Science.gov

Sample records for advanced research methods

  1. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  2. Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

    2009-01-01

    The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

  3. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  4. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  5. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  6. A CTSA agenda to advance methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Pauker, Stephen G; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell, Frank E; Meltzer, David O; Montori, Victor M; Shepard, Donald S; Kent, David M

    2011-06-01

    Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient-centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients' preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient-centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient-centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient-centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER.

  7. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  8. Review: Advances in delta-subsidence research using satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the world's major river deltas are sinking relative to local sea level. The effects of subsidence can include aquifer salinization, infrastructure damage, increased vulnerability to flooding and storm surges, and permanent inundation of low-lying land. Consequently, determining the relative importance of natural vs. anthropogenic pressures in driving delta subsidence is a topic of ongoing research. This article presents a review of knowledge with respect to delta surface-elevation loss. The field is rapidly advancing due to applications of space-based techniques: InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar), GPS (global positioning system), and satellite ocean altimetry. These techniques have shed new light on a variety of subsidence processes, including tectonics, isostatic adjustment, and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment compaction. They also confirm that subsidence associated with fluid extraction can outpace sea-level rise by up to two orders of magnitude, resulting in effective sea-level rise that is one-hundred times faster than the global average rate. In coming years, space-based and airborne instruments will be critical in providing near-real-time monitoring to facilitate management decisions in sinking deltas. However, ground-based observations continue to be necessary for generating complete measurements of surface-elevation change. Numerical modeling should seek to simulate couplings between subsidence processes for greater predictive power.

  9. Advancing Methods for U.S. Transgender Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Deutsch, Madeline B.; Bhasin, Shalender; Bockting, Walter; Brown, George R.; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Rob; Kreukels, Baudewijntje; Radix, Asa; Safer, Joshua D.; Tangpricha, Vin; T’Sjoen, Guy; Goodman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review To describe methodological challenges, gaps, and opportunities in U.S. transgender health research. Recent Findings Lack of large prospective observational studies and intervention trials, limited data on risks and benefits of gender affirmation (e.g., hormones and surgical interventions), and inconsistent use of definitions across studies hinder evidence-based care for transgender people. Systematic high-quality observational and intervention-testing studies may be carried out using several approaches, including general population-based, health systems-based, clinic-based, venue-based, and hybrid designs. Each of these approaches has its strength and limitations; however, harmonization of research efforts is needed. Ongoing development of evidence-based clinical recommendations will benefit from a series of observational and intervention studies aimed at identification, recruitment, and follow-up of transgender people of different ages, from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds and with diverse gender identities. Summary Transgender health research faces challenges that include standardization of lexicon, agreed-upon population definitions, study design, sampling, measurement, outcome ascertainment, and sample size. Application of existing and new methods is needed to fill existing gaps, increase the scientific rigor and reach of transgender health research, and inform evidence-based prevention and care for this underserved population. PMID:26845331

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  11. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  12. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  13. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in the Department of Bioengineering at Rice University are developing a new approach for fighting cancer, based on nanoshells that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The aim is to locate the cells, and be able to make a rational choice about whether they need to be destroyed and if possible they should immediately be sent for…

  14. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances. Methods The guiding principle of the CHNRI method is to expose the potential of many competing health research ideas to reduce disease burden and inequities that exist in the population in a feasible and cost–effective way. Results The CHNRI method introduced three key conceptual advances that led to its increased popularity in comparison to other priority–setting methods and processes. First, it proposed a systematic approach to listing a large number of possible research ideas, using the “4D” framework (description, delivery, development and discovery research) and a well–defined “depth” of proposed research ideas (research instruments, avenues, options and questions). Second, it proposed a systematic approach for discriminating between many proposed research ideas based on a well–defined context and criteria. The five “standard” components of the context are the population of interest, the disease burden of interest, geographic limits, time scale and the preferred style of investing with respect to risk. The five “standard” criteria proposed for prioritization between research ideas are answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for disease burden reduction and the effect on equity. However, both the context and the criteria can be flexibly changed to meet the specific needs of each priority–setting exercise. Third, it facilitated consensus development through measuring collective optimism on each component of each research idea among a larger group of experts using a simple

  15. Advances in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains five papers from a symposium on advances in qualitative research in human resource development (HRD). "Case Study and Its Virtuoso Possibilities" (Verna J. Willis) asserts that the case study method is particularly well suited for research in HRD because its creative and investigative possibilities have not yet…

  16. The promise of mixed-methods for advancing latino health research.

    PubMed

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2013-09-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the "translation" of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions.

  17. The Promise of Mixed-Methods for Advancing Latino Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the “translation” of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions. PMID:23996325

  18. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  19. [Research advances and applications of the methods to repair mandible defect].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan-jie; Weng, Yu-lai; Cao, Yi-lin

    2004-04-01

    Mandible defects can be caused by many diseases, most commonly occurring in cranio-maxillofacial regions. With the development of orthopaedics, biomaterial and cell biology in these years, great improvements have been acquired in repair of mandible defects. This paper systematically reviewed the relevant research advances and applications, and showed the applied prospect of bone tissue engineering in this field.

  20. Multi-channel pre-beamformed data acquisition system for research on advanced ultrasound imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chris C P; Yu, Alfred C H; Salimi, Nazila; Yiu, Billy Y S; Tsang, Ivan K H; Kerby, Benjamin; Azar, Reza Zahiri; Dickie, Kris

    2012-02-01

    The lack of open access to the pre-beamformed data of an ultrasound scanner has limited the research of novel imaging methods to a few privileged laboratories. To address this need, we have developed a pre-beamformed data acquisition (DAQ) system that can collect data over 128 array elements in parallel from the Ultrasonix series of research-purpose ultrasound scanners. Our DAQ system comprises three system-level blocks: 1) a connector board that interfaces with the array probe and the scanner through a probe connector port; 2) a main board that triggers DAQ and controls data transfer to a computer; and 3) four receiver boards that are each responsible for acquiring 32 channels of digitized raw data and storing them to the on-board memory. This system can acquire pre-beamformed data with 12-bit resolution when using a 40-MHz sampling rate. It houses a 16 GB RAM buffer that is sufficient to store 128 channels of pre-beamformed data for 8000 to 25 000 transmit firings, depending on imaging depth; corresponding to nearly a 2-s period in typical imaging setups. Following the acquisition, the data can be transferred through a USB 2.0 link to a computer for offline processing and analysis. To evaluate the feasibility of using the DAQ system for advanced imaging research, two proof-of-concept investigations have been conducted on beamforming and plane-wave B-flow imaging. Results show that adaptive beamforming algorithms such as the minimum variance approach can generate sharper images of a wire cross-section whose diameter is equal to the imaging wavelength (150 μm in our example). Also, planewave B-flow imaging can provide more consistent visualization of blood speckle movement given the higher temporal resolution of this imaging approach (2500 fps in our example).

  1. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  2. Resampling Methods Revisited: Advancing the Understanding and Applications in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan; Pan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Resampling methods including randomization test, cross-validation, the jackknife and the bootstrap are widely employed in the research areas of natural science, engineering and medicine, but they lack appreciation in educational research. The purpose of the present review is to revisit and highlight the key principles and developments of…

  3. Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    tracking in usability evaluation : A practitioner’s guide. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel. (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied...Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods Terence S. Andre, Lt Col, USAF Margaret Schurig, Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Co...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  4. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  5. Advanced Research and Data Methods in Women's Health: Big Data Analytics, Adaptive Studies, and the Road Ahead.

    PubMed

    Macedonia, Christian R; Johnson, Clark T; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-02-01

    Technical advances in science have had broad implications in reproductive and women's health care. Recent innovations in population-level data collection and storage have made available an unprecedented amount of data for analysis while computational technology has evolved to permit processing of data previously thought too dense to study. "Big data" is a term used to describe data that are a combination of dramatically greater volume, complexity, and scale. The number of variables in typical big data research can readily be in the thousands, challenging the limits of traditional research methodologies. Regardless of what it is called, advanced data methods, predictive analytics, or big data, this unprecedented revolution in scientific exploration has the potential to dramatically assist research in obstetrics and gynecology broadly across subject matter. Before implementation of big data research methodologies, however, potential researchers and reviewers should be aware of strengths, strategies, study design methods, and potential pitfalls. Examination of big data research examples contained in this article provides insight into the potential and the limitations of this data science revolution and practical pathways for its useful implementation.

  6. [Research advances in the calculating method of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in cultivated lands].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-long; Tong, Yan-an; Lu, Yong-li; Ma, Hai-yang

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has received worldwide concern in the sphere of agronomic science and environmental science, and it is fundamentally important for evaluating N utilization status and optimizing N fertilization management in cultivated lands. In recent years, in consideration of low values and great variations of NUE in China' s cultivated lands, some scholars have discussed on the traditional concept and calculating method of NUE, and also have proposed some substituted NUE calculating methods. In this paper, we summarized some disadvantages of both conventional concept and calculating method of NUE, i.e. the subtraction method and the 15N labeling method. Furthermore, we particularly introduced several substituted NUE calculation methods and discussed research directions in the future. In summary, we strongly suggested the establishment of a comprehensive evaluation index system of N utilization in good accordance with the current agricultural production status in China, based on a correct understanding of the dialectical relationships among N application rate, crop yield, N utilization and N loss.

  7. Academia, advocacy, and industry: a collaborative method for clinical research advancement.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Rena J; Lortz, Amanda; Calhoun, Amy R U L; Carey, John C

    2014-07-01

    Professionals who work in academia, advocacy, and industry often carry out mutually exclusive activities related to research and clinical care. However, there are several examples of collaboration among such professionals that ultimately allows for improved scientific and clinical understanding. This commentary recounts our particular experience (a collaboration between geneticists at the Universities of Minnesota and Utah, the 4p- Support Group, and Lineagen, Inc) and reviews other similar projects. We formally propose this collaborative method as a conduit for future clinical research programs. Specifically, we encourage academicians, directors of family/advocacy/support groups, and members of industry to establish partnerships and document their experiences. The medical community as a whole will benefit from such partnerships and, specifically, families will teach us lessons that could never be learned in a laboratory or textbook.

  8. Editorial: biotech methods and advances.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    This annual Methods and Advances Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal contains a selection of cutting-edge research and review articles with a particular emphasis on vertical process understanding – read more in this editorial by Prof. Alois Jungbauer, BTJ co-Editor-in-Chief.

  9. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  10. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  11. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation.

  12. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized.

  13. Research on Selection Methods and Programming for Advanced Black Students at the Secondary Level of Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; And Others

    This research investigated the phenomenon of underrepresentation of blacks in advanced level secondary school courses in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Initial interviews revealed that the problem of racial imbalance in advanced level courses was not one of identifying black gifted youth or of offering attractive programs for them, but of black children…

  14. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  15. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  16. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  17. Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change

  18. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  19. Advancing Educational Podcasting and Faculty Inquiry with a Grounded Research Model: Building on Current Mixed-Methods Research across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of formal and informal learning is increasing transparently in our daily lives. Leaders of higher and continuing education will benefit from better understanding why and how to formatively research and design effective popular informal learning such as educational podcasting. Using media that has a wide general public user base and…

  20. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

  1. Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Vernon; Rachidi, Farhad

    2017-02-01

    This is the part II of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  2. Advances in Electrophysiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders. These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26259089

  3. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  4. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  5. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  6. Advanced Current Collection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Research Projects Agency SContract N00014-76-C-0683 ARPA Order No. 3153 SC. J. Mole, D. L. Greene, I. R. McNab, J. L. Johnson, 0. S. Taylor, W. R. Gass ... Gass , W.R. 6. REPORT DATE 70 TOTAL NO OP PAGES 7b NO OF REFS May 1977 901 fan. CONTRACT OR GRANT No. 9a. ORIGINATOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) N00014-76-C-0683...considerations In the shunt design. In order for the solid brush to move radially in and out of the brush holder with rotor movement, the shunt-to-brush

  7. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  8. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  9. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model describing the discharge chamber performance of high strength, cusped magnetic field ion thrusters is developed. The model is formulated in terms of the energy cost of producing ions in the discharge chamber and the fraction of ions produced in the discharge chamber that are extracted to form the ion beam. The accuracy of the model is verified experimentally in a series of tests wherein the discharge voltage, propellant, grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam diameter and discharge chamber wall temperature are varied. The model is exercised to demonstrate what variations in performance might be expected by varying discharge chamber parameters. The results of a study of xenon and argon orificed hollow cathodes are reported. These results suggest that a hollow cathode model developed from research conducted on mercury cathodes can also be applied to xenon and argon. Primary electron mean free paths observed in argon and xenon cathodes that are larger than those found in mercury cathodes are identified as a cause of performance differences between mercury and inert gas cathodes. Data required as inputs to the inert gas cathode model are presented so it can be used as an aid in cathode design.

  10. Superconductors (History & Advanced Research)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Mona

    2012-02-01

    Superconductors are materials that have no resistance to electricity's flow; they are one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery. In 1911 superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes When he cooled it to the temperature of liquid helium, 4 degrees Kelvin (-452F, -269C), its resistance suddenly disappeared. It was necessary for Onnes to come within 4 degrees of the coldest temperature that is theoretically attainable to witness the phenomenon of superconductivity. The next great milestone in understanding how matter behaves at extreme cold temperatures occurred in 1933. German researchers Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered that a superconducting material will repel a magnetic field. A magnet moving by a conductor induces currents in the conductor. This is the principle on which the electric generator operates. But, in a superconductor the induced currents exactly mirror the field that would have otherwise penetrated the superconducting material - causing the magnet to be repulsed. This phenomenon is known as strong diamagnetism and is today often referred to as the ``Meissner effect'' (an eponym). In 1941 niobium-nitride was found to superconduct at 16 K. In 1953 vanadium-silicon displayed superconductive properties at 17.5 K. And, in 1962 scientists at Westinghouse developed the first commercial superconducting wire, an alloy of niobium and titanium (NbTi).

  11. ISAAC Advanced Composites Research Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication capability to support the Center's advanced research and technology mission. The system introduced in this paper is named ISAAC (Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites). The initial operational capability of ISAAC is automated fiber placement, built around a commercial system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a purpose-built fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of the advanced materials, structures, structural concepts, fabrication processes and technology development that may be enabled using the ISAAC system. The fiber placement end effector may be used directly or with appropriate modifications for these studies, or other end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  12. Advanced aerodynamics. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains selected NASA papers that were presented at the Fifth Annual Status Review of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Energy Efficient Transport (EET) Program held at Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California on September 14 to 15, 1981. These papers describe the status of several NASA in-house research activities in the areas of advanced turboprops, natural laminar flow, oscillating control surfaces, high-Reynolds-number airfoil tests, high-lift technology, and theoretical design techniques.

  13. Advanced Information System Research Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    realistic near-term achievements. The research program objectives are to develop , manage , and coordinate activities relating to the following: o... development ; o Development and demonstration of tools, techniques, procedures, and advanced design concepts applicable to future management ... management is consolidated under the Division Property Book Officer. Property book accountability is maintained under the provisions of AR 735-35, and

  14. Advances in Teacher Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere E.

    2010-01-01

    Classroom research on process-outcome relationships had burgeoned in recent years, revealing notable methodological advances and sensible, replicated findings. The studies of the early 1970s supporting direct instruction as particularly effective for producing achievement in basic skills in the early grades have been replicated and extended to…

  15. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-15

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  16. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  17. Advances in Adaptive Control Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This poster presentation describes recent advances in adaptive control technology developed by NASA. Optimal Control Modification is a novel adaptive law that can improve performance and robustness of adaptive control systems. A new technique has been developed to provide an analytical method for computing time delay stability margin for adaptive control systems.

  18. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The development of parametric cost estimating methods for advanced space systems in the conceptual design phase is discussed. The process of identifying variables which drive cost and the relationship between weight and cost are discussed. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested using a historical data base of research and development projects.

  19. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  20. Advancing musculoskeletal research with nanoscience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cameron P

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscience has arrived. Biological applications of nanoscience are particularly prominent and can be useful in a range of disciplines. Advances in nanoscience are underpinning breakthroughs in biomedical research and are beginning to be adopted by the rheumatology and musculoskeletal science communities. Within these fields, nanoscience can be applied to imaging, drug delivery, implant development, regenerative medicine, and the characterization of nanoscale features of cells, matrices and biomaterials. Nanoscience and nanotechnology also provide means by which the interaction of cells with their environment can be studied, thereby increasing the understanding of disease and regenerative processes. Although its potential is clear, nanoscience research tends to be highly technical, generally targeting an audience of physicists, chemists, materials scientists and engineers, and is difficult for a general audience to follow. This Review aims to step back from the most technical aspects of nanoscience and provide a widely accessible view of how it can be applied to advance the field of rheumatology, with an emphasis on technologies that can have an immediate impact on rheumatology and musculoskeletal research.

  1. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  2. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  3. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  4. Recent advances in shoulder research.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-06-15

    Shoulder pathology is a growing concern for the aging population, athletes, and laborers. Shoulder osteoarthritis and rotator cuff disease represent the two most common disorders of the shoulder leading to pain, disability, and degeneration. While research in cartilage regeneration has not yet been translated clinically, the field of shoulder arthroplasty has advanced to the point that joint replacement is an excellent and viable option for a number of pathologic conditions in the shoulder. Rotator cuff disease has been a significant focus of research activity in recent years, as clinicians face the challenge of poor tendon healing and irreversible changes associated with rotator cuff arthropathy. Future treatment modalities involving biologics and tissue engineering hold further promise to improve outcomes for patients suffering from shoulder pathologies.

  5. CSM parallel structural methods research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  6. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advanced research. 37.1210 Section 37.1210... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous...

  7. Development of Research Projects in Advanced Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping; Guha, Suchi

    2008-04-01

    Advanced laboratory serves as a bridge spanning primary physics laboratory and scientific research or industrial activities for undergraduate students. Students not only study modern physics experiments and techniques but also acquire the knowledge of advanced instrumentation. It is of interest to encourage students using the knowledge into research projects at a later stage of the course. We have designed several scientific projects for advanced laboratory to promote student's abilities of independent research. Students work as a team to select the project and search literatures, to perform experiments, and to give presentations. During the research project, instructor only provides necessary equipment for the project without any pre-knowledge of results, giving students a real flavor of scientific research. Our initial attempt has shown some interesting results. We found that students showed a very strong motivation in these projects, and student performances exceeded our expectation. Almost all the students in our first batch of the course have now joined graduate school in Physics and Materials Science. In the future we will also arrange graduate students working with undergraduate students to build a collaborative environment. In addition, a more comprehensive method will be used to evaluate student achievements.

  8. Recent advances in betalain research.

    PubMed

    Strack, Dieter; Vogt, Thomas; Schliemann, Willibald

    2003-02-01

    Betalains replace the anthocyanins in flowers and fruits of plants of most families of the Caryophyllales. Unexpectedly, they were also found in some higher fungi. Whereas the anthocyanin-analogous functions of betalains in flower and fruit colouration are obvious, their role in fungi remains obscure. The nature of newly identified betalains as well as final structure elucidation of earlier putatively described compounds published within the last decade is compiled in this report. Recent advances in research on betalain biosynthesis is also covered, including description of some 'early' reactions, i.e. betalain-specific dopa formation in plants and fungi and extradiolic dopa cleavage in fungi. Work on betalain-specific glucosyltransferases (GTs) has given new insights into the evolution of secondary plant enzymes. It is proposed that these GTs are phylogenetically related to flavonoid GTs. It was found that the decisive steps in betalain biosynthesis, i.e. condensation of the betalain chromophore betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa and amino acids or amines in the respective aldimine formation of the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins, are most likely to be non-enzymatic. Betalains have attracted workers in applied fields because of their use for food colouring and their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties for protection against certain oxidative stress-related disorders.

  9. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  10. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  11. [Research advancement about lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Yin, Shi-An

    2006-05-01

    Lactose intolerance associated with nutrition and health of human especially infant period of time and effect milk product intake. It is important significance to maintain health and cut down the aged risk of osteoporosis because lactose intolerance was understand about grouping, clinical symptom and diagnose. There are extensive perspective for understand prevent and control lactose intolerance for lactose gene polymorphism. It is effective method for earlier period detection gene screen with lactose typing for osteoporosis, however there are carry out multiplicity research in many ways to improve and control lactose intolerance

  12. Simulation methods for advanced scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, T.E.; Carlson, J.A.; Forster, R.A.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to create effective new algorithms for solving N-body problems by computer simulation. The authors concentrated on developing advanced classical and quantum Monte Carlo techniques. For simulations of phase transitions in classical systems, they produced a framework generalizing the famous Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithms for Ising and Potts models. For spin-glass-like problems, they demonstrated the effectiveness of an extension of the multicanonical method for the two-dimensional, random bond Ising model. For quantum mechanical systems, they generated a new method to compute the ground-state energy of systems of interacting electrons. They also improved methods to compute excited states when the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method is used and to compute longer time dynamics when the stationary phase quantum Monte Carlo method is used.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  14. Advanced methods of structural and trajectory analysis for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the efforts in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of trajectory optimization. The majority of the effort was spent in the structural weight area. A draft of 'Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft', resulting from this research, is included as an appendix.

  15. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  16. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  17. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  18. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  19. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  20. Research Methods in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  1. New Advances in Brain Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, Lori Perkins

    2002-01-01

    Recent findings in brain research suggest the implementation of contemporary instructional practices is in order for base practices. Incorporating best practice research is critical for students to be competitive in a global market. This article provides a brief overview of educational philosophy, recent findings on brain research and language…

  2. The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Ground-Truth: Methods to Advance Environmental Justice and Researcher-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadd, James; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Matsuoka, Martha; Prichard, Michele; Carter, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Environmental justice advocates often argue that environmental hazards and their health effects vary by neighborhood, income, and race. To assess these patterns and advance preventive policy, their colleagues in the research world often use complex and methodologically sophisticated statistical and geospatial techniques. One way to bridge the gap…

  3. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  4. Advances in Education Research. Volume 2, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1997

    1997-01-01

    "Advances in Education Research" reprints previously published journal articles reporting on research supported in whole or in part by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). The articles are selected from peer-reviewed/referred journals; the journals used are described briefy at the end of the volume. The articles in…

  5. Teaching Research Synthesis to Advanced Practice Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Sandra; Brosnan, Christine A.; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2002-01-01

    A process for teaching research synthesis to advanced practice nurses includes two courses: a first research applications course in which students build bibliographic databases, practice statistical analysis, and develop search skills; and a second course in which they complete literature reviews or meta analyses of research on clinical practice…

  6. Advanced optical diagnostics in hypersonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattolica, Robert J.

    1988-10-01

    The renewed emphasis on hypersonic research has stimulated a resurgence of interest in experimental methods for the study of high-speed flows. Improvement in the physical and chemical models used in computational fluid dynamic simulation of hypersonic flows requires a modern experimental data base. Optical diagnostics provide the capability to make nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, velocity, and species concentration in hypersonic flows. The short test time available in hypersonic wind tunnels or flight experiments necessitates spectroscopic methods capable of producing high signal levels. Fluorescence methods based on laser or electron-beam excitation satisfy this requirement. For flight experiments, electron-beam excitation offers a number of advantages over laser excitation that include small device size, high electrical efficiency, and multiple-state and species-selective excitation. Disadvantages of the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique included a complex excitation mechanism and some limitations in high-density applications. Laser fluorescence methods (LIF) have been developed extensively in recent years for combustion research, but need further advances in miniaturization of lasers for application to in-flight hypersonic combustion and aerodynamic experiments. Both techniques require a fundamental understanding of the complications introduced by physical effects such as energy transfer and quenching of the fluorescence signal. With modern electro-optic instrumentation it is now possible to examine in detail the influence of these phenomena on EBF and LIF fluorescence spectra in the laboratory and to extend these measurement techniques for use in flight research. To illustrate some of the research required to develop these methods to address issues relevent to hypersonic flight, examples of experiments on the use of EBF and LIF spectroscopy for the measurement of nitric oxide concentration are presented.

  7. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  8. Therapists and researchers: Advancing collaboration

    PubMed Central

    GARLAND, ANN F.; BROOKMAN-FRAZEE, LAUREN

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative partnerships between community-based clinicians and academic researchers have the potential to improve the relevance, utility, and feasibility of research, as well as the effectiveness of practice. Collaborative partnership research from a variety of fields can inform the development and maintenance of effective partnerships. In this paper we present a conceptual model of research-community practice partnership derived from literature across disciplines and then illustrate application of this model to one case example. The case example is a multi-year partnership between an interdisciplinary group of community-based psychotherapists and a team of mental health researchers. This partnership was initiated to support federally funded research on community-based out-patient mental health care for children with disruptive behavior problems, but it has evolved to drive and support new intervention studies with different clinical foci. Lessons learned from this partnership process will be shared and interpreted in the context of the presented research-practice partnership model. PMID:24224554

  9. Advancing Educational Policy by Advancing Research on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impact of "instructional regimes" on student learning is central to advancing educational policy. Research on instructional regimes has parallels with clinical trials in medicine yet poses unique challenges because of the social nature of instruction: A child's potential outcome under a given regime depends on peers and teachers,…

  10. Editorial - Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    This is the part I of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  11. Advances in Bilingual Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; Padilla, Raymond V., Ed.

    Papers on theory, technology, and public policy in bilingualism and bilingual education are collected in this volume designed to fill the need for systematic, high quality research related to bilingual populations in the United States. Part 1, "Language and Culture," contains five papers that discuss first and second language development,…

  12. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The activities of the AGTSR Program during this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report text is divided into discussions on Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are highlighted below with additional detail following in the text of the report.

  13. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland have identified a compound in the popular vegetable that appears to decrease bone loss in laboratory studies using rat bone cells. It is suggested that eating onions might help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis, a disease, which predominantly affects older women.

  14. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  15. Advances in developmental prosopagnosia research.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-06-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) refers to face recognition deficits in the absence of brain damage. DP affects ∼2% of the population, and it often runs in families. DP studies have made considerable progress in identifying the cognitive and neural characteristics of the disorder. A key challenge is to develop a valid taxonomy of DP that will facilitate many aspects of research.

  16. Advances in Translational Medical Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    the first nodes that receive lymph drainage allowed for a change in practice  Results of the clinical trial contributed to what is now the current...Raskind Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research Got Nightmares? 2011 MHS Conference Quality of Life: Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy 25...multi-center clinical trial testing the validity and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in predicting the spread of disease  Accurately identifying

  17. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  18. Linguistic Alternatives to Quantitative Research Strategies. Part One: How Linguistic Mechanisms Advance Research Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Combining psycholinguistic technologies and systems analysis created advances in motivational profiling and numerous new behavioral engineering applications. These advances leapfrog many mainstream statistical research methods, producing superior research results via cause-effect language mechanisms. Entire industries explore motives ranging from…

  19. Advances in personality theory and research.

    PubMed Central

    Stelmack, R M

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes important advances in personality research that have been achieved during the past 20 years in the development of a fundamental personality typology and in the determination of the heritability of personality traits. Research conducted at the University of Ottawa that has contributed to the exploration of the biological bases of the extraversion trait is summarized. PMID:1958646

  20. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  1. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  2. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2000-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in the quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  3. Advanced method for oligonucleotide deprotection

    PubMed Central

    Surzhikov, Sergey A.; Timofeev, Edward N.; Chernov, Boris K.; Golova, Julia B.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2000-01-01

    A new procedure for rapid deprotection of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides has been developed. While all known deprotection methods require purification to remove the residual protective groups (e.g. benzamide) and insoluble silicates, the new procedure based on the use of an ammonia-free reagent mixture allows one to avoid the additional purification steps. The method can be applied to deprotect the oligodeoxynucleotides synthesized by using the standard protected nucleoside phosphoramidites dGiBu, dCBz and dABz. PMID:10734206

  4. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  5. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  6. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  7. Research priorities and history of advanced composite compression testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for standard compression testing research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented along with a state of the art survey (completed in 1979) including history and commentary on industrial test methods. Historically apparent research priorities and consequent (lack of) progress are supporting evidence for newly derived priorities.

  8. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Karin Rolanda; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients' gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are still competent to decide offers a valuable opportunity to authorize research, by using an advance research directive (ARD). Yet, the use of ARDs as an authorization for research participation remains controversial. In this paper we discuss the role of autonomous decision-making and the protection of incompetent research subjects. We will show why ARDs are a morally defensible basis for the inclusion of this population in biomedical research and that the use of ARDs is compatible with the protection of incompetent research subjects.

  9. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  10. Recent advances in lattice Boltzmann methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Doolen, G.D.; He, X.; Nie, X.; Zhang, R.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, the authors briefly present the basic principles of lattice Boltzmann method and summarize recent advances of the method, including the application of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows in MEMS and simulation of the multiphase mixing and turbulence.

  11. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  12. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  13. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    22 Figure 22: Warfighters in a DARPA Training Superiority program classroom ...technical Breakthroughs in DARPA or other research programs; program managers, it is easy to make decisions. This managemet style is essential to...Superiority program classroom . emotional involvement of multi-user computer games. 3.4. Advanced Manned and Unmanned Systems DARPA is working with the Army

  14. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  15. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  16. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  17. Ergonomics research methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  18. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  19. Advanced heat pump research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  20. Land reclamation: Advances in research technology

    SciTech Connect

    Younos, T.; Diplas, P.; Mostaghimi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Land reclamation encompasses remediation of industrial wasteland, improvement of infertile land for agricultural production, preservation of wetlands, and restoration of disturbed areas. Land reclamation is an integral part of sustainable development which aims to reconcile economic productivity with environmental preservation. During the 1980s, significant progress was achieved in the application of advanced technologies to sustainable development projects. The goal of this international symposium was to serve as a forum to review current research and state-of-the-art technology dealing with various aspects of land reclamation, and provide an opportunity for professional interaction and exchange of information in a multi-disciplinary setting. The scope of the symposium was as broad as the topic itself. The keynote address by Professor John Cairns focused on a systems approach in land restoration projects and challenges facing scientists in global biotic impoverishment. Other topics discussed in ten mechanical sessions included development and applications of computer models, geographic information systems, remote sensing technology, salinity problems, surface and ground water monitoring, reclamation of mine areas, soil amendment methods and impacts, wetland restoration techniques, and land use planning for resource protection.

  1. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  2. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  3. [Advances in the biosynthesis research of ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Gao, Li-Li; Zhu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active components of medicinal herbs including Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, which have potent effects of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis inhibition. But the low content of ginsenosides limits its development and usage. At present, how to improve the production of ginsenosides by biological technology has been a new research focus. Some advances in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides by tissue culture and biotransformation have been made in recent years. So far at least twenty genes related to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides from Panax genus plants have been cloned and functionally identified, which has laid a good foundation for the study on the synthetic biology of ginsenosides. This review outlines recent advances in several aspects and is expected to provide a theoretical support to the thorough research of the pathway and regulation of ginsenosides biosynthesis.

  4. ISAAC - A Testbed for Advanced Composites Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication environment to support the Center's research and technology development mission. This overall system described in this paper is named ISAAC, or Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites. ISAAC's initial operational capability is a commercial robotic automated fiber placement system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom commercial robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a specialized automated fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of how development of advanced composite materials, structures, fabrication processes and technology are enabled by utilizing the fiber placement end effector directly or with appropriate modifications. Alternatively, end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  5. Advanced radioactive waste assay methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.E.; Robertson, D.E.; DeGroot, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes an evaluation of advanced methodologies for the radioassay of low power-plant low-level radioactive waste for compliance with the 10CFR61 classification rules. The project evaluated current assay practices in ten operating plants and identified areas where advanced methods would apply, studied two direct-assay methodologies, demonstrated these two techniques on radwaste in four operating plants and on irradiated components in two plants, and developed techniques for obtaining small representative aliquots from larger samples and for enhancing the /sup 144/Ce activity analysis in samples of waste. The study demonstrated the accuracy, practicality, and ALARA aspects of advanced methods and indicates that cost savings, resulting from the accuracy improvement and reduction in sampling requirements can be significant. 24 refs., 60 figs., 67 tabs.

  6. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  7. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  8. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    ScienceCinema

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2016-07-12

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  9. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  10. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  11. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  12. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  13. Inverse methods in electromagnetic imaging; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bad Windsheim, West Germany, September 18-24, 1983. Parts 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, W. M.; Brand, H.; Cram, L. A.; Giessing, D. T.; Jordan, A. K.

    The present conference considers mathematical inverse methods and transient techniques, the topological approach to inverse scattering in remote sensing, the numerical resolution of inverse problems via functional derivatives, the application of almost periodic functions to inverse scattering theory, application of the Abel transform in remote sensing, the inverse diffraction problem, recent advances in the theory of inverse scattering with sparse data, direct and inverse halfspace scalar diffraction, approximation of input response, maximum entropy methods in electromagnetic/geophysical/ultrasonic imaging, time-dependent radar target signatures, the synthesis and detection of authenticity features, singularities in quasi-geometrical imaging, and polarization utilization in the electromagnetic vector inverse problem. Also discussed are polarization-dependence in angle tracking systems, polarization vector signal processing for radar clutter suppression, the radiative transfer approach in electromagnetic imaging, inverse methods in microwave target imaging, inversion in SAR imaging, fast mm-wave imaging, electromagnetic imaging of dielectric targets, tomographic imaging methods, diffraction tomography, phase-comparison monopulse side-scan radar, and far field-to-near field transforms in spherical coordinates.

  14. UZIG USGS research: Advances through interdisciplinary interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Rafael, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Because vadose zone research relates to diverse disciplines, applications, and modes of research, collaboration across traditional operational and topical divisions is especially likely to yield major advances in understanding. The Unsaturated Zone Interest Group (UZIG) is an informal organization sponsored by the USGS to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration in vadose or unsaturated zone hydrologic research across organizational boundaries. It includes both USGS and non-USGS scientists. Formed in 1987, the UZIG operates to promote communication, especially through periodic meetings with presentations, discussions, and fi eld trips. The 10th meeting of the UZIG at Los Alamos, NM, in August 2007 was jointly sponsored by the USGS and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Presentations at this meeting served as the initial basis for selecting papers for this special section of Vadose Zone Journal, the purpose of which is to present noteworthy cuting-edge unsaturated zone research promoted by, facilitated by, or presented in connection with the UZIG. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  15. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading. No new memberships, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, nine subcontractor reports were received (5 final reports and 4 semi-annual reports). The report technology distribution is as follows: 3--aero-heat transfer, 2--combustion and 4--materials. AGTSR continues to project that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately $329K.

  16. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  17. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  18. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-12-31

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  19. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  20. Advanced energy projects FY 1994 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The AEP also supports high-risk, exploratory concepts that do not readily fit into a program area but could have several applications that may span scientific disciplines or technical areas. Projects supported by the Division arise from unsolicited ideas and concepts submitted by researchers. The portfolio of projects is dynamic and reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy outlook. FY 1994 projects include the following topical areas: novel materials for energy technology; renewable and biodegradable materials; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; alternative energy sources; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries are given for 66 projects.

  1. Advances in craniosynostosis research and management.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, J; Miguéns, J; Lauritzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the most recent advances in the field of craniosynostosis basic and clinical research and management, and to give an overview of the more frequently adopted surgical strategies. After reviewing some basic concepts regarding normal craniofacial embryology and growth, aetiopathogenesis of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis, classification and diagnosis and historical evolution of surgical treatment, the authors elaborate on a selection of topics that have modified our current understanding of and therapeutical approach to these disease processes. Areas covered include advances in molecular biology and genetics, imaging techniques and surgical planning, resorbable fixation technology, bone substitutes and tissue engineering, distraction osteogenesis and the spring-mediated cranioplasties, resorbable distractor devices, minimally invasive surgery and in utero surgery. A review of the main subtypes of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis is presented, including their specific clinical features and a commentary on the presently available surgical options.

  2. Research for Lunar Exploration: ADVANCE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that the author has been involved with in her undergraduate and graduate education and the ADVANCE Program. One project was the Lunar Entry and Approach Platform For Research On Ground (LEAPFROG). This vehicle was to be a completely autonomous vehicle, and was developed in successive academic years with increases in the perofmamnce and capability of the simulated lander. Another research project for the PhD was on long-term lunar radiation degradation of materials to be used for construction of lunar habitats. This research has concentrated on developing and testing light-weight composite materials with high strength characteristics, and the ability of these composite materials to withstand the lunar radiation environment.

  3. Advanced Satellite Research Project: SCAR Research Database. Bibliographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature search was provided to locate and analyze the most recent literature that was relevant to the research. This was done by cross-relating books, articles, monographs, and journals that relate to the following topics: (1) Experimental Systems - Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and (2) Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) and Advance Communication Techniques (ISDN and satellites, ISDN standards, broadband ISDN, flame relay and switching, computer networks and satellites, satellite orbits and technology, satellite transmission quality, and network configuration). Bibliographic essay on literature citations and articles reviewed during the literature search task is provided.

  4. Advancing research transdisciplinarity within our discipline.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Yoel; Esplin, M Sean; Garite, Thomas J; Nelson, D Michael; Parry, Samuel I; Saade, George R; Socol, Michael L; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Advancing biomedical knowledge is crucial to the understanding of disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and the maintenance of health. Whereas collaborative pursuits among basic and translational scientists, clinical researchers, and clinicians should advance biomedical progress and its translation to better medicine. The field of obstetrics and gynecology and its subspecialties has not escaped this problem. Obstetrics and gynecology specialists and subspecialists have limited opportunities to interact with translational or basic investigators, and cross-fertilization and collaborations are further challenged by the current healthcare and funding climate. This opinion manuscript focuses on the field of maternal-fetal medicine, serving as an example that illustrates the risks and opportunities that might exist within our obstetrics and gynecology academic community. A Pregnancy Task Force recently sought to identify ways to overcome hurdles related to research training, and ensure a sufficient pool of physician-scientists pursuing pertinent questions in the field. The group discussed strategies to promote a culture of intellectual curiosity and research excellence, securing additional resources for trainees, and attracting current and next generation basic, translational, and clinical scholars to our field. Recommendations encompassed activities within annual academic meetings, training initiatives, and additional funding opportunities. Inferences from these discussions can be made to all obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty areas.

  5. Advanced boundary layer transition measurement methods for flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Gail, P. D.; Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    In modern laminar flow flight research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The transition modes of interest in current flight investigations include the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability, the inflectional instability at laminar separation, and the crossflow inflectional instability, as well as others. This paper presents the results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena in the flight environment. Recent advancements in the development of arrayed hot-film devices and of a new flow visualization method are discussed. Arrayed hot-film devices have been designed to detect the presence of laminar separation, and of crossflow vorticity. The advanced flow visualization method utilizes color changes in liquid-crystal coatings to detect boundary-layer transition at high altitude flight conditions. Flight and wind tunnel data are presented to illustrate the design and operation of these advanced methods. These new research tools provide information on disturbance growth and transition mode which is essential to furthering our understanding of practical design limits for applications of laminar flow technology.

  6. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  7. Alzheimer's disease: research advances and medical reality.

    PubMed

    Seiguer, Erica

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease was the eighth-leading cause of death in 2001. There is no cure and no effective treatment. Alzheimer's disease presents policy-makers with several challenges, including the level of funding and direction of federally funded research, as well as the cost pressures on Medicare and Medicaid of long-term care. These challenges will increase in intensity as demographic changes, particularly the aging of baby boomers, take hold. Better prevention of Alzheimer's, advances in therapy, and appropriate care modalities will likely require significant investment.

  8. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli.

  9. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and quantitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  10. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  11. Advancing social research relationships in postnatal support settings.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Maria; Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-05-01

    Global trends in public health nursing (PHN) suggest the value of community-based social research. However, it is not always clear how social research relationships may be of benefit to PHN or how such skills can best be learned and applied. To advance this understanding, we present a qualitative analysis of the development of social research relationships in PHN. Using a background literature review as a foundation, our qualitative mixed method strategy involved a comparative case-study analysis based on the authors' participant observation in two distinct postnatal group settings. Our findings suggest that participant observation facilitates the advancement of social research relationships through practitioner-research management of role conflict. Reflexivity and reciprocity is an emergent relational process, which relies upon a de-professionalization of the traditional PHN role. Conversely, social research relationships help build PHN capacity for family health needs assessment. Thus, we contend that the application of participant observation enables the development of social research relationships, which advance the practice of PHN in postnatal support settings.

  12. Advanced cyberinfrastructure for research in Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Today's scientists need access to new information technology capabilities, able to perform high-resolution complex computing simulations in a reasonable time frame. Sophisticated simulation tools allow us to study phenomena that can never be observed or replicated by standard laboratory experiments. Modeling complex natural processes in general, and numerical computation in particular, represents today an essential need of research, and all modern research centers benefit from a computing center of one form or another. The combined power of hardware and sophisticated software, visualization tools, and scientific applications produced and used by interdisciplinary research teams make possible nowadays to advance the frontiers of science and to pose new key scientific questions. Cyberinfrastructure integrates hardware for high speed computing, a collection of highly specialized software and tools, and a powerful visualization tool. A new interdisciplinary research domain is emerging at the interface of geosciences and computing with essential inputs from geology and geophysics. In this study we show how to rapidly deploy a low-cost high-performance computing cluster (HPCC) and a 3D visualization system that can be used both in teaching and research in geosciences. Also, we present several geodynamic simulations performed with such systems.

  13. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  14. Research opportunities at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft X-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected.

  15. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  16. Transnationalism: A Framework for Advancing Nursing Research with Contemporary Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Boutain, Doris M.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    This article advances nursing research by presenting transnationalism as a framework for inquiry with contemporary immigrants. Transnationalism occurs when immigrants maintain relationships that transcend the geographical borders of their origin and host countries. Immigrants use those relationships to experience health differently within concurrent socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts than national situated populations. Nurse researchers are called upon to consider these trans-border relationships when exploring the health of contemporary immigrants. Such consideration is needed to develop relevant research designs, methods, analysis, and dissemination strategies. PMID:26836998

  17. Advanced Bayesian Method for Planetary Surface Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Center, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous Exploration, Inc., has developed an advanced Bayesian statistical inference method that leverages current computing technology to produce a highly accurate surface navigation system. The method combines dense stereo vision and high-speed optical flow to implement visual odometry (VO) to track faster rover movements. The Bayesian VO technique improves performance by using all image information rather than corner features only. The method determines what can be learned from each image pixel and weighs the information accordingly. This capability improves performance in shadowed areas that yield only low-contrast images. The error characteristics of the visual processing are complementary to those of a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU), so the combination of the two capabilities provides highly accurate navigation. The method increases NASA mission productivity by enabling faster rover speed and accuracy. On Earth, the technology will permit operation of robots and autonomous vehicles in areas where the Global Positioning System (GPS) is degraded or unavailable.

  18. Advanced digital methods for solid propellant burning rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel A.

    The work presented here is a study of a digital method for determining the combustion bomb burning rate of a fuel-rich gas generator propellant sample using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The advanced digital method, which places user defined limits on the search for the ultrasonic echo from the burning surface, is computationally faster than the previous cross correlation method, and is able to analyze data for this class of propellant that the previous cross correlation data reduction method could not. For the conditions investigated, the best fit burning rate law at 800 psi from the ultrasonic technique and advanced cross correlation method is within 3 percent of an independent analysis of the same data, and is within 5 percent of the best fit burning rate law found from parallel research of the same propellant in a motor configuration.

  19. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  20. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  1. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  2. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  3. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  4. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  5. Use advanced methods to treat wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Common sense guidelines offer plausible, progressive techniques to treat wastewater. Because current and pending local, state and federal regulations are ratcheting lower effluent discharge limits, familiar treatment methods, such as biological, don't meet new restrictions. Now operating facilities must combine traditional methods with advanced remedial options such as thermal, physical, electro and chemical treatments. these new techniques remove organics, metals, nonhazardous dissolved salts, etc., but carry higher operating and installation costs. Due to tighter effluent restrictions and pending zero-discharge initiatives, managers of operating facilities must know and understand the complexity, composition and contaminant concentration of their wastewaters. No one-size-fits-all solution exists. However, guidelines can simplify decision making and help operators nominate the most effective and economical strategy to handle their waste situation. The paper describes the common treatment and the importance of alternatives, then describes biological, electro, physical, thermal, and chemical treatments.

  6. Advances in nicotine research in Addiction Biology.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rick E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Addiction Biology is to advance our understanding of the action of drugs of abuse and addictive processes via the publication of high-impact clinical and pre-clinical findings resulting from behavioral, molecular, genetic, biochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological research. As of 2013, Addiction Biology is ranked number 1 in the category of Substance Abuse journals (SCI). Occasionally, Addiction Biology likes to highlight via review important findings focused on a particular topic and recently published in the journal. The current review summarizes a number of key publications from Addiction Biology that have contributed to the current knowledge of nicotine research, comprising a wide spectrum of approaches, both clinical and pre-clinical, at the cellular, molecular, systems and behavioral levels. A number of findings from human studies have identified, using imaging techniques, alterations in common brain circuits, as well as morphological and network activity changes, associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized a number of mechanistic targets critical to understanding the effects of nicotine and tobacco addiction. Together, these findings will undoubtedly drive future studies examining the dramatic impact of tobacco use and the development of treatments to counter nicotine dependence.

  7. Exploration of Advanced Probabilistic and Stochastic Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the three year research effort was to explore advanced, non-deterministic aerospace system design methods that may have relevance to designers and analysts. The research pursued emerging areas in design methodology and leverage current fundamental research in the area of design decision-making, probabilistic modeling, and optimization. The specific focus of the three year investigation was oriented toward methods to identify and analyze emerging aircraft technologies in a consistent and complete manner, and to explore means to make optimal decisions based on this knowledge in a probabilistic environment. The research efforts were classified into two main areas. First, Task A of the grant has had the objective of conducting research into the relative merits of possible approaches that account for both multiple criteria and uncertainty in design decision-making. In particular, in the final year of research, the focus was on the comparison and contrasting between three methods researched. Specifically, these three are the Joint Probabilistic Decision-Making (JPDM) technique, Physical Programming, and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. The next element of the research, as contained in Task B, was focused upon exploration of the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) methodology developed at ASDL, especially with regards to identification of research needs in the baseline method through implementation exercises. The end result of Task B was the documentation of the evolution of the method with time and a technology transfer to the sponsor regarding the method, such that an initial capability for execution could be obtained by the sponsor. Specifically, the results of year 3 efforts were the creation of a detailed tutorial for implementing the TIES method. Within the tutorial package, templates and detailed examples were created for learning and understanding the details of each step. For both research tasks, sample files and

  8. Advances in nanostructured permanent magnets research

    SciTech Connect

    Poudyal, N; Liu, JP

    2012-12-14

    This paper reviews recent developments in research in nanostructured permanent magnets ( hard magnetic materials) with emphasis on bottom-up approaches to fabrication of hard/soft nanocomposite bulk magnets. Theoretical and experimental findings on the effects of soft phase and interface conditions on interphase exchange interactions are given. Synthesis techniques for hard magnetic nanoparticles, including chemical solution methods, surfactant-assisted ball milling and other physical deposition methods are reviewed. Processing and magnetic properties of warm compacted and plastically deformed bulk magnets with nanocrystalline morphology are discussed. Prospects of producing bulk anisotropic hard/soft nanocomposite magnets are presented.

  9. Frontiers of research in advanced computations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The principal mission of the Institute for Scientific Computing Research is to foster interactions among LLNL researchers, universities, and industry on selected topics in scientific computing. In the area of computational physics, the Institute has developed a new algorithm, GaPH, to help scientists understand the chemistry of turbulent and driven plasmas or gases at far less cost than other methods. New low-frequency electromagnetic models better describe the plasma etching and deposition characteristics of a computer chip in the making. A new method for modeling realistic curved boundaries within an orthogonal mesh is resulting in a better understanding of the physics associated with such boundaries and much quicker solutions. All these capabilities are being developed for massively parallel implementation, which is an ongoing focus of Institute researchers. Other groups within the Institute are developing novel computational methods to address a range of other problems. Examples include feature detection and motion recognition by computer, improved monitoring of blood oxygen levels, and entirely new models of human joint mechanics and prosthetic devices.

  10. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  11. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  12. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  13. [Research advances on interactions among bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Bu, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Li-Hong; Li, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarized the present research status and advances on the intra- and interspecific positive interaction, intra- and inter-specific competition, niche, and coexistence of bryophytes. Bryophytes are generally the dominant plants in harsh environments, and there is a trade-off between their water retention and light and nutrient resource availability. Because of the lesser importance of competition in harsh environments, the positive interaction among bryophytes is common, but the intra- and inter-specific competition among bryophytes and the competition between bryophytes and vascular plants are not rare. Competition hierarchy may exist among some bryophytes, but often changes with environments. In the process of bryophyte community formation, the random process, nature of colonization, and difference in regeneration strategy can result in the niche overlap and coexistence of bryophytes, and the niche differentiation resulted from competition is also one of the mechanisms for bryophytes coexistence. Bryophytes should not be simply classified as stress tolerated-ruderal life history strategists, and competition is still one of important factors for constructing some bryophyte communities and vegetations co-existed by bryophytes and vascular plants.

  14. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  15. 2010 Summary of Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Combating Autism Act of 2006, the members of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) are required to develop an annual "Summary of Advances" to describe each year's top advances in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research. These advances represent significant progress in the early diagnosis of ASD, understanding the…

  16. [Research advances in forest soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwei; Xiang, Chenghua; Luo, Zongshi; Gong, Yuanbo

    2006-12-01

    Among the methods of measuring forest soil respiration, infrared CO2 analysis is the optimal one so far. Comparing with empirical model, the process-based model in simulating the production and transportation of soil CO2 has the advantage of considering the biological and physical processes of soil respiration. Generally, soil respiration is positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but there are still many uncertainties about the relationships between soil respiration and forest management activities such as firing, cutting, and fertilization. The relationships of soil respiration with vegetation type and soil microbial biomass, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration, are the hotspots in recent researches. Some issues and future development in forest soil respiration research were discussed in this paper.

  17. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  18. Advanced fault diagnosis methods in molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Iman; Emamian, Effat S; Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the failure of cell signaling networks is an important topic in systems biology and has applications in target discovery and drug development. In this paper, some advanced methods for fault diagnosis in signaling networks are developed and then applied to a caspase network and an SHP2 network. The goal is to understand how, and to what extent, the dysfunction of molecules in a network contributes to the failure of the entire network. Network dysfunction (failure) is defined as failure to produce the expected outputs in response to the input signals. Vulnerability level of a molecule is defined as the probability of the network failure, when the molecule is dysfunctional. In this study, a method to calculate the vulnerability level of single molecules for different combinations of input signals is developed. Furthermore, a more complex yet biologically meaningful method for calculating the multi-fault vulnerability levels is suggested, in which two or more molecules are simultaneously dysfunctional. Finally, a method is developed for fault diagnosis of networks based on a ternary logic model, which considers three activity levels for a molecule instead of the previously published binary logic model, and provides equations for the vulnerabilities of molecules in a ternary framework. Multi-fault analysis shows that the pairs of molecules with high vulnerability typically include a highly vulnerable molecule identified by the single fault analysis. The ternary fault analysis for the caspase network shows that predictions obtained using the more complex ternary model are about the same as the predictions of the simpler binary approach. This study suggests that by increasing the number of activity levels the complexity of the model grows; however, the predictive power of the ternary model does not appear to be increased proportionally.

  19. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  20. Research Advances: Less Expensive and More Convenient Gaucher's Disease Treatment; Structural Loop Regions: Key to Multidrug-Resistance Transporters?; New Method Identifies Proteins in Old Artwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray structure of EmrD, a multidrug transporter protein from Escherichia coli, common bacteria known to cause several food-borne illnesses was determined by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute. The hydrophobic residues in the EmrD internal cavity are likely to contribute to the general mechanism transporting various compounds through…

  1. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  2. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  3. Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    COVERED (From - To) 28 Dec 2006 - 30 Sep 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...research endeavor is to devise ferrite materials for microwave , self-biased circulator applications. To this end, the research team focused on two key...Std Z39-18 Final Report Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four Dr. Jeffrey L. Young MRC Institute/Electrical and Computer

  4. Advanced cogeneration research study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Moore, N.; Rosenberg, L.; Slonski, M.

    1983-01-01

    This study provides a broad based overview of selected areas relevant to the development of a comprehensive Southern California Edison (SCE) advanced cogeneration project. The areas studied are: (1) Cogeneration potential in the SCE service territory; (2) Advanced cogeneration technologies; and (3) Existing cogeneration computer models. An estimated 3700 MW sub E could potentially be generated from existing industries in the Southern California Edison service territory using cogeneration technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2600 MW sub E and advanced technology could provide 1100 MW sub E. The manufacturing sector (SIC Codes 20-39) was found to have the highest average potential for current cogeneration technology. The mining sector (SIC Codes 10-14) was found to have the highest potential for advanced technology.

  5. Ethics, Professional Expectations, and Graduate Education: Advancing Research in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2009-01-01

    The university is a social institution and as such has a social responsibility to advance knowledge through research that is ultimately meaningful and beneficial to society. As we seek to advance research and graduate education in kinesiology, we must accept ethical standards and professional expectations not only as an institutional value but as…

  6. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    PubMed

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  7. Computational and design methods for advanced imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Gabriel C.

    This dissertation merges the optical design and computational aspects of imaging systems to create novel devices that solve engineering problems in optical science and attempts to expand the solution space available to the optical designer. This dissertation is divided into two parts: the first discusses a new active illumination depth sensing modality, while the second part discusses a passive illumination system called plenoptic, or lightfield, imaging. The new depth sensing modality introduced in part one is called depth through controlled aberration. This technique illuminates a target with a known, aberrated projected pattern and takes an image using a traditional, unmodified imaging system. Knowing how the added aberration in the projected pattern changes as a function of depth, we are able to quantitatively determine depth of a series of points from the camera. A major advantage this method permits is the ability for illumination and imaging axes to be coincident. Plenoptic cameras capture both spatial and angular data simultaneously. This dissertation present a new set of parameters that permit the design and comparison of plenoptic devices outside the traditionally published plenoptic 1.0 and plenoptic 2.0 configurations. Additionally, a series of engineering advancements are presented, including full system raytraces of raw plenoptic images, Zernike compression techniques of raw image files, and non-uniform lenslet arrays to compensate for plenoptic system aberrations. Finally, a new snapshot imaging spectrometer is proposed based off the plenoptic configuration.

  8. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    Parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase are developed. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance, and time. The relationship between weight and cost is examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost is developed and tested statistically against a historical data base of major research and development programs. It is concluded that the technique presented is sound, but that it must be refined in order to produce acceptable cost estimates.

  9. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  10. Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  11. Impact of new instrumentation on advanced turbine research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The instrumentation requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer instrumentation is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.

  12. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future.

  13. Integrating Advance Research Directives into the European Legal Framework.

    PubMed

    Andorno, Roberto; Gennet, Eloïse; Jongsma, Karin; Elger, Bernice

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical research. The article explores the place that advance research directives have in the current European legal framework, and considers the possibility of integrating them more explicitly into the existing regulations. Special focus is placed on issues regarding informed consent, the role of proxies, and the level of acceptable risks and burdens.

  14. Advanced Electromagnetic Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros; Han, Dong-Ho; Ballas, Gerasimos

    1999-01-01

    The imminent destructive threats of Lightning on helicopters and other airborne systems has always been a topic of great interest to this research grant. Previously, the lightning induced currents on the surface of the fuselage and its interior were predicted using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method as well as the NEC code. The limitations of both methods, as applied to lightning, were identified and extensively discussed in the last meeting. After a thorough investigation of the capabilities of the FDTD, it was decided to incorporate into the numerical method a subcell model to accurately represent current diffusion through conducting materials of high conductivity and finite thickness. Because of the complexity of the model, its validity will be first tested for a one-dimensional FDTD problem. Although results are not available yet, the theory and formulation of the subcell model are presented and discussed here to a certain degree. Besides lightning induced currents in the interior of an aircraft, penetration of electromagnetic fields through apertures (e.g., windows and cracks) could also be devastating for the navigation equipment, electronics, and communications systems in general. The main focus of this study is understanding and quantifying field penetration through apertures. The simulation is done using the FDTD method and the predictions are compared with measurements and moment method solutions obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center. Cavity-backed slot (CBS) antennas or slot antennas in general have many applications in aircraft-satellite type of communications. These can be flushmounted on the surface of the fuselage and, therefore, they retain the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft. In the past, input impedance and radiation patterns of CBS antennas were computed using a hybrid FEM/MoM code. The analysis is now extended to coupling between two identical slot antennas mounted on the same structure. The predictions are performed

  15. Integrated Advanced Energy Systems Research at IIT

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Arastoopour

    2010-09-30

    This report consists of Two research projects; Sustainable Buildings and Hydrogen Storage. Sustainable Building Part includes: Wind and the self powered built environment by professor P. Land and his research group and experimental and computational works by professor D. Rempfer and his research group. Hydrogen Storage part includes: Hydrogen Storage Using Mg-Mixed Metal Hydrides by professor H. Arastoopour and his research team and Carbon Nanostructure as Hydrogen Storage Material by professor J. Prakash and his research team.

  16. Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the measurement and modeling of electrical signatures of microbe-mineral transformations impacting contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Camelia

    2013-06-14

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  17. FINAL REPORT: Adopting Biophysics Methods in Pursuit of Biogeophysical Research: Advancing the Measurement and Modeling of Electrical Signatures of Microbe-Mineral Transformations Impacting Contaminant Transport

    SciTech Connect

    PRODAN, CAMELIA; SLATER, LEE; NTARLAGIANNIS, DIMITRIOS

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory project involved laboratory experiments to investigate three hypotheses: (H1) Physics-based modeling of low-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as alpha) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy (DS) data can quantify pore-scale geometric changes impacting contaminant transport resulting from biomineralization; (H2) Physics-based modeling of high-frequency dispersions (henceforth referred to as beta) measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy data can quantify rates of mineral growth in/on the cell wall; (H3) Application of this measurement and modeling approach can enhance geophysical interpretation of bioremediation experiments conducted at the RIFLE IFC by providing constraints on bioremediation efficiency (biomass concentration, mineral uptake within the cell wall, biomineralization rate). We tested H1 by performing DS measurements (alpha and beta range) on iron (Fe) particles of dimensions similar to microbial cells, dispersed within agar gels over a range of Fe concentrations. We have tested the ability of the physics-based modeling to predict volume concentrations of the Fe particles by assuming that the Fe particles are polarizable inclusions within an otherwise nonpolarizable medium. We evaluated the smallest volume concentration that can be detected with the DS method. Similar experiments and modeling have been performed on the sulfate-reducing bacteria D. vulgaris. Synchrotron x-ray absorption measurements were conducted to determine the local structure of biominerals coatings on D. vulgaris which were grown in the presence of different Fe concentrations. We imaged the mineral growth on cell wall using SEM. We used dielectric spectroscopy to differentiate between iron sulfide precipitates of biotic and abiotic nature. Biotic measurements were made on D. vulgaris bacteria grown in the presence of different concentrations of iron to form different thicknesses of iron sulfide precipitates around themselves and abiotic

  18. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  19. Advanced Virtual Reality Simulations in Aerospace Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, L.; Trivailo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent research developments at Aerospace Engineering, RMIT University have demonstrated great potential for using Virtual Reality simulations as a very effective tool in advanced structures and dynamics applications. They have also been extremely successful in teaching of various undergraduate and postgraduate courses for presenting complex concepts in structural and dynamics designs. Characteristic examples are related to the classical orbital mechanics, spacecraft attitude and structural dynamics. Advanced simulations, reflecting current research by the authors, are mainly related to the implementation of various non-linear dynamic techniques, including using Kane's equations to study dynamics of space tethered satellite systems and the Co-rotational Finite Element method to study reconfigurable robotic systems undergoing large rotations and large translations. The current article will describe the numerical implementation of the modern methods of dynamics, and will concentrate on the post-processing stage of the dynamic simulations. Numerous examples of building Virtual Reality stand-alone animations, designed by the authors, will be discussed in detail. These virtual reality examples will include: The striking feature of the developed technology is the use of the standard mathematical packages, like MATLAB, as a post-processing tool to generate Virtual Reality Modelling Language files with brilliant interactive, graphics and audio effects. These stand-alone demonstration files can be run under Netscape or Microsoft Explorer and do not require MATLAB. Use of this technology enables scientists to easily share their results with colleagues using the Internet, contributing to the flexible learning development at schools and Universities.

  20. [Research advances in methyl bromide in the ocean].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-na; Xie, Wen-xia; Cui, Yu-qian; Chen, Jian-lei; Ye, Si-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected.

  1. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators.

  2. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  3. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  4. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  5. Advancement in LIDAR Data Collection: NASA's Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riordan, Kevin; Wright, C. Wayne; Noronha, Conan

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR (EAARL) is a new developmental LIDAR designed to investigate and advance LIDAR techniques using a adaptive time resolved backscatter information for complex coastal research and monitoring applications. Information derived from such an advanced LIDAR system can potentially improve the ability of resource managers and policy makers to make better informed decisions. While there has been a large amount of research using LIDAR in coastal areas, most are limited in the amount of information captured from each laser pulse. The unique design of the EAARL instrument permits simultaneous acquisition of coastal environments which include subaerial bare earth topography, vegetation biomass, and bare earth beneath vegetated areas.

  6. Advanced Waveform Research Methods for Geress Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    interested institutions via e-mail (e~g. Bundesaustalt fu-r Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Frankfurt University, Grfenberg Array, ORFEUS , seismo...numerous broad band seismological stations and several broad band networks and arrays worldwide. The ORFEUS data center was founded in 1987 and dedicates...damped harmonic oscillation in the s-domain with free circu- lar frequency we and damping constant h < 1. Their solutions are 51/2 = h ± 1- h2)1/2 (6

  7. Advanced Waveform Research Methods for GERESS Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-15

    nonzero A’. The first case models dry cracks (HCD1), with free surfaces at the crack faces. In this case k and m vanish. The polarization pattern is deter...critical misfit level is computed from the f-distribution as S.,it = S.P[,1 + . "._ k f (1 - a)] (25) 80 80 Free -Surface Effect on Polarization Inc.Angle...80. 90 Incidence Angle(deg) Figure 3.4: Free -surface effect on polarisation incidence angles for a set of Poisson ratios. RUHR-UNIVERSITAT BOCHUM

  8. Advanced Waveform Research Methods for GERESS Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-15

    mail (e.g. Bundesanstalt ffir Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hungarian GSE Seismological Network, Frankfurt Univer- sity, GRF, LJU, ORFEUS ...the necessary weighting. The approach subsequently pursued combines an objective procedure free of personal judgement with a managable number of...carried out using the System Identification Toolbox (Ljung, 1991.) The degrees of the polynomials A(z) and B(z) and, accordingly, the num- ber of free

  9. Advanced Waveform Research Methods for GERESS Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-15

    Leipzig University, Stuttgart Univer- sity, NORSAR, Oklahoma Geol. Survey, ORFEUS , and seismological institutes in Austria, CZ, Hungary, Slovenija...From Precambrian to Variscian Europe, in: A contient re- veale~d- Mh European Geotravers, pp. 153 - 164, ed. Blundell, D., Free - n R & Mueler St...those may be affected by anisotropy and the free surface. Errors are typically larger than those from array data (GSE/35/CRP/228, 1993). In comparison

  10. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  11. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  12. CREST Research: Advancing the Field for Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueda, Laura; Brandl, Bonnie; Otto, Joanne; Stiegel, Lori; Thomas, Randolph; Heisler, Candace

    2008-01-01

    An external advisory board consisting of members from the fields of geriatric internal medicine, family practice geriatrics, criminal prosecution, civil law, police force, adult protective services and victims advocacy was created to advise and guide the research conducted by the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST). This panel of experts performed site visits and facilitated the research through responses to biweekly facts sheets and quarterly conference calls. This paper provides the perspective of five of the board members regarding the research findings that were presented at the CREST National Conference in 2006. The discussions outline the successes of the CREST research, describe obstacles and the necessary next steps for continuance of the scientific exploration of this syndrome, and highlight the practice implications of the current and proposed research. PMID:19016972

  13. [The Study of Advanced Fundamental Parameter Method in EDXRFA].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ge, Liang-quan; Gu, Yi; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Luo, Yao-yao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2015-07-01

    The X-ray Fluorescence Analysis(XRFA) is an important and efficient method on the element anylsis and is used in geology, industry and environment protection. But XRFA has a backdraw that the determination limit and accuracy are effected by the matrix of the sample. Now the fundamental parameter is usually used to calculate the content of elements in XRFA, and it is an efficient method if the matrix and net area of characteristic X-ray peak are obtained. But this is invalide in in-stu XRFA. Also the method of net area and the "black material" of sample are the key point of the fundamental parameter method when the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis(EDXRFA) method is used in the low content sample. In this paper a advanced fundamental parameter method is discussed. The advanced fundamental parameter method includes the spectra analysis and the fundamental parameter method, which inserts the overlapping peaks separation method into the iteration process of the fundamental parameter method. The advanced method can resolve the net area and the quantitative analysis. The advanced method is used to analyse the standard sample. Compare to the content obtained from the coefficient method, the precision of Cu, Ni and Zn is better than coeffieciency method. The result shows that the advanced method could improve the precision of the EDXRFA, so the advanced method is better than the coefficient method.

  14. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  15. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  16. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  17. Intervention Research in Social Work: Recent Advances and Continuing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review substantive and methodological advances in interventive research. Three substantive advances are discussed: (a) the growing use of a risk factor perspective, (b) the emergence of practice-relevant micro social theories, and (c) the increased acceptance of structured treatment protocols and manual. In…

  18. Cost estimating methods for advanced space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, Kelley

    1994-01-01

    NASA is responsible for developing much of the nation's future space technology. Cost estimates for new programs are required early in the planning process so that decisions can be made accurately. Because of the long lead times required to develop space hardware, the cost estimates are frequently required 10 to 15 years before the program delivers hardware. The system design in conceptual phases of a program is usually only vaguely defined and the technology used is so often state-of-the-art or beyond. These factors combine to make cost estimating for conceptual programs very challenging. This paper describes an effort to develop parametric cost estimating methods for space systems in the conceptual design phase. The approach is to identify variables that drive cost such as weight, quantity, development culture, design inheritance and time. The nature of the relationships between the driver variables and cost will be discussed. In particular, the relationship between weight and cost will be examined in detail. A theoretical model of cost will be developed and tested statistically against a historical database of major research and development projects.

  19. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  20. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of airfoil research is presented. The major thrust of the research is in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  1. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  2. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  3. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  4. Controlling template erosion with advanced cleaning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, SherJang; Yu, Zhaoning; Wähler, Tobias; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Wang, Hongying; Yang, Henry; Hsu, Yautzong; Lee, Kim; Kuo, David; Dress, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We studied the erosion and feature stability of fused silica patterns under different template cleaning conditions. The conventional SPM cleaning is compared with an advanced non-acid process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical critical dimension (SE-OCD) measurements were used to characterize the changes in pattern profile with good sensitivity. This study confirmed the erosion of the silica patterns in the traditional acid-based SPM cleaning mixture (H2SO4+H2O2) at a rate of ~0.1nm per cleaning cycle. The advanced non-acid clean process however only showed CD shift of ~0.01nm per clean. Contamination removal & pattern integrity of sensitive 20nm features under MegaSonic assisted cleaning is also demonstrated.

  5. Statistical Methods for Cardiovascular Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Moyé, Lem

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Biostatistics continues to play an essential role in contemporary cardiovascular investigations, but successful implementation of biostatistical methods can be complex. Objective To present the rationale behind statistical applications and to review useful tools for cardiology research. Methods and Results Prospective declaration of the research question, clear methodology, and study execution that adheres to the protocol together serve as the critical foundation of a research endeavor. Both parametric and distribution-free measures of central tendency and dispersion are presented. T-testing, analysis of variance, and regression analyses are reviewed. Survival analysis, logistic regression, and interim monitoring are also discussed. Finally, common weaknesses in statistical analyses are considered. Conclusion Biostatistics can be productively applied to cardiovascular research if investigators 1) develop and rely on a well-written protocol and analysis plan, 2) consult with a biostatistician when necessary, and 3) write results clearly, differentiating confirmatory from exploratory findings. PMID:26846639

  6. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  7. Preface: Special Topic Section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Angelos; Martinez, Todd J.; Alavi, Ali; Kresse, Georg

    2015-09-14

    This Special Topic section on Advanced Electronic Structure Methods for Solids and Surfaces contains a collection of research papers that showcase recent advances in the high accuracy prediction of materials and surface properties. It provides a timely snapshot of a growing field that is of broad importance to chemistry, physics, and materials science.

  8. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  9. NIAAA: Advancing Alcohol Research for 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has been the lead Federal agency responsible for scientific research on alcohol and its effects for 40 years. During that time, NIAAA has conducted and funded groundbreaking research, distilled and disseminated those research findings to a broad audience, and ultimately improved public health. Among NIAAA’s many significant contributions are the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, the largest survey ever conducted on alcohol and associated psychiatric and medical conditions; investment in research to identify the genes underlying vulnerability to alcoholism; creation of the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism, a study of the genetics of alcoholism in a human population; leadership in exploring the effects of alcohol on fetal development and on a variety of diseases and organ systems; fostering alcoholism treatment, including supporting a medications development program that has funded more than 30 Phase 2 trials and 15 human laboratory studies; international collaborations and work across the National Institutes of Health; influential research on preventing alcohol problems through community programs as well as policy changes; and the translation of research findings to everyday practice, including the production of award-winning clinician training materials. PMID:23579932

  10. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  11. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  12. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  13. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  14. Advances in Methods for Assessing Longitudinal Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Mazza, Gina L.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research aims to understand how and why students change over time. With its emphasis on within-person change, latent change score models provide educational researchers with a more general and flexible framework for testing nuanced hypotheses regarding within-person change and between-person differences in within-person change. Models…

  15. Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.

  16. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    ScienceCinema

    Finkelstein, Noah [University of Colorado, Colorado, USA

    2016-07-12

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  17. Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  18. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  19. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  20. Forecasting Methods for Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Linda W.; Young, Dean M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasing demands for accurate forecasts in such areas as student enrollment, energy expenditures, and facility capacity are placing new demands on the institutional researcher. A variety of forecasting models and methods are available, all to be used with caution in long-range forecasting. (Author/MSE)

  1. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  2. Advances in Education Research, Winter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents selected articles related to the impact of early intervention programs. This is part of a two volume set designed to showcase some of the best cutting edge research in these programs. This volume focuses specifically on aspects of the programs that have proven to be most successful in helping students and meeting programmatic…

  3. Advancing Research on the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    2007-01-01

    Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical work…

  4. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  5. Advances in Bayesian Modeling in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I provide a conceptually oriented overview of Bayesian approaches to statistical inference and contrast them with frequentist approaches that currently dominate conventional practice in educational research. The features and advantages of Bayesian approaches are illustrated with examples spanning several statistical modeling…

  6. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  7. Advances in Music-Reading Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct a comprehensive review of the research literature in the reading of western staff notation. Studies in music perception, music cognition, music education and music neurology are cited. The aim is to establish current knowledge in music-reading acquisition and what is needed for further progress in this…

  8. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  9. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  10. Research advances on transgenic plant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Su, Tao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; An, Zhi-Gang

    2006-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of genetics molecular biology and plant biotechnology, the vaccination (e.g. genetic engineering subunit vaccine, living vector vaccine, nucleic acid vaccine) programs are taking on a prosperous evolvement. In particular, the technology of the use of transgenic plants to produce human or animal therapeutic vaccines receives increasing attention. Expressing vaccine candidates in vegetables and fruits open up a new avenue for producing oral/edible vaccines. Transgenic plant vaccine disquisitions exhibit a tempting latent exploiting foreground. There are a lot of advantages for transgenic plant vaccines, such as low cost, easiness of storage, and convenient immune-inoculation. Some productions converged in edible tissues, so they can be consumed directly without isolation and purification. Up to now, many transgenic plant vaccine productions have been investigated and developed. In this review, recent advances on plant-derived recombinant protein expression systems, infectious targets, and delivery systems are presented. Some issues of high concern such as biosafety and public health are also discussed. Special attention is given to the prospects and limitations on transgenic plant vaccines.

  11. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  13. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  14. Broadening horizons: engaging advanced practice nursing students in faculty research.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Josie A

    2009-01-01

    Inviting advanced practice nursing students to participate in faculty research can be an innovative way to interest students in using current evidence as the basis for their practice. The author discusses strategies for effectively engaging graduate nursing students into research projects in ways that broaden the students' perspectives and strengthen their healthcare decision-making skills.

  15. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J [Grand Forks, ND; Zhuang, Ye [Grand Forks, ND; Almlie, Jay C [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  16. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  17. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  18. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accurate and efficient algorithm for analyzing the structure of MSS data, the application of the Akaiki information criterion to mixture models, and a research plan to delineate some of the technical issues and associated tasks in the area of rice scene radiation characterization are discussed. The AMOEBA clustering algorithm is refined and documented.

  19. ADVANCING FINE ROOT RESEARCH WITH MINIRHIZOTRONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Minirhizotrons provide a nondestructive, in situ method for directly viewing and studying fine roots. Although many insights into fine roots have been gained using minirhizotrons, it is clear from the literature that there is still wide variation in how minirhizotrons and minirhi...

  20. Advances in fog microphysics research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Duanyang; Li, Zihua; Yan, Wenlian; Li, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Fog microphysical research in China based on field experiments obtained many important results in recent 50 years. With the fast development of China's economy, urbanization in the last 30 years, special features of fog microphysical structure also appeared, which did not appear in other countries. This article reviews the fog microphysical research around China, and introduces the effect of urbanization on fog microphysical structure and the microphysical processes as well as macroscopic conditions of radiation fog droplet spectral broadening. Urbanization led to an increase in fog droplet number concentration but decreases in fog liquid water content (LWC) and fog droplet size, as well as a decrease in visibility in large cities. Observations show that the radiation fog could be divided into wide-spectrum one, which is all extremely dense fog with the spectral width more than 40 μm, and narrow-spectrum one, most of which is dense fog with the spectral width less than 22 μm, according to droplet spectral distribution. During developing from dense fog to extremely dense fog, the widespectrum radiation fog is characterized by explosive deepening, that is, within a very short time (about 30 min), the droplet concentration increase by about one order of magnitude, droplet spectral broadening across 20 μm, generally up to 30-40 μm, or even 50 μm. As a result, water content increased obviously, visibility decreased to less than 50 m, when dense fog became extremely dense fog.

  1. Recent advances in organ microcirculation research.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Oda, M

    1987-01-01

    This review article dealt with progress in the research of gastroenterological organ microcirculation in Japan. It must be emphasized that this remarkable progress particularly in intravital microcirculatory observations at organ level is attributable to great improvement of microscopic devices combined with computerized system, development of new techniques for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and pioneering of a variety of fluorescent and isotope-labelled tracers. Little attention has been directed toward the fact that microvascular manifestations are perhaps the earliest signs of "cells and tissues" dysfunction in disease processes. The microvasculature undergoes a substantial remodeling not only in vascular wall structures, but also in network characteristics themselves especially in chronic disease. Those microvascular alterations in an organ system, which primarily originate in adaptations to the microenvironmental changes, would lead to the chronicity and self-perpetuation of disease. As has been noted in the IVth World Congress for Microcirculation organized by the Japanese Society for Microcirculation, which was held in Tokyo, July 26-30, 1987, further progress has been made in the research of organ microcirculation in the gastroenterological and other fields. It is the cornerstone for better understanding of the pathogenesis of organ diseases to clarify the earliest alterations in the microvasculature of an organ system from a combined aspect of microhemo- and microlymphocirculation using the newly developed techniques for microcirculation study.

  2. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-03-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  3. Advanced research and technology program for advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  4. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  5. Advanced reliability methods for structural evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirsching, P. H.; Wu, Y.-T.

    1985-01-01

    Fast probability integration (FPI) methods, which can yield approximate solutions to such general structural reliability problems as the computation of the probabilities of complicated functions of random variables, are known to require one-tenth the computer time of Monte Carlo methods for a probability level of 0.001; lower probabilities yield even more dramatic differences. A strategy is presented in which a computer routine is run k times with selected perturbed values of the variables to obtain k solutions for a response variable Y. An approximating polynomial is fit to the k 'data' sets, and FPI methods are employed for this explicit form.

  6. Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview.

    PubMed

    Bracesco, N; Sanchez, A G; Contreras, V; Menini, T; Gugliucci, A

    2011-07-14

    Ilex paraguariensis dried and minced leaves are made into a brewed tea, prepared in a sui generis manner by large populations in South America, having evolved from a tea drunk by the Guarani ethnic group to a beverage that has a social and almost ritualistic role in some South American modern societies. It is used both as a source of caffeine, in lieu or in parallel with tea and coffee, but also as a therapeutic agent for its alleged pharmacological properties. Although with some exceptions, research on biomedical properties of this herb has had a late start and strongly lags behind the impressive amount of literature on green tea and coffee. However, in the past 15 years, there was a several-fold increase in the literature studying Ilex paraguariensis properties showing effects such as antioxidant properties in chemical models and ex vivo lipoprotein studies, vaso-dilating and lipid reduction properties, antimutagenic effects, controversial association with oropharyngeal cancer, anti-glycation effects and weight reduction properties. Lately, promising results from human intervention studies have surfaced and the literature offers several developments on this area. The aim of this review is to provide a concise summary of the research published in the past three years, with an emphasis on translational studies, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Ilex paraguariensis reduces LDL-cholesterol levels in humans with Ilex paraguariensis dyslipoproteinemia and the effect is synergic with that of statins. Plasma antioxidant capacity as well as expression of antioxidant enzymes is positively modulated by intervention with Ilex paraguariensis in human cohorts. A review on the evidence implicating Ilex paraguariensis heavy consumption with some neoplasias show data that are inconclusive but indicate that contamination with alkylating agents during the drying process of the leaves should be avoided. On the other hand, several new studies confirm the antimutagenic effects of

  7. Advanced spectral methods for climatic time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghil, M.; Allen, M.R.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ide, K.; Kondrashov, D.; Mann, M.E.; Robertson, A.W.; Saunders, A.; Tian, Y.; Varadi, F.; Yiou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of univariate or multivariate time series provides crucial information to describe, understand, and predict climatic variability. The discovery and implementation of a number of novel methods for extracting useful information from time series has recently revitalized this classical field of study. Considerable progress has also been made in interpreting the information so obtained in terms of dynamical systems theory. In this review we describe the connections between time series analysis and nonlinear dynamics, discuss signal- to-noise enhancement, and present some of the novel methods for spectral analysis. The various steps, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, are illustrated by their application to an important climatic time series, the Southern Oscillation Index. This index captures major features of interannual climate variability and is used extensively in its prediction. Regional and global sea surface temperature data sets are used to illustrate multivariate spectral methods. Open questions and further prospects conclude the review.

  8. Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Friction Courses." 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBIR OF PAGES Asphalt concrete Pavement cons t rluc ti ion 2: Asphalt modifiers Pavement design 16 PRICE...Binders MIX DESIGN 9 Comparison Of Mix Design Methods For Asphalt-Rubber Concrete Mixtures Asphalt-Rubber Open-Graded Friction Courses 0 DENSE GRADED...Asphalt And Asphalt-Rubber Concrete 16 CONCLUSIONS 17 List of Tables Table 1 Mix Binder Contents 13 List of Figures Figure 1 Absolute and Brookfield

  9. Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Shannon, D. W.; Sullivan, R. G.; Kindle, C. H.; Pool, K. H.

    1985-09-01

    Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters.

  10. Advances in the CIS research at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Granata, J.; Webb, J.; Niles, D.; Contreras, M.A.; Wiesner, H.; Hasoon, F.S.; Noufi, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the research of the CIS Team at NREL in three major areas: absorber deposition; understanding the role of chemical bath deposited (CBD) CdS in CIS junctions; and in the development of devices without CdS. Low cost, scaleable processes chosen for absorber fabrication include sputtering, electrodeposition (ED), and close spaced sublimation (CSS). The interaction between the CBD and the CIS has been investigated and the results show that Cd might be instrumental in shaping the interface. The authors have also developed a process to fabricate a 13.5% efficiency ZnO/CuInGaSe{sub 2} device without CdS or other buffer layers.

  11. Advanced moisture sensor research and development

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1992-10-31

    During this period, testing of the system continued at the American Fructose (AF) plant in Dimmitt, Texas. Testing at the first two sites (dryer output and dryer input) was completed. Following the testing at the second site, the sensor was returned to the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) laboratories for modifications and for fitting of the additional components required to allow sampling of the material to be measured at the third site. These modifications were completed during this reporting period, and the system is scheduled to be installed at the third site (Rotary Vacuum Filter output) early in the next period. Laboratory measurements of corn germ (to be measured at the fourth site) and a variety of fruits and vegetables (one of which will be measured at the fifth site) have also continued during this period.

  12. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  15. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    PubMed

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  16. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    PubMed Central

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  17. Advances in Geometric Acoustic Propagation Modeling Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, P. S.; Arrowsmith, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geometric acoustics provides an efficient numerical method to model propagation effects. At leading order, one can identify ensonified regions and calculate celerities of the predicted arrivals. Beyond leading order, the solution of the transport equation provides a means to estimate the amplitude of individual acoustic phases. The auxiliary parameters introduced in solving the transport equation have been found to provide a means of identifying ray paths connecting source and receiver, or eigenrays, for non-planar propagation. A detailed explanation of the eigenray method will be presented as well as an application to predicting azimuth deviations for infrasonic data recorded during the Humming Roadrunner experiment of 2012.

  18. Advanced method for making vitreous waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Harrison, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for making waste glass that circumvents the problems of dissolving nuclear waste in molten glass at high temperatures. Because the reactive mixing process is independent of the inherent viscosity of the melt, any glass composition can be prepared with equal facility. Separation of the mixing and melting operations permits novel glass fabrication methods to be employed.

  19. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  20. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  1. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2016-09-14

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principle investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  2. Advancing-layers method for generation of unstructured viscous grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach for generating highly stretched grids which is based on a modified advancing-front technique and benefits from the generality, flexibility, and grid quality of the conventional advancing-front-based Euler grid generators is presented. The method is self-sufficient for the insertion of grid points in the boundary layer and beyond. Since it is based on a totally unstructured grid strategy, the method alleviates the difficulties stemming from the structural limitations of the prismatic techniques.

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  4. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    During this period the research program addressed the following three topics: (1) composite materials; (2) precipitation static (P-Static); and (3) antenna technology. On the topic of Composite Materials our main efforts were directed toward making measurements on several new samples of composite materials made available to ASU by Stanford Research Institute (SRI) through the efforts of Mr. Frank Casler of AVRADA. These samples can be classified into three distinct materials with each material having its own distinct electrical properties. In addition, attempts were made to make predictions of the effects on antenna patterns by composite materials. This will take a greater emphasis in the next reporting period. In Precipitation Static (P-Static), the main effort was devoted toward developing a Voltage Finite-Difference Time-Domain computer code to account for the voltage variation on a conducting body as the primary source of corona discharge, instead of the electric field. Due to complexities stemming from the interactions between the potentials, the fields, and current sources, the decision was made to begin with a simple two-dimensional problem without the corona discharge and check our programs in a series of simple models, culminating in the full corona discharge problem. This report deals with the first stage of such development. During this reporting period, the main effort in Antenna Technology was toward the design, fabrication, and testing of a cavity-backed slot antenna using ferrite material. Using the ferrite material available to us during this period, the resonances of this antenna were around 5 and 8 GHz. Attempts will be made to model such an antenna and to lower its resonance down into the VHF and UHF bands.

  5. A Mixed Methods Approach to Examining an Advanced Placement Program in One Connecticut Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docimo, Chelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this eleventh grade Advanced Placement (AP) program study was to determine factors associated with AP placement and subsequent student performance. This research was considered to be a mixed methods case study with elements of arrested action research. One hundred and twenty-four students, four guidance counselors, three AP…

  6. Current methods and advances in bone densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Gluer, C. C.; Majumdar, S.; Blunt, B. A.; Genant, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    Bone mass is the primary, although not the only, determinant of fracture. Over the past few years a number of noninvasive techniques have been developed to more sensitively quantitate bone mass. These include single and dual photon absorptiometry (SPA and DPA), single and dual X-ray absorptiometry (SXA and DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). While differing in anatomic sites measured and in their estimates of precision, accuracy, and fracture discrimination, all of these methods provide clinically useful measurements of skeletal status. It is the intent of this review to discuss the pros and cons of these techniques and to present the new applications of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI) in the detection and management of osteoporosis.

  7. Recent advances in computational methods for nuclear magnetic resonance data processing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  8. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001

  9. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller--advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)--that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot.

  10. Advancing MODFLOW Applying the Derived Vector Space Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G. S.; Herrera, I.; Lemus-García, M.; Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    The most effective domain decomposition methods (DDM) are non-overlapping DDMs. Recently a new approach, the DVS-framework, based on an innovative discretization method that uses a non-overlapping system of nodes (the derived-nodes), was introduced and developed by I. Herrera et al. [1, 2]. Using the DVS-approach a group of four algorithms, referred to as the 'DVS-algorithms', which fulfill the DDM-paradigm (i.e. the solution of global problems is obtained by resolution of local problems exclusively) has been derived. Such procedures are applicable to any boundary-value problem, or system of such equations, for which a standard discretization method is available and then software with a high degree of parallelization can be constructed. In a parallel talk, in this AGU Fall Meeting, Ismael Herrera will introduce the general DVS methodology. The application of the DVS-algorithms has been demonstrated in the solution of several boundary values problems of interest in Geophysics. Numerical examples for a single-equation, for the cases of symmetric, non-symmetric and indefinite problems were demonstrated before [1,2]. For these problems DVS-algorithms exhibited significantly improved numerical performance with respect to standard versions of DDM algorithms. In view of these results our research group is in the process of applying the DVS method to a widely used simulator for the first time, here we present the advances of the application of this method for the parallelization of MODFLOW. Efficiency results for a group of tests will be presented. References [1] I. Herrera, L.M. de la Cruz and A. Rosas-Medina. Non overlapping discretization methods for partial differential equations, Numer Meth Part D E, (2013). [2] Herrera, I., & Contreras Iván "An Innovative Tool for Effectively Applying Highly Parallelized Software To Problems of Elasticity". Geofísica Internacional, 2015 (In press)

  11. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation contains papers presented at the NASA Conference on Advanced Technology Airfoil Research held at Langley Research Center on March 7-9, 1978, which have unlimited distribution. This conference provided a comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted in-house and under grant and contract. A broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA was also reviewed. The major thrust of the technical sessions were in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  12. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research.

  13. Advancing a program of research within a nursing faculty role.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Marie T; Wenzel, Jennifer; Han, Hae-Ra; Allen, Jerilyn K; Paez, Kathryn A; Mock, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral students and new faculty members often seek advice from more senior faculty on how to advance their program of research. Students may ask whether they should choose the manuscript option for their dissertation or whether they should seek a postdoctoral fellowship. New faculty members wonder whether they should pursue a career development award and whether they need a mentor as they strive to advance their research while carrying out teaching, service, and practice responsibilities. In this article, we describe literature on the impact of selected aspects of pre- and postdoctoral training and faculty strategies on scholarly productivity in the faculty role. We also combine our experiences at a school of nursing within a research-intensive university to suggest strategies for success. Noting the scarcity of research that evaluates the effect of these strategies, we are actively engaged in collecting data on their relationship to the scholarly productivity of students and faculty members within our own institution.

  14. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  15. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica.

  16. INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    James Venhuizen

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  17. Center for Advanced Power and Energy Research (CAPEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    University structured through a cooperative research agreement. Our organizational focuses include: 1. Modeling of plasma physics 2. Modeling fuel cells 3...Testing new innovation and ideas for advanced fuel cells 4. Development of energy related issue for micro air vehicles (MAVs). 15. SUBJECT TERMS plasma ...1 2 Plasma Modeling

  18. [Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia.

  19. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  20. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  1. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  2. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0198 TITLE: Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging... Brain Imaging Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Catherine...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Brain injury is a leading cause of

  3. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  4. Summary of Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Research, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year the members of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee identify recent research findings that made the most impact on the field. For the 2009 Summary of Advances, the IACC selected and summarized 20 studies that gave significant insight into the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the biology of the disorder, potential…

  5. Advanced Composite Structures At NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Eldred's presentation will discuss several NASA efforts to improve and expand the use of composite structures within aerospace vehicles. Topics will include an overview of NASA's Advanced Composites Project (ACP), Space Launch System (SLS) applications, and Langley's ISAAC robotic composites research tool.

  6. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  7. Unstructured viscous grid generation by advancing-front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A new method of generating unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids with high-aspect-ratio cells is proposed. The method is based on new grid-marching strategy referred to as 'advancing-layers' for construction of highly stretched cells in the boundary layer and the conventional advancing-front technique for generation of regular, equilateral cells in the inviscid-flow region. Unlike the existing semi-structured viscous grid generation techniques, the new procedure relies on a totally unstructured advancing-front grid strategy resulting in a substantially enhanced grid flexibility and efficiency. The method is conceptually simple but powerful, capable of producing high quality viscous grids for complex configurations with ease. A number of two-dimensional, triangular grids are presented to demonstrate the methodology. The basic elements of the method, however, have been primarily designed with three-dimensional problems in mind, making it extendible for tetrahedral, viscous grid generation.

  8. [Contemporary methods of treatment in local advanced prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Anna; Mazurkiewicz, Maria; Starosławska, Elzbieta; Stasiewicz, Dominika; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

    2012-10-01

    The prostate cancer is one of the most often cancers amongst males. Its frequency is increasing with age. Thanks to widespread of screening denomination of specific prostate specific antigen (PSA), ultrasonography including the one in transrectal (TRUS), computed tomography, magnetic resonance and especially the awareness of society, the number of patients with low local advance of illness is increasing. The basic method of treatment in such cases is still the surgical removal of prostate with seminal bladder or radiotherapy. To this purpose tele-(IMRT, VMAT) or brachytherapy (J125, Ir192, Pa103) is used. In patients with higher risk of progression the radiotherapy may be associated with hormonotherapy (total androgen blockage-LH-RH analog and androgen). Despite numerous clinical researches conducted there is still no selection of optimal sequence of particular methods. Moreover, no explicit effectiveness was determined. The general rule of treatment in patients suffering from prostate cancer still remains individual selection of therapeutic treatment depending on the age of a patient, general condition and especially patient's general preferences. In case of elderly patients and patients with low risk of progression, recommendation of direct observation including systematical PSA denomination, clinical transrectal examination, TRUS, MR of smaller pelvis or scintigraphy of the whole skeleton may be considered.

  9. Advanced Ablative Insulators and Methods of Making Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ablative (more specifically, charring) materials that provide temporary protection against high temperatures, and advanced methods of designing and manufacturing insulators based on these materials, are undergoing development. These materials and methods were conceived in an effort to replace the traditional thermal-protection systems (TPSs) of re-entry spacecraft with robust, lightweight, better-performing TPSs that can be designed and manufactured more rapidly and at lower cost. These materials and methods could also be used to make improved TPSs for general aerospace, military, and industrial applications.

  10. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research.

    PubMed

    McCusker, K; Gunaydin, S

    2015-10-01

    Research is fundamental to the advancement of medicine and critical to identifying the most optimal therapies unique to particular societies. This is easily observed through the dynamics associated with pharmacology, surgical technique and the medical equipment used today versus short years ago. Advancements in knowledge synthesis and reporting guidelines enhance the quality, scope and applicability of results; thus, improving health science and clinical practice and advancing health policy. While advancements are critical to the progression of optimal health care, the high cost associated with these endeavors cannot be ignored. Research fundamentally needs to be evaluated to identify the most efficient methods of evaluation. The primary objective of this paper is to look at a specific research methodology when applied to the area of clinical research, especially extracorporeal circulation and its prognosis for the future.

  11. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries. Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers’ non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement. PMID:20495669

  12. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  13. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries.Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers' non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement.

  14. A Primer In Advanced Fatigue Life Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Metal fatigue has plagued structural components for centuries, and it remains a critical durability issue in today's aerospace hardware. This is true despite vastly improved and advanced materials, increased mechanistic understanding, and development of accurate structural analysis and advanced fatigue life prediction tools. Each advance is quickly taken advantage of to produce safer, more reliable more cost effective, and better performing products. In other words, as the envelop is expanded, components are then designed to operate just as close to the newly expanded envelop as they were to the initial one. The problem is perennial. The economic importance of addressing structural durability issues early in the design process is emphasized. Tradeoffs with performance, cost, and legislated restrictions are pointed out. Several aspects of structural durability of advanced systems, advanced materials and advanced fatigue life prediction methods are presented. Specific items include the basic elements of durability analysis, conventional designs, barriers to be overcome for advanced systems, high-temperature life prediction for both creep-fatigue and thermomechanical fatigue, mean stress effects, multiaxial stress-strain states, and cumulative fatigue damage accumulation assessment.

  15. 2009 Biospecimen research network symposium: advancing cancer research through biospecimen science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen M; Compton, Carolyn C; Lim, Mark D; Vaught, Jimmie; Christiansen, Katerina N; Alper, Joe

    2009-09-01

    This report details the proceedings of the 2009 Biospecimen Research Network (BRN) Symposium that took place on March 16 to 18, 2009, the second in a series of annual symposia sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research. The BRN Symposium is a public forum addressing the relevance of biospecimen quality to progress in cancer research and the systematic investigation needed to understand how different methods of collection, processing, and storage of human biospecimens affect subsequent molecular research results. More than 300 participants from industry, academia, and government attended the symposium, which featured both formal presentations and a day of workshops aimed at addressing several key issues in biospecimen science. An additional 100 individuals participated via a live webcast (archived at http://brnsymposium.com). The BRN Symposium is part of a larger program designed as a networked, multidisciplinary research approach to increase the knowledge base for biospecimen science. Biospecimens are generally understood to represent an accurate representation of a patient's disease biology, but can instead reflect a combination of disease biology and the biospecimen's response to a wide range of biological stresses. The molecular signatures of disease can thus be confounded by the signatures of biospecimen biological stress, with the potential to affect clinical and research outcomes through incorrect diagnosis of disease, improper use of a given therapy, and irreproducible research results that can lead to misinterpretation of artifacts as biomarkers. Biospecimen research represents the kind of bricks-and-mortar research that provides a solid scientific foundation for future advances that will directly help patients.

  16. First Aviation System Technology Advanced Research (AvSTAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G. (Editor); Weathers, Del W. (Editor); Rosen, Robert (Technical Monitor); Edwards, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings documents the results of a two-day NASA/FAA/Industry workshop that was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at Moffett Field, CA, on September 21-22, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a representative cross section of leaders in air traffic management, from industry. FAA, and academia, to assist in defining the requirements for a new research effort, referred to as AvSTAR Aviation Systems Technology Advanced Research). The Conference Proceedings includes the individual presentation, and summarizes the workshop discussions and recommendations.

  17. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  18. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  19. Rhetorical Strategies in Engineering Research Articles and Research Theses: Advanced Academic Literacy and Relations of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsantoni, Dimitra

    2006-01-01

    Research articles and research theses constitute two key genres used by scientific communities for the dissemination and ratification of knowledge. Both genres are produced at advanced stages of individuals' enculturation in disciplinary communities present original research aim to persuade the academic community to accept new knowledge claims,…

  20. Developing Research Infrastructure: The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnik, Joan Levy; Solt, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the 15 years of research development efforts of the Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR); delineates IASWR's roles in relation to the social work practice, education, and research communities; presents the transdisciplinary and transorganizational partnerships in which IASWR engages to influence…

  1. A Review of Radiotherapy-Induced Late Effects Research after Advanced Technology Treatments.

    PubMed

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Schulte, Reinhard; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    The number of incident cancers and long-term cancer survivors is expected to increase substantially for at least a decade. Advanced technology radiotherapies, e.g., using beams of protons and photons, offer dosimetric advantages that theoretically yield better outcomes. In general, evidence from controlled clinical trials and epidemiology studies are lacking. To conduct these studies, new research methods and infrastructure will be needed. In the paper, we review several key research methods of relevance to late effects after advanced technology proton-beam and photon-beam radiotherapies. In particular, we focus on the determination of exposures to therapeutic and stray radiation and related uncertainties, with discussion of recent advances in exposure calculation methods, uncertainties, in silico studies, computing infrastructure, electronic medical records, and risk visualization. We identify six key areas of methodology and infrastructure that will be needed to conduct future outcome studies of radiation late effects.

  2. A Review of Radiotherapy-Induced Late Effects Research after Advanced Technology Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington; Schulte, Reinhard; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-01-01

    The number of incident cancers and long-term cancer survivors is expected to increase substantially for at least a decade. Advanced technology radiotherapies, e.g., using beams of protons and photons, offer dosimetric advantages that theoretically yield better outcomes. In general, evidence from controlled clinical trials and epidemiology studies are lacking. To conduct these studies, new research methods and infrastructure will be needed. In the paper, we review several key research methods of relevance to late effects after advanced technology proton-beam and photon-beam radiotherapies. In particular, we focus on the determination of exposures to therapeutic and stray radiation and related uncertainties, with discussion of recent advances in exposure calculation methods, uncertainties, in silico studies, computing infrastructure, electronic medical records, and risk visualization. We identify six key areas of methodology and infrastructure that will be needed to conduct future outcome studies of radiation late effects. PMID:26904500

  3. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  4. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  5. Advanced surface paneling method for subsonic and supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L. L.; Johnson, F. T.; Ehlers, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical results illustrating the capabilities of an advanced aerodynamic surface paneling method are presented. The method is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow, as represented by linearized potential flow theory. The method is based on linearly varying sources and quadratically varying doublets which are distributed over flat or curved panels. These panels are applied to the true surface geometry of arbitrarily shaped three dimensional aerodynamic configurations.

  6. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.

  7. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  8. Regenerative medicine: advances in new methods and technologies.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Hyuk; Eve, David J

    2009-11-01

    The articles published in the journal Cell Transplantation - The Regenerative Medicine Journal over the last two years reveal the recent and future cutting-edge research in the fields of regenerative and transplantation medicine. 437 articles were published from 2007 to 2008, a 17% increase compared to the 373 articles in 2006-2007. Neuroscience was still the most common section in both the number of articles and the percentage of all manuscripts published. The increasing interest and rapid advance in bioengineering technology is highlighted by tissue engineering and bioartificial organs being ranked second again. For a similar reason, the methods and new technologies section increased significantly compared to the last period. Articles focusing on the transplantation of stem cell lineages encompassed almost 20% of all articles published. By contrast, the non-stem cell transplantation group which is made up primarily of islet cells, followed by biomaterials and fetal neural tissue, etc. comprised less than 15%. Transplantation of cells pre-treated with medicine or gene transfection to prolong graft survival or promote differentiation into the needed phenotype, was prevalent in the transplantation articles regardless of the kind of cells used. Meanwhile, the majority of non-transplantation-based articles were related to new devices for various purposes, characterization of unknown cells, medicines, cell preparation and/or optimization for transplantation (e.g. isolation and culture), and disease pathology.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  11. [Economic perspectives of the research on advanced therapies].

    PubMed

    Pamo Larrauri, Jose María

    2014-11-03

    Since a new advanced therapy medicinal product is discovered until finally allowed its sale in the domestic market, it has to overcome a series of stages. Biomedical research is the first phase, currently its situation is encouraging to the increase in the number of clinical trials in Spain and in the rest of the world, despite the economic situation and the various difficulties that have faced the pharmaceutical laboratories. The next phase consists in obtaining the authorization of marketing of the European Medicines Agency. After authorization, will attempt to set a fair and moderate price for inclusion in the list of health provision of Social Security. A price for a drug that provides added value to health and society, a price that is generated profits for the pharmaceutical companies that hope to make up for the years of work and investment. Commitment to advanced therapy must be clear and forceful, to fund ongoing research projects and encouraging their creation with economic aid.

  12. Recent advances in research on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Mirazimi, Ali; Köksal, Iftihar; Estrada-Pena, Augustin; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an expanding tick-borne hemorrhagic disease with increasing human and animal health impact. Immense knowledge was gained over the past 10 years mainly due to advances in molecular biology, but also driven by an increased global interest in CCHFV as an emerging/re-emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the present article, we discuss the advances in research with focus on CCHF ecology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment. Despite tremendous achievements, future activities have to concentrate on the development of vaccines and antivirals/therapeutics to combat CCHF. Vector studies need to continue for better public and animal health preparedness and response. We conclude with a roadmap for future research priorities.

  13. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  14. [Advancing public mental health research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Susser, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on Mental Health of the Journal of the School of Medicine, represents a significant contribution to the advance of public mental health research and training in Latin America. The editors (as well as the authors) deserve much credit for having conceived and implemented the joint publication of these papers. In this brief introduction, I draw attention to four ways in which their effort is likely to accelerate progress in this field.

  15. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  16. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  17. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  18. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  19. Lights, Camera, Action: Advancing Learning, Research, and Program Evaluation through Video Production in Educational Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jennifer; Militello, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes specific uses of digital video production in the field of educational leadership preparation, advancing a three-part framework that includes the use of video in (a) teaching and learning, (b) research methods, and (c) program evaluation and service to the profession. The first category within the framework examines videos…

  20. Advanced propulsion for LEO-Moon transport. 1: A method for evaluating advanced propulsion performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Martin O.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a study to evaluate the benefits of advanced propulsion technologies for transporting materials between low Earth orbit and the Moon. A relatively conventional reference transportation system, and several other systems, each of which includes one advanced technology component, are compared in terms of how well they perform a chosen mission objective. The evaluation method is based on a pairwise life-cycle cost comparison of each of the advanced systems with the reference system. Somewhat novel and economically important features of the procedure are the inclusion not only of mass payback ratios based on Earth launch costs, but also of repair and capital acquisition costs, and of adjustments in the latter to reflect the technological maturity of the advanced technologies. The required input information is developed by panels of experts. The overall scope and approach of the study are presented in the introduction. The bulk of the paper describes the evaluation method; the reference system and an advanced transportation system, including a spinning tether in an eccentric Earth orbit, are used to illustrate it.

  1. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  2. METHODS ADVANCEMENT FOR MILK ANALYSIS: THE MAMA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) study was designed by US EPA and CDC investigators to provide data to support the technological and study design needs of the proposed National Children=s Study (NCS). The NCS is a multi-Agency-sponsored study, authorized under the...

  3. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor.

  4. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  5. Research Foundations for the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Tobias, S . (2005). The multimedia principle . In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 117–133). New York, NY...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-4118 August 2010 Research Foundations for the Advanced Distributed Learning...requiring scientific and technical expertise, and conduct related research on other national challenges. I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y

  6. Advancing Research to Action in Global Child Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Anna E; Collins, Pamela Y

    2015-10-01

    Most mental and substance use disorders begin during childhood and adolescence and are the leading cause of disability in this population. Prenatal and postnatal genetic, familial, social, and environmental exposures interact to influence risk for mental disorders and trajectories of cognitive development. Efforts to advance prevention and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of mental disorders require a global research workforce, intersectoral cooperation, attention to environmental contexts, and the development and testing of evidence-based interventions. The authors describe challenges and resources for building mental health research capacity that stands to influence children's mental health outcomes around the globe.

  7. Recent advances in research on climate and human conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly growing body of empirical, quantitative research examines whether rates of human conflict can be systematically altered by climatic changes. We discuss recent advances in this field, including Bayesian meta-analyses of the effect of temperature and rainfall on current and future large-scale conflicts, the impact of climate variables on gang violence and suicides in Mexico, and probabilistic projections of personal violence and property crime in the United States under RCP scenarios. Criticisms of this research field will also be explained and addressed.

  8. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2008-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  9. Conceptual frameworks and methods for advancing invasion ecology.

    PubMed

    Heger, Tina; Pahl, Anna T; Botta-Dukát, Zoltan; Gherardi, Francesca; Hoppe, Christina; Hoste, Ivan; Jax, Kurt; Lindström, Leena; Boets, Pieter; Haider, Sylvia; Kollmann, Johannes; Wittmann, Meike J; Jeschke, Jonathan M

    2013-09-01

    Invasion ecology has much advanced since its early beginnings. Nevertheless, explanation, prediction, and management of biological invasions remain difficult. We argue that progress in invasion research can be accelerated by, first, pointing out difficulties this field is currently facing and, second, looking for measures to overcome them. We see basic and applied research in invasion ecology confronted with difficulties arising from (A) societal issues, e.g., disparate perceptions of invasive species; (B) the peculiarity of the invasion process, e.g., its complexity and context dependency; and (C) the scientific methodology, e.g., imprecise hypotheses. To overcome these difficulties, we propose three key measures: (1) a checklist for definitions to encourage explicit definitions; (2) implementation of a hierarchy of hypotheses (HoH), where general hypotheses branch into specific and precisely testable hypotheses; and (3) platforms for improved communication. These measures may significantly increase conceptual clarity and enhance communication, thus advancing invasion ecology.

  10. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  11. Research reactor of the future: The advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B.; West, C.

    1994-12-31

    Agents for cancer detection and treatment, stronger materials, better electronic gadgets, and other consumer and industrial products - these are assured benefits of a research reactor project proposed for Oak Ridge. Just as American companies have again assumed world leadership in producing semiconductor chips as well as cars and trucks, the United States is poised to retake the lead in neutron science by building and operating the $2.9 billion Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor by the start of the next century. In 1985, the neutron community, led by ORNL researchers, proposed a pioneering project, later called the ANS. Scheduled to begin operation in 2003, the ANS is seen not only as a replacement for the aging HFIR and HFBR but also as the best laboratory in the world for conducting neutron-based research.

  12. An advanced Gibbs-Duhem integration method: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, A; Peters, C J; de Leeuw, S W

    2006-02-07

    The conventional Gibbs-Duhem integration method is very convenient for the prediction of phase equilibria of both pure components and mixtures. However, it turns out to be inefficient. The method requires a number of lengthy simulations to predict the state conditions at which phase coexistence occurs. This number is not known from the outset of the numerical integration process. Furthermore, the molecular configurations generated during the simulations are merely used to predict the coexistence condition and not the liquid- and vapor-phase densities and mole fractions at coexistence. In this publication, an advanced Gibbs-Duhem integration method is presented that overcomes above-mentioned disadvantage and inefficiency. The advanced method is a combination of Gibbs-Duhem integration and multiple-histogram reweighting. Application of multiple-histogram reweighting enables the substitution of the unknown number of simulations by a fixed and predetermined number. The advanced method has a retroactive nature; a current simulation improves the predictions of previously computed coexistence points as well. The advanced Gibbs-Duhem integration method has been applied for the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria of a number of binary mixtures. The method turned out to be very convenient, much faster than the conventional method, and provided smooth simulation results. As the employed force fields perfectly predict pure-component vapor-liquid equilibria, the binary simulations were very well suitable for testing the performance of different sets of combining rules. Employing Lorentz-Hudson-McCoubrey combining rules for interactions between unlike molecules, as opposed to Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules for all interactions, considerably improved the agreement between experimental and simulated data.

  13. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  14. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  15. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  16. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  17. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  18. The advanced neutron source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world (an order of magnitude more intense than beams available from the most advanced existing reactors). The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of 330-MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of >7 {center_dot} 10{sup 19} {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science as well as applied research leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The top level work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. As noted in this figure, one component of the project is a research and development (R&D) program (WBS 1.1). This program interfaces with all of the other project level two WBS activities. Because one of the project guidelines is to meet minimum performance goals without relying on new inventions, this R&D activity is not intended to produce new concepts to allow the project to meet minimum performance goals. Instead, the R&D program will focus on the four objectives described.

  19. A University Consortium for the Advancement of Hydrologic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Wilson, J.; Band, L.; Reckhow, K.

    2003-12-01

    Seventy-six research universities across the United States have joined to form the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), a non-profit corporation. With support from the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has embarked upon the design and development of programs to enable hydrologic research at larger spatial scales over longer time periods than has been within the grasp of individual investigators. The guiding principle of this design has been an embracing of the entire hydrologic cycle to enable research at the interfaces among traditional hydrologic subdisciplines and between hydrologic science and allied disciplines in the earth and life sciences. To improve our predictive understanding of hydrologic phenomena, the fundamental approach that has been adopted is the development of multidisciplinary, coherent data sets to enable testing of hypotheses in different hydrologic settings across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Four mutually supportive program elements have been conceived: a network of hydrologic observatories (the subject of this special session) designed strategically to collect additional data at large scales (on the order of 10,000 km2) and to leverage existing investments in small-scale intensive studies and in larger scale monitoring activities; hydrologic information systems to develop a comprehensive data model for integrating disparate data types, to develop the cyberinfrastructure necessary for systematic data collection and dissemination and to support community models; hydrologic measurement technology facility to broker instrumentation services from existing sources, to provide cutting edge tools along with the necessary support to use them, and to develop new hydrologic instrumentation needed to advance the science; and hydrologic synthesis center to provide a venue for hydrologic sciences from a range of disciplines to work on topics ranging from inter-observatory comparison to evolving

  20. Research Methods and Intelligibility Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…

  1. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  2. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  3. Facing up to the Challenges of Advancing Craniofacial Research

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies. PMID:25820983

  4. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  5. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  6. Advances in nucleic acid-based detection methods.

    PubMed Central

    Wolcott, M J

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory techniques based on nucleic acid methods have increased in popularity over the last decade with clinical microbiologists and other laboratory scientists who are concerned with the diagnosis of infectious agents. This increase in popularity is a result primarily of advances made in nucleic acid amplification and detection techniques. Polymerase chain reaction, the original nucleic acid amplification technique, changed the way many people viewed and used nucleic acid techniques in clinical settings. After the potential of polymerase chain reaction became apparent, other methods of nucleic acid amplification and detection were developed. These alternative nucleic acid amplification methods may become serious contenders for application to routine laboratory analyses. This review presents some background information on nucleic acid analyses that might be used in clinical and anatomical laboratories and describes some recent advances in the amplification and detection of nucleic acids. PMID:1423216

  7. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  8. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  9. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  10. Recent advances on the encoding and selection methods of DNA-encoded chemical library.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingbing; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-02-01

    DNA-encoded chemical library (DEL) has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for ligand discovery in chemical biology research and in drug discovery. Encoding and selection methods are two of the most important technological aspects of DEL that can dictate the performance and utilities of DELs. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances on the encoding and selection strategies of DEL and also discussed the latest developments on DNA-encoded dynamic library, a new frontier in DEL research.

  11. A Preliminary Analysis of Advance Appropriations as a Budgeting Method for Navy Ship Procurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Irv Blickstein • Giles Smith R A Preliminary Analysis of ADVANCE APPROPRIATIONS as a Budgeting Method for Navy Ship Procurements National Defense ...conducted for the U.S. Navy within the Acquisition and Technology Policy Center of RAND’s National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded...research and development center supported by the Office of the Secretary of Defense , the Joint Staff, the unified commands, and the defense agencies under

  12. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  13. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  14. Advanced Doubling Adding Method for Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Quanhua; Weng, Fuzhong

    2006-12-01

    The doubling adding method (DA) is one of the most accurate tools for detailed multiple-scattering calculations. The principle of the method goes back to the nineteenth century in a problem dealing with reflection and transmission by glass plates. Since then the doubling adding method has been widely used as a reference tool for other radiative transfer models. The method has never been used in operational applications owing to tremendous demand on computational resources from the model. This study derives an analytical expression replacing the most complicated thermal source terms in the doubling adding method. The new development is called the advanced doubling adding (ADA) method. Thanks also to the efficiency of matrix and vector manipulations in FORTRAN 90/95, the advanced doubling adding method is about 60 times faster than the doubling adding method. The radiance (i.e., forward) computation code of ADA is easily translated into tangent linear and adjoint codes for radiance gradient calculations. The simplicity in forward and Jacobian computation codes is very useful for operational applications and for the consistency between the forward and adjoint calculations in satellite data assimilation.

  15. General advancing front packing algorithm for the discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfa, Carlos A. Recarey; Pérez Morales, Irvin Pablo; de Farias, Márcio Muniz; de Navarra, Eugenio Oñate Ibañez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán

    2016-11-01

    A generic formulation of a new method for packing particles is presented. It is based on a constructive advancing front method, and uses Monte Carlo techniques for the generation of particle dimensions. The method can be used to obtain virtual dense packings of particles with several geometrical shapes. It employs continuous, discrete, and empirical statistical distributions in order to generate the dimensions of particles. The packing algorithm is very flexible and allows alternatives for: 1—the direction of the advancing front (inwards or outwards), 2—the selection of the local advancing front, 3—the method for placing a mobile particle in contact with others, and 4—the overlap checks. The algorithm also allows obtaining highly porous media when it is slightly modified. The use of the algorithm to generate real particle packings from grain size distribution curves, in order to carry out engineering applications, is illustrated. Finally, basic applications of the algorithm, which prove its effectiveness in the generation of a large number of particles, are carried out.

  16. Advancing the Therapeutic Massage Research Agenda(s)

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) is now an established field of research with dedicated funding, researchers, and many venues and channels for dissemination of TMB research. Research agendas are a way for a profession to focus the development and funding of research on facets of TMB practice and education that are most needed at a given point of time to best move forward the practice and professionalization of TMB. Of the two TMB research agendas, one is currently being updated, the other is newly developed. Because of the impact on the development of the profession, gaps in research agendas also need to be carefully considered. Three areas that could use further consideration or support within the current agendas include education, methods and methodologies, and underlying assumptions. TMB researchers need to engage with and support the current agendas, and participate in their evolution. PMID:24000302

  17. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  18. Research Methods and Data Analysis Procedures Used by Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tse-chi

    2005-01-01

    To assess the status and the trends of subject matters investigated and research methods/designs and data analysis procedures employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed articles published by the "American Educational Research Journal (AERJ)," "Journal of Experimental Education (JEE)" and "Journal of Educational Research (JER)" from…

  19. Advancing the field of health systems research synthesis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Etienne V; Ranson, Michael K; Bärnighausen, Till; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Daniels, Karen; El-Jardali, Fadi; Ghaffar, Abdul; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Haines, Andy; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Meng, Qingyue; Oliver, Sandy; Pantoja, Tomás; Straus, Sharon; Shemilt, Ian; Tovey, David; Tugwell, Peter; Waddington, Hugh; Wilson, Mark; Yuan, Beibei; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-07-10

    Those planning, managing and working in health systems worldwide routinely need to make decisions regarding strategies to improve health care and promote equity. Systematic reviews of different kinds can be of great help to these decision-makers, providing actionable evidence at every step in the decision-making process. Although there is growing recognition of the importance of systematic reviews to inform both policy decisions and produce guidance for health systems, a number of important methodological and evidence uptake challenges remain and better coordination of existing initiatives is needed. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, housed within the World Health Organization, convened an Advisory Group on Health Systems Research (HSR) Synthesis to bring together different stakeholders interested in HSR synthesis and its use in decision-making processes. We describe the rationale of the Advisory Group and the six areas of its work and reflects on its role in advancing the field of HSR synthesis. We argue in favour of greater cross-institutional collaborations, as well as capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries, to advance the science and practice of health systems research synthesis. We advocate for the integration of quasi-experimental study designs in reviews of effectiveness of health systems intervention and reforms. The Advisory Group also recommends adopting priority-setting approaches for HSR synthesis and increasing the use of findings from systematic reviews in health policy and decision-making.

  20. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  1. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  2. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  3. Advanced three-dimensional dynamic analysis by boundary element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, P. K.; Ahma, S.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced formulations of boundary element method for periodic, transient transform domain and transient time domain solution of three-dimensional solids have been implemented using a family of isoparametric boundary elements. The necessary numerical integration techniques as well as the various solution algorithms are described. The developed analysis has been incorporated in a fully general purpose computer program BEST3D which can handle up to 10 subregions. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the dynamic analyses.

  4. [The research advance of brain derived neurotrophic factor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, J

    2000-12-01

    Recent research advances in neuroscience show that neurotrophic factors are proteins that affect selectively various kinds of neurons of CNS and PNS. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is another neurotrophic factor that was first reported by Barde, a German chemist, thirty years later after the nerve growth factor had been found out. BDNF plays an important role in the growth, development, differentiation, maintenance and regeneration of various types of neurons in the CNS and has potential application to the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, Huntington's chorea and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this paper, the structure, function and potential clinical application of BDNF were reviewed.

  5. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  6. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  7. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  8. Combining Methods in Educational and Social Research. Conducting Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Taylor, Chris

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibilities of combining research approaches in education and social sciences, as dissatisfaction mounts with the limitations of traditional mono-method studies and with the schism between quantitative and qualitative methods. This book argues the case for combining multiple research methods, and provides…

  9. FAA/NASA International Symposium on Advanced Structural Integrity Methods for Airframe Durability and Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    International technical experts in durability and damage tolerance of metallic airframe structures were assembled to present and discuss recent research findings and the development of advanced design and analysis methods, structural concepts, and advanced materials. The symposium focused on the dissemination of new knowledge and the peer-review of progress on the development of advanced methodologies. Papers were presented on: structural concepts for enhanced durability, damage tolerance, and maintainability; new metallic alloys and processing technology; fatigue crack initiation and small crack effects; fatigue crack growth models; fracture mechanics failure, criteria for ductile materials; structural mechanics methodology for residual strength and life prediction; development of flight load spectra for design and testing; and advanced approaches to resist corrosion and environmentally assisted fatigue.

  10. Advanced boundary element methods in aeroacoustics and elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Li

    In the first part of this dissertation, advanced boundary element methods (BEM) are developed for acoustic radiation in the presence of subsonic flows. A direct boundary integral formulation is first introduced for acoustic radiation in a uniform flow. This new formulation uses the Green's function derived from the adjoint operator of the governing differential equation. Therefore, it requires no coordinate transformation. This direct BEM formulation is then extended to acoustic radiation in a nonuniform-flow field. All the terms due to the nonuniform-flow effect are taken to the right-hand side and treated as source terms. The source terms result in a domain integral in the standard boundary integral formulation. The dual reciprocity method is then used to convert the domain integral into a number of boundary integrals. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to the development of advanced BEM algorithms to overcome the multi-frequency and nonuniqueness difficulties in steady-state elastodynamics. For the multi-frequency difficulty, two different interpolation schemes, borrowed from recent developments in acoustics, are first extended to elastodynamics to accelerate the process of matrix re-formation. Then, a hybrid scheme that retains only the merits of the two different interpolation schemes is suggested. To overcome the nonuniqueness difficulty, an enhanced CHIEF (Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation Formulation) method using a linear combination of the displacement and the traction boundary integral equations on the surface of a small interior volume is proposed. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate all the advanced BEM formulations.

  11. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  12. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  13. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Miseon; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Jae Weon

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7-9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review.

  14. Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing advanced energy-conversion technologies for use with both radioisotope power systems and fission surface power systems for many decades. Under NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Science Theme, Technology Program, Glenn is developing the next generation of advanced Stirling convertors (ASCs) for use in the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The next-generation power-conversion technologies require high efficiency and high specific power (watts electric per kilogram) to meet future mission requirements to use less of the Department of Energy's plutonium-fueled general-purpose heat source modules and reduce system mass. Important goals include long-life (greater than 14-yr) reliability and scalability so that these systems can be considered for a variety of future applications and missions including outer-planet missions and continual operation on the surface of Mars. This paper provides an update of the history and status of the ASC being developed for Glenn by Sunpower Inc. of Athens, Ohio.

  15. Human body composition: advances in models and methods.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Wang, Z; Baumgartner, R N; Ross, R

    1997-01-01

    The field of human body composition research is reaching a mature stage in its development: The three interconnected areas that define body composition research--models and their rules, methodology, and biological effects--are well-defined and are actively investigated by scientists in diverse disciplines from many different nations; and methods are available for measuring all major atomic, molecular, cellular, and tissue-system level body composition components in research, clinical, and epidemiological settings. This review summarizes main body composition research concepts, examines new component-measurement methodologies, and identifies potential areas of future research.

  16. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  17. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  18. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  19. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  20. Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas T; Mui, Brennan; Mehrabzadeh, Mahsa; Chea, Yannie; Chaudhry, Zoya; Chaudhry, Kamran; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the body's natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.

  1. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2004-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant source of x-rays. This 3rd-generation 7-GeV synchrotron source can accomodate 34 insertion device ports, of which 30 are committed, and 24 are currently operating. In Fiscal Year 2002, we had 2767 unique users carry out at least one experiment at the source, of which 35research in materials science or condensed matter physics. Techniques commonly used by condensed matter scientists include single-crystal and powder diffraction, high-pressure studies, inelastic scattering, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, magnetic scattering and fluctuation spectroscopy. Access to the Advanced Photon Source can be either as a general user (www.aps.anl.gov) or as a partner user. Proposals from general users are encouraged, and beamtime is granted based on competitive review. Our capacity to accomodate more general users continues to increase. Typically, partner users build specialized equipment which is made available to general users. Many of our sectors have been built and operated by external Collaborative Access Teams, which support general users who enter through the APS centralized system. With the help of partnerships, the APS continues to evolve state-of-the-art beamlines of interest to condensed matter scientists, in areas such as inelastic scattering and nano-imaging. The Advanced Photon Source is closely connected with the new Center for Nanoscale Materials User Facility at Argonne. In this talk I will present notable examples of recent condensed matter physics experiments which utilized the unique capabilities of existing beamlines, and discuss future beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. A changing landscape for advance directives in dementia research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Robin

    2010-02-01

    The number of persons afflicted by dementia has increased steadily. The need for research leading to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is widely recognized. However, dementia patients eventually lose the capacity to consent to the very research that could lead to discoveries of effective interventions. Worldwide, surrogate decision-making remains the primary means of consent for this population. This significantly restricts the autonomy of competent patients who wish to prospectively consent to research and do not wish to relinquish this decision to a third party. Advance research directives (ARDs) have been proposed as a mechanism for prospective consent for persons who anticipate cognitive impairment, as in the case of prodromal or early stage dementia patients. Currently, few guidelines specifically address the use of ARDs despite calls for official recognition. This absence of official guidelines regarding ARDs renders this mechanism susceptible to misuse, under-use, or non-use in instances where it could be advantageous for individuals, their families/caregivers, and progress in dementia research and treatment. This paper explores the changing landscape of ARDs, identifying relevant scientific, social, and policy developments, and queries whether, under these circumstances, reticence to use, recognize, or regulate ARDs is justified. It addresses some of the persistent issues related to vulnerability, the role of surrogates, and scope of prospective consent, and concludes that ARDs can serve as an important mechanism of autonomy and empowerment, and that protections should be crafted such that the availability of this option is not limited to those who also appoint a surrogate.

  3. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  4. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  5. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  6. Research advances on potential neurotoxicity of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianshu; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Yilu; Tang, Meng

    2016-03-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, quantum dots (QDs) as advanced nanotechnology products have been widely used in biological and biomedical studies, including neuroscience, due to their superior optical properties. In recent years, there has been intense concern regarding the toxicity of QDs with a growing number of studies. However, the knowledge of neurotoxic consequences of QDs applied in living organisms is lagging behind their development, while a potential risk of neurotoxicity arises if mass production of QDs leads to increased exposure and distribution in the nervous system. Owing to the quantum size effect of QDs, they are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier or moving along neural pathways and entering the brain. Nevertheless, the interactions of QDs with cells and tissues in the central nervous system are not well understood. This review highlighted research advances on the neurotoxicity of QDs in the central nervous system, including oxidative stress injury, elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels and autophagy to damage in vitro neural cells, and impairments of synaptic transmission and plasticity as well as brain functions in tested animals, with the hope of throwing light on future research directions of QD neurotoxicity, which is a demanding topic that requires further exploration.

  7. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  8. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  9. Voltammetric Methods in Metallothionein Research

    PubMed Central

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    The application of voltammetric methods using different rates of polarisation on HMDE reveal inert or labile behaviour of Cd- or Zn- complexes in the presence of excessive cadmium or zinc ions in solution. This phenomenon was demonstrated first on the simplest phytochelatin – complex of peptide (γ-Glu-Cys)2 Gly with cadmium, later on rabbit liver metallothioneins – Cd7 MT in the presence of cadmium and Cd5 Zn2 MT in the presence of zinc. Voltammetric methods can distinguish between labile and inert complexes present simultaneously and therefore could elucidate their role in reactions of metal ion transfer. Another method using different rates of polarisation – elimination voltammetry with linear scan – proved that S-tetracoordinated complexes of Cd(II) or Zn(II) in the above-mentioned metallothioneins on HMDE are reduced in the adsorbed state. This implies the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of identification or determination of the above complexes. On carbon composite electrode, similar behaviour of Cd-complexes as on HMDE was observed using differential pulse voltammetry. PMID:18365088

  10. The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1992-11-30

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of [approximately] 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 [times] 10[sup 19] M[sup [minus]2] [center dot] S[sup [minus]1]. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

  11. The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1992-11-30

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of {approximately} 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 {times} 10{sup 19} M{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} S{sup {minus}1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R&D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R&D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R&D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

  12. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  13. Advanced parallel programming models research and development opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Zhaofang.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a large research and development effort within the high-performance computing community on advanced parallel programming models. This research can potentially have an impact on parallel applications, system software, and computing architectures in the next several years. Given Sandia's expertise and unique perspective in these areas, particularly on very large-scale systems, there are many areas in which Sandia can contribute to this effort. This technical report provides a survey of past and present parallel programming model research projects and provides a detailed description of the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. The PGAS model may offer several improvements over the traditional distributed memory message passing model, which is the dominant model currently being used at Sandia. This technical report discusses these potential benefits and outlines specific areas where Sandia's expertise could contribute to current research activities. In particular, we describe several projects in the areas of high-performance networking, operating systems and parallel runtime systems, compilers, application development, and performance evaluation.

  14. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  15. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  16. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  17. The benefits of basic research: advances in reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such

  18. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  19. Advanced Methods in Black-Hole Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Black-hole perturbation theory is a useful tool to investigate issues in astrophysics, high-energy physics, and fundamental problems in gravity. It is often complementary to fully-fledged nonlinear evolutions and instrumental to interpret some results of numerical simulations. Several modern applications require advanced tools to investigate the linear dynamics of generic small perturbations around stationary black holes. Here, we present an overview of these applications and introduce extensions of the standard semianalytical methods to construct and solve the linearized field equations in curved space-time. Current state-of-the-art techniques are pedagogically explained and exciting open problems are presented.

  20. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Blaze, Gina M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science and exploration missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. The ASRG will utilize two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source to electricity. NASA GRC has initiated several experiments to demonstrate the functionality of the ASC, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation, and ASRG simulation for mobile applications. The in-air and thermal vacuum test articles are intended to provide convertor performance data over an extended operating time. These test articles mimic some features of the ASRG without the requirement of low system mass. Operation in thermal vacuum adds the element of simulating deep space. This test article is being used to gather convertor performance and thermal data in a relevant environment. The ASRG simulator was designed to incorporate a minimum amount of support equipment, allowing integration onto devices powered directly by the convertors, such as a rover. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and implementation of these experiments.

  1. Recent Advances in Research on Widow Spider Venoms and Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Widow spiders have received much attention due to the frequently reported human and animal injures caused by them. Elucidation of the molecular composition and action mechanism of the venoms and toxins has vast implications in the treatment of latrodectism and in the neurobiology and pharmaceutical research. In recent years, the studies of the widow spider venoms and the venom toxins, particularly the α-latrotoxin, have achieved many new advances; however, the mechanism of action of the venom toxins has not been completely clear. The widow spider is different from many other venomous animals in that it has toxic components not only in the venom glands but also in other parts of the adult spider body, newborn spiderlings, and even the eggs. More recently, the molecular basis for the toxicity outside the venom glands has been systematically investigated, with four proteinaceous toxic components being purified and preliminarily characterized, which has expanded our understanding of the widow spider toxins. This review presents a glance at the recent advances in the study on the venoms and toxins from the Latrodectus species. PMID:26633495

  2. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  3. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  4. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  5. XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

    November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

  6. Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Jens; Abraham, Marion; Amelung, Wulf; Baum, Christel; Bol, Roland; Kühn, Oliver; Lewandowski, Hans; Niederberger, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Rüger, Christopher; Santner, Jakob; Siebers, Meike; Siebers, Nina; Spohn, Marie; Vestergren, Johan; Vogts, Angela; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable element for all life on Earth and, during the past decade, concerns about the future of its global supply have stimulated much research on soil P and method development. This review provides an overview of advanced state-of-the-art methods currently used in soil P research. These involve bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic and spectrometric P speciation methods (1 and 2D NMR, IR, Raman, Q-TOF MS/MS, high resolution-MS, NanoSIMS, XRF, XPS, (µ)XAS) as well as methods for assessing soil P reactions (sorption isotherms, quantum-chemical modeling, microbial biomass P, enzymes activity, DGT, 33P isotopic exchange, 18O isotope ratios). Required experimental set-ups and the potentials and limitations of individual methods present a guide for the selection of most suitable methods or combinations. PMID:26167132

  7. The neutron texture diffractometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yun-Tao; Tian, Geng-Fang; Gao, Jian-Bo; Yu, Zhou-Xiang; Li, Yu-Qing; Wu, Li-Qi; Yang, Lin-Feng; Sun, Kai; Wang, Hong-Li; Santisteban, J. r.; Chen, Dong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at the China Advanced Research Reactor, due to strong demand for texture measurement with neutrons from the domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study texture in commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of zirconium alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurements with the results obtained in HIPPO at LANSCE and Kowari at ANSTO illustrates the reliability of the texture diffractometer. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11105231, 11205248, 51327902) and International Atomic Energy Agency-TC program (CPR0012)

  8. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  9. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  10. Review on advances in nanoscale microscopy in cement research.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advancement of nanotechnology, manipulation and characterization of materials in nano scale have become an obvious part of construction related technology. This review will focus on some of the nanoscopy techniques that are most frequently used in current research of cement based nanostructured materials. In particular scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, tomography, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy are addressed. A number of case studies related to microscopic characterization of nano materials utilizing the aforementioned techniques from the published literature are discussed. While these approaches are beginning to yield promising insight, continued progress will definitely provide a potential sustainable solution for the design, development and promotion towards nanoscale engineering of cementitious materials.

  11. Lipids from heterotrophic microbes: advances in metabolism research.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-02-01

    Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms are capable of producing over 20% of their weight in single cell oils (SCOs) composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs). These TAGs contain fatty acids, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, that are well-suited for biodiesel applications. Although some of these microbes are able to accumulate SCOs while growing on inexpensive agro-industrial biomass, the competition with plant oil resources means that a significant increase in productivity is desired. The present review aims to summarize recent details in lipid metabolism research and engineering (e.g. direct fatty acid ethyl ester production), as well as culture condition optimization and innovations, such as solid-state or semi-solid-state fermentation, that can all contribute to higher productivity and further advancement of the field.

  12. [Recent advances of genetic research on paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias].

    PubMed

    Li, Xun-hua; Chen, Su-qin; Wang, Yi-ming

    2008-08-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) is one of the most common types of praoxysmal dyskinesia. It is characterized by recurrent episodic dystonia and/or choreoathetotic attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movement. Some patients have a history of febrile infantile convulsion. PKD commonly occurs sporadically or as an autosomal-dominant familial trait with variable penetrance. It has been linked to 16p12-q12 or 16q13-q22 loci in various families of different populations, which suggests a genetic heterogeneity. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of PKD await further elucidation, although ion channelopathy is suggested as a probable underlying etiology. Here, the recent advances of the genetic research on PKD will be reviewed.

  13. [Advances in the researches of lutein and alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianrong; Lin, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    Lutein, a kind of oxycarotenoid, can pass the blood brain barrier and preferentially accumulate in the human brain, which is the most abundant carotenoid in human brain. Evidence from multiple studies suggested that lutein was closely related to age-related cognitive decline and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human. Dietary, plasma and brain concentrations of lutein were negatively associated with age-related cognitive decline. Lutein concentrations in plasma and brain were significantly lower in AD patients than those of health control. In human brain, lutein was the sole carotenoid which consistently associated with a range of cognitive function measures. In elderly women, lutein supplement can improve the cognitive function. In this article, we systematically reviewed the literature on the role of lutein in age-related cognitive decline and alzheimer's disease and its possible mechanisms. It may prove some benefit information for the advanced research and prevention of AD.

  14. [Research advances in soil fungal diversity and molecular ecology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Huiwen; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Chenggang

    2004-10-01

    Fungi are a kind of important soil microorganisms that participate in the decomposition of organic materials and supply nutrients to the plant through symbiosis. But, they can also reduce the output of food due to the existence of pathogenic fungi. Soil fungal diversity plays a fundamentally unique role in maintaining the balance of ecosystem and in supplying large amount of undeveloped resources for the people. In this paper, soil fungal diversity was expatiated from the viewpoints of species diversity, habitant diversity and functional diversity, and furthermore, the research advances in the molecular ecology of soil fungal diversity were reviewed from the aspects of the fungal diversity of farmland, woodland, pasture, extreme environment, and other complex environments. The affecting factors of soil fungal diversity were discussed, and the development trend of the study on soil fungal diversity was also approached.

  15. Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

  16. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  17. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  18. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  19. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace. Part 2, The role of advanced research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R&D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R&D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based.

  1. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  2. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  3. [Advances in researches of molluscicidal microorganisms against Oncomelania hupensis].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wan-ting; Zhou, Yi-biao; Pan, Xiang; Song, Xiu-xia; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2016-02-01

    The elimination of Oncomelania hupensis snails is important to schistosomiasis control. Recently, the application of molluscicidal organisms is considered as a safe and efficient method for snail elimination. In order to provide scientific evidences for effective control of O. hupensis and schistosomiasis, this paper summarizes the researches of molluscicidal microorganisms against O. hupensis.

  4. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  5. Nuclear methods of analysis in the advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, L.; Dyer, F.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor is presently in the conceptual design phase. The thermal power of this heavy water cooled and moderated reactor will be about 350 megawatts. The core volume of 27 liter is designed to provide the optimum neutron fluence rate for the numerous experimental facilities. The peak thermal neutron fluence rate is expected to be slightly less than 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s. In addition to the more than 40 neutron scattering stations, there will be extensive facilities for isotope production, material irradiation and analytical chemistry including neutron activation analysis (NAA) and a slow positron source. The highlight of this reactor will be the capability that it will provide for conducting research using cold neutrons. Two cryostats containing helium-cooled liquid deuterium will be located in the heavy water reflector tank. Each cryostat will provide low-temperature neutrons to researchers via numerous guides. A hot source with two beam tubes and several thermal beam tubes will also be available. The NAA facilities in the ANS will consist of seven pneumatic tubes, one cold neutron guide for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), and one cold neutron slanted guide for neutron depth profiling (NDP). In addition to these neutron interrogation systems, a gamma-ray irradiation facility for materials testing will be housed in a spent fuel storage pool. This paper will provide detailed information regarding the design and use of these various experimental systems.

  6. Methods and Systems for Advanced Spaceport Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  7. Methods and systems for advanced spaceport information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fussell, Ronald M. (Inventor); Ely, Donald W. (Inventor); Meier, Gary M. (Inventor); Halpin, Paul C. (Inventor); Meade, Phillip T. (Inventor); Jacobson, Craig A. (Inventor); Blackwell-Thompson, Charlie (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced spaceport information management methods and systems are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method includes coupling a test system to the payload and transmitting one or more test signals that emulate an anticipated condition from the test system to the payload. One or more responsive signals are received from the payload into the test system and are analyzed to determine whether one or more of the responsive signals comprises an anomalous signal. At least one of the steps of transmitting, receiving, analyzing and determining includes transmitting at least one of the test signals and the responsive signals via a communications link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility. In one particular embodiment, the communications link is an Internet link from a payload processing facility to a remotely located facility (e.g. a launch facility, university, etc.).

  8. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  9. Advanced methods of microscope control using μManager software

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Arthur D.; Tsuchida, Mark A.; Amodaj, Nenad; Pinkard, Henry; Vale, Ronald D.; Stuurman, Nico

    2014-01-01

    μManager is an open-source, cross-platform desktop application, to control a wide variety of motorized microscopes, scientific cameras, stages, illuminators, and other microscope accessories. Since its inception in 2005, μManager has grown to support a wide range of microscopy hardware and is now used by thousands of researchers around the world. The application provides a mature graphical user interface and offers open programming interfaces to facilitate plugins and scripts. Here, we present a guide to using some of the recently added advanced μManager features, including hardware synchronization, simultaneous use of multiple cameras, projection of patterned light onto a specimen, live slide mapping, imaging with multi-well plates, particle localization and tracking, and high-speed imaging. PMID:25606571

  10. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  11. Fingerprint identification: advances since the 2009 National Research Council report

    PubMed Central

    Champod, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss the major developments in the area of fingerprint identification that followed the publication of the National Research Council (NRC, of the US National Academies of Sciences) report in 2009 entitled: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. The report portrayed an image of a field of expertise used for decades without the necessary scientific research-based underpinning. The advances since the report and the needs in selected areas of fingerprinting will be detailed. It includes the measurement of the accuracy, reliability, repeatability and reproducibility of the conclusions offered by fingerprint experts. The paper will also pay attention to the development of statistical models allowing assessment of fingerprint comparisons. As a corollary of these developments, the next challenge is to reconcile a traditional practice dominated by deterministic conclusions with the probabilistic logic of any statistical model. There is a call for greater candour and fingerprint experts will need to communicate differently on the strengths and limitations of their findings. Their testimony will have to go beyond the blunt assertion of the uniqueness of fingerprints or the opinion delivered ispe dixit. PMID:26101284

  12. Fingerprint identification: advances since the 2009 National Research Council report.

    PubMed

    Champod, Christophe

    2015-08-05

    This paper will discuss the major developments in the area of fingerprint identification that followed the publication of the National Research Council (NRC, of the US National Academies of Sciences) report in 2009 entitled: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. The report portrayed an image of a field of expertise used for decades without the necessary scientific research-based underpinning. The advances since the report and the needs in selected areas of fingerprinting will be detailed. It includes the measurement of the accuracy, reliability, repeatability and reproducibility of the conclusions offered by fingerprint experts. The paper will also pay attention to the development of statistical models allowing assessment of fingerprint comparisons. As a corollary of these developments, the next challenge is to reconcile a traditional practice dominated by deterministic conclusions with the probabilistic logic of any statistical model. There is a call for greater candour and fingerprint experts will need to communicate differently on the strengths and limitations of their findings. Their testimony will have to go beyond the blunt assertion of the uniqueness of fingerprints or the opinion delivered ispe dixit.

  13. [Research advances in cadmium pollution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-rong; Zhang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil-bearing crop in the world, and as well, an important resource of plant protein and a main raw material for food processing. With the increasing of its direct human consumption and food processing, the Cd concentration in peanut kernel has aroused great concern in recent years. China is a main country of the production and exportation of peanut, but the Cd enrichment in peanut kernel is the main obstacle for its peanut export trade. In this paper, the research advances in Cd pollution of peanut kernel were reviewed, based on the characteristics and mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in peanut kernel, the intra-specific variation of kernel Cd content, and the measures in controlling kernel Cd content. Two strategies were put forward for controlling Cd pollution of peanut kernel, i.e., to reduce the Cd uptake by main root system of peanut plant, and to control the transference of Cd from root to fruit (kernel). In order to applying the strategies effectively, researches on the mechanisms of Cd accumulation in peanut kernel should be enhanced in three aspects, i.e., root vitality and its relationship with Cd accumulation in kernel, mechanism of fruit Cd absorption and its contribution to kernel Cd content, and mechanism of Cd transference in plants and its effects on kernel Cd content.

  14. Advances in direct and diffraction methods for surface structural determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, S. Y.

    1999-08-01

    I describe recent advances in low-energy electron diffraction holography and photoelectron diffraction holography. These are direct methods for determining the surface structure. I show that for LEED and PD spectra taken in an energy and angular mesh, the relative phase between the reference wave and the scattered wave has a known geometric form if the spectra are always taken from within a small angular cone in the near backscattering direction. By using data in the backscattering small cone at each direction of interest, a simple algorithm is developed to invert the spectra and extract object atomic positions with no input of calculated dynamic factors. I also describe the use of a convergent iterative method of PD and LEED. The computation time of this method scales as N2, where N is the dimension of the propagator matrix, rather than N3 as in conventional Gaussian substitutional methods. Both the Rehr-Albers separable-propagator cluster approach and the slab-type non-separable approach can be cast in the new iterative form. With substantial savings in computational time and no loss in numerical accuracy, this method is very useful in applications of multiple scattering theory, particularly for systems involving either very large unit cells (>300 atoms) or where no long-range order is present.

  15. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  16. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  17. Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research: Expert Panel Proceedings and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine; Barsevick, Andrea; Berger, Ann; Casagrande, Rocco; Grady, Patricia A; Jacobsen, Paul; Kutner, Jean; Patrick, Donald; Zimmerman, Lani; Xiao, Canhua; Matocha, Martha; Marden, Sue

    2017-04-01

    An overview of proceedings, findings, and recommendations from the workshop on "Advancing Symptom Science Through Symptom Cluster Research" sponsored by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, is presented. This workshop engaged an expert panel in an evidenced-based discussion regarding the state of the science of symptom clusters in chronic conditions including cancer and other rare diseases. An interdisciplinary working group from the extramural research community representing nursing, medicine, oncology, psychology, and bioinformatics was convened at the National Institutes of Health. Based on expertise, members were divided into teams to address key areas: defining characteristics of symptom clusters, priority symptom clusters and underlying mechanisms, measurement issues, targeted interventions, and new analytic strategies. For each area, the evidence was synthesized, limitations and gaps identified, and recommendations for future research delineated. The majority of findings in each area were from studies of oncology patients. However, increasing evidence suggests that symptom clusters occur in patients with other chronic conditions (eg, pulmonary, cardiac, and end-stage renal disease). Nonetheless, symptom cluster research is extremely limited and scientists are just beginning to understand how to investigate symptom clusters by developing frameworks and new methods and approaches. With a focus on personalized care, an understanding of individual susceptibility to symptoms and whether a "driving" symptom exists that triggers other symptoms in the cluster is needed. Also, research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie symptom clusters is essential to developing targeted interventions.

  18. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Poriti, Sal

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing high-efficiency free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in radioisotope power systems (RPSs) since 1999. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower, Inc., and the NASA GRC. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As reliability is paramount to a RPS capable of providing spacecraft power for potential multi-year missions, GRC provides direct technology support to the ASRG flight project in the areas of reliability, convertor and generator testing, high-temperature materials, structures, modeling and analysis, organics, structural dynamics, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and permanent magnets to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. Convertor and generator testing is carried out in short- and long-duration tests designed to characterize convertor performance when subjected to environments intended to simulate launch and space conditions. Long duration testing is intended to baseline performance and observe any performance degradation over the life of the test. Testing involves developing support hardware that enables 24/7 unattended operation and data collection. GRC currently has 14 Stirling convertors under unattended extended operation testing, including two operating in the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG-EU). Test data and high-temperature support hardware are discussed for ongoing and future ASC tests with emphasis on the ASC-E and ASC-E2.

  19. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  20. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    locations for researchers and participants who utilize an intersectionality approach. The examples highlighted in the paper represent important shifts in the health field, demonstrating the potential of intersectionality for examining the social context of women's lives, as well as developing methods which elucidate power, create new knowledge, and have the potential to inform appropriate action to bring about positive social change. PMID:20181225

  1. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    locations for researchers and participants who utilize an intersectionality approach. The examples highlighted in the paper represent important shifts in the health field, demonstrating the potential of intersectionality for examining the social context of women's lives, as well as developing methods which elucidate power, create new knowledge, and have the potential to inform appropriate action to bring about positive social change.

  2. Advanced materials and methods for next generation spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Gene Phillip

    The modern age is filled with ever-advancing electronic devices. The contents of this dissertation continue the desire for faster, smaller, better electronics. Specifically, this dissertation addresses a field known as "spintronics", electronic devices based on an electron's spin, not just its charge. The field of spintronics originated in 1990 when Datta and Das first proposed a "spin transistor" that would function by passing a spin polarized current from a magnetic electrode into a semiconductor channel. The spins in the channel could then be manipulated by applying an electrical voltage across the gate of the device. However, it has since been found that a great amount of scattering occurs at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface due to the large impedance mismatch that exists between the two materials. Because of this, there were three updated versions of the spintronic transistor that were proposed to improve spin injection: one that used a ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, one that added a tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and semiconductor, and one that utilized a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier which would act like a spin filter. It was next proposed that it may be possible to achieve a "pure spin current", or a spin current with no concurrent electric current (i.e., no net flow of electrons). One such method that was discovered is the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in 2008 by Uchida et al., in which a thermal gradient in a magnetic material generates a spin current which can be injected into adjacent material as a pure spin current. The first section of this dissertation addresses this spin Seebeck effect (SSE). The goal was to create such a device that both performs better than previously reported devices and is capable of operating without the aid of an external magnetic field. We were successful in this endeavor. The trick to achieving both of these goals was found to be in the roughness of the magnetic layer. A rougher magnetic

  3. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  4. Advanced superposition methods for high speed turbopump vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.; Campany, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The small, high pressure Mark 48 liquid hydrogen turbopump was analyzed and dynamically tested to determine the cause of high speed vibration at an operating speed of 92,400 rpm. This approaches the design point operating speed of 95,000 rpm. The initial dynamic analysis in the design stage and subsequent further analysis of the rotor only dynamics failed to predict the vibration characteristics found during testing. An advanced procedure for dynamics analysis was used in this investigation. The procedure involves developing accurate dynamic models of the rotor assembly and casing assembly by finite element analysis. The dynamically instrumented assemblies are independently rap tested to verify the analytical models. The verified models are then combined by modal superposition techniques to develop a completed turbopump model where dynamic characteristics are determined. The results of the dynamic testing and analysis obtained are presented and methods of moving the high speed vibration characteristics to speeds above the operating range are recommended. Recommendations for use of these advanced dynamic analysis procedures during initial design phases are given.

  5. Integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    The integration of nucleic acids detection assays in microfluidic devices represents a highly promising approach for the development of convenient, cheap and efficient diagnostic tools for clinical, food safety and environmental monitoring applications. Such tools are expected to operate at the point-of-care and in resource-limited settings. The amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence represents a key step for the development of sensitive detection protocols. The integration in microfluidic devices of the most popular technology for nucleic acids amplifications, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is significantly limited by the thermal cycling needed to obtain the target sequence amplification. This review provides an overview of recent advances in integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices. Isothermal methods, that operate at constant temperature, have emerged as promising alternative to PCR and greatly simplify the implementation of amplification methods in point-of-care diagnostic devices and devices to be used in resource-limited settings. Possibilities offered by isothermal methods for digital droplet amplification are discussed.

  6. Advances in nondestructive evaluation methods for inspection of refractory concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Refractory concrete linings are essential to protect steel pressure boundaries from high-temperature agressive erosive/corrosive environments. Castable refractory concretes have been gaining more acceptance as information about their performance increases. Economic factors, however, have begun to impose high demands on the reliability of refractory materials. Advanced nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to assist the refractory user. Radiographic techniques, thermography, acoustic-emission detection, and interferometry have been shown to yield information on the structural status of refractory concrete. Methods using /sup 60/Co radiation sources are capable of yielding measurements of refractory wear rate as well as images of cracks and/or voids in pre- and post-fired refractory linings up to 60 cm thick. Thermographic (infrared) images serve as a qualitative indicator of refractory spalling, but quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain from surface-temperature mapping. Acoustic emission has been shown to be a qualitative indicator of thermomechanical degradation of thick panels of 50 and 95% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ during initial heating and cooling at rates of 100 to 220/sup 0/C/h. Laser interferometry methods have been shown to be capable of complete mappings of refractory lining thicknesses. This paper will present results obtained from laboratory and field applications of these methods in petrochemical, steel, and coal-conversion plants.

  7. Advanced numerical methods in mesh generation and mesh adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantine; Danilov, A; Vassilevski, Y; Agonzal, A

    2010-01-01

    Numerical solution of partial differential equations requires appropriate meshes, efficient solvers and robust and reliable error estimates. Generation of high-quality meshes for complex engineering models is a non-trivial task. This task is made more difficult when the mesh has to be adapted to a problem solution. This article is focused on a synergistic approach to the mesh generation and mesh adaptation, where best properties of various mesh generation methods are combined to build efficiently simplicial meshes. First, the advancing front technique (AFT) is combined with the incremental Delaunay triangulation (DT) to build an initial mesh. Second, the metric-based mesh adaptation (MBA) method is employed to improve quality of the generated mesh and/or to adapt it to a problem solution. We demonstrate with numerical experiments that combination of all three methods is required for robust meshing of complex engineering models. The key to successful mesh generation is the high-quality of the triangles in the initial front. We use a black-box technique to improve surface meshes exported from an unattainable CAD system. The initial surface mesh is refined into a shape-regular triangulation which approximates the boundary with the same accuracy as the CAD mesh. The DT method adds robustness to the AFT. The resulting mesh is topologically correct but may contain a few slivers. The MBA uses seven local operations to modify the mesh topology. It improves significantly the mesh quality. The MBA method is also used to adapt the mesh to a problem solution to minimize computational resources required for solving the problem. The MBA has a solid theoretical background. In the first two experiments, we consider the convection-diffusion and elasticity problems. We demonstrate the optimal reduction rate of the discretization error on a sequence of adaptive strongly anisotropic meshes. The key element of the MBA method is construction of a tensor metric from hierarchical edge

  8. The Saccharomyces Genome Database: Advanced Searching Methods and Data Mining.

    PubMed

    Cherry, J Michael

    2015-12-02

    At the core of the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) are chromosomal features that encode a product. These include protein-coding genes and major noncoding RNA genes, such as tRNA and rRNA genes. The basic entry point into SGD is a gene or open-reading frame name that leads directly to the locus summary information page. A keyword describing function, phenotype, selective condition, or text from abstracts will also provide a door into the SGD. A DNA or protein sequence can be used to identify a gene or a chromosomal region using BLAST. Protein and DNA sequence identifiers, PubMed and NCBI IDs, author names, and function terms are also valid entry points. The information in SGD has been gathered and is maintained by a group of scientific biocurators and software developers who are devoted to providing researchers with up-to-date information from the published literature, connections to all the major research resources, and tools that allow the data to be explored. All the collected information cannot be represented or summarized for every possible question; therefore, it is necessary to be able to search the structured data in the database. This protocol describes the YeastMine tool, which provides an advanced search capability via an interactive tool. The SGD also archives results from microarray expression experiments, and a strategy designed to explore these data using the SPELL (Serial Pattern of Expression Levels Locator) tool is provided.

  9. Principled missing data methods for researchers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yiran; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2013-12-01

    The impact of missing data on quantitative research can be serious, leading to biased estimates of parameters, loss of information, decreased statistical power, increased standard errors, and weakened generalizability of findings. In this paper, we discussed and demonstrated three principled missing data methods: multiple imputation, full information maximum likelihood, and expectation-maximization algorithm, applied to a real-world data set. Results were contrasted with those obtained from the complete data set and from the listwise deletion method. The relative merits of each method are noted, along with common features they share. The paper concludes with an emphasis on the importance of statistical assumptions, and recommendations for researchers. Quality of research will be enhanced if (a) researchers explicitly acknowledge missing data problems and the conditions under which they occurred, (b) principled methods are employed to handle missing data, and (c) the appropriate treatment of missing data is incorporated into review standards of manuscripts submitted for publication.

  10. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  11. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  12. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  13. Theory and Methods of Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner, Ed.

    The document reports the proceedings of a conference on "Theory and Methods of Research on Aging" held under the auspices of the Division of Maturity and Old Age of the American Psychological Association, the Department of Psychology and the Human Resources Research Institute of West Virginia University, May 17-19, 1967. The summaries of four…

  14. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  15. Experimental Research in Advanced Concepts for Novel Reactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Sand casting with pre-cast heating of tungsten elements  Induction casting with applied pressure II.A.2.a Experimental Furnace Casting The...such an experiment was completed during the research period. These experiments involved the electronic spectrum in the vacuum ultraviolet of the...methods used to create the casings include the following, each of which is outlined below:  Experimental casting in a small furnace  Sand casting

  16. Advanced Motion Compensation Methods for Intravital Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Lee, Sungon; Feruglio, Paolo Fumene; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Intravital microscopy has emerged in the recent decade as an indispensible imaging modality for the study of the micro-dynamics of biological processes in live animals. Technical advancements in imaging techniques and hardware components, combined with the development of novel targeted probes and new mice models, have enabled us to address long-standing questions in several biology areas such as oncology, cell biology, immunology and neuroscience. As the instrument resolution has increased, physiological motion activities have become a major obstacle that prevents imaging live animals at resolutions analogue to the ones obtained in vitro. Motion compensation techniques aim at reducing this gap and can effectively increase the in vivo resolution. This paper provides a technical review of some of the latest developments in motion compensation methods, providing organ specific solutions. PMID:24273405

  17. Computational methods of the Advanced Fluid Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bohl, W.R.; Wilhelm, D.; Parker, F.R.; Berthier, J.; Maudlin, P.J.; Schmuck, P.; Goutagny, L.; Ichikawa, S.; Ninokata, H.; Luck, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    To more accurately treat severe accidents in fast reactors, a program has been set up to investigate new computational models and approaches. The product of this effort is a computer code, the Advanced Fluid Dynamics Model (AFDM). This paper describes some of the basic features of the numerical algorithm used in AFDM. Aspects receiving particular emphasis are the fractional-step method of time integration, the semi-implicit pressure iteration, the virtual mass inertial terms, the use of three velocity fields, higher order differencing, convection of interfacial area with source and sink terms, multicomponent diffusion processes in heat and mass transfer, the SESAME equation of state, and vectorized programming. A calculated comparison with an isothermal tetralin/ammonia experiment is performed. We conclude that significant improvements are possible in reliably calculating the progression of severe accidents with further development.

  18. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  19. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  20. Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Bowman

    2007-05-30

    The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.

  1. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  2. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine.

    PubMed

    Bak, J G; Lee, S G; Kim, H S

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as ∼0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement.

  3. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Kim, H. S.

    2011-06-15

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as {approx}0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement.

  4. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    PubMed

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  5. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-03-05

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations.

  6. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks) in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies. PMID:20196839

  7. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  8. Advances in Time Estimation Methods for Molecular Data.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dating has become central to placing a temporal dimension on the tree of life. Methods for estimating divergence times have been developed for over 50 years, beginning with the proposal of molecular clock in 1962. We categorize the chronological development of these methods into four generations based on the timing of their origin. In the first generation approaches (1960s-1980s), a strict molecular clock was assumed to date divergences. In the second generation approaches (1990s), the equality of evolutionary rates between species was first tested and then a strict molecular clock applied to estimate divergence times. The third generation approaches (since ∼2000) account for differences in evolutionary rates across the tree by using a statistical model, obviating the need to assume a clock or to test the equality of evolutionary rates among species. Bayesian methods in the third generation require a specific or uniform prior on the speciation-process and enable the inclusion of uncertainty in clock calibrations. The fourth generation approaches (since 2012) allow rates to vary from branch to branch, but do not need prior selection of a statistical model to describe the rate variation or the specification of speciation model. With high accuracy, comparable to Bayesian approaches, and speeds that are orders of magnitude faster, fourth generation methods are able to produce reliable timetrees of thousands of species using genome scale data. We found that early time estimates from second generation studies are similar to those of third and fourth generation studies, indicating that methodological advances have not fundamentally altered the timetree of life, but rather have facilitated time estimation by enabling the inclusion of more species. Nonetheless, we feel an urgent need for testing the accuracy and precision of third and fourth generation methods, including their robustness to misspecification of priors in the analysis of large phylogenies and data

  9. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  10. The Feminist Biographical Method in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popadiuk, Natalee

    2004-01-01

    The feminist biographical method is an in-depth interpretive methodology that is useful for research in the field of psychology. I believe that this qualitative method is an excellent tool for analyzing individual narratives of participants' lives in relation to the larger cultural matrix of the society in which they live. Although an oral…

  11. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  12. Advanced Numerical methods for F. E. Simulation of Metal Forming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bernacki, Marc; Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The classical scientific basis for finite element modeling of metal forming processes is first recalled. Several developments in advanced topics are summarized: adaptive and anisotropic remeshing, parallel solving, multi material deformation. More recent researches in numerical analysis are outlined, including multi grid and multi mesh methods, mainly devoted to decrease computation time, automatic optimization method for faster and more effective design of forming processes. The link of forming simulation and structural computations is considered with emphasis on the necessity to predict the final mechanical properties. Finally a brief account of computation at the micro scale level is given.

  13. Left ventricular flow analysis: recent advances in numerical methods and applications in cardiac ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M; Rajaraman, Prathish K; Heys, Jeffrey J; Belohlavek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics.

  14. Left Ventricular Flow Analysis: Recent Advances in Numerical Methods and Applications in Cardiac Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Iman; Westerdale, John; McMahon, Eileen M.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The left ventricle (LV) pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body through systemic circulation. The efficiency of such a pumping function is dependent on blood flow within the LV chamber. It is therefore crucial to accurately characterize LV hemodynamics. Improved understanding of LV hemodynamics is expected to provide important clinical diagnostic and prognostic information. We review the recent advances in numerical and experimental methods for characterizing LV flows and focus on analysis of intraventricular flow fields by echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV), due to its potential for broad and practical utility. Future research directions to advance patient-specific LV simulations include development of methods capable of resolving heart valves, higher temporal resolution, automated generation of three-dimensional (3D) geometry, and incorporating actual flow measurements into the numerical solution of the 3D cardiovascular fluid dynamics. PMID:23690874

  15. Application of Advanced Methods to Predict Grid to Rod Fretting in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Karoutas, Zeses; Roger, Lu Y.; Yan, J.; Krammen, M.A.; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Advanced modeling and simulation methods are being developed as part of the US Department of Energy sponsored Nuclear Energy Modeling and Simulation Hub called CASL (Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs). The key participants of the CASL team include Oak Ridge National Laboratory (lead), Idaho National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, North Carolina State University, University of Michigan, Electric Power Research Institute, Tennessee Valley Authority and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. One of the key objectives of the CASL program is to develop multi-physics methods and tools which evaluate neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, structural mechanics and nuclear fuel rod performance in rod bundles to support power uprates, increased burnup/cycle length and life extension for US nuclear plants.

  16. Investigation of advanced fault insertion and simulator methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. R.; Cottrell, D.

    1986-01-01

    The cooperative agreement partly supported research leading to the open-literature publication cited. Additional efforts under the agreement included research into fault modeling of semiconductor devices. Results of this research are presented in this report which is summarized in the following paragraphs. As a result of the cited research, it appears that semiconductor failure mechanism data is abundant but of little use in developing pin-level device models. Failure mode data on the other hand does exist but is too sparse to be of any statistical use in developing fault models. What is significant in the failure mode data is that, unlike classical logic, MSI and LSI devices do exhibit more than 'stuck-at' and open/short failure modes. Specifically they are dominated by parametric failures and functional anomalies that can include intermittent faults and multiple-pin failures. The report discusses methods of developing composite pin-level models based on extrapolation of semiconductor device failure mechanisms, failure modes, results of temperature stress testing and functional modeling. Limitations of this model particularly with regard to determination of fault detection coverage and latency time measurement are discussed. Indicated research directions are presented.

  17. [Ethnography and ethnonursing: research methods in nursing].

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ninon Girardon; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Crossetti, Maria da Graça O

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to review the literature about the qualitative ethnographic research method, and its application in nursing, describing one of the authors experience while writing a master's dissertation. Both methods, ethnography and ethnonursing, are presented with their specific proposals and phases. Leininger's ideas are enhanced since it was this author who revealed to nursing the importance to comprehend culture, allowing to give care which is coherent to each ones beliefs and values. The study allowed to better know the research methods and it is wished that it contributes to deepen the knowledge about them, stimulating their use.

  18. Study on the Integrated Geophysic Methods and Application of Advanced Geological Detection for Complicated Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiao, G.

    2014-12-01

    formulated a suite of comprehensive application system of seismic and electromagnetic methods for the advanced geological exploration of complicated tunnels. This research is funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41202223) .

  19. [Research advances in simulating land water-carbon coupling].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Sun, Peng-Sen; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2012-11-01

    The increasing demand of adaptive management of land, forest, and water resources under the background of global change and water resources crisis has promoted the comprehensive study of coupling ecosystem water and carbon cycles and their restrictive relations. To construct the water-carbon coupling model and to approach the ecosystem water-carbon balance and its interactive response mechanisms under climate change at multiple spatiotemporal scales is nowadays a major concern. After reviewing the coupling relationships of water and carbon at various scales, this paper explored the implications and estimation methods of the key processes and related parameters of water-carbon coupling, the construction of evapotranspiration model at large scale based on RS, and the importance of this model in water-carbon coupling researches. The applications of assimilative multivariate data in water-carbon coupling researches under future climate change scenarios were also prospected.

  20. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.