of rechargeable Li/S batteries. We find that the sulfur loading percentage has a much higher impact on the volumetric energy density than on the gravimetric energy density. A lithium-sulfur cell can exceed a lithium ion cell's volumetric energy density but only at high sulfur loading percentages (ca. 70%). We believe that these findings may attract more attention of lithium-sulfur system studies to high sulfur loading levels.

  20. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Lithium-molybdenum Disulfide Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The lithium-molybdenum disulfide system offers attractive characteristics including high rate capability, successful operation up to 75 C, a very low self-discharge rate, a good cycle life and safety characteristics which compare favorably to those of other lithium cells. Moreover, the materials and manufacturing costs for the system is effectively controlled, so the cells should ultimately be competitive with currently marketed rechargeable cells.

  1. Solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, S.C.; Ventura, S.C.

    1992-02-01

    SRI International has synthesized and tested new, dimensionally stable polymer electrolytes for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. We have prepared semi-interpenetrating networks of sulfur-substituted polyethyleneoxide with tetmethylorthosilicate (TEOS). The in situ hydrolysis of TEOS produces a mechanically stable three-dimensional network that entangles the polymer electrolytes and makes the film dimensionally flexible and stable. With this approach, the best dimensionally stable polymer electrolyte of this type produced so far, has a room temperature lithium ion conductivity of 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} S cm{sup {minus}1}. Another type of solid polymer electrolytes, polydiacetylene-based single-ion conductors with high room temperature proton conductivity were also developed. The best conductivity of these polymers is two orders of magnitude higher than that of Nafion under comparable experimental conditions. With further appropriate chemical modification, the new polymers could be used in fuel cells.

  2. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  5. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes.

  6. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  7. Carbonaceous materials containing silicon as anodes for lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.M.; Dahn, J.R.; Xue, J.S.; Gao, Y.; Feng, X.H.

    1995-12-31

    Graphite and pregraphitic carbons capable of reversibly reacting with lithium ions are hosts commonly used in Li-ion cells. As a continuation of previous work, the authors have used chemical vapor deposition of benzene and silicon-containing precursors to prepare carbons containing nanodispersed silicon. The silicon resides within the unorganized regions in the pregraphitic carbons. These materials reversibly react with lithium in electrochemical cells and the reversible specific capacity has been known to increase from {approximately}300 mAhg{sup {minus}1}, in the absence of silicon, to near 500 mAhg{sup {minus}1} as silicon is added. The authors also report on Si-O-C materials which have been shown to reversibly react with Li in electrochemical cells with reversible specific capacities as high as 770 mAhg{sup {minus}1}. These materials have been made by thermal pyrolysis of siloxane polymers and epoxy-silane composites prepared from hardened mixtures of epoxy novolac resin and epoxy-functional silane. These materials all show promise for use as anode materials in advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

  8. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  9. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  10. Solvothermal preparation of tin phosphide as a long-life anode for advanced lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Hongzhe; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Lanbing; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) nanoparticles with different sizes are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method at 180 °C for 10 h. The as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have an average size of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, their size could be easily controlled by the solvent ratio. The long cycle stability and rate performance of the as-obtained Sn4P3 nanoparticles have been tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Electrochemical measurements show that the Sn4P3 nanoparticles with a smallest size give the best cycling and rate performances. They deliver a discharge capacity of 612 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles and could still maintain 442 mAh g-1 after 320 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 within voltage limit of 0.01-3.0 V. Even after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the specific capacity still could be remained at 315 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performances of Sn4P3 electrode might be largely attributed to their small-size. Furthermore, the as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have also been tested as an anode material for Na-ion batteries, this Sn4P3 anode can deliver a reversible capacity of 305 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g-1.

  11. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  12. Evaluation of Carbon Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C-K.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both liquid phase intercalation technique and electrochemical intercalation technique were examined for the Li-carbon material preparation. The electrochemical techniques include a intermittent discharge method and a two step method. These two electrochemical techniques can ensure to achieve the maximum reversible Li capacity for common commercially available carbon materials. The carbon materials evaluated by the intercalacation method includes: pitch coke, petroleum cole, PAN fiber and graphite materials. Their reversible Li capacity were determined and compared. In this paper, we also demonstrate the importance of EPDM binder composition in the carbon electrode. Our results indicated that it can impact the Li intercalation and de-intercalation capacity in carbon materials. Finally, two possibilities that may help explain the capacity degradation during practical cell cycling were proposed.

  13. Exploratory Development of an Electrically Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    evacuated quartz tube at 650 0C (Eqn. 2) 6500C 13 V20 + 4V 5 V6 01 3 (2) The material prepared by this method is stoichiometric V601 3, i.e., V02.1 7 (ii...Ventron) and 1.02g (20 mmoles) of V powder (Alfa- Ventron, -325 mesh) was heated in an evacuated, sealed, quartz tube at 650*C. Samples were prepared...oxide in a sealed, evacuated quartz tube for 16 hr at 650’C. Although the X-ray pattern did not show any significant change, SEM data revealed that the

  14. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries for implantable devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.b.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x-ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin-film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001 %/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li-LiCoO{sub 2} thin-film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  15. The improvement of rechargeable lithium battery electrolyte performance with additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The deliberate introduction of additives like 2-methylfuran (2-MeF) is known to improve Li cycleability in cyclic ether electrolytes. The authors found that the proclivity of 2-MeF to polymerize in the bulk electrolyte or on a TiS2 cathode was inhibited by the addition of reduced oxygen species, such as O2- and OH-. Additionally, the polymerization of tetrahydrofuran and dioxolane and the destructive processes initiated by AsF6- decomposition to AsF5 and AsF3 were inhibited by the introduction of reduced oxygen species, particularly OH- at the 10-ppm to 100-ppm level.

  16. Lithium-Air Battery: Study of Rechargeability and Scalability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    wettability , etc., and the catalyst influence electrochemistry of reversible oxygen electrode reaction. After screening several carbon samples, it is...augmented plane wave (FLAPW) ab -initio studies of electronic structure of CuPc in the presence of O2. The distance between Cu in CuPc and O of O2 was

  17. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  18. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  19. [Lithium nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  20. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lithonate Note: Lithium is also commonly found in batteries, lubricants, high performance metal alloys, and soldering supplies. ... Kidney failure Memory problems Movement disorders Problems ... your body Psychosis (disturbed thought processes, unpredictable ...

  1. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  2. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  3. Recharge from a subsidence crater at the Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, G. V.; Ely, D.M.; Hokett, S. L.; Gillespie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Current recharge through the alluvial fans of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is considered to be negligible, but the impact of more than 400 nuclear subsidence craters on recharge is uncertain. Many of the craters contain a playa region, but the impact of these playas has not been addressed. It was hypothesized that a crater playa would focus infiltration through the surrounding coarser-grained material, thereby increasing recharge. Crater U5a was selected because it represented a worst case for runoff into craters. A borehole was instrumented for neutron logging beneath the playa center and immediately outside the crater. Physical and hydraulic properties were measured along a transect in the crater and outside the crater. Particle-size analysis of the 14.6 m of sediment in the crater and morphological features of the crater suggest that a large ponding event of ≈63000 m3 had occurred since crater formation. Water flow simulations with HYDRUS-2D, which were corroborated by the measured water contents, suggest that the wetting front advanced initially by as much as 30 m yr−1 with a recharge rate 32 yr after the event of 2.5 m yr−1Simulations based on the measured properties of the sediments suggest that infiltration will occur preferentially around the playa perimeter. However, these sediments were shown to effectively restrict future recharge by storing water until removal by evapotranspiration (ET). This work demonstrated that subsidence craters may be self-healing.

  4. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... also considering the use of this Lithium-battery technology in several ] other auxiliary-battery... (c)(4), basically reworded the CAR requirements. Increased use of Ni-Cd batteries in small airplanes... proposed use of rechargeable Lithium batteries for equipment and systems on the Model 680 airplane...

  5. Stabilizing the surface of lithium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, J. T.; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2014-05-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal anode for the next generation of high capacity rechargeable batteries, including Li-air, Li-S, and other Li-based batteries using intercalation compounds. To enable the broad applications for lithium anodes, more fundamental studies need to be conducted to simultaneously address the two barriers discussed above. One of the key breakthroughs in this field may come from the development of new electrolytes (and additives) which can form a stable SEI layer with enough mechanical strength and flexibility. The ideal electrolyte may consist of only two components; one component inhibits dendrite growth, while another component forms a stable SEI layer to improve Coulombic efficiency. In this review, the status of three approaches at manipulating and controlling the lithium metal – electrolyte interface were discussed. While previous studies concentrated on coatings with minimal surface connectivity, the approaches discussed, namely a coating that forms and dissipates into the electrolyte based on charge density, a coating bonded to the termination layer of lithium, and a conformal carbonate coating formed at the interface, all highlight new research directions. Although there are still many obstacles to be overcome, we are optimistic that Li metal can be used as an anode in rechargeable batteries in the foreseeable future. This will enable wide

  6. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  7. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Wang, J.C.F.; Crocker, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.W.

    1999-03-16

    A method is described for producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of {approx_equal} 80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere. 4 figs.

  8. Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide: CDMO) as positive material for a lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohma, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishio, K.; Nakane, I.; Furukawa, N.

    1990-12-01

    Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (CDMO) has been developed as the positive material for lithium secondary batteries. CDMO is prepared from lithium salt and manganese dioxide by heat treatment. It is a composite oxide of γ/β-MnO 2 and Li 2MnO 3. The influence on rechargeability of lithium salts, heat-treatment temperature, and manganese dioxide type has been investigated by conducting cycle tests with flat cells. Lithium hydroxide is more reactive with MnO 2 in the production of Li 2MnO 3 than either Li 2O or Li 2CO 3. The optimum condition for preparing CDMO is to heat treat LiOH and MnO 2 at about 375 °C. CDMO prepared from EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) yields a larger and more stable capacity than CDMO prepared from CMD (chemical manganese dioxide). Sodium-free EMD exhibits the largest discharge capacity.

  9. Evaluation and Testing of Commercially-Available Carbon Nanotubes as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) battery technology offers significant performance advantages over the nickel-based technologies used for energy storage for the majority of NASA's missions. Specifically Li-ion technology offers a threefold to fourfold increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and produces voltages in excess of three times the value of typical nickel-based battery systems. As part of the Advanced Battery Technology program at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a program on the evaluation of anodes for Li-ion cells and batteries was conducted. This study focused on the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes as anodes in Li-Ion cells. Candidate materials from multiple sources were evaluated. Their performance was compared to a standard anode comprised of mesocarbon microbeads. In all cases, the standard MCMB electrode exhibited superior performance. The details and results of the study are presented.

  10. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage. PMID:27759005

  11. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage.

  12. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Thomsen, Julianne M; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J; Brudvig, Gary W; Taylor, André D

    2016-10-19

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage.

  13. Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Tianfei; Chen, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Here, we adopted a lithium-carbon battery configuration. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. The induced fluorination of CNTA papers activated the reversible fluorination/defluorination reactions and lithium-ion storage/release at the CNTA paper cathodes, resulting in a dual-storage mechanism. The rechargeable battery with this dual-storage mechanism demonstrated a maximum discharging capacity of 2174 mAh gcarbon−1 and a specific energy of 4113 Wh kgcarbon−1 with good cycling performance. PMID:24931036

  14. Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

    1999-11-12

    Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

  15. Behavior Of NbSe3 Cathode In Rechargeable Li Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses series of ac impedance measurements of niobium triselenide cathodes in lithium secondary (rechargeable) cells. Reported work done to improve understanding of intercalation of NbSe3 with Li and to find out whether state of charge of NbSe3 determined nondestructively from impedance parameters. Authors conclude impedance parameters of NbSe3 do not vary in sufficiently regular fashion to be useful as indicators of state of charge.

  16. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  17. Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2003-09-01

    In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight. The electrolytes used in lithium batteries contain lithium salts dissolved in polar organic solvents. A variety of substances can serve as the battery cathode. They include inorganic solids, liquids, and dissolved gas. The cell potentials of lithium-metal batteries can be calculated from thermodynamic principles. These open-circuit voltages can be compared to the operating voltages of batteries delivering a current. Some lithium batteries employ intercalation compounds as their cathodes. These solids have layered or tunneled crystal structures into which lithium ions insert during the reduction process. When an intercalation cathode is paired with a lithiated-graphite anode, the resulting battery has the advantage of being rechargeable. It is known as a lithium-ion battery because no lithium metal is present.

  18. High rechargeable sodium metal-conducting polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, A.; Trottier, J.; Gagnon, C.; Barray, F.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries accelerated the wireless revolution over the last two decades, and they are now a mature technology for transportation applications in electric vehicles (EV). However, numerous studies have concluded that the proven lithium reserves can hardly absorb the growth in demand. Therefore, sustainable sodium batteries are being considered to overcome the lithium resource shortages that may arise from large-scale application in EVs and stationary energy storage. It is difficult to find a suitable host material for reversible Na-ion storage due to the size of the Na+ ion (0.102 nm) compared to the Li+ ion (0.076 nm). Here we report a low cost and simple sodium technology that is based on a metal-free cathode material. Sodium metal was used as the anode with a conducting polymer cathode and electrochemically tested in a liquid electrolyte. With this technology, a host material for Na intercalation is not required, and because a polymer conductor is used, the size of the Na ion is not an issue.

  19. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-07

    In the work, a facile and green two-step synthetic strategy was purposefully developed to efficiently fabricate hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 microrods (MRs) with a high tap density of ∼0.85 g cm(3) , which were assembled by 1D nanofiber (NF) subunits, and further utilized as a long-life anode for advanced Li-ion batteries. The significant role of the mixed solvent of glycerin and water in the formation of such hierarchical mesoporous MRs was systematically investigated. After 488 cycles at a large current rate of 1000 mA g(-1) , the resulting ZnFe2 O4 MRs with high loading of ∼1.4 mg per electrode still preserved a reversible capacity as large as ∼542 mAh g(-1) . Furthermore, an initial charge capacity of ∼1150 mAh g(-1) is delivered by the ZnFe2 O4 anode at 100 mA g(-1) , resulting in a high Coulombic efficiency of ∼76 % for the first cycle. The superior Li-storage properties of the as-obtained ZnFe2 O4 were rationally associated with its mesoprous micro-/nanostructures and 1D nanoscaled building blocks, which accelerated the electron transportation, facilitated Li(+) transfer rate, buffered the large volume variations during repeated discharge/charge processes, and provided rich electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces for efficient lithium storage, particularly at high rates.

  20. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  1. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  2. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  3. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  4. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  5. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport ofmore » active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.« less

  6. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport of active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.

  7. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-09-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  8. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  9. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0...P. G. & Goodenough , J. B. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from LiMn2O4. Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 461 (1983). 9. Recham, N., Chotard, J. N., Dupont

  10. Conductive porous vanadium nitride/graphene composite as chemical anchor of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jingqi; Yin, Lichang; Hu, Guangjian; Fang, Ruopian; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2017-03-03

    Although the rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery is an advanced energy storage system, its practical implementation has been impeded by many issues, in particular the shuttle effect causing rapid capacity fade and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, we report a conductive porous vanadium nitride nanoribbon/graphene composite accommodating the catholyte as the cathode of a lithium-sulfur battery. The vanadium nitride/graphene composite provides strong anchoring for polysulfides and fast polysulfide conversion. The anchoring effect of vanadium nitride is confirmed by experimental and theoretical results. Owing to the high conductivity of vanadium nitride, the composite cathode exhibits lower polarization and faster redox reaction kinetics than a reduced graphene oxide cathode, showing good rate and cycling performances. The initial capacity reaches 1,471 mAh g(-1) and the capacity after 100 cycles is 1,252 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C, a loss of only 15%, offering a potential for use in high energy lithium-sulfur batteries.

  11. Conductive porous vanadium nitride/graphene composite as chemical anchor of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jingqi; Yin, Lichang; Hu, Guangjian; Fang, Ruopian; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Although the rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery is an advanced energy storage system, its practical implementation has been impeded by many issues, in particular the shuttle effect causing rapid capacity fade and low Coulombic efficiency. Herein, we report a conductive porous vanadium nitride nanoribbon/graphene composite accommodating the catholyte as the cathode of a lithium-sulfur battery. The vanadium nitride/graphene composite provides strong anchoring for polysulfides and fast polysulfide conversion. The anchoring effect of vanadium nitride is confirmed by experimental and theoretical results. Owing to the high conductivity of vanadium nitride, the composite cathode exhibits lower polarization and faster redox reaction kinetics than a reduced graphene oxide cathode, showing good rate and cycling performances. The initial capacity reaches 1,471 mAh g-1 and the capacity after 100 cycles is 1,252 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, a loss of only 15%, offering a potential for use in high energy lithium-sulfur batteries.

  12. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  13. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  14. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  15. Atomic resolution of Lithium Ions in LiCoO

    SciTech Connect

    Shao-Horn, Yang; Croguennec, Laurence; Delmas, Claude; Nelson, Chris; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2003-03-18

    LiCoO2 is the most common lithium storage material for lithium rechargeable batteries, used widely to power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers. Lithium arrangements in the CoO2 framework have a profound effect on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LixCoO2 (0 < x < 1), however, probing lithium ions has been difficult using traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Here we have succeeded in simultaneously resolving columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in layered LiCoO2 battery material using experimental focal series of LiCoO2 images obtained at sub-Angstrom resolution in a mid-voltage transmission electron microscope. Lithium atoms are the smallest and lightest metal atoms, and scatter electrons only very weakly. We believe our observations of lithium to be the first by electron microscopy, and that they show promise to direct visualization of the ordering of lithium and vacancy in LixCoO2.

  16. Electrospun Nanofiber-Coated Membrane Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hun

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles due to their excellent energy and power densities, long cycle life, and enhanced safety. A separator is considered to be the critical component in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The separator is placed between the positive and negative electrodes in order to prevent the physical contact of electrodes while allowing the transportation of ions. In most commercial lithium-ion batteries, polyolefin microporous membranes are commonly used as the separator due to their good chemical stability and high mechanical strength. However, some of their intrinsic natures, such as low electrolyte uptake, poor adhesion property to the electrodes, and low ionic conductivity, can still be improved to achieve higher performance of lithium-ion batteries. In order to improve these intrinsic properties, polyolefin microporous membranes can be coated with nanofibers by using electrospinning technique. Electrospinning is a simple and efficient method to prepare nanofibers which can absorb a significant amount of liquid electrolyte to achieve low internal resistance and battery performance. This research presents the preparation and investigation of composite membrane separators prepared by coating nanofibers onto polyolefin microporous membranes via electrospinning technique. Polyvinylidene fluoride polymers and copolymers were used for the preparation of electrospun nanofiber coatings because they have excellent electrochemical stability, good adhesion property, and high temperature resistance. The nanofiber coatings prepared by electrospinning form an interconnected and randomly orientated structure on the surface of the polyolefin microporous membranes. The size of the nanofibers is on a scale that does not interfere with the micropores in the membrane substrates. The resultant nanofiber-coated membranes have the potential to combine advantages of both the polyolefin

  17. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  18. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  19. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  20. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-08-05

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  1. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  2. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    manufacturing. Precision Fabrics has been ISO -registered to 9001 since 1993 and upgraded to 9001 -2008 in October 2009. Medetech anticipates working with PFG for...antimicrobial textiles have the potential to significantly improve the quality of infection control with soldiers and military healthcare personnel through... management of odor issues and textile related infections. The treated fabrics will provide long-lasting and rechargeable protection against bacteria

  3. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  4. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  5. Intensive rainfall recharges tropical groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Taylor, Richard G.

    2015-12-01

    Dependence upon groundwater to meet rising agricultural and domestic water needs is expected to increase substantially across the tropics where, by 2050, over half of the world’s population is projected to live. Rare, long-term groundwater-level records in the tropics indicate that groundwater recharge occurs disproportionately from heavy rainfalls exceeding a threshold. The ubiquity of this bias in tropical groundwater recharge to intensive precipitation is, however, unknown. By relating available long-term records of stable-isotope ratios of O and H in tropical precipitation (15 sites) to those of local groundwater, we reveal that groundwater recharge in the tropics is near-uniformly (14/15 sites) biased to intensive monthly rainfall, commonly exceeding the ∼70th intensity decile. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in the tropics. Nevertheless, the processes that transmit intensive rainfall to groundwater systems and enhance the resilience of tropical groundwater storage in a warming world, remain unclear.

  6. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  7. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  8. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  9. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  10. Material requirements for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L.; Fouchard, D.; Megahed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lithium-ion (or rocking-chair) batteries with lithiated oxide cathodes and carbon anodes are finding increasing acceptance in many electronic applications including low rates (e.g., memory backup, real time clock, bridge function) and high rates (e.g, laptop computers, cellular phones, camcorders, etc.). This technology offers significant improvements in safety relative to cells using lithium metal anodes, with only a modest reduction in energy density. In general, materials for lithium-ion cells are chosen to minimize the energy density penalties associated with replacing the lithium electrode with an intercalation electrode. In this review paper, the authors describe the properties of the cathode, anode and electrolyte, and discuss requirements for improved materials for advanced lithium-ion systems. Consideration is given to energy density, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability.

  11. Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Yoon, Sukeun; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

    2013-10-23

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries have attracted a great interest in recent years because of their high energy density. The critical challenges facing these technologies include the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction-evolution reactions on a cathode (air electrode). Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Rechargeable lithium-air and zinc-air batteries assembled with these catalysts exhibit remarkably reduced discharge-charge voltage gaps (improved round-trip efficiency) as well as high stability during cycling.

  12. Fumed Silica-Based Single-Ion Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Hu, Heyi; Fu, Yanbao; Baker, Gregory L; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-02

    A composite lithium electrolyte composed of polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) is synthesized and characterized. Polyanions immobilized by the silica nanoparticles have reduced anion mobility. Composite nanoparticles grafted by poly(lithium 4-styrenesulfonate) only have moderate conductivity at 60 °C. Almost an order increase of the conductivity to ∼10(-6) S/cm is achieved by co-polymerization of the poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate with sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, which enhances dissociation between lithium cation and polyanion and facilitates lithium ion transfer from the inner part of the polyelectrolyte layer. This composite electrolyte has the potential to suppress lithium dendrite growth and enable the use of lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries.

  13. International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, 4th, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, May 24-27, 1988, Proceedings. Parts I & II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haering, R. R.

    1989-05-01

    The conference presents papers on the properties of thionyl chloride solutions, electrolyte solvation in aprotic solvents, polymer electrolytes, high-temperature high-pulse-power lithium batteries, and materials science principles related to alloys of potential use in rechargeable lithium cells. Consideration is also given to the kinetics of charge-transfer reactions on passive lithium electrodes, the kinetics of porous insertion electrodes, and the kinetics of the reduction of thionyl chloride. Other topics include the behavior of lithium batteries in a fire, safety test results of lithium-thionyl chloride wound-type cells, and low-temperature testing of Li-SOCl2 cells.

  14. Aqueous rechargeable alkali-ion batteries with polyimide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Song, Z. P.; Zhan, H.; Zhou, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    1,4,5,8-Naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived Polyimide is proposed as the anode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion or sodium-ion battery (ARLB or ARSB), which is based on a mechanism beyond the intercalation chemistry. Comparing with other transient oxide anode for ARLB, Polyimide has more suitable working voltage, higher capacity and better structure stability. Therefore, the ARLB with Polyimide anode and LiCoO2 cathode presents a specific capacity of 71 mAh g-1 and a specific energy of 80 Wh kg-1 in 5 M LiNO3 solution at the current rate of 100 mA g-1, which is the highest among all reported ARLB system. Besides, it shows excellent cycling stability and rate capability. The ARSB system is demonstrated by Polyimide/NaVPO4F cell. It has been proved that the Polyimide anode has a good capacity performance and cycling stability in 5 M NaNO3 solution. The two aqueous rechargeable batteries with Polyimide anode both show a promising prospect in large-scale energy storage.

  15. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  16. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  17. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  18. Lithium-associated kidney microcysts.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, Jennifer; Casalino, David; Syed, Ehteshamuddin; Batlle, Daniel

    2008-08-31

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33-62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1-2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  19. Challenges facing lithium batteries and electrical double-layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Soon; Chen, Zonghai; Freunberger, Stefan A; Ji, Xiulei; Sun, Yang-Kook; Amine, Khalil; Yushin, Gleb; Nazar, Linda F; Cho, Jaephil; Bruce, Peter G

    2012-10-01

    Energy-storage technologies, including electrical double-layer capacitors and rechargeable batteries, have attracted significant attention for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and "load leveling" of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Transforming lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors requires a step change in the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, new electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of the processes on which the devices depend. The Review will consider some of the current scientific issues underpinning lithium batteries and electric double-layer capacitors.

  20. Highly reversible lithium metal secondary battery using a room temperature ionic liquid/lithium salt mixture and a surface-coated cathode active material.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shiro; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Ohno, Yasutaka; Usami, Akira; Mita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2006-02-07

    For the purpose of realizing high-voltage, high-capacity, long-life and safe rechargeable batteries, a lithium secondary battery that uses high-voltage stable ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 cathode powder and a nonvolatile high-safety room temperature ionic liquid was fabricated.

  1. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  2. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers.

  3. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  4. Lithium iodide cardiac pacemakers: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    A new long-life cardiac pacemaker pulse generator powered by a lithium iodide fuel cell was introduced in Canada in 1973. The compact, hermetically sealed unit is easily implanted and reliable, has excellent patient acceptance and has an anticipated battery life of almost 14 years. Among 105 patients who received a lithium iodide pacemaker, complications occurred in 18. The lithium iodide pacemaker represents a significant advance in pacemaker generator technology and is recommended for long-term cardiac pacing; the manufacturer guarantees the pulse generator for 6 years. Images FIG. 1 PMID:974965

  5. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  6. Lithium-oxide-stabilized alpha manganese dioxide for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; Dees, D.W.; Mansuetto, M.F.; Thackeray, M.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Argyriou, D.; Loong, C.K.; Christensen, L.

    1996-06-01

    Objective was to increase the reversible cycling capacity of anhydrous {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} by stabilizing its structure. We have synthesized various {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} materials and modified their structures via lithia doping in order to determine what properties are important for controlling cycling performance. A set of new stabilized {alpha}-[xLi{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MnO{sub 2} (x<0.2) cathode materials was synthesized, structurally characterized, and electrochemically evaluated.

  7. A novel electrolyte solvent for rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.S.; Angell, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    The authors describe a new type of electrolyte solvent which provides remarkable improvement in properties of electrolyte systems containing it. These solvents contain acidic boron atoms, in most cases linked into heterocycles by reaction of boric acid, or oxide, with glycols. Nicknamed BEG solvents (for boric acid esters of glycol), these show great propensity for dissolving salts, stabilizing alkali metals against corrosion, and in some cases, stabilizing other solvents (particularly alkene carbonates), against anodic decomposition. In the most favorable case so far, the 1,3 propylene glycol boric acid ester (GEG-1) which contains two linked borate groups, the mixed solvent formed by mixing 1 part BEG-1 with two parts ethylene carbonate provides an electrochemical stability window in excess of 5.8 V (cf. 4.5 V for ethylene carbonate along with the same salt), an ambient temperature conductivity of 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm with 1 m LiClO{sub 4}, and enduring stability against metallic Li, which remains shiny on prolonged (days) immersion at 100 C. The authors present data on various electrolyte solutions containing these components and then show their utility in devices by rubberizing them with polymers and constructing voltaic cells Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and C/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which show excellent charge/discharge characteristics and cyclability.

  8. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  9. Porous nano-structured Co3O4 anode materials generated from coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Danhua; Geng, Hongbo; Wang, Jiaqing; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-21

    A simple and scalable coordination-derived method for the synthesis of porous Co3O4 hollow nanospheres is described here. The initially formed coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates (CDSAAs) could act as the precursor followed by calcination treatment. Then the porous hollow Co3O4 nanospheres are obtained, in which the primary Co3O4 nanoparticles are inter-dispersed. When the nanospheres are used as anode materials for lithium storage, they show excellent coulombic efficiency, high lithium storage capacity and superior cycling performance. In view of the facile synthesis and excellent electrochemical performance obtained, this protocol to fabricate special porous hollow frameworks could be further extended to other metal oxides and is expected to improve the practicality of superior cycle life anode materials with large volume excursions for the development of the next generation of LIBs.

  10. Novel forms of carbon as potential anodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study is to design and synthesize novel carbons as potential electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A synthetic approach which utilizes inorganic templates is described and initial characterization results are discussed. The templates also act as a catalyst enabling carbon formation at low temperatures. This synthetic approach should make it easier to control the surface and bulk characteristics of these carbons.

  11. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; ...

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  12. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  13. One-pot chemical route for morphology-controllable fabrication of Sn-Sb micro/nano-structures: Advanced anode materials for lithium and sodium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zheng; Han, Qigang; Geng, Di; Wu, Yaoming; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limin

    2017-02-01

    A series of morphology/component-controllable Sn-Sb micro/nano-structures are fabricated by a one-pot replacement reaction technique employing metallic Sn as both template and reducing agent. Typically, nanoscaled Sn as template and ethyl alcohol as solvent give the hollow structure, while micron-sized Sn as precursor and ethylene glycol as solvent produce the dendritic product. Other mixed structures are also obtained by this one-pot route. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the hollow or dendritic Sn-Sb materials exhibit higher discharge capacities compared with the corresponding Sb samples as well as the Sn templates. Especially, for the Sn-Sb hollow spheres, a high discharge capacity of 820.7 mAh g-1 after first cycle and a reversible capacity of 751 mAh g-1 are achieved after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Meanwhile, the hollow Sn-Sb structure delivers a specific capacity of 451.3 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1 after 150 cycles when used for sodium ion batteries. The superior electrochemical performance that are higher than many reported results can be attributed to the special morphology and structure, which can shorten the transportation distance of lithium/sodium ion and provide extra free space to buffer the volume expansion during the lithium/sodium insertion/extraction.

  14. Cr, N-Codoped TiO2 Mesoporous Microspheres for Li-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R; Meyer III, Harry M; Bridges, Craig A; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cr,N-codoped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres synthesized using hydrothermal and subsequent nitridation treatment, exhibited higher solubility of nitrogen, and improved electrical conductivity than N-doped TiO2, as anode for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, which led to improving charge-discharge capacity at 0.1 C and twice higher rate capability compared to that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 mesoporous microsphere at 10 C

  15. Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, David N.

    2002-02-01

    The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation. Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported into most cities for supply, distributed through underground pipes, and collected again in sewers or septic tanks. The leaks from these pipe networks often provide substantial recharge. Sources of recharge in urban areas are identified through piezometry, chemical signatures, and water balances. All three approaches have problems. Recharge is quantified either by individual components (direct recharge, water-mains leakage, septic tanks, etc.) or holistically. Working with individual components requires large amounts of data, much of which is uncertain and is likely to lead to large uncertainties in the final result. Recommended holistic approaches include the use of groundwater modelling and solute balances, where various types of data are integrated. Urban recharge remains an under-researched topic, with few high-quality case studies reported in the literature.

  16. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  17. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  19. 3D mapping of lithium in battery electrodes using neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Downing, R. Gregory; Wang, Howard

    2015-08-01

    The neutron depth profiling technique based on the neutron activation reaction, 6Li (n, α) 3H, was applied with two dimensional (2D) pinhole aperture scans to spatially map lithium in 3D. The technique was used to study model LiFePO4 electrodes of rechargeable batteries for spatial heterogeneities of lithium in two cathode films that had undergone different electrochemical cycling histories. The method is useful for better understanding the functioning and failure of batteries using lithium as the active element.

  20. Use of lithium batteries in biomedical devices. Technical report No. 8, July 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, B.B.

    1989-06-15

    Lithium batteries have played an important role in the development of useful implantable biomedical devices. The cardiac pacemaker is the most well known of these devices and high-energy, long-life reliable lithium primary cells have effectively replaced all of the alkaline cells previously used in these electronic systems. The recent development of higher-power devices such as drug pumps and cardiac defibrillators require the use of batteries with higher energy and power capabilities. High rate rechargeable batteries that can be configured as flat prismatic cells would be especially useful in some of these new applications. Lithium polymer electrolyte-batteries may find a useful role in these new areas.

  1. Incommensurate Graphene Foam as a High Capacity Lithium Intercalation Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Sherehiy, Andriy; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Jangam, John Samuel Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Graphite’s capacity of intercalating lithium in rechargeable batteries is limited (theoretically, 372 mAh g‑1) due to low diffusion within commensurately-stacked graphene layers. Graphene foam with highly enriched incommensurately-stacked layers was grown and applied as an active electrode in rechargeable batteries. A 93% incommensurate graphene foam demonstrated a reversible specific capacity of 1,540 mAh g‑1 with a 75% coulombic efficiency, and an 86% incommensurate sample achieves above 99% coulombic efficiency exhibiting 930 mAh g‑1 specific capacity. The structural and binding analysis of graphene show that lithium atoms highly intercalate within weakly interacting incommensurately-stacked graphene network, followed by a further flexible rearrangement of layers for a long-term stable cycling. We consider lithium intercalation model for multilayer graphene where capacity varies with N number of layers resulting LiN+1C2N stoichiometry. The effective capacity of commonly used carbon-based rechargeable batteries can be significantly improved using incommensurate graphene as an anode material.

  2. Incommensurate Graphene Foam as a High Capacity Lithium Intercalation Anode

    PubMed Central

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Thapa, Arjun Kumar; Sherehiy, Andriy; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Jangam, John Samuel Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Graphite’s capacity of intercalating lithium in rechargeable batteries is limited (theoretically, 372 mAh g−1) due to low diffusion within commensurately-stacked graphene layers. Graphene foam with highly enriched incommensurately-stacked layers was grown and applied as an active electrode in rechargeable batteries. A 93% incommensurate graphene foam demonstrated a reversible specific capacity of 1,540 mAh g−1 with a 75% coulombic efficiency, and an 86% incommensurate sample achieves above 99% coulombic efficiency exhibiting 930 mAh g−1 specific capacity. The structural and binding analysis of graphene show that lithium atoms highly intercalate within weakly interacting incommensurately-stacked graphene network, followed by a further flexible rearrangement of layers for a long-term stable cycling. We consider lithium intercalation model for multilayer graphene where capacity varies with N number of layers resulting LiN+1C2N stoichiometry. The effective capacity of commonly used carbon-based rechargeable batteries can be significantly improved using incommensurate graphene as an anode material. PMID:28059110

  3. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  4. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that are currently of the most commercial interest.

  5. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  6. Recharge in semiarid mountain environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.W.

    1982-06-01

    A systematic investigation of tritium activity in precipitation, surface water, springs, and ground water of the Roswell artesian basin in New Mexico, has been supplemented by hydrogeologic reconnaissance of spring systems; by various statistical correlations and spectral analysis of stream flow and water level records of observation wells; by spring discharge measurements; by stable isotope determinations (oxygen 18 and deuterium); and by numerical modeling of part of the basin. Two recharge contributions to the Principal or Carbonate Aquifer have been distinguished principally on the basis of their tritium label and aquifer response characteristics. Almost all basin waters (including deep ground water) fall close to the meteoric line of hydrogen/oxygen isotope composition, and this rules out a juvenile origin or appreciable bedrock interaction.

  7. Rechargable xLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·(1 − x)Li{sub 4/3}Mn{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} electrode nanocomposite material as a modification product of chemical manganese dioxide by lithium additives

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolsky, Georgii V.; Ivanov, Sergiy V.; Boldyrev, Eudgene I.; Ivanova, Natalya D.; Kiporenko, Oksana Ya.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Li-ion battery cathode preparation procedure included MnO{sub 2} modification by Li-salts with subsequent heat treatment. • Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3,} and Li-rich phases form active nanocomposite cathode. • Heat treatment mode is of crucial importance for rechargeability. • Cathode material capacity is 150 mA h g{sup −1} within 2.5–4.5 V. - Abstract: Relatively simple preparation procedure of rechargeable Li-ion battery cathode material via manganese dioxide treatment with Li-containing additive and subsequent calcination has been demonstrated. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and atomic force microscopy study were characterisation methods of modification products. Pyrolusite, Li{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 2}, layered Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}, and spinel Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12} phases were revealed as products of initial ramsdellite phase transformations at temperatures of heat treatment ranging from 360 °C to 600 °C. Optimal temperature of final heat treatment from the point of view of rechargeability and discharge characteristics was 450 °C. Samples heat-treated at 450 °C are characterized by the unique combination of Li{sub 4/3}Mn{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} phase components due to their structural integration, a significant degree of disordering, and sizes of nanocrystallites with Li diffusion path, which is the most favourable for reversibility. The prepared nanocomposite cathode material delivers a capacity of 150 mA h g{sup −1} within 2.5–4.5 V at 0.1 mA discharge.

  8. Ion-Catalyzed Synthesis of Microporous Hard Carbon Embedded with Expanded Nanographite for Enhanced Lithium/Sodium Storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Long; Xin, Sen; You, Ya; Yu, Le; Lin, Yue; Xu, Da-Wei; Qiao, Chan; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Ning; Yu, Shu-Hong; Goodenough, John B

    2016-11-16

    Hard carbons attract myriad interest as anode materials for high-energy rechargeable batteries due to their low costs and high theoretical capacities; practically, they deliver unsatisfactory performance due to their intrinsically disordered microarchitecture. Here we report a facile ion-catalyzed synthesis of a phenol-formaldehyde resin-based hard-carbon aerogel that takes advantage of the chelation effect of phenol and Fe(3+), which consists of a three-dimensionally interconnected carbon network embedded with hydrogen-rich, ordered microstructures of expanded nanographites and carbon micropores. The chelation effect ensures the homodispersion of Fe in the polymer segments of the precursor, so that an effective catalytic conversion from sp(3) to sp(2) carbon occurs, enabling free rearrangement of graphene sheets into expanded nanographite and carbon micropores. The structural merits of the carbon offer chances to achieve lithium/sodium storage performance far beyond that possible with the conventional carbon anode materials, including graphite and mesocarbon microbeads, along with fast kinetics and long cycle life. In this way, our hard carbon proves its feasibility to serve as an advanced anode material for high-energy rechargeable Li/Na batteries.

  9. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  11. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  12. Failure of Batteries with Block Copolymer Electrolytes and Lithium Metal Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Nitash; Devaux, Didier; Harry, Katherine; Parkinson, Dilworth; Yuan, Rodger; Hallinan, Daniel; MacDowell, Alastair

    2015-03-01

    Solid block copolymer electrolytes are promising candidates for the development of high performance rechargeable batteries comprising a lithium metal anode due to their chemical stability toward lithium and their mechanical resistance to dendrite growth. The application of a solid polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) block copolymer electrolyte in lithium symmetric cells permits to study the formation and growth of lithium dendrites by a non-destructive tool, hard X-ray microtomography. All solid-state batteries comprising a Li metal anode, a SEO electrolyte layer and a composite cathode were assembled and cycled. The cathode contains lithium iron phosphate as active material, SEO electrolyte as binder, and carbon black. Hard X-ray microtomography enables to visualize the microstructural changes at the Li/SEO and SEO/cathode interfaces to get insight on the battery failure mechanisms.

  13. Charge-discharge characteristics of mesophase-pitch-based carbon fibers for lithium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, N.; Kashiwagi, H.; Ichikawa, T.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O. ); Inagaki, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Mesophase-pitch-based carbon fibers were heat-treated at high temperatures (2,600 or 2,800 C) and examined as anodes for lithium secondary batteries. Four types of carbon fibers were used whose cross-sectional views are: a radial texture with wedge (type A), a radial texture with fine zigzag layers (type B), a double texture (type C), and a concentric texture (type D). Lithium could not be deintercalated after the first lithium intercalation in the type A carbon fiber. The structure of the type A fiber was destroyed during lithium intercalation. The other three types of carbon fibers showed good rechargeability on the first cycle, but demonstrated different behavior after 30 cycles. The highest lithium intercalation and deintercalation capacity was observed for the radially oriented carbon fiber (type B). The x-ray results showed a reversible change in the lattice along the c-axis during the intercalation and deintercalation cycle.

  14. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  15. Electrode Nanostructures in Lithium-Based Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nasir; Hou, Yanglong

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defining new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium-based (Li-ion, Li-air and Li-S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium-based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures.

  16. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  17. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dominica H C; Thelen, Jacob L; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A; Battaglia, Vincent S; Balsara, Nitash P; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-03-04

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity.

  18. Estimating Recharge Jointly Using The Chloride Method, Remote Sensing Data and Stochastic Inverse Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip; Eugster, Martin; Bauer, Peter; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    The study area is the Chobe Enclave region in semi-arid Northern Botswana. Growing water demand in the local villages led to the development of different water supply scenarios one of which uses groundwater from a nearby aquifer. A regional groundwater flow model was established, both within a stochastic and a deterministic approach. In principle recharge can be derived from a surface water balance. The input data for the water balance, evapotranspiration and precipitation, were calculated using remotely sensed data. The calculation of evapotranspiration is based on the surface energy balance using multi-channel images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). For several days of the year, actual ET is calculated and compared to station potential ET to yield crop coefficients. The crop coefficients are interpolated in time. Finally long-term ET is calculated by multiplying the crop coefficients with station potential ET. Precipitation is taken from station data and precipitation maps prepared by USAID using Meteosat images. As in most of the area surface runoff is small, subtracting evapotranspiration from precipitation yields recharge maps for the period 1990-2000. However, the values thus calculated are very inaccurate, as the errors both in precipitation and evapotranspiration estimates are large. Still, zones of different recharge and probable errors can be identified. The absolute value of the recharge flux in each zone is derived from the chloride method. Alternatively, the recharge flux was also estimated by the sequential self-calibrated method, a stochastic inverse modelling approach based on observed heads and pumping test data. Recharge values and transmissivities are estimated jointly in this method. The recharge zones derived from the water balance together with their stochastic properties are used as prior information. The method generates multiple equally likely solutions to the estimation problem and allows to assess the uncertainty

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-01

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g-1) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm-2. The Coulombic efficiency improves to ˜99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  1. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  2. SnO2 hollow structures and TiO2 nanosheets for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun Song; Archer, Lynden A.; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2011-01-01

    As an important energy storage platform for portable electronics, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been challenged by steadily growing demands for better performance, improved safety, and enhanced reliability. A variety of nanomaterials has emerged with good electrochemical properties and can be regarded as promising electrode materials for LIBs. In this feature article, we will specifically discuss two nanomaterials systems with unique structures, which show particular promise as anode materials for LIBs: tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow spheres and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanosheets (NSs) with exposed (001) high-energy facets. For both systems, we survey approaches for synthesizing the unique nanostructured materials required for improved LIB performance and subsequently review their lithium storage properties. By focusing on SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, we seek to provide rational understanding of the relationship between proper nanostructuring and enhanced physicochemical properties of the active anode material in LIBs; hopefully uncovering new possibilities to generate advanced materials for next generation rechargeable batteries.

  3. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  4. Characterization of polyperinaphthalenic organic semiconductor thin films prepared by excimer laser ablation and application to anode electrodes for ultrathin rechargeable Li ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Satoru; Tamura, Kazuyuki; Tsujine, Yukari; Fukao, Tomoko; Murata, Jun; Nakano, Masyoshi; Matsuzaki, Akiyoshi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Ando, Nobuo; Hato, Yukinori

    2001-06-01

    Polyperinaphthlenic organic semiconductor (PPNOS) films with polyperinaphthalene (PPN) structure for anode electrodes for ultra thin rechargeable Li ion batteries are prepared on temperature-controlled substrates by excimer laser ablation (ELA) of 3, 4, 9, 10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) or mixture target of PTCDA with a few metal powder (PTCDA/M) using a 308 nm (XeCl) pulsed excimer laser beam. It is demonstrated that ELA of PTCDA at a fluence of less than 0.5 Jcm-2pulse-1 enables us to obtain PPNOS on a substrate at 300 degree(s)C. It is found that ELA of PTCDA/Co at a fluence of more than 1.0 Jcm-4pulse-1 leads to produce effectively fragments without anhydride groups of PTCDA. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies reveal that ELA of PTCDA/Co enables us to obtain better-defined PPN films with electric conductivity of approximately 1x10-1Scm-1 on a substrate at 300 degree(s)C. Electrochemical doping characteristics of lithium ion into the films obtained by ELA are performed to verify the lithium doping mechanism by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore a trial piece of thin lithium ion rechargeable battery with the films is fabricated to appraise performance of the films as anode thin electrodes for ultra thin rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  5. Towards a rechargeable alcohol biobattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addo, Paul K.; Arechederra, Robert L.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    This research focused on the transition of biofuel cell technology to rechargeable biobatteries. The bioanode compartment of the biobattery consisted of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized into a carbon composite paste with butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid serving as the electrolyte. Ferrocene was added to shuttle electrons to/from the electrode surface/current collector. The bioanode catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in discharge mode. This bioanode was coupled to a cathode that consisted of Prussian Blue in a carbon composite paste with Nafion 212 acting as the separator between the two compartments. The biobattery can be fabricated in a charged mode with ethanol and have an open circuit potential of 0.8 V in the original state prior to charging or in the discharged mode with acetaldehyde and have an open circuit potential of 0.05 V. After charging it has an open circuit potential of 1.2 V and a maximum power density of 13.0 μW cm -3 and a maximum current density of 35.0 μA cm -3, respectively. The stability and efficiency of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging current of 0.4 mA and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles. This is a new type of secondary battery inspired by the metabolic processes of the living cell, which is an effective energy conversion system.

  6. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites with Ca and P ion release can remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. But the ion release lasts only a few months. The objectives of this study were to develop rechargeable CaP dental composite for the first time, and investigate the Ca and P recharge and re-release of composites with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) to achieve long-term inhibition of caries. Methods Three NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with resin matrix of: (1) bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at 1:1 mass ratio (referred to as BT group); (2) pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at 1:1 ratio (PE group); (3) BisGMA, TEGDMA, and Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BisMEP) at 2:1:1 ratio (BTM group). Each resin was filled with 20% NACP and 50% glass particles, and the composite was photo-cured. Specimens were tested for flexural strength and elastic modulus, Ca and P ion release, and Ca and P ion recharge and re-release. Results NACP nanocomposites had strengths 3-fold of, and elastic moduli similar to, commercial resin-modified glass ionomer controls. CaP ion recharge capability was the greatest for PE group, followed by BTM group, with BT group being the lowest (p < 0.05). For each recharge cycle, CaP re-release reached similarly high levels, showing that CaP re-release did not decrease with more recharge cycles. After six recharge/re-release cycles, NACP nanocomposites without further recharge had continuous CaP ion release for 42 d. Significance Novel rechargeable CaP composites achieved long-term and sustained Ca and P ion release. Rechargeable NACP nanocomposite is promising for caries-inhibiting restorations, and the Ca and P ion recharge and re-release method has wide applicability to dental composites, adhesives, cements and sealants to achieve long-term caries-inhibition. PMID:26743970

  7. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Page 1. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS ....... ................. 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION...OF LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS. ................ 56 1.4.1 Carbon Limited Overdischarge...............56 1.4.1.1 Background... LITHIUM THIONYL - CHLORIDE CELLS. .. ............ ...... 101 1.5.1 Background. ....... ............ .... 101 1.5.2 Microphotography

  8. The Rechargeability of Silicon-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    seconds in order to remove surface native oxide layer. The silicon was then rinsed with de- ionized (DI) water and dried using a nitrogen stream. After the...continued operation without loss of energy density, and avoiding the build-up of water byproduct in the electrolyte during reduction during recharge phase...an Si-air electrochemical cell a source of water for other applications. Metal-air batteries, silicon-air, electrochemistry, rechargeable batteries UU

  9. Assessment of Lithium-based Battery Electrolytes Developed under the NASA PERS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, NASA formally completed the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Program, which was established in 2000 in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The goal of this program was to ultimately develop an advanced, space-qualified battery technology, which embodied a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and complementary components, with improved performance characteristics that would address future aerospace battery requirements. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. A variety of cell and polymeric electrolyte concepts were pursued as part of the development efforts undertaken at numerous governmental, industrial and academic laboratories. Numerous candidate electrolyte materials were developed, synthesized and optimized for evaluation. Utilizing the component screening facility and the "standardized" test procedures developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, electrochemical screening and performance evaluations of promising candidate materials were completed. This overview summarizes test results for a variety of candidate electrolyte materials that were developed under the PERS Program. Electrolyte properties are contrasted and compared to the original project goals, and the strengths and weaknesses of the electrolyte chemistries are discussed. Limited cycling data for full-cells using lithium metal and vanadium oxide electrodes are also presented. Based on measured electrolyte properties, the projected performance characteristics and temperature limitations of batteries utilizing

  10. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    , and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

  11. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwer, Herman

    2002-02-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.

  12. 3D Porous Graphene Aerogel Cathode with High Sulfur Loading and Embedded TiO2 Nanoparticles for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Qiu; Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Zheng-Long; Chong, Woon Gie; Qin, Xianying; Wang, Xiangyu; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2016-10-07

    Three-dimensional graphene aerogel/TiO2/sulfur (GA/TiO2/S) composites are synthesized through a facile, one-pot hydrothermal route as the cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries. With a high sulfur content of 75.1 wt%, the conductive, highly porous composite electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 512 mAh/g after 250 cycles at a current rate of 1 C with a low capacity decay of 0.128% per cycle. The excellent capacities and cyclic stability arise from several unique functional features of the cathode. (i) The conductive graphene aerogel framework ameliorates ion/electron transfer while accommodating the volume expansion induced during discharge; and (ii) TiO2 nanoparticles play an important role in restricting the dissolution of polysulfides by chemical bonds with sulfur.

  13. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  14. Mesoporous MnCo2O4 with a flake-like structure as advanced electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Ung, Alison; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-19

    A mesoporous flake-like manganese-cobalt composite oxide (MnCo2O4) is synthesized successfully through the hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase and morphology of the materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods. The flake-like MnCo2O4 is evaluated as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Owing to its mesoporous nature, it exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1066 mA h g(-1), good rate capability, and superior cycling stability. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the flake-like MnCo2O4 also demonstrates a high supercapacitance of 1487 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and an exceptional cycling performance over 2000 charge/discharge cycles.

  15. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  16. Carving bipolarity using a lithium sword.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Gin S; Geddes, John R

    2014-11-01

    The classification of mood disorders lacks precision and consequently there has been no recent meaningful advance in their treatment. By virtue of its therapeutic specificity, lithium responsivity offers an opportunity to diagnose a definitive subtype of mood disorders that may provide a platform for the development of targeted therapy.

  17. Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO4: towards a redox flow lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qizhao; Li, Hong; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2013-02-14

    Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO(4) was successfully demonstrated using ferrocene derivatives, based on which a novel energy storage system--the redox flow lithium-ion battery (RFLB), was devised by integrating the operation flexibility of a redox flow battery and high energy density of a lithium-ion battery. Distinct from the recent semi-solid lithium rechargeable flow battery, the energy storage materials of RFLB stored in separate energy tanks remain stationary upon operation, giving us a fresh perspective on building large-scale energy storage systems with higher energy density and improved safety.

  18. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  19. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  20. Rechargeable LiNiO2/carbon cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahn, J. R.; von Sacken, U.; Juzkow, M. W.; Al-Janaby, H.

    1991-08-01

    Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is fully intercalated, like LiNiO2. For the anode, the chemical potential of the intercalated Li should be close to that of Li metal, like it is in Li(x)C6. The intercalation of Li in LiNiO2 is discussed, and then in petroleum coke. Then, it is shown that LiNiO2/coke cells have high energy density, long cycle life, excellent high-temperature performance, low self-discharge rates, can be repeatedly discharged to zero volts without damage, and are easily fabricated. It is considered that this type of cell shows far more promise for widespread applications than traditional secondary Li cells using metallic Li anodes.