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Sample records for advanced research wrf

  1. UPDATE ON DEVELOPMENT OF NUDGING FDDA FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH WRF

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nudging-based four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) system is being developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. This effort represents a collaboration between The Pennsylvania State University (i.e., Penn State), the National Center for Atmospheric Rese...

  2. Optimizing meridional advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    The most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Two distinct varieties of WRF exist. The one we are interested is the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we optimize a meridional (north-south direction) advection subroutine for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Advection is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. It advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.2x.

  3. A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    hydrostatic counterpart to the nonhydrostatic equations , (2.9) replaces the vertical momentum equation (2.5) and it becomes a constraint on the solution ...model equations as Φt = R(Φ), the RK3 integration takes the form of 3 steps to advance a solution Φ(t) to Φ(t+∆t): Φ∗ = Φt + ∆t 3 R(Φt) (3.1) Φ∗∗ = Φt...workshops, and lectures. (Distribution may be limited to attendees.) STR: Scientific and Technical Reports Data compilations, theoretical and numerical

  4. Enhancing Cloud Radiative Processes and Radiation Efficiency in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Iacono, Michael J.

    2015-03-09

    The objective of this research has been to evaluate and implement enhancements to the computational performance of the RRTMG radiative transfer option in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Efficiency is as essential as accuracy for effective numerical weather prediction, and radiative transfer is a relatively time-consuming component of dynamical models, taking up to 30-50 percent of the total model simulation time. To address this concern, this research has implemented and tested a version of RRTMG that utilizes graphics processing unit (GPU) technology (hereinafter RRTMGPU) to greatly improve its computational performance; thereby permitting either more frequent simulation of radiative effects or other model enhancements. During the early stages of this project the development of RRTMGPU was completed at AER under separate NASA funding to accelerate the code for use in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Earth Observing System GEOS-5 global model. It should be noted that this final report describes results related to the funded portion of the originally proposed work concerning the acceleration of RRTMG with GPUs in WRF. As a k-distribution model, RRTMG is especially well suited to this modification due to its relatively large internal pseudo-spectral (g-point) dimension that, when combined with the horizontal grid vector in the dynamical model, can take great advantage of the GPU capability. Thorough testing under several model configurations has been performed to ensure that RRTMGPU improves WRF model run time while having no significant impact on calculated radiative fluxes and heating rates or on dynamical model fields relative to the RRTMG radiation. The RRTMGPU codes have been provided to NCAR for possible application to the next public release of the WRF forecast model.

  5. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  6. Advanced Numerical Prediction and Modeling of Tropical Cyclones Using WRF-NMM modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S. G.; Rogers, R. F.; Marks, F. D.; Atlas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in tropical cyclone track forecasts have occurred through advancements in high quality observations, high speed computers and improvements in dynamical models. Similar advancements now need to be made for tropical cyclone intensity, structure and rainfall prediction. The Weather Research Forecasting Model (WRF) is a general purpose, multi-institutional mesoscale modeling system. A version of the WRF model called the HWRF/WRF-NMM modeling system, developed at the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) was recently adopted for hurricane forecasting (Gopalakrishnan et al, 2006) by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). At the Hurricane Research Division (HRD/AOML/OAR) we are developing and further advancing a research version of this modeling system. This work is done in collaboration with the Developmental Test bed Center (DTC), Boulder, CO, Global Systems division (GSD/ESRL/OAR), Boulder, CO, The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL/OAR), Washington, D.C., the U.S. university community, the Indian Institute of Technology, IIT.Delhi, India, and the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, India Our modeling effort includes advancing the WRF system for Ensemble Hurricane Forecasting, advancing our understanding of Ensemble-vs- High Resolution Forecasting of Hurricanes, advancing WRF/WRF-NMM with better analysis techniques (e.g. Four Dimensional Data Assimilation) for improving forecasts and above all, advancing our understanding of hurricane processes using a high resolution numerical modeling approach. Examples of some of these applications will be shown here. Reference: NCEP's Two-way-Interactive-Moving-Nest NMM-WRF modeling system for Hurricane Forecasting, S.G. Gopalakrishnan, N. Surgi, R. Tuleya, and Z. Janjic 27th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, 24- 28 April 2006, Monterey, California.

  7. Using the Advanced Research Version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) to Forecast Turbulence at Small Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    92152-7385 1 CD NCAR LIBRARY SERIALS NATL CTR FOR ATMOS RSCH PO BOX 3000 BOULDER CO 80307-3000 1 CD HEADQUARTERS DEPT OF ARMYDAMI POB ...ARMY RESEARCH LAB AMSRD ARL CI ATTN J GOWENS 2800 POWDER MILL ROAD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 CD US ARMY CECRL CECRL GP ATTN DR DETSCH...HANOVER NH 03755-1290 1 CD USAF ROME LAB TECH CORRIDOR W STE 262 RL SUL 26 ELECTR PKWY BLD 106 GRIFFISS AFB ROME NY 13441-4514 1 CD US ARMY

  8. Mapping Nuclear Fallout Using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Zucchini , 0.8 R/h at H+1 ................... 50  Figure 13. WRF Fallout Prediction for Test Shot Zucchini , 0.2 R/h at H+1 ................... 51...Figure 14. WRF Fallout Prediction for Test Shot Zucchini , 0.08 R/h at H+1 ................. 51  Figure 15. WRF Fallout Prediction for Test Shot... Zucchini , 0.02 R/h at H+1 ................. 52  Figure 16. WRF Fallout Prediction for Test Shot Zucchini , 0.008 R/h at H+1 ............... 52  Figure 17

  9. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  10. Recent Advances in Modeling of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Land Surface in the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the land surface model (LSM) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) components of the WRF-CMAQ coupled meteorology and air quality modeling system are described. The aim of these modifications was primarily to improve the modeling of ground level concentrations of trace c...

  11. A framework for WRF to WRF-IBM grid nesting to enable multiscale simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersema, David John; Lundquist, Katherine A.; Chow, Fotini Katapodes

    2016-09-29

    With advances in computational power, mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are often pushed to higher resolutions. As the model’s horizontal resolution is refined, the maximum resolved terrain slope will increase. Because WRF uses a terrain-following coordinate, this increase in resolved terrain slopes introduces additional grid skewness. At high resolutions and over complex terrain, this grid skewness can introduce large numerical errors that require methods, such as the immersed boundary method, to keep the model accurate and stable. Our implementation of the immersed boundary method in the WRF model, WRF-IBM, has proven effective at microscale simulations over complex terrain. WRF-IBM uses a non-conforming grid that extends beneath the model’s terrain. Boundary conditions at the immersed boundary, the terrain, are enforced by introducing a body force term to the governing equations at points directly beneath the immersed boundary. Nesting between a WRF parent grid and a WRF-IBM child grid requires a new framework for initialization and forcing of the child WRF-IBM grid. This framework will enable concurrent multi-scale simulations within the WRF model, improving the accuracy of high-resolution simulations and enabling simulations across a wide range of scales.

  12. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting ...ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model...SUBTITLE Investigating surface bias errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) 5a

  13. Development of a fully integrated water cycle model: HydroGeoSphere-Weather Research and Forecasting (HGS-WRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Lin, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in modern process-based hydrological models have drastically outpaced the capabilities of current-generation land surface schemes (LSS) found within atmospheric and climate models. In order to improve climate simulations and, in particular, more accurately represent the hydrological cycle, we suggest implementing state-of-the-art integrated surface/subsurface hydrological models as advanced LSS. This study explores the coupling process of HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a finite-element control volume variably saturated subsurface and surface water model with energy transport processes, to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), a finite difference fully-compressible nonhydrostatic mesoscale climate model. Our flexible coupling method advances water cycle modeling by tightly integrating the moisture fluxes between the subsurface, surface, and atmospheric domains. We expect to increase the overall modeling skill of precipitation and moisture fluxes between domains.

  14. Investigating Lateral Boundary Forcing of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Forecasts for Artillery Mission Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    boundaries, and inconsistent physical-process parameterizations (i.e., cumulus parameterization schemes). The consensus of past research is that larger...parameterized by the Dudhia and RRTM schemes for short-wave and long-wave radiation, respectively. Cloud microphysics are represented with the WRF Single...Moment 5-class scheme. The Kain−Fritsch cumulus parameterization is used in the 9 km domain only. For both cases, Andrea and Joachim, simulations were

  15. NASA SPoRT Modeling and Data Assimilation Research and Transition Activities Using WRF, LIS and GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blankenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Berndt, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    weather research and forecasting ===== The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has numerous modeling and data assimilation (DA) activities in which the WRF model is a key component. SPoRT generates realtime, research satellite products from the MODIS and VIIRS instruments, making the data available to NOAA/NWS partners running the WRF/EMS, including: (1) 2-km northwestern-hemispheric SST composite, (2) daily, MODIS green vegetation fraction (GVF) over CONUS, and (3) NASA Land Information System (LIS) runs of the Noah LSM over the southeastern CONUS. Each of these datasets have been utilized by specific SPoRT partners in local EMS model runs, with select offices evaluating the impacts using a set of automated scripts developed by SPoRT that manage data acquisition and run the NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package. SPoRT is engaged in DA research with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) and Ensemble Kalman Filter in LIS for soil moisture DA. Ongoing DA projects using GSI include comparing the impacts of assimilating Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances versus retrieved profiles, and an analysis of extra-tropical cyclones with intense non-convective winds. As part of its Early Adopter activities for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, SPoRT is conducting bias correction and soil moisture DA within LIS to improve simulations using the NASA Unified-WRF (NU-WRF) for both the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity and upcoming SMAP mission data. SPoRT has also incorporated real-time global GVF data into LIS and WRF from the VIIRS product being developed by NOAA/NESDIS. This poster will highlight the research and transition activities SPoRT conducts using WRF, NU-WRF, EMS, LIS, and GSI.

  16. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in the Department of Bioengineering at Rice University are developing a new approach for fighting cancer, based on nanoshells that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The aim is to locate the cells, and be able to make a rational choice about whether they need to be destroyed and if possible they should immediately be sent for…

  17. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  18. How reliable is the offline linkage of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim for this research is to evaluate the ability of the offline linkage of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to produce hydrological, e.g. evaporation (ET), soil moisture (SM), runoff, and baseflow. First, the VIC mo...

  19. Predicting lightning activity in Greece with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development and implementation of parameterizations for the prediction of lightning. In the present study, the commonly used Price and Rind lightning parameterization is evaluated. This parameterization has been recently introduced in the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, allowing for the online simulation of lightning activity. The evaluation of the parameterization is conducted for ten different single-day events that took place in Greece during the period of years from 2010 to 2013. Results show that the WRF model could be used for real-time lightning prediction applications, given that the lightning parameterization is properly adapted. In particular, the analysis revealed that model-resolved variables related to the microphysics and thermodynamics are necessary for controlling the parameterization of lightning, which otherwise results to significant overprediction. The total ice content, the maximum vertical velocity and the convective available potential energy were found to be the storm parameters that, when combined together, improve the ability of the model to correctly predict lightning, significantly restricting false alarms. This was further highlighted by separately examining two example case studies, for which the numerical simulations successfully reproduced the spatial and temporal characteristics of lightning activity.

  20. Investigation of riming within mixed-phase stratiform clouds using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tuanjie; Lei, Hengchi; Yang, Jiefan; Hu, Zhaoxia; Feng, Qiujuan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated stratiform precipitation associated with an upper-level westerly trough and a cold front over northern China between 30 Apr. and 1 May 2009. We employed the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.4.1) to perform high-resolution numerical simulations of rainfall. We also conducted simulations with two microphysics schemes and sensitivity experiments without riming of snow and changing cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs) to determine the effect of snow riming on cloud structure and precipitation. Then we compared our results with CloudSat, Doppler radar and rain gauge observations. The comparison with the Doppler radar observations suggested that the WRF model was quite successful in capturing the timing and location of the stratiform precipitation region. Further comparisons with the CloudSat retrievals suggested that both microphysics schemes overestimated ice and liquid water contents. The sensitivity experiments without riming of snow suggested that the presence or absence of riming significantly influenced the precipitation distribution, but only slightly affected total accumulated precipitation. Without riming of snow, the changes of updrafts from the two microphysics schemes were different due to a different consideration of ice particle capacitance and latent heat effect of riming on deposition. While sensitivity experiments with three different CDNC values of 100, 250 and 1000 cm- 3 suggested variations in snow riming rates, changing CDNC had little impact on precipitation.

  1. A new vertical grid nesting capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    DOE PAGES

    Daniels, Megan H.; Lundquist, Katherine A.; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; ...

    2016-09-16

    Mesoscale atmospheric models are increasingly used for high-resolution (<3 km) simulations to better resolve smaller-scale flow details. Increased resolution is achieved using mesh refinement via grid nesting, a procedure where multiple computational domains are integrated either concurrently or in series. A constraint in the concurrent nesting framework offered by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is that mesh refinement is restricted to the horizontal dimensions. This limitation prevents control of the grid aspect ratio, leading to numerical errors due to poor grid quality and preventing grid optimization. Here, a procedure permitting vertical nesting for one-way concurrent simulation is developedmore » and validated through idealized cases. The benefits of vertical nesting are demonstrated using both mesoscale and large-eddy simulations (LES). Mesoscale simulations of the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) show that vertical grid nesting can alleviate numerical errors due to large aspect ratios on coarse grids, while allowing for higher vertical resolution on fine grids. Furthermore, the coarsening of the parent domain does not result in a significant loss of accuracy on the nested domain. LES of neutral boundary layer flow shows that, by permitting optimal grid aspect ratios on both parent and nested domains, use of vertical nesting yields improved agreement with the theoretical logarithmic velocity profile on both domains. Lastly, vertical grid nesting in WRF opens the path forward for multiscale simulations, allowing more accurate simulations spanning a wider range of scales than previously possible.« less

  2. A new vertical grid nesting capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Megan H.; Lundquist, Katherine A.; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Wiersema, David J.; Chow, Fotini K.

    2016-09-16

    Mesoscale atmospheric models are increasingly used for high-resolution (<3 km) simulations to better resolve smaller-scale flow details. Increased resolution is achieved using mesh refinement via grid nesting, a procedure where multiple computational domains are integrated either concurrently or in series. A constraint in the concurrent nesting framework offered by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is that mesh refinement is restricted to the horizontal dimensions. This limitation prevents control of the grid aspect ratio, leading to numerical errors due to poor grid quality and preventing grid optimization. Here, a procedure permitting vertical nesting for one-way concurrent simulation is developed and validated through idealized cases. The benefits of vertical nesting are demonstrated using both mesoscale and large-eddy simulations (LES). Mesoscale simulations of the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) show that vertical grid nesting can alleviate numerical errors due to large aspect ratios on coarse grids, while allowing for higher vertical resolution on fine grids. Furthermore, the coarsening of the parent domain does not result in a significant loss of accuracy on the nested domain. LES of neutral boundary layer flow shows that, by permitting optimal grid aspect ratios on both parent and nested domains, use of vertical nesting yields improved agreement with the theoretical logarithmic velocity profile on both domains. Lastly, vertical grid nesting in WRF opens the path forward for multiscale simulations, allowing more accurate simulations spanning a wider range of scales than previously possible.

  3. Influence of bulk microphysics schemes upon Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.6.1 nor'easter simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Stephen D.; Decker, Steven G.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Shi, Jainn J.; Mohr, Karen I.

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of five single- or double-moment bulk microphysics schemes (BMPSs) on Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) simulations of seven intense wintertime cyclones impacting the mid-Atlantic United States; 5-day long WRF simulations were initialized roughly 24 h prior to the onset of coastal cyclogenesis off the North Carolina coastline. In all, 35 model simulations (five BMPSs and seven cases) were run and their associated microphysics-related storm properties (hydrometer mixing ratios, precipitation, and radar reflectivity) were evaluated against model analysis and available gridded radar and ground-based precipitation products. Inter-BMPS comparisons of column-integrated mixing ratios and mixing ratio profiles reveal little variability in non-frozen hydrometeor species due to their shared programming heritage, yet their assumptions concerning snow and graupel intercepts, ice supersaturation, snow and graupel density maps, and terminal velocities led to considerable variability in both simulated frozen hydrometeor species and radar reflectivity. WRF-simulated precipitation fields exhibit minor spatiotemporal variability amongst BMPSs, yet their spatial extent is largely conserved. Compared to ground-based precipitation data, WRF simulations demonstrate low-to-moderate (0.217-0.414) threat scores and a rainfall distribution shifted toward higher values. Finally, an analysis of WRF and gridded radar reflectivity data via contoured frequency with altitude diagrams (CFADs) reveals notable variability amongst BMPSs, where better performing schemes favored lower graupel mixing ratios and better underlying aggregation assumptions.

  4. Performance tuning Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Xeon Phi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is a designed for dual use for forecasting and research. WRF offers multiple physics options that can be combined in any way. One of the physics options is radiance computation. The major source for energy for the earth's climate is solar radiation. Thus, it is imperative to accurately model horizontal and vertical distribution of the heating. Goddard solar radiative transfer model includes the absorption duo to water vapor,ozone, ozygen, carbon dioxide, clouds and aerosols. The model computes the interactions among the absorption and scattering by clouds, aerosols, molecules and surface. Finally, fluxes are integrated over the entire longwave spectrum.In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 2.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 2.1x compared to the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme code.

  5. Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling

  6. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Meteorology on CMAQ Simulations for O3 and Related Species During the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS Campaign

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, impact of meteorology derived from the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF)– Non–hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) and WRF–Advanced Research WRF (ARW) meteorological models on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulations for ozone and its related prec...

  7. Performance Assessment of New Land-Surface and Planetary Boundary Layer Physics in the WRF-ARW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pleim-Xiu land surface model, Pleim surface layer scheme, and Asymmetric Convective Model (version 2) are now options in version 3.0 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Advanced Research WRF (ARW) core. These physics parameterizations were developed for the f...

  8. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  9. Understanding land use change impacts on microclimate using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xia; Mitra, Chandana; Dong, Li; ...

    2017-02-02

    In order to explore potential climatic consequences of land cover change in the Kolkata Metropolitan Development area, we projected microclimate conditions in this area using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by future land use scenarios. Specifically, we considered two land conversion scenarios including an urbanization scenario that all the wetlands and croplands would be converted to built-up areas, and an irrigation expansion scenario in which all wetlands and dry croplands would be replaced by irrigated croplands. Our results indicated that land use and land cover (LULC) change would dramatically increase regional temperature in this area under themore » urbanization scenario, but expanded irrigation tended to have a cooling effect. In the urbanization scenario, precipitation center tended to move eastward and lead to increased rainfall in eastern parts of this region. Increased irrigation stimulated rainfall in central and eastern areas but reduced rainfall in southwestern and northwestern parts of the study area. Our study also demonstrated that urbanization significantly reduced latent heat fluxes and albedo of land surface; while increased sensible heat flux changes following urbanization suggested that developed land surfaces mainly acted as heat sources. In this study, climate change projection not only predicts future spatiotemporal patterns of multiple climate factors, but also provides valuable insights into policy making related to land use management, water resource management, and agriculture management to adapt and mitigate future climate changes in this populous region.« less

  10. Latitude belt convection permitting simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Schwitalla, Thomas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2015-04-01

    Extreme events like the heat wave in summer 2003 in Central Europe and in August 2010 in Russia (which was associated with floodings of the Odra an in Pakistan) and severe floodings in Germany were caused by persistent so-called omega and blocking Vb weather situations in Europe. They are caused when quasi-stationary, quasi-resonant enhanced and quasi-resonant Rossby waves develop in mid-latitudes. To simulate quasi-stationary Rossby waves in numerical weather prediction and climate models at least a resolution of 20 km is required, however, to simulate the associated extremes the simulations need to be convection permitting. Further the high resolution allows the small scale structures to feed back to the large scale systems. Most of the current limited area, high-resolution models apply a domain which is centered over the region of interest. Such limited area model applications may suffer from a deterioration of synoptic features like low pressure systems due to effects in the boundary relaxation zone when downscaling reanalysis or global model simulation data. For Europe this is mainly caused by the longitudinal boundaries. A way to overcome these types of difficulties is to run a latitude belt simulation model. We applied the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 3 km horizontal resolution for July and August 2013 forcing the model 6-hourly with ECMWF analyses data at 20°N and 65°N and with daily sea surface temperature data from the OSTIA project of the UK Met Office at 6 km resolution. The model domain encompasses 12000*1500*57 grid cells. First results of this so far unique simulation will be presented.

  11. Incorporating an advanced aerosol activation parameterization into WRF-CAM5: Model evaluation and parameterization intercomparison: An Advanced Aerosol Activation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; He, Jian; Leung, L. Ruby; Fan, Jiwen; Nenes, Athanasios

    2015-07-22

    Aerosol activation into cloud droplets is an important process that governs aerosol indirect effects. The advanced treatment of aerosol activation by Fountoukis and Nenes (2005) and its recent updates, collectively called the FN series, have been incorporated into a newly developed regional coupled climate-air quality model based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the physics package of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (WRF-CAM5) to simulate aerosol-cloud interactions in both resolved and convective clouds. The model is applied to East Asia for two full years of 2005 and 2010. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed for model predictions of meteorological, radiative, and cloud variables, chemical concentrations, and column mass abundances against satellite data and surface observations from air quality monitoring sites across East Asia. The model performs overall well for major meteorological variables including near-surface temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitable water, downward shortwave and longwave radiation, and column mass abundances of CO, SO2, NO2, HCHO, and O3 in terms of both magnitudes and spatial distributions. Larger biases exist in the predictions of surface concentrations of CO and NOx at all sites and SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations at some sites, aerosol optical depth, cloud condensation nuclei over ocean, cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), cloud liquid and ice water path, and cloud optical thickness. Compared with the default Abdul-Razzack Ghan (2000) parameterization, simulations with the FN series produce ~107–113% higher CDNC, with half of the difference attributable to the higher aerosol activation fraction by the FN series and the remaining half due to feedbacks in subsequent cloud microphysical processes. With the higher CDNC, the FN series are more skillful in simulating cloud water path, cloud optical thickness, downward shortwave radiation

  12. An Improvement of Fine Scale Wind Field Prediction using WRF/MMIF Models for CALPUFF Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. L.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate simulation of CALPUFF dispersion modeling is largely dependent on the data sets which are properly resolved in the spatial and temporal evolution of meteorological field on a wide range of scales. The fine scale field wind of 100 m spatial resolution is required for the CALPUFF modeling in the complex terrain near the coastal area. The objective of this paper is to provide information how to calculate the fine scale wind field using recent advances in the meteorological model. The diagnostic model of CALMET has been used to generate fine grid scale wind field by interpolating output of mesoscale prognostic weather models of MM5 (short for Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model) and WRF (Weather Research and Forecast). The MMIF(The Mesoscale Model Interface Program) interfacial program directly converting WRF meteorological output to formats appropriate for CALPUFF modeling without diagnostic interpolations is recently developed. The modeling comparison between WRF/CALMET and WRF/MMIF was carried out to find out a best way in generating fine wind field in the complex geological conditions. For the WRF/CALMET modeling, WRF model output of 900m grid resolution was provided to CALMET model and CALMET then calculated the fine grid resolution of 100m by diagnostically interpolating the WRF output. For the WRF/MMIF modeling, the WRF model directly calculate the fine grid of 100m and the MMIF program was used to convert WRF data. In order to validate model performance of two methods, simulated variables of meteorological fields were compared with observations at the landfill site near the coast in KOREA. It is found that WRF/MMIF is in better agreement with observations than CALWRF/CALMET in respect to the statics of RMSE and IOA. CALPUFF modeling with landfill emission data of H2S was performed and compared with monitoring data to identify effects on meteorological data on the final outcome of CALPUFF dispersion modeling.

  13. Advances in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains five papers from a symposium on advances in qualitative research in human resource development (HRD). "Case Study and Its Virtuoso Possibilities" (Verna J. Willis) asserts that the case study method is particularly well suited for research in HRD because its creative and investigative possibilities have not yet…

  14. Decadal application of WRF/Chem for regional air quality and climate modeling over the U.S. under the representative concentration pathways scenarios. Part 1: Model evaluation and impact of downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; Wang, Kai; Campbell, Patrick; Chen, Ying; Glotfelty, Timothy; He, Jian; Pirhalla, Michael; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    An advanced online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model, i.e., the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), is applied for current (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) decades under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios to examine changes in future climate, air quality, and their interactions. In this Part I paper, a comprehensive model evaluation is carried out for current decade to assess the performance of WRF/Chem and WRF under both scenarios and the benefits of downscaling the North Carolina State University's (NCSU) version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM_NCSU) using WRF/Chem. The evaluation of WRF/Chem shows an overall good performance for most meteorological and chemical variables on a decadal scale. Temperature at 2-m is overpredicted by WRF (by ∼0.2-0.3 °C) but underpredicted by WRF/Chem (by ∼0.3-0.4 °C), due to higher radiation from WRF. Both WRF and WRF/Chem show large overpredictions for precipitation, indicating limitations in their microphysics or convective parameterizations. WRF/Chem with prognostic chemical concentrations, however, performs much better than WRF with prescribed chemical concentrations for radiation variables, illustrating the benefit of predicting gases and aerosols and representing their feedbacks into meteorology in WRF/Chem. WRF/Chem performs much better than CESM_NCSU for most surface meteorological variables and O3 hourly mixing ratios. In addition, WRF/Chem better captures observed temporal and spatial variations than CESM_NCSU. CESM_NCSU performance for radiation variables is comparable to or better than WRF/Chem performance because of the model tuning in CESM_NCSU that is routinely made in global models.

  15. Improving High-resolution Weather Forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with Upgraded Kain-Fritsch Cumulus Scheme

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-resolution weather forecasting is affected by many aspects, i.e. model initial conditions, subgrid-scale cumulus convection and cloud microphysics schemes. Recent 12km grid studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have identified the importance of inco...

  16. Tracking tropical cloud systems - Observations for the diagnosis of simulations by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Lin, W.; Cialella, A.; Luke, E.; Jensen, M.; Zhang, M.

    2010-03-15

    To aid in improving model parameterizations of clouds and convection, we examine the capability of models, using explicit convection, to simulate the life cycle of tropical cloud systems in the vicinity of the ARM Tropical Western Pacific sites. The cloud life cycle is determined using a satellite cloud tracking algorithm (Boer and Ramanathan, 1997), and the statistics are compared to those of simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Using New York Blue, a Blue Gene/L supercomputer that is co-operated by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, simulations are run at a resolution comparable to the observations. Initial results suggest a computational paradox where, even though the size of the simulated systems are about half of that observed, their longevities are still similar. The explanation for this seeming incongruity will be explored.

  17. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  18. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  19. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  20. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  1. A Study of Fog Characteristics Using a Coupled WRF-COBEL Model Over Thessaloniki Airport, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaki, Stavroula; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore

    2012-05-01

    An attempt is made to couple the one dimensional COBEL-ISBA (Code de Brouillard à l'Échelle Locale-Interactions Soil Biosphere Atmosphere) model with the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting)-ARW (Advanced Research WRF) numerical weather prediction model to study a fog event that formed on 20 January 2008 over Thessaloniki Airport, Greece. It is the first time that the coupling of COBEL and WRF models is achieved and applied to a fog event over an airport. At first, the performance of the integrated WRF-COBEL system is investigated, by validating it against the available surface observations. The temperature and humidity vertical profiles were used for initializing the model. The performance of WRF-COBEL is considered successful, since it realistically simulated the fog onset and dissipation better than the WRF alone. The COBEL's sensitivity to initial conditions such as temperature and specific humidity perturbations was also tested. It is found that a small increase of temperature (~1°C) counteracts fog development and results in less fog density. On the other hand, a small decrease of temperature results in much denser fog formation. It is concluded that the integrated model approach for aviation applications can be useful to study fog impact on local traffic and aviation.

  2. WRF nature run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalakes, J.; Hacker, J.; Loft, R.; McCracken, M. O.; Snavely, A.; Wright, N. J.; Spelce, T.; Gorda, B.; Walkup, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is a model of the atmosphere for mesoscale research and operational numerical weather prediction (NWP). A petascale problem for WRF is a nature run that provides very high-resolution 'truth' against which more coarse simulations or perturbation runs may be com-pared for purposes of studying predictability, stochastic parameterization, and fundamental dynamics. We carried out a nature run involving an idealized high resolution rotating fluid on the hemisphere, at a size and resolution never before attempted, and used it to investigate scales that span the k-3 to k-5/3 kinetic energy spectral transition, via simulations. We used up to 15,360 processors of the New York Blue IBM BG/L machine at Stony Brook Uni-versity and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The grid we employed has 4486 by 4486 horizontal grid points and 101 vertical levels (2 billion cells) at 5km resolution; this is 32 times larger than the previously largest 63 million cell 2.5km resolution WRF CONUS benchmark [10]). To solve a problem of this size, we worked through issues of parallel I/O and scalability and employed more processors than have ever been used in a WRF run. We achieved a sustained 3.4 Tflop/s on the New York Blue sys-tem, inputting and then generating an enormous amount of data to produce a scientifically meaningful result. More than 200 GB of data was input to initialize the run, which then generated output datasets of 40 GB each simulated hour. The cost of output was considered a key component of our investigation. Then we ran the same problem on more than 12K processors of the XT4 system at NERSC and achieved 8.8 Tflop/s. Our primary result however is not just scalability and a high Tflop/s number, but capture of atmosphere features never before represented by simulation, and taking an important step towards understanding weather predict-ability at high resolution.

  3. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  4. Coupling WRF Double-Moment 6-Class Microphysics Schemes to RRTMG Radiation Scheme in Weather Research Forecasting Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Soo Ya; Hong, Song-You; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny

    2016-01-01

    A method to explicitly calculate the effective radius of hydrometeors in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) double-moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics scheme is designed to tackle the physical inconsistency in cloud properties between the microphysics and radiation processes. At each model time step, the calculated effective radii of hydrometeors from the WDM6 scheme are linked to the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) scheme to consider the cloud effects in radiative flux calculation. This coupling effect of cloud properties between the WDM6 and RRTMG algorithms is examined for a heavy rainfall event in Korea during 25–27 July 2011, and it is compared to the results from the control simulation in which the effective radius is prescribed as a constant value. It is found that the derived radii of hydrometeors in the WDM6 scheme are generally larger than the prescribed values in the RRTMG scheme. Consequently, shortwave fluxes reaching the ground (SWDOWN) are increased over less cloudy regions, showing a better agreement with a satellite image. The overall distribution of the 24-hour accumulated rainfall is not affected but its amount is changed. A spurious rainfall peak over the Yellow Sea is alleviated, whereas the local maximum in the central part of the peninsula is increased.

  5. Coupling WRF double-moment 6-class microphysics schemes to RRTMG radiation scheme in weather research forecasting model

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Soo Ya; Hong, Song -You; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny

    2016-01-01

    A method to explicitly calculate the effective radius of hydrometeors in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) double-moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics scheme is designed to tackle the physical inconsistency in cloud properties between the microphysics and radiation processes. At each model time step, the calculated effective radii of hydrometeors from the WDM6 scheme are linked to the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) scheme to consider the cloud effects in radiative flux calculation. This coupling effect of cloud properties between the WDM6 and RRTMG algorithms is examined for a heavy rainfall event in Korea during 25–27 July 2011, and itmore » is compared to the results from the control simulation in which the effective radius is prescribed as a constant value. It is found that the derived radii of hydrometeors in the WDM6 scheme are generally larger than the prescribed values in the RRTMG scheme. Consequently, shortwave fluxes reaching the ground (SWDOWN) are increased over less cloudy regions, showing a better agreement with a satellite image. The overall distribution of the 24-hour accumulated rainfall is not affected but its amount is changed. In conclusion, a spurious rainfall peak over the Yellow Sea is alleviated, whereas the local maximum in the central part of the peninsula is increased.« less

  6. Coupling WRF double-moment 6-class microphysics schemes to RRTMG radiation scheme in weather research forecasting model

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Soo Ya; Hong, Song -You; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny

    2016-01-01

    A method to explicitly calculate the effective radius of hydrometeors in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) double-moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics scheme is designed to tackle the physical inconsistency in cloud properties between the microphysics and radiation processes. At each model time step, the calculated effective radii of hydrometeors from the WDM6 scheme are linked to the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) scheme to consider the cloud effects in radiative flux calculation. This coupling effect of cloud properties between the WDM6 and RRTMG algorithms is examined for a heavy rainfall event in Korea during 25–27 July 2011, and it is compared to the results from the control simulation in which the effective radius is prescribed as a constant value. It is found that the derived radii of hydrometeors in the WDM6 scheme are generally larger than the prescribed values in the RRTMG scheme. Consequently, shortwave fluxes reaching the ground (SWDOWN) are increased over less cloudy regions, showing a better agreement with a satellite image. The overall distribution of the 24-hour accumulated rainfall is not affected but its amount is changed. In conclusion, a spurious rainfall peak over the Yellow Sea is alleviated, whereas the local maximum in the central part of the peninsula is increased.

  7. Downslope windstorm in Iceland - WRF/MM5 model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rögnvaldsson, Ó.; Bao, J.-W.; Ágústsson, H.; Ólafsson, H.

    2011-01-01

    A severe windstorm downstream of Mt. Öræfajökull in Southeast Iceland is simulated on a grid of 1 km horizontal resolution by using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the Advanced Research WRF model. Both models are run with a new, two equation planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme as well as the ETA/MYJ PBL schemes. The storm is also simulated using six different micro-physics schemes in combination with the MYJ PBL scheme in WRF, as well as one "dry" run. Output from a 3 km MM5 domain simulation is used to initialise and drive both the 1 km MM5 and WRF simulations. Both models capture gravity-wave breaking over Mt. Öræfajökull, while the vertical structure of the lee wave differs between the two models and the PBL schemes. The WRF simulated downslope winds, using both the MYJ and 2EQ PBL schemes, are in good agreement with the strength of the observed downslope windstorm. The MM5 simulated surface winds, with the new two equation model, are in better agreement to observations than when using the ETA scheme. Micro-physics processes are shown to play an important role in the formation of downslope windstorms and a correctly simulated moisture distribution is decisive for a successful windstorm prediction. Of the micro-physics schemes tested, only the Thompson scheme captures the downslope windstorm.

  8. Advancing Scientific Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, Lisa, Ed.; Wise, Lauress L., Ed.; Winters, Tina M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The title of this report reveals its purpose precisely: to spur actions that will advance scientific research in education. The recommendations for accomplishing this goal, detailed in this report, build on the National Research Council (NRC) report "Scientific Research in Education" (National Research Council, 2002). That report offers an…

  9. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation.

  10. Precipitation- and soil moisture variability in Germany: Fully coupled WRF-Hydro vs. standard WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Rummler, Thomas; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a crucial role in land-atmosphere interactions. Land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to be strongest in transition zones between wet and dry land surfaces. It is therefore questionable whether a physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in a numerical model would improve the realism of the simulated atmosphere. This question is investigated here for a two-year period in Germany, including a one-year spinup time, using the hydrologically enhanced version of the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model, namely WRF-Hydro. The simulated domain covers Germany and neighboring areas. Atmospheric processes are resolved on a 4km resolution grid with explicit convection, whereas hydrological processes, namely overland flow, subsurface lateral flow and river flow, are resolved on a subgrid at 400 m resolution. This WRF-Hydro setup is run for several values of the surface infiltration parameter, in order to evaluate model result uncertainty originating from uncertainty in the description of terrestrial hydrological processes. Soil moisture variability deduced from this WRF-Hydro ensemble is compared with that deduced from a WRF-standalone ensemble. WRF and WRF-Hydro results are validated with daily gridded E-OBS datasets of precipitation and temperature from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset, and daily discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Center GRDC. The impact of the physically-enhanced description of soil moisture variability in WRF-Hydro is finally investigated with the concept of soil moisture memory.

  11. Representation of the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer in the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model: A sensitivity analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Martin; Cavazos, Carolina; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-01

    The Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) during summer is one of the deepest on Earth, and is crucial in controlling the vertical redistribution and long-range transport of dust in the Sahara. The SABL is typically made up of an actively growing convective layer driven by high sensible heating at the surface, with a deep, near-neutrally stratified Saharan residual layer (SRL) above it, which is mostly well mixed in humidity and temperature and reaches a height of ˜5-6km. These two layers are usually separated by a weak (≤1K) temperature inversion. Model representation of the SPBL structure and evolution is important for accurate weather/climate and aerosol prediction. In this work, we evaluate model performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) to represent key multi-scale processes in the SABL during summer 2011, including depiction of the diurnal cycle. For this purpose, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the performance of seven PBL schemes (YSU, MYJ, QNSE, MYNN, ACM, Boulac and MRF) and two land-surface model (Noah and RUC) schemes. In addition, the sensitivity to the choice of lateral boundary conditions (ERA-Interim and NCEP) and land use classification maps (USGS and MODIS-based) is tested. Model outputs were confronted upper-air and surface observations from the Fennec super-site at Bordj Moktar and automatic weather station (AWS) in Southern Algeria Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature and water vapour mixing ratio were examined to diagnose differences in PBL heights and model efficacy to reproduce the diurnal cycle of the SABL. We find that the structure of the model SABL is most sensitive the choice of land surface model and lateral boundary conditions and relatively insensitive to the PBL scheme. Overall the model represents well the diurnal cycle in the structure of the SABL. Consistent model biases include (i) a moist (1-2 gkg-1) and slightly cool (~1K) bias in the daytime convective boundary layer (ii

  12. Prototype of an Integrated Hurricane Information System for Research: Description and Illustration of its Use in Evaluating WRF Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, S.; Chao, Y.; Vane, D.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P. P.; Knosp, B.; Vu, Q. A.; Su, H.; Dang, V.; Fovell, R.; Tanelli, S.; Garay, M.; Willis, J.; Poulsen, W.; Fishbein, E.; Ao, C. O.; Vazquez, J.; Park, K. J.; Callahan, P.; Marcus, S.; Haddad, Z.; Fetzer, E.; Kahn, R.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of recent improvements in hurricane track forecast accuracy, currently there are still many unanswered questions about the physical processes that determine hurricane genesis, intensity, track and impact on large- scale environment. Furthermore, a significant amount of work remains to be done in validating hurricane forecast models, understanding their sensitivities and improving their parameterizations. None of this can be accomplished without a comprehensive set of multiparameter observations that are relevant to both the large- scale and the storm-scale processes in the atmosphere and in the ocean. To address this need, we have developed a prototype of a comprehensive hurricane information system of high- resolution satellite, airborne and in-situ observations and model outputs pertaining to: i) the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; ii) the air-sea interaction processes; iii) the larger-scale environment as depicted by the SST, ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Our goal was to create a one-stop place to provide the researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane data, and their graphical representation, together with large-scale and convection-resolving model output, all organized in an easy way to determine when coincident observations from multiple instruments are available. Analysis tools will be developed in the next step. The analysis tools will be used to determine spatial, temporal and multiparameter covariances that are needed to evaluate model performance, provide information for data assimilation and characterize and compare observations from different platforms. We envision that the developed hurricane information system will help in the validation of the hurricane models, in the systematic understanding of their sensitivities and in the improvement of the physical parameterizations employed by the models. Furthermore, it will help in studying the physical processes that affect

  13. Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Vernon; Rachidi, Farhad

    2017-02-01

    This is the part II of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  14. Advances in Electrophysiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological measures of brain function are effective tools to understand neurocognitive phenomena and sensitive indicators of pathophysiological processes associated with various clinical conditions, including alcoholism. Individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and their high-risk offspring have consistently shown dysfunction in several electrophysiological measures in resting state (i.e., electroencephalogram) and during cognitive tasks (i.e., event-related potentials and event-related oscillations). Researchers have recently developed sophisticated signal-processing techniques to characterize different aspects of brain dynamics, which can aid in identifying the neural mechanisms underlying alcoholism and other related complex disorders. These quantitative measures of brain function also have been successfully used as endophenotypes to identify and help understand genes associated with AUD and related disorders. Translational research also is examining how brain electrophysiological measures potentially can be applied to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26259089

  15. An assessment of the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model representation of near-surface meteorological variables over West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony; Turner, John; Bannister, Daniel; Pope, James O.; Colwell, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Despite the recent significant climatic changes observed over West Antarctica, which include large warming in central West Antarctica and accelerated ice loss, adequate validation of regional simulations of meteorological variables are rare for this region. To address this gap, results from a recent version of the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) covering West Antarctica at a high horizontal resolution of 5 km were validated against near-surface meteorological observations. The model employed physics options that included the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino boundary layer scheme, the WRF Single Moment 5-Class cloud microphysics scheme, the new version of the rapid radiative transfer model for both shortwave and longwave radiation, and the Noah land surface model. Our evaluation finds this model to be a useful tool for realistically capturing the near-surface meteorological conditions. It showed high skill in simulating surface pressure (correlation ≥0.97), good skill for wind speed with better correlation at inland sites (0.7-0.8) compared to coastal sites (0.3-0.6), generally good representation of strong wind events, and good skill for temperature in winter (correlation ≥0.8). The main shortcomings of this configuration of Polar WRF are an occasional failure to properly represent transient cyclones and their influence on coastal winds, an amplified diurnal temperature cycle in summer, and a general tendency to underestimate the wind speed at inland sites in summer. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to quantify the impact of the choice of boundary layer scheme and surface boundary conditions. It is shown that the model is most sensitive to the choice of boundary layer scheme, with the representation of the temperature diurnal cycle in summer significantly improved by selecting the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer scheme. By contrast, the model results showed little sensitivity to whether the horizontal resolution was 5 or

  16. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  17. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  18. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  19. Advanced Current Collection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Research Projects Agency SContract N00014-76-C-0683 ARPA Order No. 3153 SC. J. Mole, D. L. Greene, I. R. McNab, J. L. Johnson, 0. S. Taylor, W. R. Gass ... Gass , W.R. 6. REPORT DATE 70 TOTAL NO OP PAGES 7b NO OF REFS May 1977 901 fan. CONTRACT OR GRANT No. 9a. ORIGINATOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) N00014-76-C-0683...considerations In the shunt design. In order for the solid brush to move radially in and out of the brush holder with rotor movement, the shunt-to-brush

  20. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  1. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single rotation and counterrotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight program; CRP-X1, the initial 5+5 Hamilton Standard counterrotating design; and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating G.E. design used in the proof of concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortexes are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from 3-D Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of 3-D unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined.

  2. Intercomparison of four cloud microphysics schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the simulation of summer monsoon precipitation in the Langtang Valley, Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Andrew; Couttet, Margaux; Collier, Emily; Immerzeel, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Better understanding of regional-scale precipitation patterns in the Himalayan region, and how these are affecting snow and ice, is critically required to increase our knowledge of the impacts of climate change on glaciers and snowpacks. This study examines how 4 different cloud microphysical schemes (Thompson, Morrison, WRF Single-Moment 5-class (WSM5; which is the WRF default scheme), and WRF Double-Moment 6-class (WDM6)) simulated precipitation in the Langtang Valley, Himalayas during the summer monsoon in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The precipitation is simulated for a ten-day period during July 2012 at high spatial-resolution (1.1 km) so as to simulate the local conditions in great detail. The model results are validated through a comparison with precipitation and radiation measurements made at two observation sites located on the main Langtang Valley floor and the mountain slopes. Analysis of water vapour and hydrometeors from each of the 4 schemes are also investigated to elucidate the main microphysics processes. The results show that the choice of microphysics scheme has a strong influence on precipitation in the Langtang Valley, with the simulated precipitation exhibiting large inter-model differences and significantly different day-to-day variability compared to measurements. The inter-model differences in simulated radiation were less marked, although under cloudy conditions all schemes demonstrated a significant positive bias in incoming radiation. However, overall the Morrison scheme showed the best agreement in terms of both precipitation and radiation over the ten-day period, while the poorest performing scheme is WDM6. Analysis of microphysics outputs suggested that 'cold-rain processes' is a key precipitation formation mechanism. The good performance of the Morrison scheme is consistent with its double-moment prediction of every ice-phase hydrometeor, which is ideally suited to represent this mechanism. By contrast, WDM6 is

  3. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model describing the discharge chamber performance of high strength, cusped magnetic field ion thrusters is developed. The model is formulated in terms of the energy cost of producing ions in the discharge chamber and the fraction of ions produced in the discharge chamber that are extracted to form the ion beam. The accuracy of the model is verified experimentally in a series of tests wherein the discharge voltage, propellant, grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam diameter and discharge chamber wall temperature are varied. The model is exercised to demonstrate what variations in performance might be expected by varying discharge chamber parameters. The results of a study of xenon and argon orificed hollow cathodes are reported. These results suggest that a hollow cathode model developed from research conducted on mercury cathodes can also be applied to xenon and argon. Primary electron mean free paths observed in argon and xenon cathodes that are larger than those found in mercury cathodes are identified as a cause of performance differences between mercury and inert gas cathodes. Data required as inputs to the inert gas cathode model are presented so it can be used as an aid in cathode design.

  4. Superconductors (History & Advanced Research)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Mona

    2012-02-01

    Superconductors are materials that have no resistance to electricity's flow; they are one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery. In 1911 superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes When he cooled it to the temperature of liquid helium, 4 degrees Kelvin (-452F, -269C), its resistance suddenly disappeared. It was necessary for Onnes to come within 4 degrees of the coldest temperature that is theoretically attainable to witness the phenomenon of superconductivity. The next great milestone in understanding how matter behaves at extreme cold temperatures occurred in 1933. German researchers Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered that a superconducting material will repel a magnetic field. A magnet moving by a conductor induces currents in the conductor. This is the principle on which the electric generator operates. But, in a superconductor the induced currents exactly mirror the field that would have otherwise penetrated the superconducting material - causing the magnet to be repulsed. This phenomenon is known as strong diamagnetism and is today often referred to as the ``Meissner effect'' (an eponym). In 1941 niobium-nitride was found to superconduct at 16 K. In 1953 vanadium-silicon displayed superconductive properties at 17.5 K. And, in 1962 scientists at Westinghouse developed the first commercial superconducting wire, an alloy of niobium and titanium (NbTi).

  5. Coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and Large Eddy Simulations with Actuator Disk Model: predictions of wind farm power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo Javier; Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    A large-scale wind farm operating under realistic atmospheric conditions is studied by coupling a meso-scale and micro-scale models. For this purpose, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is coupled with an in-house LES solver for wind farms. The code is based on a finite difference scheme, with a Runge-Kutta, fractional step and the Actuator Disk Model. The WRF model has been configured using seven one-way nested domains where the child domain has a mesh size one third of its parent domain. A horizontal resolution of 70 m is used in the innermost domain. A section from the smallest and finest nested domain, 7.5 diameters upwind of the wind farm is used as inlet boundary condition for the LES code. The wind farm consists in six-turbines aligned with the mean wind direction and streamwise spacing of 10 rotor diameters, (D), and 2.75D in the spanwise direction. Three simulations were performed by varying the velocity fluctuations at the inlet: random perturbations, precursor simulation, and recycling perturbation method. Results are compared with a simulation on the same wind farm with an ideal uniform wind speed to assess the importance of the time varying incoming wind velocity. Numerical simulations were performed at TACC (Grant CTS070066). This work was supported by NSF, (Grant IIA-1243482 WINDINSPIRE).

  6. ISAAC Advanced Composites Research Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication capability to support the Center's advanced research and technology mission. The system introduced in this paper is named ISAAC (Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites). The initial operational capability of ISAAC is automated fiber placement, built around a commercial system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a purpose-built fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of the advanced materials, structures, structural concepts, fabrication processes and technology development that may be enabled using the ISAAC system. The fiber placement end effector may be used directly or with appropriate modifications for these studies, or other end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  7. Advanced aerodynamics. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains selected NASA papers that were presented at the Fifth Annual Status Review of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Energy Efficient Transport (EET) Program held at Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California on September 14 to 15, 1981. These papers describe the status of several NASA in-house research activities in the areas of advanced turboprops, natural laminar flow, oscillating control surfaces, high-Reynolds-number airfoil tests, high-lift technology, and theoretical design techniques.

  8. Advanced Information System Research Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    realistic near-term achievements. The research program objectives are to develop , manage , and coordinate activities relating to the following: o... development ; o Development and demonstration of tools, techniques, procedures, and advanced design concepts applicable to future management ... management is consolidated under the Division Property Book Officer. Property book accountability is maintained under the provisions of AR 735-35, and

  9. Advances in Teacher Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere E.

    2010-01-01

    Classroom research on process-outcome relationships had burgeoned in recent years, revealing notable methodological advances and sensible, replicated findings. The studies of the early 1970s supporting direct instruction as particularly effective for producing achievement in basic skills in the early grades have been replicated and extended to…

  10. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  11. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  12. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  13. Advancing musculoskeletal research with nanoscience.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cameron P

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscience has arrived. Biological applications of nanoscience are particularly prominent and can be useful in a range of disciplines. Advances in nanoscience are underpinning breakthroughs in biomedical research and are beginning to be adopted by the rheumatology and musculoskeletal science communities. Within these fields, nanoscience can be applied to imaging, drug delivery, implant development, regenerative medicine, and the characterization of nanoscale features of cells, matrices and biomaterials. Nanoscience and nanotechnology also provide means by which the interaction of cells with their environment can be studied, thereby increasing the understanding of disease and regenerative processes. Although its potential is clear, nanoscience research tends to be highly technical, generally targeting an audience of physicists, chemists, materials scientists and engineers, and is difficult for a general audience to follow. This Review aims to step back from the most technical aspects of nanoscience and provide a widely accessible view of how it can be applied to advance the field of rheumatology, with an emphasis on technologies that can have an immediate impact on rheumatology and musculoskeletal research.

  14. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  15. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  16. Developments with the planetWRF and planetMPAS Planetary Atmospheric Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark I.; Lee, Christopher; Lian, Yuan; Mischna, Michael A.; Newman, Claire E.; Toigo, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    planetWRF is based upon the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and has been applied to Mars, Titan and Pluto. planetWRF offers global-scale, two-way interactive nested mesoscale, and microscale LES simulation of planetary atmospheres using a rectangular grid.Recently, a fully-coupled dust and water cycle aerosol scheme has been introduced based on Morrison and Gettelman [Lee et al., this conference]. The scheme treats both dust and water ice as two-moment distributions. Significantly, the scheme treats all processes (nucleation, growth, advection, sedimentation, radiation) using the two-moment distributions, with no lossy conversion between spectral and radius-bin representation.The LES modeing capability has been augmented with the ability to import HiRISE DTMs to allow simulation of small-scale flow over topography including the first order effects of local slope and shadowing. Simulations of Victoria crater (visited by Opportunity) show dramatic variations of surface temperature on scales of a few meters during the morning and distinct changes in the patterns of wind stress as the crater interior is coupled and decoupled from boundary layer convection at different times. The LES has also been augmented to run with dynamically and radiatively interactive dust.planetMPAS is based upon the NCAR Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), an unstructured mesh model that allows for far more uniform resolution of the whole globe, uses a fully compressible nonhydrostatic dynamical core, and an advanced terrain-following coordinate system. The MPAS model been designed to use WRF physics routines. As such, planetMPAS and planetWRF are alternate dynamical cores within the same modeling system. planetMPAS has major advantages over WRF for certain kinds of global simulations: high-precision tracer problems, e.g. Argon transport on Mars; uniform resolution of polar regions, e.g. water ice cap interactions with the martian global water cycle; and convection

  17. Recent advances in shoulder research.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-06-15

    Shoulder pathology is a growing concern for the aging population, athletes, and laborers. Shoulder osteoarthritis and rotator cuff disease represent the two most common disorders of the shoulder leading to pain, disability, and degeneration. While research in cartilage regeneration has not yet been translated clinically, the field of shoulder arthroplasty has advanced to the point that joint replacement is an excellent and viable option for a number of pathologic conditions in the shoulder. Rotator cuff disease has been a significant focus of research activity in recent years, as clinicians face the challenge of poor tendon healing and irreversible changes associated with rotator cuff arthropathy. Future treatment modalities involving biologics and tissue engineering hold further promise to improve outcomes for patients suffering from shoulder pathologies.

  18. Effect of horizontal and vertical resolution for wind resource assessment in Metro Manila, Philippines using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Jerome T.; Rejuso, Ma. Victoria; Inocencio, Loureal Camille; Ang, Ma. Rosario Concepcion; Bagtasa, Gerry

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy is one of the best options for renewable energy such that, many researchers work on wind resource assessment, specifically using numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to forecast atmospheric behavior on a given domain. In addition, every combination of parameterization configuration influences wind assessment. At the same time, choosing the optimum vertical and horizontal resolution may affect its output and processing time. Regardless of available researches, most of them focuses on mid-latitude area but not in tropical areas like the Philippines. In the study, sensitivity analysis of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with 4 configurations was performed. The duration of the simulation was from January 1, 2014 00:00 to December 31, 2014 23:00. The parameters involved were horizontal resolution and vertical levels. Also, meteorological input data from NCEP Final Analysis with 1 degree resolution every 6 hours was used. For validation, wind speed measurements at 10 m height from NOAA Integrated Surface Database (ISD) were utilized, of which, the 3 weather stations are located in Manila, Science Garden and Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). The results show that increasing horizontal resolution from 4 km to 1 km have no significant increase to wind speed accuracy. In majority, higher vertical levels tend to increase its accuracy. Moreover, the model has higher accuracy during the rainy season and months of April and May. Overall, the model overestimated the observed wind speed but the diurnal cycle of wind speed follows all the simulation.

  19. The Impact of Incongruous Lake Temperatures on Regional Climate Extremes Downscaled from the CMIP5 Archive Using the WRF Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of incongruous lake temperatures is demonstrated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to downscale global climate fields. Unrealistic lake temperatures prescribed by the default WRF configuration cause obvious biases near the lakes and also affect pre...

  20. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advanced research. 37.1210 Section 37.1210... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous...

  1. DEVELOPING MCIP TO PROCESS WRF-EM OUTPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes modifications that were made to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System's Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) to ingest a new meteorological model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. This presentation al...

  2. Initial results on computational performance of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture: implementation of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) Purdue-Lin microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Purdue-Lin scheme is a relatively sophisticated microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme includes six classes of hydro meteors: water vapor, cloud water, raid, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. In this paper, we accelerate the Purdue Lin scheme using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi is a high performance coprocessor consists of up to 61 cores. The Xeon Phi is connected to a CPU via the PCI Express (PICe) bus. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the code optimization issues encountered while tuning the Purdue-Lin microphysics Fortran code for Xeon Phi. In particularly, getting a good performance required utilizing multiple cores, the wide vector operations and make efficient use of memory. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 4.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 CPU by a factor of 1.2x compared to the original code.

  3. WRF4G project: Adaptation of WRF Model to Distributed Computing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofino, Antonio S.; Fernández Quiruelas, Valvanuz; García Díez, Markel; Blanco Real, Jose C.; Fernández, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays Grid Computing is powerful computational tool which is ready to be used for scientific community in different areas (such as biomedicine, astrophysics, climate, etc.). However, the use of this distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) is not yet common practice in climate research, and only a few teams and applications in this area take advantage of this infrastructure. Thus, the first objective of this project is to popularize the use of this technology in the atmospheric sciences area. In order to achieve this objective, one of the most used applications has been taken (WRF; a limited- area model, successor of the MM5 model), that has a user community formed by more than 8000 researchers worldwide. This community develop its research activity on different areas and could benefit from the advantages of Grid resources (case study simulations, regional hind-cast/forecast, sensitivity studies, etc.). The WRF model is been used as input by many energy and natural hazards community, therefore those community will also benefit. However, Grid infrastructures have some drawbacks for the execution of applications that make an intensive use of CPU and memory for a long period of time. This makes necessary to develop a specific framework (middleware). This middleware encapsulates the application and provides appropriate services for the monitoring and management of the jobs and the data. Thus, the second objective of the project consists on the development of a generic adaptation of WRF for Grid (WRF4G), to be distributed as open-source and to be integrated in the official WRF development cycle. The use of this WRF adaptation should be transparent and useful to face any of the previously described studies, and avoid any of the problems of the Grid infrastructure. Moreover it should simplify the access to the Grid infrastructures for the research teams, and also to free them from the technical and computational aspects of the use of the Grid. Finally, in order to

  4. Recent advances in betalain research.

    PubMed

    Strack, Dieter; Vogt, Thomas; Schliemann, Willibald

    2003-02-01

    Betalains replace the anthocyanins in flowers and fruits of plants of most families of the Caryophyllales. Unexpectedly, they were also found in some higher fungi. Whereas the anthocyanin-analogous functions of betalains in flower and fruit colouration are obvious, their role in fungi remains obscure. The nature of newly identified betalains as well as final structure elucidation of earlier putatively described compounds published within the last decade is compiled in this report. Recent advances in research on betalain biosynthesis is also covered, including description of some 'early' reactions, i.e. betalain-specific dopa formation in plants and fungi and extradiolic dopa cleavage in fungi. Work on betalain-specific glucosyltransferases (GTs) has given new insights into the evolution of secondary plant enzymes. It is proposed that these GTs are phylogenetically related to flavonoid GTs. It was found that the decisive steps in betalain biosynthesis, i.e. condensation of the betalain chromophore betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa and amino acids or amines in the respective aldimine formation of the red-violet betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins, are most likely to be non-enzymatic. Betalains have attracted workers in applied fields because of their use for food colouring and their antioxidant and radical scavenging properties for protection against certain oxidative stress-related disorders.

  5. Assimilation of GPM GMI Rainfall Product with WRF GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Zavodsky, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide. The GPM built on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) legacy, while the core observatory will extend the observations to higher latitudes. The GPM observations can help advance our understanding of precipitation microphysics and storm structures. Launched on February 27th, 2014, the GPM core observatory is carrying advanced instruments that can be used to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. Therefore, the use of GPM data in numerical modeling work is a new area and will have a broad impact in both research and operational communities. The goal of this research is to examine the methodology of assimilation of the GPM retrieved products. The data assimilation system used in this study is the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model developed by the Development Testbed Center (DTC). The community GSI system runs in independently environment, yet works functionally equivalent to operational centers. With collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, this research explores regional assimilation of the GPM products with case studies. Our presentation will highlight our recent effort on the assimilation of the GPM product 2AGPROFGMI, the retrieved Microwave Imager (GMI) rainfall rate data for initializing a real convective storm. WRF model simulations and storm scale data assimilation experiments will be examined, emphasizing both model initialization and short-term forecast of precipitation fields and processes. In addition, discussion will be provided on the development of enhanced assimilation procedures in the GSI system with respect to other GPM products. Further details of the methodology of data assimilation, preliminary result and test on the impact of GPM data and the

  6. An Integrated High Resolution Hydrometeorological Modeling Testbed using LIS and WRF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Eastman, Joseph L.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have made great strides in modeling physical processes that represent various weather and climate phenomena. Many modeling systems that represent the major earth system components (the atmosphere, land surface, and ocean) have been developed over the years. However, developing advanced Earth system applications that integrates these independently developed modeling systems have remained a daunting task due to limitations in computer hardware and software. Recently, efforts such as the Earth System Modeling Ramework (ESMF) and Assistance for Land Modeling Activities (ALMA) have focused on developing standards, guidelines, and computational support for coupling earth system model components. In this article, the development of a coupled land-atmosphere hydrometeorological modeling system that adopts these community interoperability standards, is described. The land component is represented by the Land Information System (LIS), developed by scientists at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, is used as the atmospheric component. LIS includes several community land surface models that can be executed at spatial scales as fine as 1km. The data management capabilities in LIS enable the direct use of high resolution satellite and observation data for modeling. Similarly, WRF includes several parameterizations and schemes for modeling radiation, microphysics, PBL and other processes. Thus the integrated LIS-WRF system facilitates several multi-model studies of land-atmosphere coupling that can be used to advance earth system studies.

  7. Impact of Gas-Phase Mechanisms on Weather Research Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) Predictions: Mechanism Implementation and Comparative Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase mechanisms provide important oxidant and gaseous precursors for secondary aerosol formation. Different gas-phase mechanisms may lead to different predictions of gases, aerosols, and aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, WRF/Chem-MADRID simulations are cond...

  8. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  9. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  10. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  11. 32 CFR 37.1210 - Advanced research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. Research that creates new technology or demonstrates the viability of applying existing technology to new products and processes in a general way. Advanced research is most closely analogous to precompetitive technology development in the commercial sector (i.e., early phases of research and development...

  12. New Advances in Brain Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, Lori Perkins

    2002-01-01

    Recent findings in brain research suggest the implementation of contemporary instructional practices is in order for base practices. Incorporating best practice research is critical for students to be competitive in a global market. This article provides a brief overview of educational philosophy, recent findings on brain research and language…

  13. Application of a Coupled WRF-Hydro Model for Extreme Flood Events in the Mediterranean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Erick; Givati, Amir

    2015-04-01

    More accurate simulation of precipitation and streamflow is a challenge that can be addressed by using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in conjunction with the hydrological model coupling extension package (WRF-Hydro).This is demonstrated for the country of Israel and surrounding regions. Simulations from the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system were verified against measurements from rain gauges and hydrometric stations in the domain for the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 winters (wet seasons). These periods were characterized by many punctuated hydrometeorological and hydroclimatic events, including both severe drought and extreme floods events. The WRF model simulations were initialized with 0.5 degree NOAA/NCEP GFS model data. The model domain was set up with 3 domains, up to 3km grid spacing resolution. The model configuration used here constitutes a fully distributed, 3-dimensional, variably-saturated surface and subsurface flow model. Application of terrain routing and, subsequently, channel and reservoir routing functions, to the uni-dimensional NOAA land surface model was motivated by the need to account for increased complexity in land surface states and fluxes and to provide a more physically-realistic conceptualization of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The simulation results indicated a good agreement with actual peak discharges for extreme flood events and for full hydrographs. Specifically the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro model as configured in this study shows improvement in simulated precipitation over one way WRF precipitation simulations. The correlation between the observed and the simulated precipitation using the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system was higher than the standalone WRF model, especially for convective precipitation events that affect arid regions in the domain. The results suggest that the coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro system has potential for flood forecasting and flood warning purposes at 0-72 hour lead times for large cool season storm

  14. User's Guide - WRF Lightning Assimilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes how to run WRF with the lightning assimilation technique described in Heath et al. (2016). The assimilation method uses gridded lightning data to trigger and suppress sub-grid deep convection in Kain-Fritsch.

  15. Advances in Education Research. Volume 2, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1997

    1997-01-01

    "Advances in Education Research" reprints previously published journal articles reporting on research supported in whole or in part by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). The articles are selected from peer-reviewed/referred journals; the journals used are described briefy at the end of the volume. The articles in…

  16. Teaching Research Synthesis to Advanced Practice Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Sandra; Brosnan, Christine A.; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2002-01-01

    A process for teaching research synthesis to advanced practice nurses includes two courses: a first research applications course in which students build bibliographic databases, practice statistical analysis, and develop search skills; and a second course in which they complete literature reviews or meta analyses of research on clinical practice…

  17. Bringing Advanced Computational Techniques to Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Julie C

    2012-11-17

    Please find attached our final technical report for the BACTER Institute award. BACTER was created as a graduate and postdoctoral training program for the advancement of computational biology applied to questions of relevance to bioenergy research.

  18. Application of Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) over northern China: Sensitivity study, comparative evaluation, and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    An extremely severe and persistent haze event occurred over the middle and eastern China in January 2013, with the record-breaking high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an online-coupled meteorology-air quality model, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), is applied to simulate this pollution episode over East Asia and northern China at 36- and 12-km grid resolutions. A number of simulations are conducted to examine the sensitivities of the model predictions to various physical schemes. The results show that all simulations give similar predictions for temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity, but large variations exist in the prediction for precipitation. The concentrations of PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are overpredicted partially due to the lack of wet scavenging by the chemistry-aerosol option with the 1999 version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC-99) mechanism with the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) and the Volatility Basis Set (VBS) for secondary organic aerosol formation. The optimal set of configurations with the best performance is the simulation with the Gorddard shortwave and RRTM longwave radiation schemes, the Purdue Lin microphysics scheme, the Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme, and a nudging coefficient of 1 × 10-5 for water vapor mixing ratio. The emission sensitivity simulations show that the PM2.5 concentrations are most sensitive to nitrogen oxide (NOx) and SO2 emissions in northern China, but to NOx and ammonia (NH3) emissions in southern China. 30% NOx emission reductions may result in an increase in PM2.5 concentrations in northern China because of the NH3-rich and volatile organic compound (VOC) limited conditions over this area. VOC emission reductions will lead to a decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in eastern China

  19. Therapists and researchers: Advancing collaboration

    PubMed Central

    GARLAND, ANN F.; BROOKMAN-FRAZEE, LAUREN

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative partnerships between community-based clinicians and academic researchers have the potential to improve the relevance, utility, and feasibility of research, as well as the effectiveness of practice. Collaborative partnership research from a variety of fields can inform the development and maintenance of effective partnerships. In this paper we present a conceptual model of research-community practice partnership derived from literature across disciplines and then illustrate application of this model to one case example. The case example is a multi-year partnership between an interdisciplinary group of community-based psychotherapists and a team of mental health researchers. This partnership was initiated to support federally funded research on community-based out-patient mental health care for children with disruptive behavior problems, but it has evolved to drive and support new intervention studies with different clinical foci. Lessons learned from this partnership process will be shared and interpreted in the context of the presented research-practice partnership model. PMID:24224554

  20. Advancing Educational Policy by Advancing Research on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impact of "instructional regimes" on student learning is central to advancing educational policy. Research on instructional regimes has parallels with clinical trials in medicine yet poses unique challenges because of the social nature of instruction: A child's potential outcome under a given regime depends on peers and teachers,…

  1. Investigating the Impact on Modeled Ozone Concentrations Using Meteorological Fields From WRF With and Updated Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Approach”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) technique in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model has recently undergone an important update from the original version. Previous evaluation results have demonstrated that the updated FDDA approach in WRF pr...

  2. Development and initial application of the global-through-urban weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (GU-WRF/Chem)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Karamchandani, Prakash; Glotfelty, Timothy; Streets, David G.; Grell, Georg; Nenes, Athanasios; Yu, Fangqun; Bennartz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    A unified model framework with online-coupled meteorology and chemistry and consistent model treatments across spatial scales is required to realistically simulate chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation-precipitation-climate interactions. In this work, a global-through-urban WRF/Chem model (i.e., GU-WRF/Chem) has been developed to provide such a unified model framework to simulate these important interactions across a wide range of spatial scales while reducing uncertainties from the use of offline-coupled model systems with inconsistent model treatments. Evaluation against available observations shows that GU-WRF/Chem is capable of reproducing observations with comparable or superior fidelity than existing mesoscale models. The net effect of atmospheric aerosols is to decrease shortwave and longwave radiation, NO2photolysis rate, near-surface temperature, wind speed at 10-m, planetary boundary layer height, and precipitation as well as to increase relative humidity at 2-m, aerosol optical depths, column cloud condensation nuclei, cloud optical thickness, and cloud droplet number concentrations at all scales. As expected, such feedbacks also change the abundance and lifetimes of chemical species through changing radiation, atmospheric stability, and the rates of many meteorologically-dependent chemical and microphysical processes. The use of higher resolutions in progressively nested domains from the global to local scale notably improves the model performance of some model predictions (especially for chemical predictions) and also captures spatial variability of aerosol feedbacks that cannot be simulated at a coarser grid resolution. Simulated aerosol, radiation, and cloud properties exhibit small-to-high sensitivity to various nucleation and aerosol activation parameterizations. Representing one of the few unified global-through-urban models, GU-WRF/Chem can be applied to simulate air quality and its interactions with meteorology and climate and to quantify the impact

  3. Editorial - Advances in lightning research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-12-01

    This is the part I of a special issue dedicated to lightning research, consisting of papers presented at the 32nd International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), held in Shanghai, China, in 2014, and several contributions invited by the guest editors to complement the subject matter of the papers selected from the ICLP. The papers from the ICLP were selected by the session chairmen of the ICLP and passed through the rigorous review process of the Journal of Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Physics (JASTP). The papers presented in this special issue contain subject matter pertinent to all aspects of lightning research both theoretical and experimental.

  4. Evaluation of a seven-year air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Hu, Jianlin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system in the eastern United States is analyzed based on results from a seven-year modeling study with a 4-km spatial resolution. For 2-m temperature, the monthly averaged mean bias (MB) and gross error (GE) values are generally within the recommended performance criteria, although temperature is over-predicted with MB values up to 2K. Water vapor at 2-m is well-predicted but significant biases (>2 g kg(-1)) were observed in wintertime. Predictions for wind speed are satisfactory but biased towards over-prediction with 0

  5. Advances in Bilingual Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; Padilla, Raymond V., Ed.

    Papers on theory, technology, and public policy in bilingualism and bilingual education are collected in this volume designed to fill the need for systematic, high quality research related to bilingual populations in the United States. Part 1, "Language and Culture," contains five papers that discuss first and second language development,…

  6. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The activities of the AGTSR Program during this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report text is divided into discussions on Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are highlighted below with additional detail following in the text of the report.

  7. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland have identified a compound in the popular vegetable that appears to decrease bone loss in laboratory studies using rat bone cells. It is suggested that eating onions might help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis, a disease, which predominantly affects older women.

  8. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  9. Advances in developmental prosopagnosia research.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-06-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) refers to face recognition deficits in the absence of brain damage. DP affects ∼2% of the population, and it often runs in families. DP studies have made considerable progress in identifying the cognitive and neural characteristics of the disorder. A key challenge is to develop a valid taxonomy of DP that will facilitate many aspects of research.

  10. An Operational Configuration of the ARPS Data Analysis System to Initialize WRF in the NM'S Environmental Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan; Blottman, Pete; Hoeth, Brian; Oram, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the next generation community mesoscale model designed to enhance collaboration between the research and operational sectors. The NM'S as a whole has begun a transition toward WRF as the mesoscale model of choice to use as a tool in making local forecasts. Currently, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) are running the Advanced Regional Prediction System (AIRPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) every 15 minutes over the Florida peninsula to produce high-resolution diagnostics supporting their daily operations. In addition, the NWS MLB and SMG have used ADAS to provide initial conditions for short-range forecasts from the ARPS numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Both NM'S MLB and SMG have derived great benefit from the maturity of ADAS, and would like to use ADAS for providing initial conditions to WRF. In order to assist in this WRF transition effort, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to configure and implement an operational version of WRF that uses output from ADAS for the model initial conditions. Both agencies asked the AMU to develop a framework that allows the ADAS initial conditions to be incorporated into the WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Developed by the NM'S Science Operations Officer (S00) Science and Training Resource Center (STRC), the EMS is a complete, full physics, NWP package that incorporates dynamical cores from both the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Non-Hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) into a single end-to-end forecasting system. The EMS performs nearly all pre- and postprocessing and can be run automatically to obtain external grid data for WRF boundary conditions, run the model, and convert the data into a format that can be readily viewed within the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

  11. Advances in Translational Medical Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    the first nodes that receive lymph drainage allowed for a change in practice  Results of the clinical trial contributed to what is now the current...Raskind Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research Got Nightmares? 2011 MHS Conference Quality of Life: Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy 25...multi-center clinical trial testing the validity and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in predicting the spread of disease  Accurately identifying

  12. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  13. Advances in personality theory and research.

    PubMed Central

    Stelmack, R M

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes important advances in personality research that have been achieved during the past 20 years in the development of a fundamental personality typology and in the determination of the heritability of personality traits. Research conducted at the University of Ottawa that has contributed to the exploration of the biological bases of the extraversion trait is summarized. PMID:1958646

  14. Research priorities for advanced fibrous composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented. Supporting evidence is presented in two bodies, including a general literature survey and a survey of aerospace composite hardware and service experience. Both surveys were undertaken during 1977-1979. Specific results and conclusions indicate that a significant portion of contemporary published research diverges from recommended priorites.

  15. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  16. [Research advancement about lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Yin, Shi-An

    2006-05-01

    Lactose intolerance associated with nutrition and health of human especially infant period of time and effect milk product intake. It is important significance to maintain health and cut down the aged risk of osteoporosis because lactose intolerance was understand about grouping, clinical symptom and diagnose. There are extensive perspective for understand prevent and control lactose intolerance for lactose gene polymorphism. It is effective method for earlier period detection gene screen with lactose typing for osteoporosis, however there are carry out multiplicity research in many ways to improve and control lactose intolerance

  17. Online-coupled modeling of volcanic ash and SO2 dispersion with WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, Martin; Egan, Sean; Webley, Peter; Grell, Georg; Freitas, Saulo; Pavolonis, Mike; Dehn, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    We included a volcanic emission and plume model into the Weather Research Forecast Model with inline Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The volcanic emission model with WRF-Chem has been tested and evaluated with historic eruptions, and the volcanic application was included into the official release of WRF-Chem beginning with WRF version 3.3 in 2011. Operational volcanic WRF-Chem runs have been developed using different domains centered on main volcanoes of the Aleutian chain and Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. The Global Forecast System (GFS) is used for the meteorological initialization of WRF-Chem, and default eruption source parameters serve as initial source data for the runs. We report on the model setup, and the advantages to treat the volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide emissions inline within the numerical weather prediction model. In addition we outline possibilities to initialize WRF-Chem with a fully automated algorithm to retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from satellite data. WRF-Chem runs from recent volcanic eruptions resulted in atmospheric ash loadings, which compared well with the satellite data taking into account that satellite retrieval data represent only a limited amount of the actually emitted source due to detection thresholds. In addition particle aggregative effects are not included in the WRF-Chem model to date.

  18. The Transition of High-Resolution NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperatures into the WRF Environmental Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlove, Gary J.; Santos, Pablo; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composite at 2-km resolution that has been implemented in version 3 of the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The WRF EMS is a complete, full physics numerical weather prediction package that incorporates dynamical cores from both the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). The installation, configuration, and execution of either the ARW or NMM models is greatly simplified by the WRF EMS to encourage its use by NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and the university community. The WRF EMS is easy to run on most Linux workstations and clusters without the need for compilers. Version 3 of the WRF EMS contains the most recent public release of the WRF-NMM and ARW modeling system (version 3 of the ARW is described in Skamarock et al. 2008), the WRF Pre-processing System (WPS) utilities, and the WRF Post-Processing program. The system is developed and maintained by the NWS National Science Operations Officer Science and Training Resource Coordinator. To initialize the WRF EMS with high-resolution MODIS SSTs, SPoRT developed the composite product consisting of MODIS SSTs over oceans and large lakes with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) filling data over land points. Filling the land points is required due to minor inconsistencies between the WRF land-sea mask and that used to generate the MODIS SST composites. This methodology ensures a continuous field that adequately initializes all appropriate arrays in WRF. MODIS composites covering the Gulf of Mexico, western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean are generated daily at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC corresponding to overpass times of the NASA Aqua and Terra polar orbiting satellites. The MODIS SST product is output in gridded binary-1 (GRIB-1) data

  19. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2000-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in the quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  1. A high resolution WRF model for wind energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Liu, Yubao

    2010-05-01

    diffusion constant caused damping of the unrealistic fluctuations, but did not completely solve the problem. Using two-way nesting also mitigated the unrealistic fluctuations significantly. It can be concluded that for real case LES modelling of wind farm circulations, care should be taken to ensure the consistency between the mesoscale weather forcing and LES models to avoid exciting spurious noise along the forcing boundary. The development of algorithms that adequately model the sub-grid-scale mixing that cannot be resolved by LES models is an important area for further research. References Liu, Y. Y._W. Liu, W. Y.Y. Cheng, W. Wu, T. T. Warner and K. Parks, 2009: Simulating intra-farm wind variations with the WRF-RTFDDA-LES modeling system. 10th WRF Users' Workshop, Boulder, C, USA. June 23 - 26, 2009. Skamarock, W., J. Dudhia, D.O. Gill, D.M. Barker, M.G.Duda, X-Y. Huang, W. Wang and J.G. Powers, A Description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3, NCAR Technical Note TN-475+STR, NCAR, Boulder, Colorado, 2008.

  2. Beyond competence: advance directives in dementia research.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Karin Rolanda; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is highly prevalent and incurable. The participation of dementia patients in clinical research is indispensable if we want to find an effective treatment for dementia. However, one of the primary challenges in dementia research is the patients' gradual loss of the capacity to consent. Patients with dementia are characterized by the fact that, at an earlier stage of their life, they were able to give their consent to participation in research. Therefore, the phase when patients are still competent to decide offers a valuable opportunity to authorize research, by using an advance research directive (ARD). Yet, the use of ARDs as an authorization for research participation remains controversial. In this paper we discuss the role of autonomous decision-making and the protection of incompetent research subjects. We will show why ARDs are a morally defensible basis for the inclusion of this population in biomedical research and that the use of ARDs is compatible with the protection of incompetent research subjects.

  3. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  4. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for the reporting period October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002 are described in this quarterly report. No new membership, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, six research progress reports were received (3 final reports and 3 semi-annual reports). The University of Central Florida contract SR080 was terminated during this period, as UCF was unable to secure research facilities. AGTSR now projects that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately 340-350K$.

  5. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    22 Figure 22: Warfighters in a DARPA Training Superiority program classroom ...technical Breakthroughs in DARPA or other research programs; program managers, it is easy to make decisions. This managemet style is essential to...Superiority program classroom . emotional involvement of multi-user computer games. 3.4. Advanced Manned and Unmanned Systems DARPA is working with the Army

  6. Numerical Prediction of Cold Season Fog Events over Complex Terrain: the Performance of the WRF Model During MATERHORN-Fog and Early Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Chachere, Catherine N.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    A field campaign to study cold season fog in complex terrain was conducted as a component of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program from 07 January to 01 February 2015 in Salt Lake City and Heber City, Utah, United States. To support the field campaign, an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to produce real-time forecasts and model evaluation. This paper summarizes the model performance and preliminary evaluation of the model against the observations. Results indicate that accurately forecasting fog is challenging for the WRF model, which produces large errors in the near-surface variables, such as relative humidity, temperature, and wind fields in the model forecasts. Specifically, compared with observations, the WRF model overpredicted fog events with extended duration in Salt Lake City because it produced higher moisture, lower wind speeds, and colder temperatures near the surface. In contrast, the WRF model missed all fog events in Heber City, as it reproduced lower moisture, higher wind speeds, and warmer temperatures against observations at the near-surface level. The inability of the model to produce proper levels of near-surface atmospheric conditions under fog conditions reflects uncertainties in model physical parameterizations, such as the surface layer, boundary layer, and microphysical schemes.

  7. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  8. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  9. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  10. Impacts of air-sea interactions on regional air quality predictions using WRF/Chem v3.6.1 coupled with ROMS v3.7: southeastern US example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; He, R.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Air-sea interactions have significant impacts on coastal convection and surface fluxes exchange, which are important for the spatial and vertical distributions of air pollutants that affect public health, particularly in densely populated coastal areas. To understand the impacts of air-sea interactions on coastal air quality predictions, sensitivity simulations with different cumulus parameterization schemes and atmosphere-ocean coupling are conducted in this work over southeastern US in July 2010 using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem). The results show that different cumulus parameterization schemes can result in an 85 m difference in the domain averaged planetary boundary layer height (PBLH), and 4.8 mm difference in the domain averaged daily precipitation. Comparing to WRF/Chem without air-sea interactions, WRF/Chem with a 1-D ocean mixed layer model (WRF/Chem-OML) and WRF/Chem coupled with a 3-D Regional Ocean Modeling System (WRF/Chem-ROMS) predict the domain averaged changes in the sea surface temperature of 0.1 and 1.0 °C, respectively. The simulated differences in the surface concentrations of ozone (O3) and PM2.5 between WRF/Chem-ROMS and WRF/Chem can be as large as 17.3 ppb and 7.9 μg m-3, respectively. The largest changes simulated from WRF/Chem-ROMS in surface concentrations of O3 and particulate matter with diameter less than and equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) occur not only along coast and remote ocean, but also over some inland areas. Extensive validations against observations, show that WRF/Chem-ROMS improves the predictions of most cloud and radiative variables, and surface concentrations of some chemical species such as sulfur dioxide, nitric acid, maximum 1 h and 8 h O3, sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, and particulate matter with diameter less than and equal to 10 μm (PM10). This illustrates the benefits and needs of using coupled atmospheric-ocean model with advanced model representations of air-sea interactions for

  11. Downscaling seasonal to centennial simulations on distributed computing infrastructures using WRF model. The WRF4G project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofino, A. S.; Fernández Quiruelas, V.; Blanco Real, J. C.; García Díez, M.; Fernández, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays Grid Computing is powerful computational tool which is ready to be used for scientific community in different areas (such as biomedicine, astrophysics, climate, etc.). However, the use of this distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) is not yet common practice in climate research, and only a few teams and applications in this area take advantage of this infrastructure. Thus, the WRF4G project objective is to popularize the use of this technology in the atmospheric sciences area. In order to achieve this objective, one of the most used applications has been taken (WRF; a limited- area model, successor of the MM5 model), that has a user community formed by more than 8000 researchers worldwide. This community develop its research activity on different areas and could benefit from the advantages of Grid resources (case study simulations, regional hind-cast/forecast, sensitivity studies, etc.). The WRF model is used by many groups, in the climate research community, to carry on downscaling simulations. Therefore this community will also benefit. However, Grid infrastructures have some drawbacks for the execution of applications that make an intensive use of CPU and memory for a long period of time. This makes necessary to develop a specific framework (middleware). This middleware encapsulates the application and provides appropriate services for the monitoring and management of the simulations and the data. Thus,another objective of theWRF4G project consists on the development of a generic adaptation of WRF to DCIs. It should simplify the access to the DCIs for the researchers, and also to free them from the technical and computational aspects of the use of theses DCI. Finally, in order to demonstrate the ability of WRF4G solving actual scientific challenges with interest and relevance on the climate science (implying a high computational cost) we will shown results from different kind of downscaling experiments, like ERA-Interim re-analysis, CMIP5 models

  12. Advanced heat pump research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  13. Development of Research Projects in Advanced Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping; Guha, Suchi

    2008-04-01

    Advanced laboratory serves as a bridge spanning primary physics laboratory and scientific research or industrial activities for undergraduate students. Students not only study modern physics experiments and techniques but also acquire the knowledge of advanced instrumentation. It is of interest to encourage students using the knowledge into research projects at a later stage of the course. We have designed several scientific projects for advanced laboratory to promote student's abilities of independent research. Students work as a team to select the project and search literatures, to perform experiments, and to give presentations. During the research project, instructor only provides necessary equipment for the project without any pre-knowledge of results, giving students a real flavor of scientific research. Our initial attempt has shown some interesting results. We found that students showed a very strong motivation in these projects, and student performances exceeded our expectation. Almost all the students in our first batch of the course have now joined graduate school in Physics and Materials Science. In the future we will also arrange graduate students working with undergraduate students to build a collaborative environment. In addition, a more comprehensive method will be used to evaluate student achievements.

  14. Sensitivity of WRF precipitation on microphysical and boundary layer parameterizations during extreme events in Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytharoulis, I.; Karagiannidis, A. F.; Brikas, D.; Katsafados, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Mavromatidis, E.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Karacostas, T. S.

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary atmospheric numerical models contain a large number of physical parameterization schemes in order to represent the various atmospheric processes that take place in sub-grid scales. The choice of the proper combination of such schemes is a challenging task for research and particularly for operational purposes. This choice becomes a very important decision in cases of high impact weather in which the forecast errors and the concomitant societal impacts are expected to be large. Moreover, it is well known that one of the hardest tasks for numerical models is to predict precipitation with a high degree of accuracy. The use of complex and sophisticated schemes usually requires more computational time and resources, but it does not necessarily lead to better forecasts. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the model predicted precipitation on the microphysical and boundary layer parameterizations during extreme events. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW Version 3.1.1) is utilized. It is a flexible, state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction system designed to operate in both research and operational mode in global and regional scales. Nine microphysical and two boundary layer schemes are combined in the sensitivity experiments. The 9 microphysical schemes are: i) Lin, ii) WRF Single Moment 5-classes, iii) Ferrier new Eta, iv) WRF Single Moment 6-classes, v) Goddard, vi) New Thompson V3.1, vii) WRF Double Moment 5-classes, viii) WRF Double Moment 6-classes, ix) Morrison. The boundary layer is parameterized using the schemes of: i) Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and ii) Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) level 2.5. The model is integrated at very high horizontal resolution (2 km x 2 km in the area of interest) utilizing 38 vertical levels. Three cases of high impact weather in Eastern Mediterranean, associated with strong synoptic scale forcing, are employed in the

  15. Evaluation of snowmelt simulation in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiming; Wen, Lijuan

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to better understand and improve snowmelt simulations in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by coupling it with the Community Land Model (CLM) Version 3.5. Both WRF and CLM are developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The automated Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) station data over the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern United States are used to evaluate snowmelt simulations generated with the coupled WRF-CLM model. These SNOTEL data include snow water equivalent (SWE), precipitation, and temperature. The simulations cover the period of March through June 2002 and focus mostly on the snowmelt season. Initial results show that when compared to observations, WRF-CLM significantly improves the simulations of SWE, which is underestimated when the release version of WRF is coupled with the Noah and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface schemes, in which snow physics is oversimplified. Further analysis shows that more realistic snow surface energy allocation in CLM is an important process that results in improved snowmelt simulations when compared to that in Noah and RUC. Additional simulations with WRF-CLM at different horizontal spatial resolutions indicate that accurate description of topography is also vital to SWE simulations. WRF-CLM at 10 km resolution produces the most realistic SWE simulations when compared to those produced with coarser spatial resolutions in which SWE is remarkably underestimated. The coupled WRF-CLM provides an important tool for research and forecasts in weather, climate, and water resources at regional scales.

  16. “ How Reliable is the Couple of WRF & VIC Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of the fully coupling of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to produce hydrological and climate variables was evaluated. First, the VIC model was run by using observed meteorological data and calibrated in the Upp...

  17. FULLY COUPLED "ONLINE" CHEMISTRY WITHIN THE WRF MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the s...

  18. Using a Coupled Lake Model with WRF for Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to downscale a coarse reanalysis (National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project reanalysis, hereafter R2) as a proxy for a global climate model (GCM) to examine...

  19. Improved Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions using a Coupled Version of WRF with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Lapenta, William M.; Petars-Lidard, Christa D.

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many hydrometeorological processes. Accurate and high-resolution representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), vegetation, soil temperature and moisture content, and ground fluxes are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of weather and climate phenomena. The NASA/NWS Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center is currently investigating the potential benefits of assimilating high-resolution datasets derived from the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS). The LIS is a software framework that integrates satellite and ground-based observational and modeled data along with multiple land surface models (LSMs) and advanced computing tools to accurately characterize land surface states and fluxes. The LIS can be run uncoupled to provide a high-resolution land surface initial condition, and can also be run in a coupled mode with WRF to integrate surface and soil quantities using any of the LSMs available in LIS. The LIS also includes the ability to optimize the initialization of surface and soil variables by tuning the spin-up time period and atmospheric forcing parameters, which cannot be done in the standard WRF. Among the datasets available from MODIS, a leaf-area index field and composite SST analysis are used to improve the lower boundary and initial conditions to the LIS/WRF coupled model over both land and water. Experiments will be conducted to measure the potential benefits from using the coupled LIS/WRF model over the Florida peninsula during May 2004. This month experienced relatively benign weather conditions, which will allow the experiments to focus on the local and mesoscale

  20. Advanced energy projects FY 1997 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) program is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts that are high risk, in terms of scientific feasibility, yet have a realistic potential for a high technological payoff. The concepts supported by the AEP are typically at an early stage of scientific development. They often arise from advances in basic research and are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. Some are based on discoveries of new scientific phenomena or involve exploratory ideas that span multiple scientific and technical disciplines which do not fit into an existing DOE program area. In all cases, the objective is to support evaluation of the scientific or technical feasibility of the novel concepts involved. Following AEP support, it is expected that each concept will be sufficiently developed to attract further funding from other sources to realize its full potential. Projects that involve evolutionary research or technology development and demonstration are not supported by AEP. Furthermore, research projects more appropriate for another existing DOE research program are not encouraged. There were 65 projects in the AEP research portfolio during Fiscal Year 1997. Eigheen projects were initiated during that fiscal year. This document consists of short summaries of projects active in FY 1997. Further information of a specific project may be obtained by contacting the principal investigator.

  1. [Advances in the biosynthesis research of ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Gao, Li-Li; Zhu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active components of medicinal herbs including Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, which have potent effects of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis inhibition. But the low content of ginsenosides limits its development and usage. At present, how to improve the production of ginsenosides by biological technology has been a new research focus. Some advances in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides by tissue culture and biotransformation have been made in recent years. So far at least twenty genes related to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides from Panax genus plants have been cloned and functionally identified, which has laid a good foundation for the study on the synthetic biology of ginsenosides. This review outlines recent advances in several aspects and is expected to provide a theoretical support to the thorough research of the pathway and regulation of ginsenosides biosynthesis.

  2. ISAAC - A Testbed for Advanced Composites Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stewart, Brian K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is acquiring a state-of-art composites fabrication environment to support the Center's research and technology development mission. This overall system described in this paper is named ISAAC, or Integrated Structural Assembly of Advanced Composites. ISAAC's initial operational capability is a commercial robotic automated fiber placement system from Electroimpact, Inc. that consists of a multi-degree of freedom commercial robot platform, a tool changer mechanism, and a specialized automated fiber placement end effector. Examples are presented of how development of advanced composite materials, structures, fabrication processes and technology are enabled by utilizing the fiber placement end effector directly or with appropriate modifications. Alternatively, end effectors with different capabilities may either be bought or developed with NASA's partners in industry and academia.

  3. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  4. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    ScienceCinema

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2016-07-12

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  5. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  6. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a

  7. UZIG USGS research: Advances through interdisciplinary interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Rafael, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Because vadose zone research relates to diverse disciplines, applications, and modes of research, collaboration across traditional operational and topical divisions is especially likely to yield major advances in understanding. The Unsaturated Zone Interest Group (UZIG) is an informal organization sponsored by the USGS to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration in vadose or unsaturated zone hydrologic research across organizational boundaries. It includes both USGS and non-USGS scientists. Formed in 1987, the UZIG operates to promote communication, especially through periodic meetings with presentations, discussions, and fi eld trips. The 10th meeting of the UZIG at Los Alamos, NM, in August 2007 was jointly sponsored by the USGS and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Presentations at this meeting served as the initial basis for selecting papers for this special section of Vadose Zone Journal, the purpose of which is to present noteworthy cuting-edge unsaturated zone research promoted by, facilitated by, or presented in connection with the UZIG. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  8. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence P. Golan

    2003-05-01

    The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading. No new memberships, workshops, research projects, internships, faculty fellowships or special studies were initiated during this reporting period. Contract completion is set for June 30, 2003. During the report period, nine subcontractor reports were received (5 final reports and 4 semi-annual reports). The report technology distribution is as follows: 3--aero-heat transfer, 2--combustion and 4--materials. AGTSR continues to project that it will under spend DOE obligated funds by approximately $329K.

  9. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  10. Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Immersed Boundary Method

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, K. A.

    2012-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with the immersed boundary method is an extension of the open-source WRF Model available for wwww.wrf-model.org. The new code modifies the gridding procedure and boundary conditions in the WRF model to improve WRF's ability to simutate the atmosphere in environments with steep terrain and additionally at high-resolutions.

  11. Prediction of severe thunderstorms over Sriharikota Island by using the WRF-ARW operational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa Rao, G.; Rajasekhar, M.; Pushpa Saroja, R.; Sreeshna, T.; Rajeevan, M.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Operational short range prediction of Meso-scale thunderstorms for Sriharikota(13.7°N ,80.18°E) has been performed using two nested domains 27 & 9Km configuration of Weather Research & Forecasting-Advanced Research Weather Model (WRF- ARW V3.4).Thunderstorm is a Mesoscale system with spatial scale of few kilometers to a couple of 100 kilometers and time scale of less than an one hour to several hours, which produces heavy rain, lightning, thunder, surface wind squalls and down-bursts. Numerical study of Thunderstorms at Sriharikota and its neighborhood have been discussed with its antecedent thermodynamic stability indices and Parameters that are usually favorable for the development of convective instability based on WRF ARW model predictions. Instability is a prerequisite for the occurrence of severe weather, the greater the instability, the greater will be the potential of thunderstorm. In the present study, K Index, Total totals Index (TTI), Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE), Lifted Index (LI), Precipitable Water (PW), etc. are the instability indices used for the short range prediction of thunderstorms. In this study we have made an attempt to estimate the skill of WRF ARW predictability and diagnosed three thunderstorms that occurred during the late evening to late night of 31st July, 20th September and 2nd October of 2015 over Sriharikota Island which are validated with Local Electric Field Mill (EFM), rainfall observations and Chennai Doppler Weather Radar products. The model predicted thermodynamic indices (CAPE, CINE, K Index, LI, TTI and PW) over Sriharikota which act as good indicators for severe thunderstorm activity.

  12. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-12-31

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  13. Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    An unregulated conventional power station based on the Rankine Cycle typically bums pulverized coal in a boiler that exports steam for expansion through a steam turbine which ultimately drives an electric generator. The flue gases are normally cleaned of particulates by an electrostatic precipitator or bag house. A basic cycle such as this will have an efficiency of approximately 35% with 10% of the energy released through the stack and 55% to cooling water. Advanced gas turbine based combustion systems have the potential to be environmentally and commercially superior to existing conventional technology. however, to date, industry, academic, and government groups have not coordinated their effort to commercialize these technologies. The Center for Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research will provide the medium to support effective commercialization of this technology. Several cycles or concepts for advanced gas turbine systems that could be fired on natural gas or could be adapted into coal based systems have been proposed (for examples, see Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7) (2) all with vary degrees of complexity, research needs, and system potential. Natural gas fired power systems are now available with 52% efficiency ratings; however, with a focused base technology program, it is expected that the efficiency levels can be increased to the 60% level and beyond. This increase in efficiency will significantly reduce the environmental burden and reduce the cost of power generation.

  14. Advanced energy projects FY 1994 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Division of Advanced Energy Projects (AEP) provides support to explore the feasibility of novel, energy-related concepts that evolve from advances in basic research. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific definition and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The AEP also supports high-risk, exploratory concepts that do not readily fit into a program area but could have several applications that may span scientific disciplines or technical areas. Projects supported by the Division arise from unsolicited ideas and concepts submitted by researchers. The portfolio of projects is dynamic and reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy outlook. FY 1994 projects include the following topical areas: novel materials for energy technology; renewable and biodegradable materials; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; alternative energy sources; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries are given for 66 projects.

  15. Advances in craniosynostosis research and management.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, J; Miguéns, J; Lauritzen, C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the most recent advances in the field of craniosynostosis basic and clinical research and management, and to give an overview of the more frequently adopted surgical strategies. After reviewing some basic concepts regarding normal craniofacial embryology and growth, aetiopathogenesis of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis, classification and diagnosis and historical evolution of surgical treatment, the authors elaborate on a selection of topics that have modified our current understanding of and therapeutical approach to these disease processes. Areas covered include advances in molecular biology and genetics, imaging techniques and surgical planning, resorbable fixation technology, bone substitutes and tissue engineering, distraction osteogenesis and the spring-mediated cranioplasties, resorbable distractor devices, minimally invasive surgery and in utero surgery. A review of the main subtypes of craniosynostosis and craniofacial dysostosis is presented, including their specific clinical features and a commentary on the presently available surgical options.

  16. Research for Lunar Exploration: ADVANCE Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that the author has been involved with in her undergraduate and graduate education and the ADVANCE Program. One project was the Lunar Entry and Approach Platform For Research On Ground (LEAPFROG). This vehicle was to be a completely autonomous vehicle, and was developed in successive academic years with increases in the perofmamnce and capability of the simulated lander. Another research project for the PhD was on long-term lunar radiation degradation of materials to be used for construction of lunar habitats. This research has concentrated on developing and testing light-weight composite materials with high strength characteristics, and the ability of these composite materials to withstand the lunar radiation environment.

  17. Advanced Satellite Research Project: SCAR Research Database. Bibliographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1991-01-01

    The literature search was provided to locate and analyze the most recent literature that was relevant to the research. This was done by cross-relating books, articles, monographs, and journals that relate to the following topics: (1) Experimental Systems - Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and (2) Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) and Advance Communication Techniques (ISDN and satellites, ISDN standards, broadband ISDN, flame relay and switching, computer networks and satellites, satellite orbits and technology, satellite transmission quality, and network configuration). Bibliographic essay on literature citations and articles reviewed during the literature search task is provided.

  18. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Qual...

  19. Advancing research transdisciplinarity within our discipline.

    PubMed

    Sadovsky, Yoel; Esplin, M Sean; Garite, Thomas J; Nelson, D Michael; Parry, Samuel I; Saade, George R; Socol, Michael L; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; D'Alton, Mary E

    2014-09-01

    Advancing biomedical knowledge is crucial to the understanding of disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and the maintenance of health. Whereas collaborative pursuits among basic and translational scientists, clinical researchers, and clinicians should advance biomedical progress and its translation to better medicine. The field of obstetrics and gynecology and its subspecialties has not escaped this problem. Obstetrics and gynecology specialists and subspecialists have limited opportunities to interact with translational or basic investigators, and cross-fertilization and collaborations are further challenged by the current healthcare and funding climate. This opinion manuscript focuses on the field of maternal-fetal medicine, serving as an example that illustrates the risks and opportunities that might exist within our obstetrics and gynecology academic community. A Pregnancy Task Force recently sought to identify ways to overcome hurdles related to research training, and ensure a sufficient pool of physician-scientists pursuing pertinent questions in the field. The group discussed strategies to promote a culture of intellectual curiosity and research excellence, securing additional resources for trainees, and attracting current and next generation basic, translational, and clinical scholars to our field. Recommendations encompassed activities within annual academic meetings, training initiatives, and additional funding opportunities. Inferences from these discussions can be made to all obstetrics and gynecology subspecialty areas.

  20. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Various Parameterization Schemes in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model : A Case Study Subtropical Urban Agglomeration National Capital Region (NCR), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhwani, R.; Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorological parameters play a very significant and crucial role in simulating regional air quality. This study has been carried to evaluate the performance of WRF model to various combinations of physical parameterization schemes for predicting surface and upper air meteorology around the capital city of India, Delhi popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR). Eight sensitivity experiments has been conducted to find the best combination of the parameterization schemes for the study area during summer (4th - 18th April, 2010 ) season. The model predicted surface temperatures at 2m, relative humidity at 2m and wind speeds at 10m are compared with the observations from Central Pollution Control Board (at Dwarka and Shadipur monitoring stations) and Indian Meteorological Department (VIDP and VIDD stations) whereas the upper-air potential temperature profile and wind speed profile are validated using Wyoming Weather Web data archive at VIDD station. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of simulations indicate that for temperature and relative humidity, the combination consisting of Yonsei Unversity (YSU) as the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, the Monin Obhukhov as the surface layer (SL) scheme along with NOAH land surface model (LSM) has been found to be performing better than other combinations. The combination consisting of Mellor Yamada Janjic (Eta) as the PBL scheme, Monin Obhukhov Janjic (Eta) as the SL scheme and Noah LSM performs reasonably well in reproducing the observed wind conditions. This indicates that the selection of parameterization schemes may depend on the intended application of the model for a given region.

  2. Advances in neural networks research: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Bressler, Steven; Perlovsky, Leonid; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The present Special Issue "Advances in Neural Networks Research: IJCNN2009" provides a state-of-art overview of the field of neural networks. It includes 39 papers from selected areas of the 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009). IJCNN2009 took place on June 14-19, 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and it represents an exemplary collaboration between the International Neural Networks Society and the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society. Topics in this issue include neuroscience and cognitive science, computational intelligence and machine learning, hybrid techniques, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, various soft computing technologies, intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition, bioinformatics and biomedicine, and engineering applications.

  3. Alzheimer's disease: research advances and medical reality.

    PubMed

    Seiguer, Erica

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease was the eighth-leading cause of death in 2001. There is no cure and no effective treatment. Alzheimer's disease presents policy-makers with several challenges, including the level of funding and direction of federally funded research, as well as the cost pressures on Medicare and Medicaid of long-term care. These challenges will increase in intensity as demographic changes, particularly the aging of baby boomers, take hold. Better prevention of Alzheimer's, advances in therapy, and appropriate care modalities will likely require significant investment.

  4. Assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave radiances in a cloud-resolving WRF ensemble data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sara; Zupanski, Dusanka; Zupanski, Milija; Hou, Arthur; Cheung, Samson

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade the progress in satellite precipitation estimation and the advance in precipitation assimilation techniques proved to have positive impact on the quality of atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Direct assimilation of rain-affected radiances presents new challenge to optimal utilization of satellite precipitation observations. Currently operational and research experiences in using precipitation observations have focused on a global model resolution with prescribed static forecast error statistics, while a high-resolution with cloud-resolving physics and flow-dependent forecast error information are needed for applications such as for downscaling precipitation information from rain-affected radiances and for improving hydrological forecasts. To address some of these challenges, a WRF ensemble data assimilation system (WRF-EDAS) at cloud-resolving scales has been developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and Colorado State University. The high-resolution WRF-EDAS is designed to assimilate precipitation-affected radiances in addition to the NOAA/NCEP operational data stream of in-situ data and clear-sky satellite observations. The ensemble data assimilation technique opens a new pathway to provide dynamically updated background error covariance, and to utilize full nonlinear microphysics and radiative transfer model in precipitation observation operators. The high resolution of nested domain WRF model first guess allows more realistic representation of precipitation distribution in the field of view (FOV) of microwave radiance observations in low and medium range of frequencies. We present experimental results of assimilating AMSR-E microwave radiances in case studies of summer storm events over land. The assimilation of precipitation-affected radiances from multiple channels of AMSR-E has shown positive impact on the downscaled precipitation analysis and short term forecast of microphysical variables. The sensitivity of precipitation analyses to the

  5. Evaluating the one-way coupling of WRF-Hydro for flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, Ismail; Onen, Alper; Yilmaz, Koray; Gochis, David

    2016-04-01

    A fully-distributed, multi-physics, multi-scale hydrologic and hydraulic modeling system, WRF-Hydro, is used to assess the potential for skillful flood forecasting based on precipitation inputs derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the EUMETSAT Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimates (MPEs). Similar to past studies it was found that WRF model precipitation forecast errors related to model initial conditions are reduced when the three dimensional atmospheric data assimilation (3DVAR) scheme in the WRF model simulations is used. A comparative evaluation of the impact of MPE versus WRF precipitation estimates, both with and without data assimilation, in driving WRF-Hydro simulated streamflow is then made. The ten rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the Black Sea Region were used for testing and evaluation. With the availability of streamflow data across rainfall-runoff events, the cal- ibration is only performed on the Bartin sub-basin using two events and the calibrated parameters are then transferred to other neighboring three ungauged sub-basins in the study area. The rest of the events from all sub-basins are then used to evaluate the performance of the WRF-Hydro system with the cali- brated parameters. Following model calibration, the WRF-Hydro system was capable of skillfully repro- ducing observed flood hydrographs in terms of the volume of the runoff produced and the overall shape of the hydrograph. Streamflow simulation skill was significantly improved for those WRF model simula- tions where storm precipitation was accurately depicted with respect to timing, location and amount. Accurate streamflow simulations were more evident in WRF model simulations where the 3DVAR scheme was used compared to when it was not used. Because of substantial dry bias feature of MPE, as compared with surface rain gauges, streamflow derived using this precipitation product is in general very poor. Overall, root mean squared errors for runoff were

  6. Offline tracer transport modeling with global WRF model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Dmitry; Maksytov, Shamil; Zaripov, Radomir; Bart, Andrey; Starchenko, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    This work describes the one-way coupling between a global configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) weather prediction model (http://wrf-model.org/) and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) three-dimensional offline chemical transport model (version NIES-08.1i). The primary motivation for developing this coupled model has been to reduce transport errors in global-scale simulation of greenhouse gases through a more detailed description of the meteorological conditions. We have implemented a global configuration of WRF model (version 3.4.1, ARW core) with 2.5 degree horizontal resolution and 32 vertical levels. The WRF model was driving with NCEP Final Analysis (FNL) reanalysis using combined techniques: FDDA + Cyclic Incremental Correction (like in intermittent data assimilation). Time-averaged mass-coupled horizontal velocities on sigma levels with approach supposed by Nehrkorn et al. (2010) are calculated to drive NIES TM. The NIES TM is designed to simulate natural and anthropogenic synoptic-scale variations in atmospheric constituents at diurnal, seasonal and interannual timescales. The model uses a mass-conservative flux-form formulation that consists of a third-order van Leer advection scheme and a horizontal dry-air mass flux correction. The horizontal latitude-longitude grid is a reduced rectangular grid (i.e., the grid size is doubled several times approaching the poles), with an initial spatial resolution of 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg and 32 vertical levels from the surface up to the level of 3 hPa. A simulations of the atmospheric tracer are used to evaluate the performance of the coupled WRF-NIES model. Simulated distributions are validated against in situ observations and compared with output from "standard" version of NIES TM driven by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis/the Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS) dataset. Fields calculated by WRF and used to drive NIES TM were also evaluated

  7. Towards realistic representation of hydrological processes in integrated WRF-urban modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    To meet the demand of the ever-increasing urbanized global population, substantial conversion of natural landscapes to urban terrains is expected in the next few decades. The landscape modification will emerge as the source of many adverse effects that challenge the environmental sustainability of cities under changing climatic patterns. To address these adverse effects and to develop corresponding adaptation/mitigation strategies, physically-based single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) has been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) platform. However, due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes, simulation of urban climatology by current coupled WRF/SLUCM is inevitably inadequate. Aiming at improving the accuracy of simulations, in this study we implement physically-based parameterization of urban hydrological processes into the model, including (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation over water-holding engineered pavements, (4) urban oasis effect, and (5) green roof. In addition, we use an advanced Monte Carlo approach to quantify the sensitivity of urban hydrological modeling to parameter uncertainties. Evaluated against field observations at four major metropolitan areas, results show that the enhanced model is significantly improved in accurately predicting turbulent fluxes arising from built surfaces, especially the latent heat flux. Case studies show that green roof is capable of reducing urban surface temperature and sensible heat flux effectively, and modifying local and regional hydroclimate. Meanwhile, it is efficient in decreasing energy loading of buildings, not only cooling demand in summers but also heating demand in winters, through the combined evaporative cooling and insulation effect. Effectiveness of green roof is found to be limited by availability of water resources and highly sensitive to surface roughness heights. The enhanced WRF/SLUCM model

  8. Fully coupled "online" chemistry within the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grell, Georg A.; Peckham, Steven E.; Schmitz, Rainer; McKeen, Stuart A.; Frost, Gregory; Skamarock, William C.; Eder, Brian

    A fully coupled "online" Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model has been developed. The air quality component of the model is fully consistent with the meteorological component; both components use the same transport scheme (mass and scalar preserving), the same grid (horizontal and vertical components), and the same physics schemes for subgrid-scale transport. The components also use the same timestep, hence no temporal interpolation is needed. The chemistry package consists of dry deposition ("flux-resistance" method), biogenic emission as in [Simpson et al., 1995. Journal of Geophysical Research 100D, 22875-22890; Guenther et al., 1994. Atmospheric Environment 28, 1197-1210], the chemical mechanism from RADM2, a complex photolysis scheme (Madronich scheme coupled with hydrometeors), and a state of the art aerosol module (MADE/SORGAM aerosol parameterization). The WRF/Chem model is statistically evaluated and compared to MM5/Chem and to detailed photochemical data collected during the summer 2002 NEAQS field study. It is shown that the WRF/Chem model is statistically better skilled in forecasting O 3 than MM5/Chem, with no appreciable differences between models in terms of bias with the observations. Furthermore, the WRF/Chem model consistently exhibits better skill at forecasting the O 3 precursors CO and NO y at all of the surface sites. However, the WRF/Chem model biases of these precursors and of other gas-phase species are persistently higher than for MM5/Chem, and are most often biased high compared to observations. Finally, we show that the impact of other basic model assumptions on these same statistics can be much larger than the differences caused by model differences. An example showing the sensitivity of various statistical measures with respect to the treatment of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions illustrates this impact.

  9. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  10. Advanced cyberinfrastructure for research in Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad

    2010-05-01

    Today's scientists need access to new information technology capabilities, able to perform high-resolution complex computing simulations in a reasonable time frame. Sophisticated simulation tools allow us to study phenomena that can never be observed or replicated by standard laboratory experiments. Modeling complex natural processes in general, and numerical computation in particular, represents today an essential need of research, and all modern research centers benefit from a computing center of one form or another. The combined power of hardware and sophisticated software, visualization tools, and scientific applications produced and used by interdisciplinary research teams make possible nowadays to advance the frontiers of science and to pose new key scientific questions. Cyberinfrastructure integrates hardware for high speed computing, a collection of highly specialized software and tools, and a powerful visualization tool. A new interdisciplinary research domain is emerging at the interface of geosciences and computing with essential inputs from geology and geophysics. In this study we show how to rapidly deploy a low-cost high-performance computing cluster (HPCC) and a 3D visualization system that can be used both in teaching and research in geosciences. Also, we present several geodynamic simulations performed with such systems.

  11. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  12. Research opportunities at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft X-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected.

  13. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  14. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  15. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  16. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  17. Determining the Impact of Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) Observations on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Forecasts Utilizing National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR’s) Forecast Sensitivity to Observations Software Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    southwestern United States with the time period analyzed being early February 2012. FSO uses a background error (BE) covariance matrix, and for this study, a...including rawindondes, profiler, satellite, etc. FSO requires a WRF background error (BE) covariance; one can either employ the “global” BE covariance...BE background error EnKF ensemble Kalman filter FSO Forecast Sensitivity to Observations FTP File Transfer Protocol GFS Global Forecast

  18. Simulating chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation-climate feedbacks over the continental U.S. using the online-coupled Weather Research Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF/Chem)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wen, X.-Y.; Jang, C. J.

    2010-09-01

    The chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation-climate feedbacks are simulated using WRF/Chem over the continental U.S. in January and July 2001. Aerosols can reduce incoming solar radiation by up to -9% in January and -16% in July and 2-m temperatures by up to 0.16 °C in January and 0.37 °C in July over most of the continental U.S. The NO 2 photolysis rates decrease in July by up to -8% over the central and eastern U.S. where aerosol concentrations are high but increase by up to 7% over the western U.S. in July and up to 13% over the entire domain in January. Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height reduces by up to -23% in January and -24% in July. Temperatures and wind speeds in July in big cities such as Atlanta and New York City reduce at/near surface but increase at higher altitudes. The changes in PBL height, temperatures, and wind speed indicate a more stable atmospheric stability of the PBL and further exacerbate air pollution over areas where air pollution is already severe. Aerosols can increase cloud optical depths in big cities in July, and can lead to 500-5000 cm -3 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at a supersaturation of 1% over most land areas and 10-500 cm -3 CCN over ocean in both months with higher values over most areas in July than in January, particularly in the eastern U.S. The total column cloud droplet number concentrations are up to 4.9 × 10 6 cm -2 in January and up to 11.8 × 10 6 cm -2 in July, with higher values over regions with high CCN concentrations and sufficient cloud coverage. Aerosols can reduce daily precipitation by up to 1.1 mm day -1 in January and 19.4 mm day -1 in July thus the wet removal rates over most of the land areas due to the formation of small CCNs, but they can increase precipitation over regions with the formation of large/giant CCN. These results indicate potential importance of the aerosol feedbacks and an urgent need for their accurate representations in current atmospheric models to reduce uncertainties associated

  19. Advanced optical diagnostics in hypersonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattolica, Robert J.

    1988-10-01

    The renewed emphasis on hypersonic research has stimulated a resurgence of interest in experimental methods for the study of high-speed flows. Improvement in the physical and chemical models used in computational fluid dynamic simulation of hypersonic flows requires a modern experimental data base. Optical diagnostics provide the capability to make nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, velocity, and species concentration in hypersonic flows. The short test time available in hypersonic wind tunnels or flight experiments necessitates spectroscopic methods capable of producing high signal levels. Fluorescence methods based on laser or electron-beam excitation satisfy this requirement. For flight experiments, electron-beam excitation offers a number of advantages over laser excitation that include small device size, high electrical efficiency, and multiple-state and species-selective excitation. Disadvantages of the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique included a complex excitation mechanism and some limitations in high-density applications. Laser fluorescence methods (LIF) have been developed extensively in recent years for combustion research, but need further advances in miniaturization of lasers for application to in-flight hypersonic combustion and aerodynamic experiments. Both techniques require a fundamental understanding of the complications introduced by physical effects such as energy transfer and quenching of the fluorescence signal. With modern electro-optic instrumentation it is now possible to examine in detail the influence of these phenomena on EBF and LIF fluorescence spectra in the laboratory and to extend these measurement techniques for use in flight research. To illustrate some of the research required to develop these methods to address issues relevent to hypersonic flight, examples of experiments on the use of EBF and LIF spectroscopy for the measurement of nitric oxide concentration are presented.

  20. VolksWRF - A Weather Modeling Portal for the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D.; Jacobi, M.; Newby, G. B.

    2009-12-01

    A web portal is being developed to facilitate painless interaction with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Named VolksWRF - or, the People's WRF - this system is intended to provide opportunities for research and education in numerical weather prediction. VolksWRF has been prototyped on a single-cpu system, allowing users to enter several parameters to describe the geographic domain and gridding, and underlying scripts then create a domain, perform pre-processing routines with the most recently available input data, and ultimately run a numerical forecast culminating in a set of animated graphics to depict the forecast. This is provided without requiring users to have userids and passwords on the computing platforms or to struggle through the creation of complicated namelists and data transformations. Though still in its infancy, our vision is that VolksWRF will provide access to weather modeling for education activities, facilitating experimentation and user-selected "what if" parameterizations as the interface improves. Additionally, provision of this interface allows the general public an opportunity to understand the basics of the numerical weather prediction process. Beyond the education mission, it is anticipated that VolksWRF can be used by researchers to perform first approximation simulations in preparation for more focused modeling activities.

  1. Advances in nicotine research in Addiction Biology.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rick E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Addiction Biology is to advance our understanding of the action of drugs of abuse and addictive processes via the publication of high-impact clinical and pre-clinical findings resulting from behavioral, molecular, genetic, biochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological research. As of 2013, Addiction Biology is ranked number 1 in the category of Substance Abuse journals (SCI). Occasionally, Addiction Biology likes to highlight via review important findings focused on a particular topic and recently published in the journal. The current review summarizes a number of key publications from Addiction Biology that have contributed to the current knowledge of nicotine research, comprising a wide spectrum of approaches, both clinical and pre-clinical, at the cellular, molecular, systems and behavioral levels. A number of findings from human studies have identified, using imaging techniques, alterations in common brain circuits, as well as morphological and network activity changes, associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized a number of mechanistic targets critical to understanding the effects of nicotine and tobacco addiction. Together, these findings will undoubtedly drive future studies examining the dramatic impact of tobacco use and the development of treatments to counter nicotine dependence.

  2. An Observation-base investigation of nudging in WRF for downscaling surface climate information to 12-km Grid Spacing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has demonstrated the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and contemporary dynamical downscaling methods to refine global climate modeling results to a horizontal resolution of 36 km. Environmental managers and urban planners have expre...

  3. Assessment of the weather research and forecasting model generalized parameterization schemes for advancement of precipitation forecasting in monsoon-driven river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal

    2016-09-01

    Some of the world's largest and flood-prone river basins experience a seasonal flood regime driven by the monsoon weather system. Highly populated river basins with extensive rain-fed agricultural productivity such as the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, and Mekong are examples of monsoon-driven river basins. It is therefore appropriate to investigate how precipitation forecasts from numerical models can advance flood forecasting in these basins. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to evaluate downscaling of coarse-resolution global precipitation forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model. Sensitivity studies were conducted using the TOPSIS analysis to identify the likely best set of microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes, and spatial resolution from a total set of 15 combinations. This identified best set can pinpoint specific parameterizations needing further development to advance flood forecasting in monsoon-dominated regimes. It was found that the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus parameterization scheme with WRF Single-Moment 5-class, WRF Single-Moment 6-class, and Thompson microphysics schemes exhibited the most skill in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins. Finer spatial resolution (3 km) without cumulus parameterization schemes did not yield significant improvements. The short-listed set of the likely best microphysics-cumulus parameterization configurations was found to also hold true for the Indus basin. The lesson learned from this study is that a common set of model parameterization and spatial resolution exists for monsoon-driven seasonal flood regimes at least in South Asian river basins.

  4. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  5. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  6. Land reclamation: Advances in research technology

    SciTech Connect

    Younos, T.; Diplas, P.; Mostaghimi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Land reclamation encompasses remediation of industrial wasteland, improvement of infertile land for agricultural production, preservation of wetlands, and restoration of disturbed areas. Land reclamation is an integral part of sustainable development which aims to reconcile economic productivity with environmental preservation. During the 1980s, significant progress was achieved in the application of advanced technologies to sustainable development projects. The goal of this international symposium was to serve as a forum to review current research and state-of-the-art technology dealing with various aspects of land reclamation, and provide an opportunity for professional interaction and exchange of information in a multi-disciplinary setting. The scope of the symposium was as broad as the topic itself. The keynote address by Professor John Cairns focused on a systems approach in land restoration projects and challenges facing scientists in global biotic impoverishment. Other topics discussed in ten mechanical sessions included development and applications of computer models, geographic information systems, remote sensing technology, salinity problems, surface and ground water monitoring, reclamation of mine areas, soil amendment methods and impacts, wetland restoration techniques, and land use planning for resource protection.

  7. [Research advances on interactions among bryophytes].

    PubMed

    Bu, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Li-Hong; Li, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Hong-Yan

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarized the present research status and advances on the intra- and interspecific positive interaction, intra- and inter-specific competition, niche, and coexistence of bryophytes. Bryophytes are generally the dominant plants in harsh environments, and there is a trade-off between their water retention and light and nutrient resource availability. Because of the lesser importance of competition in harsh environments, the positive interaction among bryophytes is common, but the intra- and inter-specific competition among bryophytes and the competition between bryophytes and vascular plants are not rare. Competition hierarchy may exist among some bryophytes, but often changes with environments. In the process of bryophyte community formation, the random process, nature of colonization, and difference in regeneration strategy can result in the niche overlap and coexistence of bryophytes, and the niche differentiation resulted from competition is also one of the mechanisms for bryophytes coexistence. Bryophytes should not be simply classified as stress tolerated-ruderal life history strategists, and competition is still one of important factors for constructing some bryophyte communities and vegetations co-existed by bryophytes and vascular plants.

  8. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  9. Impact of MODIS High-Resolution Sea-Surface Temperatures on WRF Forecasts at NWS Miami, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Dembek, Scott R.; Santos, Pablo; Lapenta, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years,studies at the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center have suggested that the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite sea-surface temperature (SST) products in regional weather forecast models can have a significant positive impact on short-term numerical weather prediction in coastal regions. The recent paper by LaCasse et al. (2007, Monthly Weather Review) highlights lower atmospheric differences in regional numerical simulations over the Florida offshore waters using 2-km SST composites derived from the MODIS instrument aboard the polar-orbiting Aqua and Terra Earth Observing System satellites. To help quantify the value of this impact on NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs), the SPoRT Center and the NWS WFO at Miami, FL (MIA) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using the high-resolution MODIS SST fields within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The scientific hypothesis being tested is: More accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing within WRF will result in improved land/sea fluxes and hence, more accurate evolution of coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. The NWS MIA is currently running the WRF system in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software; The EMS is a standalone modeling system capable of downloading the necessary daily datasets, and initializing, running and displaying WRF forecasts in the NWS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) with little intervention required by forecasters. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily with start times of 0300,0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and the far

  10. Modelling soil-plant-atmosphere interactions by coupling the regional weather model WRF to mechanistic plant models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Priesack, E.

    2012-04-01

    of evapotranspiration, heat flow and radiation of thermodynamic values. Bossel, H. 1996. "TREEDYN3 forest simulation model." Ecological modelling 90 (3): 187-227. CLC, 2006. CORINE Land Cover 2006. http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/landuse/interactive/clc-download. Accessed 16.12.2012. Fei Chen, and Jimy Dudhia. 2010. Coupling an Advanced Land Surface-Hydrology Model with the Penn State-NCAR MM5 Modeling System. Part II: Preliminary Model Validation. Research-article. February 25. Skamarock, W. C. 2008. "Coauthors 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3." NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+ STR. http://www.wrf-model.org/. Thornley, John. 1998. Grassland dynamics: an ecosystem simulation model. Wallingford,New York: CAB international.

  11. 2010 Summary of Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Combating Autism Act of 2006, the members of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) are required to develop an annual "Summary of Advances" to describe each year's top advances in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research. These advances represent significant progress in the early diagnosis of ASD, understanding the…

  12. Developing Snow Model Forcing Data From WRF Model Output to Aid in Water Resource Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, S.; Marks, D. G.; Watson, K. A.; Masarik, M.; Flores, A. N.; Kormos, P.; Hedrick, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional operational modeling tools used by water managers in the west are challenged by more frequently occurring uncharacteristic stream flow patterns caused by climate change. Water managers are now turning to new models based on the physical processes within a watershed to combat the increasing number of events that do not follow the historical patterns. The USDA-ARS has provided near real time snow water equivalent (SWE) maps using iSnobal since WY2012 for the Boise River Basin in southwest Idaho and since WY2013 for the Tuolumne Basin in California that feeds the Hetch Hetchy reservoir. The goal of these projects is to not only provide current snowpack estimates but to use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to drive iSnobal in order to produce a forecasted stream flow when coupled to a hydrology model. The first step is to develop methods on how to create snow model forcing data from WRF outputs. Using a reanalysis 1km WRF dataset from WY2009 over the Boise River Basin, WRF model results like surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind, precipitation, cloud cover, and incoming long wave radiation must be downscaled for use in iSnobal. iSnobal results forced with WRF output are validated at point locations throughout the basin, as well as compared with iSnobal results forced with traditional weather station data. The presentation will explore the differences in forcing data derived from WRF outputs and weather stations and how this affects the snowpack distribution.

  13. 77 FR 19744 - Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc., Advanced Viral Research Corp., Brantley Capital Corp., Brilliant... information concerning the securities of Advanced BioPhotonics, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  14. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  15. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  16. Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    COVERED (From - To) 28 Dec 2006 - 30 Sep 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...research endeavor is to devise ferrite materials for microwave , self-biased circulator applications. To this end, the research team focused on two key...Std Z39-18 Final Report Advanced Microwave Ferrite Research (AMFeR): Phase Four Dr. Jeffrey L. Young MRC Institute/Electrical and Computer

  17. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States - a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z.; Santanello, J. A.; Chin, M.; Zhou, S.; Tan, Q.; Kemp, E. M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-07-01

    The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land-atmosphere (L-A) interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL) evolution, and precipitation through soil-moisture-evapotranspiration coupling. In turn, it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L-A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF) modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS) with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L-A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets - i.e., from the US Geological Survey (USGS) and University of Maryland (UMD), which are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g., stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  18. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States - a NASA unified WRF (NU-WRF) model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Z.; Santanello, J. A.; Chin, M.; Zhou, S.; Tan, Q.; Kemp, E. M.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-02-01

    The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land-atmosphere (L-A) interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL) evolution, and precipitation through soil moisture-evapotranspiration coupling. In turn it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L-A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF) modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS) with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L-A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets, i.e. from the US Geological Survey (USGS) and University of Maryland (UMD) that are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g. stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  19. Advanced cogeneration research study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Moore, N.; Rosenberg, L.; Slonski, M.

    1983-01-01

    This study provides a broad based overview of selected areas relevant to the development of a comprehensive Southern California Edison (SCE) advanced cogeneration project. The areas studied are: (1) Cogeneration potential in the SCE service territory; (2) Advanced cogeneration technologies; and (3) Existing cogeneration computer models. An estimated 3700 MW sub E could potentially be generated from existing industries in the Southern California Edison service territory using cogeneration technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2600 MW sub E and advanced technology could provide 1100 MW sub E. The manufacturing sector (SIC Codes 20-39) was found to have the highest average potential for current cogeneration technology. The mining sector (SIC Codes 10-14) was found to have the highest potential for advanced technology.

  20. Ethics, Professional Expectations, and Graduate Education: Advancing Research in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2009-01-01

    The university is a social institution and as such has a social responsibility to advance knowledge through research that is ultimately meaningful and beneficial to society. As we seek to advance research and graduate education in kinesiology, we must accept ethical standards and professional expectations not only as an institutional value but as…

  1. Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  2. Assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave radiances in a cloud-resolving WRF ensemble data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, A. Y.; Lin, X.; Cheung, S.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade the progress in satellite precipitation estimation and the advance in precipitation assimilation techniques proved to have positive impact on the quality of atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Direct assimilation of rain-affected radiances presents new challenge to optimal utilization of satellite precipitation observations in numeric weather and climate predictions. Current operational and research methodologies are generally limited to relatively coarse resolution models and prescribed static error statistics, and commonly require tangent linear model and adjoint model for the highly non-linear cloud and precipitation physics. To address some of these challenges, a WRF ensemble data assimilation system (Goddard-WRF-EDAS) at cloud-resolving scales has been developed jointly by NASA/GSFC and Colorado State University (CSU). The system employs the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with NASA Goddard microphysics schemes, and the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF). Precipitation affected radiances are assimilated with Goddard Satellite Data Simulator Unit (SDSU) as the observation operator. In addition to the boundary forcing constructed from operational global analysis, NCEP operational data stream is also assimilated to ensure realistic representation of dynamic circulation in the regional domains. Using the ensemble assimilation approach, the forecast error-statistics is updated by ensemble forecasts, and information is extracted from precipitation observations along with other types of data to produce dynamically consistent precipitation analyses and forecasts. We present experimental results of assimilating precipitation-affected microwave radiances over land in middle latitudes. The results demonstrate the data impact to the downscaled precipitation short term forecasts and information propagation from precipitation data to dynamic fields. The error statistics of microphysical control variables and their relationship to the

  3. High-Resolution WRF Forecasts of Lightning Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; LaCasse, K.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)lightning and precipitation observations have confirmed the existence of a robust relationship between lightning flash rates and the amount of large precipitating ice hydrometeors in storms. This relationship is exploited, in conjunction with the capabilities of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, to forecast the threat of lightning from convective storms using the output fields from the model forecasts. The simulated vertical flux of graupel at -15C is used in this study as a proxy for charge separation processes and their associated lightning risk. Initial experiments using 6-h simulations are conducted for a number of case studies for which three-dimensional lightning validation data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are available. The WRF has been initialized on a 2 km grid using Eta boundary conditions, Doppler radar radial velocity and reflectivity fields, and METAR and ACARS data. An array of subjective and objective statistical metrics is employed to document the utility of the WRF forecasts. The simulation results are also compared to other more traditional means of forecasting convective storms, such as those based on inspection of the convective available potential energy field.

  4. Studies regarding the quality of numerical weather forecasts of the WRF model integrated at high-resolutions for the Romanian territory

    SciTech Connect

    Iriza, Amalia; Dumitrache, Rodica C.; Lupascu, Aurelia; Stefan, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to evaluate the quality of high-resolution weather forecasts from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model. The lateral and boundary conditions were obtained from the numerical output of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at 7 km horizontal resolution. Furthermore, the WRF model was run for January and July 2013 at two horizontal resolutions (3 and 1 km). The numerical forecasts of the WRF model were evaluated using different statistical scores for 2 m temperature and 10 m wind speed. Our results showed a tendency of the WRF model to overestimate the values of the analyzed parameters in comparison to observations.

  5. Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEP–Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Pro...

  6. Integrating Advance Research Directives into the European Legal Framework.

    PubMed

    Andorno, Roberto; Gennet, Eloïse; Jongsma, Karin; Elger, Bernice

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical research. The article explores the place that advance research directives have in the current European legal framework, and considers the possibility of integrating them more explicitly into the existing regulations. Special focus is placed on issues regarding informed consent, the role of proxies, and the level of acceptable risks and burdens.

  7. Integrated Advanced Energy Systems Research at IIT

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Arastoopour

    2010-09-30

    This report consists of Two research projects; Sustainable Buildings and Hydrogen Storage. Sustainable Building Part includes: Wind and the self powered built environment by professor P. Land and his research group and experimental and computational works by professor D. Rempfer and his research group. Hydrogen Storage part includes: Hydrogen Storage Using Mg-Mixed Metal Hydrides by professor H. Arastoopour and his research team and Carbon Nanostructure as Hydrogen Storage Material by professor J. Prakash and his research team.

  8. A strategy for representing the effects of convective momentum transport in multiscale models: Evaluation using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulich, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a general method for the treatment of convective momentum transport (CMT) in large-scale dynamical solvers that use a cyclic, two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving model (CRM) as a "superparameterization" of convective-system-scale processes. The approach is similar in concept to traditional parameterizations of CMT, but with the distinction that both the scalar transport and diagnostic pressure gradient force are calculated using information provided by the 2-D CRM. No assumptions are therefore made concerning the role of convection-induced pressure gradient forces in producing up or down-gradient CMT. The proposed method is evaluated using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF) that is described herein for the first time. Results show that the net effect of the formulation is to modestly reduce the overall strength of the large-scale circulation, via "cumulus friction." This statement holds true for idealized simulations of two types of mesoscale convective systems, a squall line, and a tropical cyclone, in addition to real-world global simulations of seasonal (1 June to 31 August) climate. In the case of the latter, inclusion of the formulation is found to improve the depiction of key synoptic modes of tropical wave variability, in addition to some aspects of the simulated time-mean climate. The choice of CRM orientation is also found to importantly affect the simulated time-mean climate, apparently due to changes in the explicit representation of wide-spread shallow convective regions.

  9. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  10. Next Steps: Water Technology Advances (Research)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will focus on contaminants and their impact on health, adequate removal of contaminants from various water systems, and water and resource recovery within treatment systems. It will develop the next generation of technological advances to provide guidance in support ...

  11. Implementation of Bessel's method for solar eclipses prediction in the WRF-ARW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montornes, Alex; Codina, Bernat; Zack, John W.; Sola, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    Solar eclipses are predictable astronomical events that abruptly reduce the incoming solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere, which frequently results in non-negligible changes in meteorological fields. The meteorological impacts of these events have been analyzed in many studies since the late 1960s. The recent growth in the solar energy industry has greatly increased the interest in providing more detail in the modeling of solar radiation variations in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for the use in solar resource assessment and forecasting applications. The significant impact of the recent partial and total solar eclipses that occurred in the USA (23 October 2014) and Europe (20 March 2015) on solar power generation have provided additional motivation and interest for including these astronomical events in the current solar parameterizations.Although some studies added solar eclipse episodes within NWP codes in the 1990s and 2000s, they used eclipse parameterizations designed for a particular case study. In contrast to these earlier implementations, this paper documents a new package for the Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model that can simulate any partial, total or hybrid solar eclipse for the period 1950 to 2050 and is also extensible to a longer period. The algorithm analytically computes the trajectory of the Moon's shadow and the degree of obscuration of the solar disk at each grid point of the domain based on Bessel's method and the Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses provided by NASA, with a negligible computational time. Then, the incoming radiation is modified accordingly at each grid point of the domain.This contribution is divided in three parts. First, the implementation of Bessel's method is validated for solar eclipses in the period 1950-2050, by comparing the shadow trajectory with values provided by NASA. Latitude and longitude are determined with a bias lower than 5 x 10-3 degrees (i

  12. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  13. Resolving vorticity-driven lateral fire spread using the WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, C. C.; Sharples, J. J.; Evans, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Vorticity-driven lateral fire spread (VLS) is a form of dynamic fire behaviour, during which a wildland fire spreads rapidly across a steep leeward slope in a direction approximately transverse to the background winds. VLS is often accompanied by a downwind extension of the active flaming region and intense pyro-convection. In this study, the WRF-Fire (WRF stands for Weather Research and Forecasting) coupled atmosphere-fire model is used to examine the sensitivity of resolving VLS to both the horizontal and vertical grid spacing, and the fire-to-atmosphere coupling from within the model framework. The atmospheric horizontal and vertical grid spacing are varied between 25 and 90 m, and the fire-to-atmosphere coupling is either enabled or disabled. At high spatial resolutions, the inclusion of fire-to-atmosphere coupling increases the upslope and lateral rate of spread by factors of up to 2.7 and 9.5, respectively. This increase in the upslope and lateral rate of spread diminishes at coarser spatial resolutions, and VLS is not modelled for a horizontal and vertical grid spacing of 90 m. The lateral fire spread is driven by fire whirls formed due to an interaction between the background winds and the vertical circulation generated at the flank of the fire front as part of the pyro-convective updraft. The laterally advancing fire fronts become the dominant contributors to the extreme pyro-convection. The results presented in this study demonstrate that both high spatial resolution and two-way atmosphere-fire coupling are required to model VLS with WRF-Fire.

  14. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  15. Advancement in LIDAR Data Collection: NASA's Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riordan, Kevin; Wright, C. Wayne; Noronha, Conan

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR (EAARL) is a new developmental LIDAR designed to investigate and advance LIDAR techniques using a adaptive time resolved backscatter information for complex coastal research and monitoring applications. Information derived from such an advanced LIDAR system can potentially improve the ability of resource managers and policy makers to make better informed decisions. While there has been a large amount of research using LIDAR in coastal areas, most are limited in the amount of information captured from each laser pulse. The unique design of the EAARL instrument permits simultaneous acquisition of coastal environments which include subaerial bare earth topography, vegetation biomass, and bare earth beneath vegetated areas.

  16. CREST Research: Advancing the Field for Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueda, Laura; Brandl, Bonnie; Otto, Joanne; Stiegel, Lori; Thomas, Randolph; Heisler, Candace

    2008-01-01

    An external advisory board consisting of members from the fields of geriatric internal medicine, family practice geriatrics, criminal prosecution, civil law, police force, adult protective services and victims advocacy was created to advise and guide the research conducted by the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST). This panel of experts performed site visits and facilitated the research through responses to biweekly facts sheets and quarterly conference calls. This paper provides the perspective of five of the board members regarding the research findings that were presented at the CREST National Conference in 2006. The discussions outline the successes of the CREST research, describe obstacles and the necessary next steps for continuance of the scientific exploration of this syndrome, and highlight the practice implications of the current and proposed research. PMID:19016972

  17. Can High-resolution WRF Simulations Be Used for Short-term Forecasting of Lightning?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Lapenta, W.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; LaCasse, K.; Petersen, W.

    2006-01-01

    A number of research teams have begun to make quasi-operational forecast simulations at high resolution with models such as the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. These model runs have used horizontal meshes of 2-4 km grid spacing, and thus resolved convective storms explicitly. In the light of recent global satellite-based observational studies that reveal robust relationships between total lightning flash rates and integrated amounts of precipitation-size ice hydrometeors in storms, it is natural to inquire about the capabilities of these convection-resolving models in representing the ice hydrometeor fields faithfully. If they do, this might make operational short-term forecasts of lightning activity feasible. We examine high-resolution WRF simulations from several Southeastern cases for which either NLDN or LMA lightning data were available. All the WRF runs use a standard microphysics package that depicts only three ice species, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The realism of the WRF simulations is examined by comparisons with both lightning and radar observations and with additional even higher-resolution cloud-resolving model runs. Preliminary findings are encouraging in that they suggest that WRF often makes convective storms of the proper size in approximately the right location, but they also indicate that higher resolution and better hydrometeor microphysics would be helpful in improving the realism of the updraft strengths, reflectivity and ice hydrometeor fields.

  18. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  19. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  20. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  1. Intervention Research in Social Work: Recent Advances and Continuing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review substantive and methodological advances in interventive research. Three substantive advances are discussed: (a) the growing use of a risk factor perspective, (b) the emergence of practice-relevant micro social theories, and (c) the increased acceptance of structured treatment protocols and manual. In…

  2. Addressing Risks to Advance Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618

  3. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  4. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 2. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of airfoil research is presented. The major thrust of the research is in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  5. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  6. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  7. Advancements in Research Synthesis Methods: From a Methodologically Inclusive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suri, Harsh; Clarke, David

    2009-01-01

    The dominant literature on research synthesis methods has positivist and neo-positivist origins. In recent years, the landscape of research synthesis methods has changed rapidly to become inclusive. This article highlights methodologically inclusive advancements in research synthesis methods. Attention is drawn to insights from interpretive,…

  8. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  9. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  10. Performance Evaluation of Emerging High Performance Computing Technologies using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, G. B.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) has evaluated multicore processors and other emerging processor technologies for a variety of high performance computing applications in the earth and space sciences, especially climate and weather applications. A flagship effort has been to assess dual core processor nodes on ARSC's Midnight supercomputer, in which two-socket systems were compared to eight-socket systems. Midnight is utilized for ARSC's twice-daily weather research and forecasting (WRF) model runs, available at weather.arsc.edu. Among other findings on Midnight, it was found that the Hypertransport system for interconnecting Opteron processors, memory, and other subsystems does not scale as well on eight-socket (sixteen processor) systems as well as two-socket (four processor) systems. A fundamental limitation is the cache snooping operation performed whenever a computational thread accesses main memory. This increases memory latency as the number of processor sockets increases. This is particularly noticeable on applications such as WRF that are primarily CPU-bound, versus applications that are bound by input/output or communication. The new Cray XT5 supercomputer at ARSC features quad core processors, and will host a variety of scaling experiments for WRF, CCSM4, and other models. Early results will be presented, including a series of WRF runs for Alaska with grid resolutions under 2km. ARSC will discuss a set of standardized test cases for the Alaska domain, similar to existing test cases for CONUS. These test cases will provide different configuration sizes and resolutions, suitable for single processors up to thousands. Beyond multi-core Opteron-based supercomputers, ARSC has examined WRF and other applications on additional emerging technologies. One such technology is the graphics processing unit, or GPU. The 9800-series nVidia GPU was evaluated with the cuBLAS software library. While in-socket GPUs might be forthcoming in the future, current

  11. A Regional Study of Urban Fluxes from a Coupled WRF-ACASA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2010-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 10 by 10 km. As part of the European Project “BRIDGE”, these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers.Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. In order to more accurately simulate the mass and energy exchanges across larger urban regions, ACASA was coupled with a mesoscale weather model (WRF). Here we present ACASA-WRF simulations of mass and energy fluxes over over two different urban regions: a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic European city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage, a huge tourist flow, and an architectural footprint that remains comparatively constant in time. The in-situ ACASA model was tested over the urban environment at local point scale with very promising results when validated against urban flux measurements. This study shows the application of this methodology at a regional scale with high spatial

  12. Exploring Vertical Turbulence Structure in Neutrally and Stably Stratified Flows Using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Large-Eddy Simulation (WRF-LES) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udina, Mireia; Sun, Jielun; Kosović, Branko; Soler, Maria Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Following Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69(1):338-351, 2012), vertical variations of turbulent mixing in stably stratified and neutral environments as functions of wind speed are investigated using the large-eddy simulation capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The simulations with a surface cooling rate for the stable boundary layer (SBL) and a range of geostrophic winds for both stable and neutral boundary layers are compared with observations from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99). To avoid the uncertainty of the subgrid scheme, the investigation focuses on the vertical domain when the ratio between the subgrid and the resolved turbulence is small. The results qualitatively capture the observed dependence of turbulence intensity on wind speed under neutral conditions; however, its vertical variation is affected by the damping layer used in absorbing undesirable numerical waves at the top of the domain as a result of relatively large neutral turbulent eddies. The simulated SBL fails to capture the observed temperature variance with wind speed and the observed transition from the SBL to the near-neutral atmosphere with increasing wind speed, although the vertical temperature profile of the simulated SBL resembles the observed profile. The study suggests that molecular thermal conduction responsible for the thermal coupling between the surface and atmosphere cannot be parameterized through the Monin-Obukhov bulk relation for turbulent heat transfer by applying the surface radiation temperature, as is common practice when modelling air-surface interactions.

  13. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  14. NIAAA: Advancing Alcohol Research for 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has been the lead Federal agency responsible for scientific research on alcohol and its effects for 40 years. During that time, NIAAA has conducted and funded groundbreaking research, distilled and disseminated those research findings to a broad audience, and ultimately improved public health. Among NIAAA’s many significant contributions are the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, the largest survey ever conducted on alcohol and associated psychiatric and medical conditions; investment in research to identify the genes underlying vulnerability to alcoholism; creation of the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism, a study of the genetics of alcoholism in a human population; leadership in exploring the effects of alcohol on fetal development and on a variety of diseases and organ systems; fostering alcoholism treatment, including supporting a medications development program that has funded more than 30 Phase 2 trials and 15 human laboratory studies; international collaborations and work across the National Institutes of Health; influential research on preventing alcohol problems through community programs as well as policy changes; and the translation of research findings to everyday practice, including the production of award-winning clinician training materials. PMID:23579932

  15. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James R.

    2002-04-30

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  16. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, James Robert

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2001. Applications of supportive research and development, as well as technology deployment in the fields of chemistry, radiation physics and dosimetry, and neutron source design and demonstration are described. Contributions in the fields of physics and biophysics include development of advanced patient treatment planning software, feasibility studies of accelerator neutron source technology for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT), and completion of major modifications to the research reactor at Washington State University to produce an epithermal-neutron beam for NCT research applications.

  17. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    ScienceCinema

    Finkelstein, Noah [University of Colorado, Colorado, USA

    2016-07-12

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  18. Conceptualizing and Advancing Research Networking Systems

    PubMed Central

    SCHLEYER, TITUS; BUTLER, BRIAN S.; SONG, MEI; SPALLEK, HEIKO

    2013-01-01

    Science in general, and biomedical research in particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a result, collaboration with the right individuals, teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for scientific progress. We propose Research Networking Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help scientists identify and choose collaborators, and suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation, architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes project-, institution- and discipline-specific motivational factors; the role of social networks; and impression formation based on information beyond expertise and interests. Presentation addresses representing expertise in a comprehensive and up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies and folksonomies; the tension between seekers’ need for comprehensive information and potential collaborators’ desire to control how they are seen by others; and the need to support serendipitous discovery of collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple sources, social system interoperability, and integration with the user’s primary work context. Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and naturalistic methods. We hope that this article stimulates the human-computer interaction, computer-supported cooperative work, and related communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda for developing research networking systems. PMID:24376309

  19. Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  20. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  1. Climatological analysis of the real-time NSSL 4km WRF-ARW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goines, D. C.; Kennedy, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used for dynamic downscaling ofGlobal Climate Models (GCMs) to forecast smaller scale phenomena that GCMs cannot resolve at coarseresolutions. High resolution convection-allowing (CA) WRF simulations have gained popularity in recent yearsdue to their ability to resolve the structure of high impact phenomena such as topographically inducedprecipitation, mesoscale convective systems, and supercell thunderstorms. An accurate representation of theseextreme events is important for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies by policy makers. With the usage ofdownscaling and fine resolutions of WRF simulations becoming more recurrent, the question still remains: dohigh resolution CA WRF simulations correctly represent climatological precipitation? This study examines theclimatology of precipitation over the U.S. Central Plains produced for 7 years (2007-2013) by the NationalSevere Storms Laboratory (NSSL) high resolution (4km) CA WRF model. Precipitation forecasts for variousforecast hours are analyzed to determine whether the model climatology is similar to observations. TheMeteorological Evaluation Tool (MET) Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) is utilized tocompare the precipitation forecasts to observations. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation analysis is used as the truth for model assessment. Model performance isinvestigated for a variety of synoptic regimes using self-organizing maps (SOMs).

  2. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  3. Prediction of particle formation and number concentration over the United States with WRF-Chem + APM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol nucleation events have been widely observed at various locations around the world and well recognized to dominate the particle number abundance and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in many parts of the troposphere. An advanced particle microphysics model (APM), which has been previously incorporated into a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) and validated against a large set of aerosol measurements (Yu and Luo, 2009; Yu et al., 2010), has been successfully integrated into the Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The size-resolved (sectional) APM model, which distinguishes secondary and primary particles and keeps track of the amount of secondary species coated on each type of primary particles (black carbon, primary organic carbon, dust, and sea salt), is designed to capture key particle properties important for their health and climatic effects while keep the computing cost at a reasonable level. WRF-Chem has 53 tracers for CBM-Z mechanism, and it took 2.2 hours for one day simulations covering a region of 3780×2916 km2 with 27 km horizontal resolutions and 34 layers on an 8-CPU Linux workstation (2.2 Ghz Dual Quad-Core AMD Opteron Processor 2354). The coupled WRF-Chem-APM model has 138 tracers (85 additional tracers associated with APM), and it took 5.02 hours on the same machine for same day simulation with full size-resolved microphysics (nucleation, condensation, coagulation, deposition, and scavenging) and CBM-Z chemistry. The WRF-Chem + APM has been employed to study the formation and growth of particles over the United States, using relevant outputs from GEOS-Chem + APM as initial conditions and boundary conditions. We show that ion-mediated nucleation of sulfuric acid and water can lead to significant new particle formation over the United States and nucleation rates have strongly spatial and temporal variations. The simulated spatial (both horizontal and vertical) distribution of particle

  4. Advances in Education Research, Winter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents selected articles related to the impact of early intervention programs. This is part of a two volume set designed to showcase some of the best cutting edge research in these programs. This volume focuses specifically on aspects of the programs that have proven to be most successful in helping students and meeting programmatic…

  5. Advancing Research on the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    2007-01-01

    Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical work…

  6. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  7. Advances in Bayesian Modeling in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I provide a conceptually oriented overview of Bayesian approaches to statistical inference and contrast them with frequentist approaches that currently dominate conventional practice in educational research. The features and advantages of Bayesian approaches are illustrated with examples spanning several statistical modeling…

  8. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  9. Advances in Music-Reading Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct a comprehensive review of the research literature in the reading of western staff notation. Studies in music perception, music cognition, music education and music neurology are cited. The aim is to establish current knowledge in music-reading acquisition and what is needed for further progress in this…

  10. Advances in Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Design-based research (DBR) is a core methodology of the Learning Sciences. Historically rooted as a movement away from the methods of experimental psychology, it is a means to develop "humble" theory that takes into account numerous contextual effects for understanding how and why a design supported learning. DBR involves iterative…

  11. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  12. Research advances on transgenic plant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Su, Tao; Zu, Yuan-Gang; An, Zhi-Gang

    2006-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of genetics molecular biology and plant biotechnology, the vaccination (e.g. genetic engineering subunit vaccine, living vector vaccine, nucleic acid vaccine) programs are taking on a prosperous evolvement. In particular, the technology of the use of transgenic plants to produce human or animal therapeutic vaccines receives increasing attention. Expressing vaccine candidates in vegetables and fruits open up a new avenue for producing oral/edible vaccines. Transgenic plant vaccine disquisitions exhibit a tempting latent exploiting foreground. There are a lot of advantages for transgenic plant vaccines, such as low cost, easiness of storage, and convenient immune-inoculation. Some productions converged in edible tissues, so they can be consumed directly without isolation and purification. Up to now, many transgenic plant vaccine productions have been investigated and developed. In this review, recent advances on plant-derived recombinant protein expression systems, infectious targets, and delivery systems are presented. Some issues of high concern such as biosafety and public health are also discussed. Special attention is given to the prospects and limitations on transgenic plant vaccines.

  13. [Research advances in forest soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwei; Xiang, Chenghua; Luo, Zongshi; Gong, Yuanbo

    2006-12-01

    Among the methods of measuring forest soil respiration, infrared CO2 analysis is the optimal one so far. Comparing with empirical model, the process-based model in simulating the production and transportation of soil CO2 has the advantage of considering the biological and physical processes of soil respiration. Generally, soil respiration is positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but there are still many uncertainties about the relationships between soil respiration and forest management activities such as firing, cutting, and fertilization. The relationships of soil respiration with vegetation type and soil microbial biomass, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration, are the hotspots in recent researches. Some issues and future development in forest soil respiration research were discussed in this paper.

  14. Frontiers of research in advanced computations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The principal mission of the Institute for Scientific Computing Research is to foster interactions among LLNL researchers, universities, and industry on selected topics in scientific computing. In the area of computational physics, the Institute has developed a new algorithm, GaPH, to help scientists understand the chemistry of turbulent and driven plasmas or gases at far less cost than other methods. New low-frequency electromagnetic models better describe the plasma etching and deposition characteristics of a computer chip in the making. A new method for modeling realistic curved boundaries within an orthogonal mesh is resulting in a better understanding of the physics associated with such boundaries and much quicker solutions. All these capabilities are being developed for massively parallel implementation, which is an ongoing focus of Institute researchers. Other groups within the Institute are developing novel computational methods to address a range of other problems. Examples include feature detection and motion recognition by computer, improved monitoring of blood oxygen levels, and entirely new models of human joint mechanics and prosthetic devices.

  15. Technical challenges and solutions in representing lakes when using WRF in downscaling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, M. S.; Nolte, C. G.; Spero, T. L.; Bullock, O. R.; Alapaty, K.; Herwehe, J. A.; Gula, J.; Bowden, J. H.

    2015-04-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is commonly used to make high-resolution future projections of regional climate by downscaling global climate model (GCM) outputs. Because the GCM fields are typically at a much coarser spatial resolution than the target regional downscaled fields, lakes are often poorly resolved in the driving global fields, if they are resolved at all. In such an application, using WRF's default interpolation methods can result in unrealistic lake temperatures and ice cover at inland water points. Prior studies have shown that lake temperatures and ice cover impact the simulation of other surface variables, such as air temperatures and precipitation, two fields that are often used in regional climate applications to understand the impacts of climate change on human health and the environment. Here, alternative methods for setting lake surface variables in WRF for downscaling simulations are presented and contrasted.

  16. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  17. Research priorities and history of advanced composite compression testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Priorities for standard compression testing research in advanced laminated fibrous composite materials are presented along with a state of the art survey (completed in 1979) including history and commentary on industrial test methods. Historically apparent research priorities and consequent (lack of) progress are supporting evidence for newly derived priorities.

  18. Broadening horizons: engaging advanced practice nursing students in faculty research.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Josie A

    2009-01-01

    Inviting advanced practice nursing students to participate in faculty research can be an innovative way to interest students in using current evidence as the basis for their practice. The author discusses strategies for effectively engaging graduate nursing students into research projects in ways that broaden the students' perspectives and strengthen their healthcare decision-making skills.

  19. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  20. Advances in nanostructured permanent magnets research

    SciTech Connect

    Poudyal, N; Liu, JP

    2012-12-14

    This paper reviews recent developments in research in nanostructured permanent magnets ( hard magnetic materials) with emphasis on bottom-up approaches to fabrication of hard/soft nanocomposite bulk magnets. Theoretical and experimental findings on the effects of soft phase and interface conditions on interphase exchange interactions are given. Synthesis techniques for hard magnetic nanoparticles, including chemical solution methods, surfactant-assisted ball milling and other physical deposition methods are reviewed. Processing and magnetic properties of warm compacted and plastically deformed bulk magnets with nanocrystalline morphology are discussed. Prospects of producing bulk anisotropic hard/soft nanocomposite magnets are presented.

  1. Advances in fog microphysics research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Duanyang; Li, Zihua; Yan, Wenlian; Li, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Fog microphysical research in China based on field experiments obtained many important results in recent 50 years. With the fast development of China's economy, urbanization in the last 30 years, special features of fog microphysical structure also appeared, which did not appear in other countries. This article reviews the fog microphysical research around China, and introduces the effect of urbanization on fog microphysical structure and the microphysical processes as well as macroscopic conditions of radiation fog droplet spectral broadening. Urbanization led to an increase in fog droplet number concentration but decreases in fog liquid water content (LWC) and fog droplet size, as well as a decrease in visibility in large cities. Observations show that the radiation fog could be divided into wide-spectrum one, which is all extremely dense fog with the spectral width more than 40 μm, and narrow-spectrum one, most of which is dense fog with the spectral width less than 22 μm, according to droplet spectral distribution. During developing from dense fog to extremely dense fog, the widespectrum radiation fog is characterized by explosive deepening, that is, within a very short time (about 30 min), the droplet concentration increase by about one order of magnitude, droplet spectral broadening across 20 μm, generally up to 30-40 μm, or even 50 μm. As a result, water content increased obviously, visibility decreased to less than 50 m, when dense fog became extremely dense fog.

  2. Recent advances in organ microcirculation research.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Oda, M

    1987-01-01

    This review article dealt with progress in the research of gastroenterological organ microcirculation in Japan. It must be emphasized that this remarkable progress particularly in intravital microcirculatory observations at organ level is attributable to great improvement of microscopic devices combined with computerized system, development of new techniques for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and pioneering of a variety of fluorescent and isotope-labelled tracers. Little attention has been directed toward the fact that microvascular manifestations are perhaps the earliest signs of "cells and tissues" dysfunction in disease processes. The microvasculature undergoes a substantial remodeling not only in vascular wall structures, but also in network characteristics themselves especially in chronic disease. Those microvascular alterations in an organ system, which primarily originate in adaptations to the microenvironmental changes, would lead to the chronicity and self-perpetuation of disease. As has been noted in the IVth World Congress for Microcirculation organized by the Japanese Society for Microcirculation, which was held in Tokyo, July 26-30, 1987, further progress has been made in the research of organ microcirculation in the gastroenterological and other fields. It is the cornerstone for better understanding of the pathogenesis of organ diseases to clarify the earliest alterations in the microvasculature of an organ system from a combined aspect of microhemo- and microlymphocirculation using the newly developed techniques for microcirculation study.

  3. WRF Modeling of Synoptic Flow Cases of MATERHORN Spring Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Z.; Hocut, C. M.; Dimitrova, R.; Zsedrovits, T.; Fernando, H. J.; Wang, Y.; Creegan, E.; Felton, M.; Di Sabatino, S.; Leo, L.

    2014-12-01

    A myriad of flow phenomena (mountain waves, wakes, rotors, down-slope windstorms, gap winds and barrier jets) occur when synoptic flows encounter mountainous terrain. These synoptic flows are driven by large-scale pressure gradients that are superimposed on along-valley pressure gradients produced locally by intra-valley thermal gradients. When synoptic flows encounter thermally driven valley/slope flows, the slope flows are modified or even completely erased when certain conditions are satisfied. High-resolution (500 m resolution) runs of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users) were completed for the period of 2013 MATERHORN Spring experiment. The model performance was investigated using data taken using Doppler LiDARs and towers located in the vicinity of Granite Mountain. The model captures modification of the flow in the lee of the mountain. The quantitative comparison of the simulations to the observed data is in progress and will be completed soon. This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709.

  4. The Sensitivity of WRF Daily Summertime Simulations over West Africa to Alternative Parameterizations. Part 1: African Wave Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Erik; Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) as a West African regional-atmospheric model is evaluated. The study tests the sensitivity of WRF-simulated vorticity maxima associated with African easterly waves to 64 combinations of alternative parameterizations in a series of simulations in September. In all, 104 simulations of 12-day duration during 11 consecutive years are examined. The 64 combinations combine WRF parameterizations of cumulus convection, radiation transfer, surface hydrology, and PBL physics. Simulated daily and mean circulation results are validated against NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and NCEP/Department of Energy Global Reanalysis 2. Precipitation is considered in a second part of this two-part paper. A wide range of 700-hPa vorticity validation scores demonstrates the influence of alternative parameterizations. The best WRF performers achieve correlations against reanalysis of 0.40-0.60 and realistic amplitudes of spatiotemporal variability for the 2006 focus year while a parallel-benchmark simulation by the NASA Regional Model-3 (RM3) achieves higher correlations, but less realistic spatiotemporal variability. The largest favorable impact on WRF-vorticity validation is achieved by selecting the Grell-Devenyi cumulus convection scheme, resulting in higher correlations against reanalysis than simulations using the Kain-Fritch convection. Other parameterizations have less-obvious impact, although WRF configurations incorporating one surface model and PBL scheme consistently performed poorly. A comparison of reanalysis circulation against two NASA radiosonde stations confirms that both reanalyses represent observations well enough to validate the WRF results. Validation statistics for optimized WRF configurations simulating the parallel period during 10 additional years are less favorable than for 2006.

  5. Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview.

    PubMed

    Bracesco, N; Sanchez, A G; Contreras, V; Menini, T; Gugliucci, A

    2011-07-14

    Ilex paraguariensis dried and minced leaves are made into a brewed tea, prepared in a sui generis manner by large populations in South America, having evolved from a tea drunk by the Guarani ethnic group to a beverage that has a social and almost ritualistic role in some South American modern societies. It is used both as a source of caffeine, in lieu or in parallel with tea and coffee, but also as a therapeutic agent for its alleged pharmacological properties. Although with some exceptions, research on biomedical properties of this herb has had a late start and strongly lags behind the impressive amount of literature on green tea and coffee. However, in the past 15 years, there was a several-fold increase in the literature studying Ilex paraguariensis properties showing effects such as antioxidant properties in chemical models and ex vivo lipoprotein studies, vaso-dilating and lipid reduction properties, antimutagenic effects, controversial association with oropharyngeal cancer, anti-glycation effects and weight reduction properties. Lately, promising results from human intervention studies have surfaced and the literature offers several developments on this area. The aim of this review is to provide a concise summary of the research published in the past three years, with an emphasis on translational studies, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Ilex paraguariensis reduces LDL-cholesterol levels in humans with Ilex paraguariensis dyslipoproteinemia and the effect is synergic with that of statins. Plasma antioxidant capacity as well as expression of antioxidant enzymes is positively modulated by intervention with Ilex paraguariensis in human cohorts. A review on the evidence implicating Ilex paraguariensis heavy consumption with some neoplasias show data that are inconclusive but indicate that contamination with alkylating agents during the drying process of the leaves should be avoided. On the other hand, several new studies confirm the antimutagenic effects of

  6. Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Shannon, D. W.; Sullivan, R. G.; Kindle, C. H.; Pool, K. H.

    1985-09-01

    Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters.

  7. Advances in the CIS research at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Granata, J.; Webb, J.; Niles, D.; Contreras, M.A.; Wiesner, H.; Hasoon, F.S.; Noufi, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the research of the CIS Team at NREL in three major areas: absorber deposition; understanding the role of chemical bath deposited (CBD) CdS in CIS junctions; and in the development of devices without CdS. Low cost, scaleable processes chosen for absorber fabrication include sputtering, electrodeposition (ED), and close spaced sublimation (CSS). The interaction between the CBD and the CIS has been investigated and the results show that Cd might be instrumental in shaping the interface. The authors have also developed a process to fabricate a 13.5% efficiency ZnO/CuInGaSe{sub 2} device without CdS or other buffer layers.

  8. Advanced moisture sensor research and development

    SciTech Connect

    De Los Santos, A.

    1992-10-31

    During this period, testing of the system continued at the American Fructose (AF) plant in Dimmitt, Texas. Testing at the first two sites (dryer output and dryer input) was completed. Following the testing at the second site, the sensor was returned to the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) laboratories for modifications and for fitting of the additional components required to allow sampling of the material to be measured at the third site. These modifications were completed during this reporting period, and the system is scheduled to be installed at the third site (Rotary Vacuum Filter output) early in the next period. Laboratory measurements of corn germ (to be measured at the fourth site) and a variety of fruits and vegetables (one of which will be measured at the fifth site) have also continued during this period.

  9. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future.

  10. idaho Accelerator Center Advanced Fuel Cycle Research

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Douglas; Dale, Dan

    2011-10-20

    The technical effort has been in two parts called; Materials Science and Instrumentation Development. The Materials Science technical program has been based on a series of research and development achievements in Positron-Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) for defect detection in structural materials. This work is of particular importance in nuclear power and its supporting systems as the work included detection of defects introduced by mechanical and thermal phenomena as well as those caused by irradiation damage. The second part of the program has focused on instrumentation development using active interrogation techniques supporting proliferation resistant recycling methodologies and nuclear material safeguards. This effort has also lead to basic physics studies of various phenomena relating to photo-fission. Highlights of accomplishments and facility improvement legacies in these areas over the program period include

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  13. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    PubMed

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  14. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    PubMed Central

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  15. Technical Challenges and Solutions in Representing Lakes when using WRF in Downscaling Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is commonly used to make high resolution future projections of regional climate by downscaling global climate model (GCM) outputs. Because the GCM fields are typically at a much coarser spatial resolution than the target regional ...

  16. Sensitivity of WRF Regional Climate Simulations to Choice of Land Use Dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to assess the sensitivity of regional climate simulations run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the choice of datasets representing land use and land cover (LULC). Within a regional climate modeling application, an accurate repres...

  17. Operational, hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling over the contiguous U.S. using themulti-scale, multi-physics WRF-Hydro Modeling and Data Assimilation System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Cosgrove, B.; Yu, W.; Clark, E. P.; Yates, D. N.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Pan, L.; Zhang, Y.; rafeei-Nasab, A.; Karsten, L. R.; Cline, D. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Newman, A. J.; Wood, A.; Win-Gildenmeister, M.

    2015-12-01

    Operational flood, flash flood and water supply forecasting is typically conducted using a host of different observational and modeling tools that range widely in process complexity, spatial resolution andobservational data sources. While such tailored approaches can provide significant skill in specific water forecasting applications, the lack of a more coordinated general approach can result in inconsistency between various forecast products and can inhibit transfer of information, methodologies between forecast systems. With the aim of improving the timeliness, consistency and spatial fidelity hydrologic prediction products, the U.S. National Weather Service has initiated an effort to provide street-level, water prediction services for the nation. This effort seeks to incorporate advances in hydrometeorological observing capabilities, new hydrologic data assimilation methodologies, improvements in hydrographic and geospatial information and advances in the ulitizion of high performance computers for process-based hydrologic modeling. This talk will summarize the proposed Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for national water prediction using the community WRF-Hydro modeling system, scheduled for operational execution during late spring of 2016. Four different configurations of the WRF-Hydro system are planned including an Analysis and Data Assimilation configuration, Short Range (0-2 day) and Medium Range (0-10 day) deterministic configurations and a Long Range (0-30 day) enesmble configuration. Streamflow analyses and forecasts from each model configurations will be produced on 2.7 million river reaches of the NHDPlusv2 hydrographic dataset. This presentation summarizes results from a number of different model development and benchmarking activities conducted as part of the IOC effort. Results from prototype real-time forecasting activities conducted during the 2015 National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE) will be presented as will retrospective

  18. WRF-Solar: Upgrading the WRF representation of the aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks in support of solar energy forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, P. A.; Haupt, S. E.; Hacker, J.; Dudhia, J.

    2015-12-01

    WRF-Solar is an upgraded version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model aimed at improving solar power forecasting that provides a better representation of the aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks. Model developments include efficient numerical approaches to support operational forecasting and focus on particular feedbacks of the aerosol-cloud-radiation system: Aerosol-radiation feedbacks: A new parameterization of the aerosol direct effect was implemented to improve the representation of the aerosol variability. Cloud-aerosol feedbacks: The microphysics parameterization was upgraded to include water- and ice-nucleation aerosols. Cloud-radiation feedbacks: A shallow cumulus parameterization was implemented to connect sub-grid clouds to the radiation scheme. In addition, the microphysics parameterization provides the cloud droplet radius and ice crystal size to the radiation parameterizations to fully represent the first and second aerosol indirect effect. Initialization of the cloud field from infrared radiances recorded by satellites. The different components have been interconnected to provide a complete representation of the aerosol-cloud-radiation system and its feedbacks. In addition, new developments were introduced to output the diffuse and direct normal irradiance (DNI) at temporal resolutions only limited by the time step of the model. This presentation will provide an overview of the model physics packages upgraded for solar energy applications together with an assessment of different upgraded components. This includes the clear sky assessment wherein improvements of up to 58%, 76%, and 83% are found in global horizontal irradiance, DNI, and diffuse irradiance, respectively, compared to a standard version of the WRF model. The benefits of including a representation of the effects of unresolved clouds in the solar irradiance that largely reduce a positive bias in the model (~50W/m2). Finally, we will discuss an ongoing evaluation of the

  19. Design and Impacts of Land-Biogenic-Atmosphere Coupling in the NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF) Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Qian; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Zhou, Shujia; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa d.; Chn, Mian

    2011-01-01

    Land-Atmosphere coupling is typically designed and implemented independently for physical (e.g. water and energy) and chemical (e.g. biogenic emissions and surface depositions)-based models and applications. Differences in scale, data requirements, and physics thus limit the ability of Earth System models to be fully coupled in a consistent manner. In order for the physical-chemical-biological coupling to be complete, treatment of the land in terms of surface classification, condition, fluxes, and emissions must be considered simultaneously and coherently across all components. In this study, we investigate a coupling strategy for the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model that incorporates the traditionally disparate fluxes of water and energy through NASA's LIS (Land Information System) and biogenic emissions through BEIS (Biogenic Emissions Inventory System) and MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) into the atmosphere. In doing so, inconsistencies across model inputs and parameter data are resolved such that the emissions from a particular plant species are consistent with the heat and moisture fluxes calculated for that land cover type. In turn, the response of the atmospheric turbulence and mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) acts on the identical surface type, fluxes, and emissions for each. In addition, the coupling of dust emission within the NU-WRF system is performed in order to ensure consistency and to maximize the benefit of high-resolution land representation in LIS. The impacts of those self-consistent components on' the simulation of atmospheric aerosols are then evaluated through the WRF-Chem-GOCART (Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport) model. Overall, this ambitious project highlights the current difficulties and future potential of fully coupled. components. in Earth System models, and underscores the importance of the iLEAPS community in supporting improved knowledge of

  20. Linguistic Alternatives to Quantitative Research Strategies. Part One: How Linguistic Mechanisms Advance Research Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Combining psycholinguistic technologies and systems analysis created advances in motivational profiling and numerous new behavioral engineering applications. These advances leapfrog many mainstream statistical research methods, producing superior research results via cause-effect language mechanisms. Entire industries explore motives ranging from…

  1. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  2. The SPoRT-WRF: Evaluating the Impact of NASA Datasets on Convective Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Kozlowski, Danielle; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a collaborative partnership between NASA and operational forecasting entities, including a number of National Weather Service offices. SPoRT transitions real-time NASA products and capabilities to its partners to address specific operational forecast challenges. One challenge that forecasters face is applying convection-allowing numerical models to predict mesoscale convective weather. In order to address this specific forecast challenge, SPoRT produces real-time mesoscale model forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that includes unique NASA products and capabilities. Currently, the SPoRT configuration of the WRF model (SPoRT-WRF) incorporates the 4-km Land Information System (LIS) land surface data, 1-km SPoRT sea surface temperature analysis and 1-km Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) analysis, and retrieved thermodynamic profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The LIS, SST, and GVF data are all integrated into the SPoRT-WRF through adjustments to the initial and boundary conditions, and the AIRS data are assimilated into a 9-hour SPoRT WRF forecast each day at 0900 UTC. This study dissects the overall impact of the NASA datasets and the individual surface and atmospheric component datasets on daily mesoscale forecasts. A case study covering the super tornado outbreak across the Ce ntral and Southeastern United States during 25-27 April 2011 is examined. Three different forecasts are analyzed including the SPoRT-WRF (NASA surface and atmospheric data), the SPoRT WRF without AIRS (NASA surface data only), and the operational National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) WRF (control with no NASA data). The forecasts are compared qualitatively by examining simulated versus observed radar reflectivity. Differences between the simulated reflectivity are further investigated using convective parameters along

  3. Evaluation of WRF capability to detect dry and wet periods in Spain using drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia R.; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María. Jesús

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to show the benefits provided by downscaled fields to detect and analyze wet and dry periods over a region with high precipitation variability such as Spain. We have analyzed the spatiotemporal behavior of two widely used drought indices: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), computed at 3 and 12 month time scales, which provide important information in an agricultural and water-resource context. These two indices were computed from WRF outputs and compared with those calculated from observational (monthly precipitation and temperature databases of Spain, MOPREDAS and MOTEDAS) and from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data sets. This evaluation was made by using a regional scale and a multistep regionalization method and by comparison of individual grid points. In general, results indicate that the drought indices obtained by using WRF outputs provide a noticeable improvement regarding those computed by using ERA-Interim, higher at longer time scales. Although results show no significant differences between drought indices analyzed, the improvement offered by WRF is greater for SPI than for SPEI. In terms of averaged duration, magnitude, and severity of drought, the benefits provided by WRF are not so evident, presenting better agreement with the observational data at 12 month time scale, being clearer for the intensity. These findings evidence the benefit of using WRF climate fields to monitor, analyze, and detect drought events, being a valuable source of knowledge for a suitable decision making, especially for water-resource management.

  4. Improved cyberinfrastructure for integrated hydrometeorological predictions within the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; hooper, Rick; parodi, Antonio; Jha, Shantenu; Yu, Wei; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Ganapati, Dinesh

    2014-05-01

    The community WRF-Hydro system is currently being used in a variety of flood prediction and regional hydroclimate impacts assessment applications around the world. Despite its increasingly wide use certain cyberinfrastructure bottlenecks exist in the setup, execution and post-processing of WRF-Hydro model runs. These bottlenecks result in wasted time, labor, data transfer bandwidth and computational resource use. Appropriate development and use of cyberinfrastructure to setup and manage WRF-Hydro modeling applications will streamline the entire workflow of hydrologic model predictions. This talk will present recent advances in the development and use of new open-source cyberinfrastructure tools for the WRF-Hydro architecture. These tools include new web-accessible pre-processing applications, supercomputer job management applications and automated verification and visualization applications. The tools will be described successively and then demonstrated in a set of flash flood use cases for recent destructive flood events in the U.S. and in Europe. Throughout, an emphasis on the implementation and use of community data standards for data exchange is made.

  5. Evaluating Deep Updraft Formulation in NCAR CAM3 with High-Resolution WRF Simulations During ARM TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong

    2009-02-19

    The updraft formulation used in NCAR CAM3 deep convection parameterization assumes that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft is height-independent and the updraft mass flux increases monotonically with height to updraft top. These assumptions are evaluated against three-dimensional high-resolution simulations from the weather research and forecast (WRF) model during the monsoon period of the DOE ARM Tropical Warm Pool -- International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE). Analyses of the WRF-generated updrafts suggest that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft decreases with height and the updraft mass flux increases with height below the top of the conditionally unstable layer but decreases above. It is suggested that the assumed updraft mass flux profile in CAM3 might be unrealistic in many cases because the updraft acceleration is affected by other drag processes in addition to entrainment. Total convective cloud mass flux and detrainment rate over the TWP-ICE domain diagnosed from the CAM3 parameterization driven by WRF meteorological fields are smaller than those derived from WRF simulations. The total entrainment rate of CAM3 is smaller than that of WRF in the lower part of cloud and larger in the upper part of cloud. Compared with WRF simulations, the CAM3-parameterized convection is too active and, as a result, excess moisture and heat may be transported to the upper troposphere by the parameterized convection. Future improvement is envisioned.

  6. The SPoRT-WRF: Evaluating the Impact of NASA Datasets on Convective Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Kozlowski, Danielle; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) seeks to improve short-term, regional weather forecasts using unique NASA products and capabilities SPoRT has developed a unique, real-time configuration of the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)WRF (ARW) that integrates all SPoRT modeling research data: (1) 2-km SPoRT Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Composite, (2) 3-km LIS with 1-km Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVFs) (3) 45-km AIRS retrieved profiles. Transitioned this real-time forecast to NOAA's Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) as deterministic model at Experimental Forecast Program (EFP). Feedback from forecasters/participants and internal evaluation of SPoRT-WRF shows a cool, dry bias that appears to suppress convection likely related to methodology for assimilation of AIRS profiles Version 2 of the SPoRT-WRF will premier at the 2012 EFP and include NASA physics, cycling data assimilation methodology, better coverage of precipitation forcing, and new GVFs

  7. Advancing social research relationships in postnatal support settings.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Maria; Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-05-01

    Global trends in public health nursing (PHN) suggest the value of community-based social research. However, it is not always clear how social research relationships may be of benefit to PHN or how such skills can best be learned and applied. To advance this understanding, we present a qualitative analysis of the development of social research relationships in PHN. Using a background literature review as a foundation, our qualitative mixed method strategy involved a comparative case-study analysis based on the authors' participant observation in two distinct postnatal group settings. Our findings suggest that participant observation facilitates the advancement of social research relationships through practitioner-research management of role conflict. Reflexivity and reciprocity is an emergent relational process, which relies upon a de-professionalization of the traditional PHN role. Conversely, social research relationships help build PHN capacity for family health needs assessment. Thus, we contend that the application of participant observation enables the development of social research relationships, which advance the practice of PHN in postnatal support settings.

  8. Assimilating QuikSCAT SeaWinds With WRF Model for High Latitude Sea Breeze Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Zhang, J.; Krieger, J. R.; Morton, D. J.; Shulski, M. D.; Klene, A. E.; Zhang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Sea breezes along the Arctic coastal areas, especially in the Beaufort Sea coast, are associated with seasonal change of solar insolation, sea ice retreat, and complex terrain of the Brooks Range. Improvement of sea surface wind simulation with a high resolution mesoscale model is of particular interest in oil spill impact assessment and management, as well as in coastal erosion assessment. The objective of this study is to use the mesoscale weather research and forecast (WRF) model with satellite data assimilation to achieve a high quality simulation of Beaufort Sea regional weather patterns. The SeaWinds instrument onboard the polar-orbiting quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite is a specialized radar that measures ice-free ocean surface wind speed and direction. This data provides significant information over open water areas, where conventional observations are very sparse, for model validation and simulation improvement. The QuikSCAT SeaWinds level 2B data which have a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km are assimilated into the WRF model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (WRF-Var) to study the impacts of QuikSCAT data on WRF simulations of surface wind fields and sea breezes. The modeling domain has been setup to cover the Beaufort Sea area with 235x136 grid points at 10 km resolution and is centered at (155W, 71.3N). In order to apply the WRF-Var system, a customized WRF model error statistics and length scales are created using a one-year simulation of WRF for this particular domain. Two 5-day periods, 10/01/2002-10/05/2000 and 9/20/2004-9/24/2004, are selected to conduct our case study. The years 2002 and 2004 had most open water area, i.e., the farthest ice retreat, during recent seven years; and thus, there are more QuikSCAT SeaWinds data available for our study. Preliminary results show that the WRF model is capable of simulating wind fields very well by verifying modeled winds with station observations. Further results on

  9. Coupling a Thermodynamic Sea Ice Model with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, J. R.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice plays a significant role in shaping the atmospheric dynamics of the Arctic and surrounding regions through the modification of surface characteristics such as surface roughness, heat conductivity, and albedo. These in turn have both thermodynamic impacts on the surface heat budget and direct dynamic impacts on the low-level winds. In numerical atmospheric models, the accurate treatment of sea ice is therefore of critical importance in producing realistic simulations, not only on the global scale but at local and regional scales as well. However, sea ice is an often-neglected component of mesoscale meteorological models, many times being treated as just another land cover type without the sufficient complexity necessary to properly characterize its thermodynamic effects. To address this deficiency, we have recently coupled a thermodynamic sea ice model with the latest version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to improve the latter's simulation of sea ice surface temperatures, and by extension its simulation of Arctic conditions as a whole. A series of case studies was performed in which results from the coupled and unmodified versions of WRF were compared to determine the efficacy of this approach in improving weather simulations along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts in northern Alaska. In addition to surface station data, observations made as part of the SHEBA and SEDNA field campaigns and by two buoys recently deployed in the Beaufort Sea were used to verify the model output.

  10. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Realistic vegetation characteristics and phenology from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products improve the simulation for the meteorology and air quality modeling system WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model) that employs the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM). Recently, PX LSM WRF/CMAQ has been updated in vegetation, soil, and boundary layer processes resulting in improved 2 m temperature (T) and mixing ratio (Q), 10 m wind speed, and surface ozone simulations across the domain compared to the previous version for a period around August 2006. Yearlong meteorology simulations with the updated system demonstrate that MODIS input helps reduce bias of the 2 m Q estimation during the growing season from April to September. Improvements follow the green-up in the southeast from April and move toward the west and north through August. From October to March, MODIS input does not have much influence on the system because vegetation is not as active. The greatest effects of MODIS input include more accurate phenology, better representation of leaf area index (LAI) for various forest ecosystems and agricultural areas, and realistically sparse vegetation coverage in the western drylands. Despite the improved meteorology, MODIS input causes higher bias for the surface O3 simulation in April, August, and October in areas where MODIS LAI is much less than the base LAI. Thus, improvement

  11. Optical Turbulence Characterization by WRF model above Ngari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Yao, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important roles in site survey for astronomical observatories and optimization of large telescope observing tables, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique and atmospheric optical transportation. The numerical approach, by use of meteorological parameters and according to parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters related, such as Cn2 profile, coherent length, coherent time, seeing, isoplanatic angle, and outer scale of turbulence. This is particularly interesting for searching new sites without the long and expensive site testing campaigns with instruments. Earlier site survey results by National Astronomical Observatories of China site survey team imply that the south-west Tibet, Ngari, is one of the world best IR and sub-mm sites. For searching the best site in Ngari area of hundreds of kilometers, numerical approach by Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model had been used to evaluate the climatology of the optical turbulence. The WRF model is configured over a domain 200km×200km with 1km horizontal resolution and 65 vertical levels from ground to the model top(10millibars) in 2010. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are given by the 1°x1°NCEP Global Final Analysis data. The distribution and seasonal variation of optical turbulence parameters over this area are presented. The field investigation for the potential good site are also given.

  12. Optical Turbulence Characterization by WRF model above Ali, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongshuai; Yao, Yongqiang; Liu, Liyong; Qian, Xuan; Yin, Jia

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important roles in site survey, optimization of large telescope observing tables, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique. The numerical approach, by using of meteorological parameters and parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters related, such as C2n profile, coherent length, wavefront coherent time, seeing, isoplanatic angle, and so on. This is particularly interesting for searching new sites without the long and expensive site testing campaigns with instruments. Earlier site survey results by the site survey team of National Astronomical Observatories of China imply that the south-west Tibet, Ali, is one of the world best IR and sub-mm site. For searching the best site in Ali area, numerical approach by Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model had been used to evaluate the climatology of the optical turbulence. The WRF model is configured over a domain 200km×200km with 1km horizontal resolution and 65 vertical levels from ground to the model top(10millibars) in 2010. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are provided by the 1° × 1° Global Final Analysis data from NCEP. The distribution and seasonal variation of optical turbulence parameters over this area are presented.

  13. Regional climate simulations over Vietnam using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, S. V.; Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of the present-day (1961-1990) regional climate simulations over Vietnam. The regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) was driven by the global reanalysis ERA40. The performance of the regional climate model in simulating the observed climate is evaluated with a main focus on precipitation and temperature. The regional climate model was able to reproduce the observed spatial patterns of the climate, although with some biases. The model also performed better in reproducing the extreme precipitation and the interannual variability. Overall, the WRF model was able to simulate the main regional signatures of climate variables, seasonal cycles, and frequency distributions. This study is an evaluation of the present-day climate simulations of a regional climate model at a resolution of 25 km. Given that dynamical downscaling has become common for studying climate change and its impacts, the study highlights that much more improvements in modeling might be necessary to yield realistic simulations of climate at high resolutions before they can be used for impact studies at a local scale. The need for a dense network of observations is also realized as observations at high resolutions are needed when it comes to evaluations and validations of models at sub-regional and local scales.

  14. On the added value and sensitivity of WRF to driving conditions over CORDEX-Africa domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; García-Díez, Markel; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Fernández, Jesús; Montavez, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the climate variability over Africa has recently attracted the interest of the regional climate downscaling research community. The main reasons are not only because Africa is a climate change hot-spot, but also due to the low capacity of this region for the adaptation and mitigation under negative impacts and its direct dependency on its socio-economic sustainability of the climate variability. Therefore, improvements in the understanding of the African climate could help the governments in decision-making. Under this umbrella, regional climate models (RCMs) are promising tools to assess the African regional climate. The main advantage of the RCMs, with respect to global reanalysis datasets, is the higher detail provided by the increased resolution which implies a better representation of land-surface interactions and atmospheric processes. However, the confidence on the RCMs strongly depends on the reduction/bounding of uncertainties. One of these sources of uncertainties is associated with the selection of the boundary conditions for driving the regional models. In this work, two identical CORDEX-compliant simulations have been performed over Africa with the unique difference of being driven by two different reanalyses. The reanalyses used were the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-I) and the Japanese 25-year reanalysis (JRA-25) by the Japanese Meteorological Service. Both reanalyses have identical temporal resolution (6-hr) but different spatial grid resolution, 0.75 and 1.25 degrees, respectively. The regional model used was the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The numerical experiments encompass the period 1989-2010 covering the Africa-CORDEX domain with a 50 km horizontal spatial resolution and 28 vertical levels up to 50 hPa. The WRF simulations are compared between them and against observations. For the mean and maximum temperature the CRU monthly time series (0.25deg) from Climatic

  15. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation contains papers presented at the NASA Conference on Advanced Technology Airfoil Research held at Langley Research Center on March 7-9, 1978, which have unlimited distribution. This conference provided a comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted in-house and under grant and contract. A broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA was also reviewed. The major thrust of the technical sessions were in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  16. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research.

  17. Advancing a program of research within a nursing faculty role.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Marie T; Wenzel, Jennifer; Han, Hae-Ra; Allen, Jerilyn K; Paez, Kathryn A; Mock, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral students and new faculty members often seek advice from more senior faculty on how to advance their program of research. Students may ask whether they should choose the manuscript option for their dissertation or whether they should seek a postdoctoral fellowship. New faculty members wonder whether they should pursue a career development award and whether they need a mentor as they strive to advance their research while carrying out teaching, service, and practice responsibilities. In this article, we describe literature on the impact of selected aspects of pre- and postdoctoral training and faculty strategies on scholarly productivity in the faculty role. We also combine our experiences at a school of nursing within a research-intensive university to suggest strategies for success. Noting the scarcity of research that evaluates the effect of these strategies, we are actively engaged in collecting data on their relationship to the scholarly productivity of students and faculty members within our own institution.

  18. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica.

  19. INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    James Venhuizen

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  20. Center for Advanced Power and Energy Research (CAPEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    University structured through a cooperative research agreement. Our organizational focuses include: 1. Modeling of plasma physics 2. Modeling fuel cells 3...Testing new innovation and ideas for advanced fuel cells 4. Development of energy related issue for micro air vehicles (MAVs). 15. SUBJECT TERMS plasma ...1 2 Plasma Modeling

  1. [Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia.

  2. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report for 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Venhuizen

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  3. INEEL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    2003-05-23

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2002. Topics covered include computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and boron analytical chemistry.

  4. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  5. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  6. Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging Research and Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0198 TITLE: Advanced Pediatric Brain Imaging... Brain Imaging Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0198 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Catherine...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Brain injury is a leading cause of

  7. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  8. Summary of Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorder Research, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year the members of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee identify recent research findings that made the most impact on the field. For the 2009 Summary of Advances, the IACC selected and summarized 20 studies that gave significant insight into the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the biology of the disorder, potential…

  9. Advanced Composite Structures At NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Eldred's presentation will discuss several NASA efforts to improve and expand the use of composite structures within aerospace vehicles. Topics will include an overview of NASA's Advanced Composites Project (ACP), Space Launch System (SLS) applications, and Langley's ISAAC robotic composites research tool.

  10. Development of WRF-ROI system by incorporating eigen-decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Noh, N.; Song, H.; Lim, G.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the development of WRF-ROI system, which is the implementation of Retrospective Optimal Interpolation (ROI) to the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). ROI is a new data assimilation algorithm introduced by Song et al. (2009) and Song and Lim (2009). The formulation of ROI is similar with that of Optimal Interpolation (OI), but ROI iteratively assimilates an observation set at a post analysis time into a prior analysis, possibly providing the high quality reanalysis data. ROI method assimilates the data at post analysis time using perturbation method (Errico and Raeder, 1999) without adjoint model. In previous study, ROI method is applied to Lorenz 40-variable model (Lorenz, 1996) to validate the algorithm and to investigate the capability. It is therefore required to apply this ROI method into a more realistic and complicated model framework such as WRF. In this research, the reduced-rank formulation of ROI is used instead of a reduced-resolution method. The computational costs can be reduced due to the eigen-decomposition of background error covariance in the reduced-rank method. When single profile of observations is assimilated in the WRF-ROI system by incorporating eigen-decomposition, the analysis error tends to be reduced if compared with the background error. The difference between forecast errors with assimilation and without assimilation is obviously increased as time passed, which means the improvement of forecast error by assimilation.

  11. Compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-based parallelization of WRF Kessler cloud microphysics scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Wang, Jun; Allen Huang, H.-L.; Goldberg, Mitchell D.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, graphics processing units (GPUs) have emerged as a low-cost, low-power and a very high performance alternative to conventional central processing units (CPUs). The latest GPUs offer a speedup of two-to-three orders of magnitude over CPU for various science and engineering applications. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is the latest-generation numerical weather prediction model. It has been designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. It proves useful for a broad spectrum of applications for domain scales ranging from meters to hundreds of kilometers. WRF computes an approximate solution to the differential equations which govern the air motion of the whole atmosphere. Kessler microphysics module in WRF is a simple warm cloud scheme that includes water vapor, cloud water and rain. Microphysics processes which are modeled are rain production, fall and evaporation. The accretion and auto-conversion of cloud water processes are also included along with the production of cloud water from condensation. In this paper, we develop an efficient WRF Kessler microphysics scheme which runs on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The GPU-based implementation of Kessler microphysics scheme achieves a significant speedup of 70× over its CPU based single-threaded counterpart. When a 4 GPU system is used, we achieve an overall speedup of 132× as compared to the single thread CPU version.

  12. Spatiotemporal differences in nitrogen fate and transport with application of NCDC and WRF precipitation data in the SWAT watershed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Cooter, E. J.; Dennis, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed fate and transport models are widely used within the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) as tools to forecast ecosystem services and evaluate future scenarios associated with land use, climate change and emissions regulation. A critical step in applying fate and transport models is understanding model sensitivity and function, particularly as new and innovative methods become available to apply forcing function data, e.g. precipitation data. Currently, multiple precipitation data sources are available for use in watershed modeling, two of which include National Climactic Data Center (NCDC) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) data. As there are clear distinctions in how precipitation is determined for these precipitation sources (gauge vs. model simulated), there can also exist significant differences in precipitation frequency on a site-by-site basis. These differences may translate to large contrasts in nitrogen transport due to the sensitivity of surface biogeochemical processes to precipitation characteristics, namely those influenced by soil moisture content. The objective of this study is to investigate potential differences in the fate and transport of reactive nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse Basin, North Carolina, USA, after separately applying NCDC and WRF precipitation data sources into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model. The spatiotemporal variation of several nitrogen transport processes will be compared, e.g. reactive nitrogen fixation, plant uptake, overland delivery to streams, denitrification. Results from this research will advance exposure science by providing a greater understanding of the operation and function of watershed fate and transport models, which are primary tools used to assess ecosystem exposure.

  13. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity Comparisons for Warm Season Convective Initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting warm season convection over East-Central Florida. The Weather Research and Forecasting Environmental Modeling System (WRF EMS) software allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Besides model core and initialization options, the WRF model can be run with one- or two-way nesting. Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. This project assessed three different model intializations available to determine which configuration best predicts warm season convective initiation in East-Central Florida. The project also examined the use of one- and two-way nesting in predicting warm season convection.

  14. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  15. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries. Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers’ non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement. PMID:20495669

  16. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  17. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries.Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers' non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement.

  18. First Aviation System Technology Advanced Research (AvSTAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G. (Editor); Weathers, Del W. (Editor); Rosen, Robert (Technical Monitor); Edwards, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings documents the results of a two-day NASA/FAA/Industry workshop that was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at Moffett Field, CA, on September 21-22, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a representative cross section of leaders in air traffic management, from industry. FAA, and academia, to assist in defining the requirements for a new research effort, referred to as AvSTAR Aviation Systems Technology Advanced Research). The Conference Proceedings includes the individual presentation, and summarizes the workshop discussions and recommendations.

  19. Transnationalism: A Framework for Advancing Nursing Research with Contemporary Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Boutain, Doris M.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    This article advances nursing research by presenting transnationalism as a framework for inquiry with contemporary immigrants. Transnationalism occurs when immigrants maintain relationships that transcend the geographical borders of their origin and host countries. Immigrants use those relationships to experience health differently within concurrent socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts than national situated populations. Nurse researchers are called upon to consider these trans-border relationships when exploring the health of contemporary immigrants. Such consideration is needed to develop relevant research designs, methods, analysis, and dissemination strategies. PMID:26836998

  20. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  1. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  2. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  3. Rhetorical Strategies in Engineering Research Articles and Research Theses: Advanced Academic Literacy and Relations of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsantoni, Dimitra

    2006-01-01

    Research articles and research theses constitute two key genres used by scientific communities for the dissemination and ratification of knowledge. Both genres are produced at advanced stages of individuals' enculturation in disciplinary communities present original research aim to persuade the academic community to accept new knowledge claims,…

  4. Developing Research Infrastructure: The Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotnik, Joan Levy; Solt, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the 15 years of research development efforts of the Institute for the Advancement of Social Work Research (IASWR); delineates IASWR's roles in relation to the social work practice, education, and research communities; presents the transdisciplinary and transorganizational partnerships in which IASWR engages to influence…

  5. Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy; McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2009-11-05

    Data from the Tropical Warm Pool I5 nternational Cloud Experiment (TWPICE) were used to evaluate two suites of high-resolution (4-7 km, convection-resolving) simulations of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a focus on the performance of different cloud microphysics (MP) schemes. The major difference between these two suites of simulations is with and without the reinitializing process. Whenreinitialized every three days, the four cloud MP schemes evaluated can capture the general profiles of cloud fraction, temperature, water vapor, winds, and cloud liquid and ice water content (LWC and IWC, respectively). However, compared with surface measurements of radiative and moisture fluxes and satellite retrieval of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, disagreements do exist. Large discrepancies with observed LWC and IWC and derived radiative heating profiles can be attributed to both the limitations of the cloud property retrievals and model performance. The simulated precipitation also shows a wide range of uncertainty as compared with observations, which could be caused by the cloud MP schemes, complexity of land-sea configuration, and the high temporal and spatial variability. In general, our result indicates the importance of large-scale initial and lateral boundary conditions in re-producing basic features of cloudiness and its vertical structures. Based on our case study, we find overall the six-hydrometer single-moment MP scheme(WSM6) [Hong and Lim, 2006] in the WRF model si25 mulates the best agree- ment with the TWPICE observational analysis.

  6. WRF Model Evaluation for the Urban Heat Island Assessment under Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Reference Site Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat island effect has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature in the sub-tropical urban Indian megacity of Delhi. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in-situ and satellite observations. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM both for meteorological parameters (T and RH) and the UHIs. Overall, RMSEs for near surface temperature improved from 1.63°C to 1.13°C for urban areas and from 2.89°C to 2.75°C for non-urban areas with inclusion of urban canopy model in WRF. Similarly, index of agreement and RMSEs for mean urban heat island intensities (UHI) improved from 0.77 to 0.88 and 1.91°C to 1.60°C respectively with WRF-UCM. Hit rate from the model simulated mean heat island intensities using WRF model are 72 % for urban areas and 58 % for non-urban areas such as green areas and riverside areas. The corresponding values improved in WRF-UCM with a hit rate of 75% for urban areas and 72 % for non-urban areas. In general, model is able to capture the magnitude of UHI well though it performs better during night than during the daytime. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a rural reference point for UHI estimation near the urban area is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where nearby rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas themselves and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. Both WRF and WRF-UCM simulated UHI shows satisfactory performance against benchmarks for the statistical measures with classical methodology using rural site as a reference point. Using an alternate methodology of considering a green area within the city having minimum temperature as a reference site worked satisfactorily only with WRF- UCM. In

  7. Pluto's Atmosphere and Surface Ices as Simulated by the PlutoWRF GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; French, R. G.; Gierasch, P. J.; Richardson, M. I.; Guzewich, S.

    2013-12-01

    The PlutoWRF general circulation model (GCM) was built to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, the nature and propagation of waves within the atmosphere, and the exchanges of volatiles between the atmosphere and the surface. We seek to provide an comprehensive framework for the study of the increasingly rich observational data sets (including stellar occultations of the atmosphere) and to provide context and analysis of observations from the New Horizons mission. The PlutoWRF GCM is based on the planetary adaptation of the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It is a compressible, nonhydrostatic model where we have added physics to treat radiative transfer following Zhu et al. (2013), a bulk nitrogen cycle including condensation of surface ice, and cycles of additional trace volatile species. Existing subsurface heat diffusion, surface layer exchange and boundary layer mixing schemes have been adapted to Pluto. Boundary conditions for initial ice distribution and surface pressure are taken from energy balance and non-GCM volatile transport models constrained by observations. In this work we focus on the performance of the PlutoWRF GCM compared with our linear tidal model (Toigo et al., 2010), and will examine the generation and propagation of large-scale gravity waves associated with diurnal sublimation and condensation.

  8. The spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Himalaya: evaluation of one-year WRF model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Jesse; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Cannon, Forest; Bookhagen, Bodo; Palazzi, Elisa; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of precipitation over central Asia over the year April 2005 through March 2006. Experiments are performed at 6.7 km horizontal grid spacing, with an emphasis on winter and summer precipitation over the Himalaya. The model and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission show a similar inter-seasonal cycle of precipitation, from extratropical cyclones to monsoon precipitation, with agreement also in the diurnal cycle of monsoon precipitation. In winter months, WRF compares better in timeseries of daily precipitation to stations below than above 3-km elevation, likely due to inferior measurement of snow than rain by the stations, highlighting the need for reliable snowfall measurements at high elevations in winter. In summer months, the nocturnal precipitation cycle in the foothills and valleys of the Himalaya is captured by this 6.7-km WRF simulation, while coarser simulations with convective parameterization show near zero nocturnal precipitation. In winter months, higher resolution is less important, serving only to slightly increase precipitation magnitudes due to steeper slopes. However, even in the 6.7-km simulation, afternoon precipitation is overestimated at high elevations, which can be reduced by even higher-resolution (2.2-km) simulations. These results indicate that WRF provides skillful simulations of precipitation relevant for studies of water resources over the complex terrain in the Himalaya.

  9. An Improved WRF for Urban-Scale and Complex-Terrain Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J K; Chow, F K; Mirocha, J D; Lundquist, K A

    2007-09-04

    Simulations of atmospheric flow through urban areas must account for a wide range of physical phenomena including both mesoscale and urban processes. Numerical weather prediction models, such as the Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF), excel at predicting synoptic and mesoscale phenomena. With grid spacings of less than 1 km (as is required for complex heterogeneous urban areas), however, the limits of WRF's terrain capabilities and subfilter scale (SFS) turbulence parameterizations are exposed. Observations of turbulence in urban areas frequently illustrate a local imbalance of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), which cannot be captured by current turbulence models. Furthermore, WRF's terrain-following coordinate system is inappropriate for high-resolution simulations that include buildings. To address these issues, we are implementing significant modifications to the ARW core of the Weather Research and Forecasting model. First, we are implementing an improved turbulence model, the Dynamic Reconstruction Model (DRM), following Chow et al. (2005). Second, we are modifying WRF's terrain-following coordinate system by implementing an immersed boundary method (IBM) approach to account for the effects of urban geometries and complex terrain. Companion papers detailing the improvements enabled by the DRM and the IBM approaches are also presented (by Mirocha et al., paper 13.1, and K.A. Lundquist et al., paper 11.1, respectively). This overview of the LLNL-UC Berkeley collaboration presents the motivation for this work and some highlights of our progress to date. After implementing both DRM and an IBM for buildings in WRF, we will be able to seamlessly integrate mesoscale synoptic boundary conditions with building-scale urban simulations using grid nesting and lateral boundary forcing. This multi-scale integration will enable high-resolution simulations of flow and dispersion in complex geometries such as urban areas, as well as new simulation capabilities in

  10. Performance of WRF-ARW model in real-time prediction of Bay of Bengal cyclone `Phailin'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, M.; Singh, K. S.; Balaji, M.; Mohapatra, M.

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the performance of the Advanced Research core of Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model in prediction of the Bay of Bengal cyclone `Phailin'. The two-way interactive double-nested model at 27 and 9-km resolutions customized at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) is used to predict the storm on real-time basis and five predictions are made with five different initial conditions. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are derived from the Global Forecasting System (GFS) analysis and forecast respectively. The track of storm is well predicted in all the five forecasts. In particular, the forecast with less initial positional error led to more accurate track and landfall prediction. It is observed that the predicted peak intensity and translation speed of the storm depends strongly on initial intensity error, vertical wind shear and vertical distribution of maximum potential vorticity. The trend of intensification and dissipation of the storm is well predicted by the model in terms of central sea level pressure (CSLP). The intensity in terms of maximum surface wind (MSW) is under-predicted by the model and it is suggested that the MSW estimated from predicted pressure drop may be used as prediction guideline. The storm intensified rapidly during its passage over the high Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential zone and is reasonably well predicted by the model. Though the magnitude of the precipitation is not well predicted, distribution of precipitation is fairly well predicted by the model. The track and intensity of the storm predicted by the customized WRF-ARW is better than that of other NWP models. The landfall (time and position) is also better predicted by the model compared to other NWP models if initialized at cyclonic storm stage. The results indicate that the customized model have good potential for real-time prediction of Bay of Bengal cyclones and encourage further investigation with larger number of cyclones.

  11. Impact of Urbanization on Spatial Variability of Rainfall-A case study of Mumbai city with WRF Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, M.; Paul, S.; Devanand, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban precipitation enhancement has been identified over many cities in India by previous studies conducted. Anthropogenic effects such as change in land cover from hilly forest areas to flat topography with solid concrete infrastructures has certain effect on the local weather, the same way the greenhouse gas has on climate change. Urbanization could alter the large scale forcings to such an extent that it may bring about temporal and spatial changes in the urban weather. The present study investigate the physical processes involved in urban forcings, such as the effect of sudden increase in wind velocity travelling through the channel space in between the dense array of buildings, which give rise to turbulence and air mass instability in urban boundary layer and in return alters the rainfall distribution as well as rainfall initiation. A numerical model study is conducted over Mumbai metropolitan city which lies on the west coast of India, to assess the effect of urban morphology on the increase in number of extreme rainfall events in specific locations. An attempt has been made to simulate twenty extreme rainfall events that occurred over the summer monsoon period of the year 2014 using high resolution WRF-ARW (Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF) model to assess the urban land cover mechanisms that influences precipitation variability over this spatially varying urbanized region. The result is tested against simulations with altered land use. The correlation of precipitation with spatial variability of land use is found using a detailed urban land use classification. The initial and boundary conditions for running the model were obtained from the global model ECMWF(European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) reanalysis data having a horizontal resolution of 0.75 °x 0.75°. The high resolution simulations show significant spatial variability in the accumulated rainfall, within a few kilometers itself. Understanding the spatial

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughman, Jack A.; Micheletti, David A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH). Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micheletti, David A.; Baughman, Jack A.; Nelson, Gordon L.; Simmons, Gloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the activities, results, conclusions and recommendations of the Magnetohydrodynamics Accelerator Research Into Advanced Hypersonics (MARIAH) Project in which the use of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is investigated for its applicability to augment hypersonic wind tunnels. The long range objective of this investigation is to advance the development of ground test facilities to support the development of hypervelocity flight vehicles. The MHD accelerator adds kinetic energy directly to the wind tunnel working fluid, thereby increasing its Mach number to hypervelocity levels. Several techniques for MHD augmentation, as well as other physical characteristics of the process are studied to enhance the overall performance of hypersonic wind tunnel design. Specific recommendations are presented to improve the effectiveness of ground test facilities. The work contained herein builds on nearly four decades of research and experimentation by the aeronautics ground test and evaluation community, both foreign and domestic.

  14. [Economic perspectives of the research on advanced therapies].

    PubMed

    Pamo Larrauri, Jose María

    2014-11-03

    Since a new advanced therapy medicinal product is discovered until finally allowed its sale in the domestic market, it has to overcome a series of stages. Biomedical research is the first phase, currently its situation is encouraging to the increase in the number of clinical trials in Spain and in the rest of the world, despite the economic situation and the various difficulties that have faced the pharmaceutical laboratories. The next phase consists in obtaining the authorization of marketing of the European Medicines Agency. After authorization, will attempt to set a fair and moderate price for inclusion in the list of health provision of Social Security. A price for a drug that provides added value to health and society, a price that is generated profits for the pharmaceutical companies that hope to make up for the years of work and investment. Commitment to advanced therapy must be clear and forceful, to fund ongoing research projects and encouraging their creation with economic aid.

  15. Recent advances in research on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Mirazimi, Ali; Köksal, Iftihar; Estrada-Pena, Augustin; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an expanding tick-borne hemorrhagic disease with increasing human and animal health impact. Immense knowledge was gained over the past 10 years mainly due to advances in molecular biology, but also driven by an increased global interest in CCHFV as an emerging/re-emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the present article, we discuss the advances in research with focus on CCHF ecology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment. Despite tremendous achievements, future activities have to concentrate on the development of vaccines and antivirals/therapeutics to combat CCHF. Vector studies need to continue for better public and animal health preparedness and response. We conclude with a roadmap for future research priorities.

  16. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  17. Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Vrieling, P. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    SNL/CA proposes the Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) facility to support customer-driven national security mission requirements while demonstrating a fiscally responsible approach to cost-control. SNL/CA realizes that due to the current backlog of capital projects in NNSA that following the normal Line Item process to procure capital funding is unlikely and therefore SNL/CA will be looking at all options including Alternative Financing.

  18. [Advancing public mental health research in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Susser, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on Mental Health of the Journal of the School of Medicine, represents a significant contribution to the advance of public mental health research and training in Latin America. The editors (as well as the authors) deserve much credit for having conceived and implemented the joint publication of these papers. In this brief introduction, I draw attention to four ways in which their effort is likely to accelerate progress in this field.

  19. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  20. Diagnostic testing and evaluation of the community WRF-Hydro Modeling System for national streamflow prediction application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafieei Nasab, A.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; Pan, L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yu, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yates, D. N.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Salas, F. R.; Maidment, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    A fully-distributed WRF-Hydro modeling system developed at National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) will serve the initial operational nationwide streamflow forecasting needs of the National Water Center (NWC). This paper presents a multi-faceted evaluation of the WRF-hydro modeling system in preparation for operational national streamflow prediction. The testing period encompasses the 2015 warm season which included the National Flood Interoperability Experiment (NFIE) where WRF-Hydro and the RAPID channel routing model were driven by the Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) estimates as the real-time precipitation estimate product and the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) for the short term forecast. Here, we validate the MRMS estimates and HRRR precipitation forecasts at national scale using daily precipitation observations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN). Because WRF-Hydro has several physics options such as surface overland flow, saturated subsurface flow, channel routing as well as conceptual deep groundwater base flow also conducted additional simulations to evaluate WRF-Hydro performance under different processes configurations. Streamflow verification data for model simulations and predictions was completed for a subset of GAGES-II reference basins. Multi-temporal and spatial scale verification is performed in order to test the robustness and skill improvement in WRF-Hydro streamflow simulations under different configuration over a wide range of basins sizes and from short-term (hourly) to longer-term (monthly) flow simulations. Evaluation will be also carried out based on various geographic regions to relate the skill improvement to dominant controls on flow based on the actual physical and climatic properties of the basins. The goal is to inform WRF-Hydro model configuration for the initial operating capabilities (IOC) project and target processes and parameter estimates for improvement.

  1. Extending flood forecasting lead time in a large watershed by coupling WRF QPF with a distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Chen, Yangbo; Wang, Huanyu; Qin, Jianming; Li, Jie; Chiao, Sen

    2017-03-01

    Long lead time flood forecasting is very important for large watershed flood mitigation as it provides more time for flood warning and emergency responses. The latest numerical weather forecast model could provide 1-15-day quantitative precipitation forecasting products in grid format, and by coupling this product with a distributed hydrological model could produce long lead time watershed flood forecasting products. This paper studied the feasibility of coupling the Liuxihe model with the Weather Research and Forecasting quantitative precipitation forecast (WRF QPF) for large watershed flood forecasting in southern China. The QPF of WRF products has three lead times, including 24, 48 and 72 h, with the grid resolution being 20 km  × 20 km. The Liuxihe model is set up with freely downloaded terrain property; the model parameters were previously optimized with rain gauge observed precipitation, and re-optimized with the WRF QPF. Results show that the WRF QPF has bias with the rain gauge precipitation, and a post-processing method is proposed to post-process the WRF QPF products, which improves the flood forecasting capability. With model parameter re-optimization, the model's performance improves also. This suggests that the model parameters be optimized with QPF, not the rain gauge precipitation. With the increasing of lead time, the accuracy of the WRF QPF decreases, as does the flood forecasting capability. Flood forecasting products produced by coupling the Liuxihe model with the WRF QPF provide a good reference for large watershed flood warning due to its long lead time and rational results.

  2. Evaluation of WRF microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes in simulating a heavy rainfall event over Yangtze River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Yu; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yanan; Zhou, Cong

    2015-09-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) version 3.5 has been used in this study to simulate a heavy rainfall event during the Meiyu season that occurred between 1 and 2 July 2014 over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) in China. The WRF model is driven by the National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) Final (FNL) global tropospheric analysis data, and eight WRF nested experiments using four different microphysics (MP) schemes and two cumulus parameterizations (CP) are conducted to evaluate the effects of these microphysics and cumulus schemes on heavy rainfall predictions over YRV region. The four MPs selected in this study are Lin et al., WRF Single-Moment 3-class scheme (WSM3), WRF Single-Moment 5-class scheme (WSM5) and WRF Single-Moment 6-class scheme (WSM6), and the two CPs are Kain-Fristch (KF) and Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) schemes. Sensitivity studies showed that all MPs coupling with KF and BMJ CP schemes can well capture the major rain belt from the northeast to southwest with three rainfall centers, but largely overestimate the rainfall near the border between Anhui and Hubei provinces along with the Yellow Sea shore, which produce an opposite trend compared to the observations. Large discrepancies are also presented in WRF simulations of heavy rainfall centers regarding their locations and magnitudes. All MPs coupling with KF CP scheme produced the rainfall areas shifting towards east compared to the observations, while all MPs with BMJ CP scheme tend to better predict the rainfall patterns with slightly more fake precipitation centers. Among all the experiments, the BMJ cumulus scheme has superiority in simulating the Meiyu rainfall over the KF scheme, and the WSM5-BMJ combination shows the best predictive skills.

  3. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  4. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor.

  5. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  6. Research Foundations for the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Tobias, S . (2005). The multimedia principle . In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 117–133). New York, NY...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A LY S E S IDA Document D-4118 August 2010 Research Foundations for the Advanced Distributed Learning...requiring scientific and technical expertise, and conduct related research on other national challenges. I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y

  7. Advancing Research to Action in Global Child Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Anna E; Collins, Pamela Y

    2015-10-01

    Most mental and substance use disorders begin during childhood and adolescence and are the leading cause of disability in this population. Prenatal and postnatal genetic, familial, social, and environmental exposures interact to influence risk for mental disorders and trajectories of cognitive development. Efforts to advance prevention and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of mental disorders require a global research workforce, intersectoral cooperation, attention to environmental contexts, and the development and testing of evidence-based interventions. The authors describe challenges and resources for building mental health research capacity that stands to influence children's mental health outcomes around the globe.

  8. Recent advances in research on climate and human conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly growing body of empirical, quantitative research examines whether rates of human conflict can be systematically altered by climatic changes. We discuss recent advances in this field, including Bayesian meta-analyses of the effect of temperature and rainfall on current and future large-scale conflicts, the impact of climate variables on gang violence and suicides in Mexico, and probabilistic projections of personal violence and property crime in the United States under RCP scenarios. Criticisms of this research field will also be explained and addressed.

  9. Comparisons of Anvil Cirrus Spatial Characteristics between Airborne Observations in DC3 Campaign and WRF Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, J.; Diao, M.; Chen, M.

    2015-12-01

    John D'Alessandro1, Minghui Diao1, Ming Chen2, George Bryan2, Hugh Morrison21. Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, San Jose State University2. Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80301 Ice crystal formation requires the prerequisite condition of ice supersaturation, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) greater than 100%. The formation and evolution of ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) has large impact on the subsequent formation of ice clouds. To examine the characteristics of simulated ice supersaturated regions at various model spatial resolutions, case studies between airborne in-situ measurements in the NSF Deep Convective, Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (May - June 2012) and WRF simulations are conducted in this work. Recent studies using ~200 m in-situ observations showed that ice supersaturated regions are mostly around 1 km in horizontal scale (Diao et al. 2014). Yet it is still unclear if such observed characteristics can be represented by WRF simulations at various spatial resolutions. In this work, we compare the WRF simulated anvil cirrus spatial characteristics with those observed in the DC3 campaign over the southern great plains in US. The WRF model is run at 1 km and 3 km horizontal grid spacing with a recent update of Thompson microphysics scheme. Our comparisons focus on the spatial characteristics of ISSRs and cirrus clouds, including the distributions of their horizontal scales, the maximum relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and the relationship between RHi and temperature. Our previous work on the NCAR CM1 cloud-resolving model shows that the higher resolution runs (i.e., 250m and 1km) generally have better agreement with observations than the coarser resolution (4km) runs. We will examine if similar trend exists for WRF simulations in deep convection cases. In addition, we will compare the simulation results between WRF and CM1, particularly

  10. Evaluation of high-resolution WRF climate simulations for hydrological variables over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; De Franciscis, Sebastiano; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Esteban-Parra, María Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Meteorological inputs play an essential role in predicting the potential effects of climate change on water resources. Consequently, this study is focused on evaluating the skill of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate present climate characteristics in term of different variables used for hydrological modeling. For the 35-yr period (1980-2014), high-resolution simulations have been performed with a spatial resolution of 0.088° over a domain encompassing the Iberian Peninsula, and nested in the coarser EURO-CORDEX domain (0.44° resolution). WRF model was driven by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1). In addition, other simulation forced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) as "perfect boundary conditions" was also run. For validation purposes, WRF outputs were compared for Spain and Portugal independently, using two observational data sources: the Spain02 version 4 daily precipitation and (maximum and minimum) temperature gridded datasets, and the PT02 daily gridded precipitation data. The study was carried out at different time scales in order to evaluate the model ability to capture long-term mean values (from annual to monthly) and high-order statistics (extreme events) by directly comparing grid-points. Furthermore, the observational gridded data were grouped using a multistep regionalization to facilitate the comparison in term of several parameters such as the monthly annual cycle or the percentiles of daily values. The main result is that WRF provides useful information at regional scale, with significant improvement in complex terrain areas such as Iberian Peninsula. Although considerable errors are still observed, the model is able to capture the main precipitation and temperature patterns. The major benefits of using WRF are related to the better representation of extreme events that are an

  11. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  12. Research reactor of the future: The advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B.; West, C.

    1994-12-31

    Agents for cancer detection and treatment, stronger materials, better electronic gadgets, and other consumer and industrial products - these are assured benefits of a research reactor project proposed for Oak Ridge. Just as American companies have again assumed world leadership in producing semiconductor chips as well as cars and trucks, the United States is poised to retake the lead in neutron science by building and operating the $2.9 billion Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor by the start of the next century. In 1985, the neutron community, led by ORNL researchers, proposed a pioneering project, later called the ANS. Scheduled to begin operation in 2003, the ANS is seen not only as a replacement for the aging HFIR and HFBR but also as the best laboratory in the world for conducting neutron-based research.

  13. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  14. WRF model sensitivity to choice of parameterization: a study of the `York Flood 1999'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Bellerby, Tim; Holman, Ian; Frostick, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Numerical weather modelling has gained considerable attention in the field of hydrology especially in un-gauged catchments and in conjunction with distributed models. As a consequence, the accuracy with which these models represent precipitation, sub-grid-scale processes and exceptional events has become of considerable concern to the hydrological community. This paper presents sensitivity analyses for the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with respect to the choice of physical parameterization schemes (both cumulus parameterisation (CPSs) and microphysics parameterization schemes (MPSs)) used to represent the `1999 York Flood' event, which occurred over North Yorkshire, UK, 1st-14th March 1999. The study assessed four CPSs (Kain-Fritsch (KF2), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD) and the old Kain-Fritsch (KF1)) and four MPSs (Kessler, Lin et al., WRF single-moment 3-class (WSM3) and WRF single-moment 5-class (WSM5)] with respect to their influence on modelled rainfall. The study suggests that the BMJ scheme may be a better cumulus parameterization choice for the study region, giving a consistently better performance than other three CPSs, though there are suggestions of underestimation. The WSM3 was identified as the best MPSs and a combined WSM3/BMJ model setup produced realistic estimates of precipitation quantities for this exceptional flood event. This study analysed spatial variability in WRF performance through categorical indices, including POD, FBI, FAR and CSI during York Flood 1999 under various model settings. Moreover, the WRF model was good at predicting high-intensity rare events over the Yorkshire region, suggesting it has potential for operational use.

  15. Extreme precipitation in WRF during the Newcastle East Coast Low of 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, James B.; Evans, Jason P.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Ekström, Marie; Ji, Fei

    2016-08-01

    In the context of regional downscaling, we study the representation of extreme precipitation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, focusing on a major event that occurred on the 8th of June 2007 along the coast of eastern Australia (abbreviated "Newy"). This was one of the strongest extra-tropical low-pressure systems off eastern Australia in the last 30 years and was one of several storms comprising a test bed for the WRF ensemble that underpins the regional climate change projections for eastern Australia (New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling Project, NARCliM). Newy provides an informative case study for examining precipitation extremes as simulated by WRF set up for regional downscaling. Here, simulations from the NARCliM physics ensemble of Newy available at ˜10 km grid spacing are used. Extremes and spatio-temporal characteristics are examined using land-based daily and hourly precipitation totals, with a particular focus on hourly accumulations. Of the different physics schemes assessed, the cumulus and the boundary layer schemes cause the largest differences. Although the Betts-Miller-Janjic cumulus scheme produces better rainfall totals over the entire storm, the Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme promotes higher and more realistic hourly extreme precipitation totals. Analysis indicates the Kain-Fritsch runs are correlated with larger resolved grid-scale vertical moisture fluxes, which are produced through the influence of parameterized convection on the larger-scale circulation and the subsequent convergence and ascent of moisture. Results show that WRF qualitatively reproduces spatial precipitation patterns during the storm, albeit with some errors in timing. This case study indicates that whilst regional climate simulations of an extreme event such as Newy in WRF may be well represented at daily scales irrespective of the physics scheme used, the representation at hourly scales is likely to be physics scheme

  16. The advanced neutron source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world (an order of magnitude more intense than beams available from the most advanced existing reactors). The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of 330-MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of >7 {center_dot} 10{sup 19} {center_dot} m{sup -2} {center_dot} s{sup -1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science as well as applied research leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The top level work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. As noted in this figure, one component of the project is a research and development (R&D) program (WBS 1.1). This program interfaces with all of the other project level two WBS activities. Because one of the project guidelines is to meet minimum performance goals without relying on new inventions, this R&D activity is not intended to produce new concepts to allow the project to meet minimum performance goals. Instead, the R&D program will focus on the four objectives described.

  17. A University Consortium for the Advancement of Hydrologic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Wilson, J.; Band, L.; Reckhow, K.

    2003-12-01

    Seventy-six research universities across the United States have joined to form the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), a non-profit corporation. With support from the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has embarked upon the design and development of programs to enable hydrologic research at larger spatial scales over longer time periods than has been within the grasp of individual investigators. The guiding principle of this design has been an embracing of the entire hydrologic cycle to enable research at the interfaces among traditional hydrologic subdisciplines and between hydrologic science and allied disciplines in the earth and life sciences. To improve our predictive understanding of hydrologic phenomena, the fundamental approach that has been adopted is the development of multidisciplinary, coherent data sets to enable testing of hypotheses in different hydrologic settings across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Four mutually supportive program elements have been conceived: a network of hydrologic observatories (the subject of this special session) designed strategically to collect additional data at large scales (on the order of 10,000 km2) and to leverage existing investments in small-scale intensive studies and in larger scale monitoring activities; hydrologic information systems to develop a comprehensive data model for integrating disparate data types, to develop the cyberinfrastructure necessary for systematic data collection and dissemination and to support community models; hydrologic measurement technology facility to broker instrumentation services from existing sources, to provide cutting edge tools along with the necessary support to use them, and to develop new hydrologic instrumentation needed to advance the science; and hydrologic synthesis center to provide a venue for hydrologic sciences from a range of disciplines to work on topics ranging from inter-observatory comparison to evolving

  18. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  19. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  20. Facing up to the Challenges of Advancing Craniofacial Research

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are among the most common human birth defects and have considerable functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. The early developmental origin as well as the anatomical complexity of the head and face render these tissues prone to genetic and environmental insult. The establishment of craniofacial clinics offering comprehensive care for craniofacial patients at a single site together with international research networks focused on the origins and treatment of craniofacial disorders has led to tremendous advances in our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial anomalies. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental sources of many craniofacial disorders remain unknown. To overcome this problem and further advance craniofacial research, we must recognize current challenges in the field and establish priority areas for study. We still need (i) a deeper understanding of variation during normal development and within the context of any disorder, (ii) improved genotyping and phenotyping and understanding of the impact of epigenetics, (iii) continued development of animal models and functional analyses of genes and variants, and (iv) integration of patient derived cells and tissues together with 3D printing and quantitative assessment of surgical outcomes for improved practice. Only with fundamental advances in each of these areas will we be able to meet the challenge of translating potential therapeutic and preventative approaches into clinical solutions and reduce the financial and emotional burden of craniofacial anomalies. PMID:25820983

  1. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  2. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    PubMed Central

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  3. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  4. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  5. Advances in Inner Magnetosphere Passive and Active Wave Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    This review identifies a number of the principal research advancements that have occurred over the last five years in the study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The observations used in this study are from the plasma wave instruments and radio sounders on Cluster, IMAGE, Geotail, Wind, Polar, Interball, and others. The data from passive plasma wave instruments have led to a number of advances such as: determining the origin and importance of whistler mode waves in the plasmasphere, discovery of the source of kilometric continuum radiation, mapping AKR source regions with "pinpoint" accuracy, and correlating the AKR source location with dipole tilt angle. Active magnetospheric wave experiments have shown that long range ducted and direct echoes can be used to obtain the density distribution of electrons in the polar cap and along plasmaspheric field lines, providing key information on plasmaspheric filling rates and polar cap outflows.

  6. Recent Developments and Applications of the WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Continental Scale Water Cycle Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Clark, M. P.; Wood, A. W.; Sampson, K. M.; Rasmussen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The translation of weather and climate forcing through complex landscapes to drive terrestrial hydrologic processes is a true multi-scale problem. Model architectures that attempt to capture these processes and feedbacks in a physically realistic way must be able to bridge spatial scales from meters to kilometers. To represent these processes across continental domains modeling systems must fully embrace high performance computing. Also, because there are both scientific and computational trade-offs in modeling many terrestrial hydrologic and land-atmosphere exchange processes, it is often highly advantageous to support multiple physics options in order to test competing hypotheses and apply scale-appropriate parameterizations for different prediction problems. In this talk we provide an update of new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in meeting these needs from both a process representation and high performance computing perspective. A key feature of these developments centers on new multi-scale modeling capabilities recently added to WRF-Hydro. We will discuss prediction and computational performance metrics for several recent large river basin and continental scale applications of the WRF-Hydro system over the coterminous U.S. and over Mexico in modes both coupled and uncoupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We will also provide updates on new developments to the WRF-Hydro system in the areas of water management applications and hydrologic data assimilation.

  7. Evaluation of and Suggested Improvements to the WSM6 Microphysics in WRF- ARW Using Synthetic and Observed GOES-13 Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Lewis; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Clark, Adam; Bikos, Dan; Dembek, Scott R.

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic satellite imagery can be employed to evaluate simulated cloud fields. Past studies have revealed that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) microphysics in WRF-ARW produces less upper level ice clouds within synthetic images compared to observations. Synthetic Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-13 imagery at 10.7 μm of simulated cloud fields from the 4 km National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) WRF-ARW is compared to observed GOES-13 imagery. Histograms suggest that too few points contain upper level simulated ice clouds. In particular, side-by-side examples are shown of synthetic and observed convective anvils. Such images illustrate the lack of anvil cloud associated with convection produced by the NSSL WRF-ARW. A vertical profile of simulated hydrometeors suggests that too much cloud water mass may be converted into graupel mass, effectively reducing the main source of ice mass in a simulated anvil. Further, excessive accretion of ice by snow removes ice from an anvil by precipitation settling. Idealized sensitivity tests reveal that a 50% reduction of the conversion of cloud water mass to graupel and a 50% reduction of the accretion rate of ice by snow results in a significant increase in anvil ice of a simulated storm. Such results provide guidance as to which conversions could be reformulated, in a more physical manner, to increase simulated ice mass in the upper troposphere.

  8. Advanced NDE research in electromagnetic, thermal, and coherent optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S. Ballou

    1992-09-01

    A new inspection technology called magneto-optic/eddy current imaging was investigated. The magneto-optic imager makes readily visible irregularities and inconsistencies in airframe components. Other research observed in electromagnetics included (1) disbond detection via resonant modal analysis; (2) AC magnetic field frequency dependence of magnetoacoustic emission; and (3) multi-view magneto-optic imaging. Research observed in the thermal group included (1) thermographic detection and characterization of corrosion in aircraft aluminum; (2) a multipurpose infrared imaging system for thermoelastic stress detection; (3) thermal diffusivity imaging of stress induced damage in composites; and (4) detection and measurement of ice formation on the space shuttle main fuel tank. Research observed in the optics group included advancements in optical nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

  9. Modifications to WRF's dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations: WRF DY-CORE MOISTURE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin

    2015-10-29

    Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic sub­stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub­steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub­steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. This modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.

  10. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over

  11. Forecasting solar irradiation using WRF model and refining statistics for Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Lima, F. J. L.; Martins, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    Solar energy is referred to as variable generation sources because their electricity production varies based on the availability of sun irradiance. To accommodate this variability, electricity grid operators use a variety of tools to maintain a reliable electricity supply, one of them is to forecast solar irradiation, and to adjust other electricity sources as needed. This work reports an approach to forecast solar irradiation in the Brazilian Northeastern region (NEB) by using statistically post-processing data from mesoscale model outputs. The method assimilates the diversity of climate characteristics occurring in the region presenting the largest solar energy potentials in Brazil. Untreated solar irradiance forecasts for 24h in advance were obtained using the WRF model runs. Cluster analysis technique was employed to find out areas presenting similar climate characteristics and to reduce uncertainties. Comparison analysis between WRF model outputs and site-specific measured data were performed to evaluate the model skill in forecasting the surface solar irradiation. After that, post-processing of WRF outputs using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple regression methods refined the short-term solar irradiation forecasts. A set of pre-selected variables of the WRF model outputs representing the forecasted atmospheric conditions were used as predictors by the ANNs. Several predictors were tested in the adjustment and simulation of the ANNs. We found the best ANNs architecture and a group of 10 predictors, with which more in-depth analyzes were carried out, including performance evaluation for fall and spring of 2011 (rainy and dry season in NEB). The site-specific measured solar radiation data came from 110 stations distributed throughout the NEB. Data for the rainy season were acquired from March to May, and for the dry season from September to November. We concluded that the untreated numerical forecasts of solar irradiation provided by WRF exhibited a

  12. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  13. Advancing the field of health systems research synthesis.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Etienne V; Ranson, Michael K; Bärnighausen, Till; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Daniels, Karen; El-Jardali, Fadi; Ghaffar, Abdul; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Haines, Andy; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Meng, Qingyue; Oliver, Sandy; Pantoja, Tomás; Straus, Sharon; Shemilt, Ian; Tovey, David; Tugwell, Peter; Waddington, Hugh; Wilson, Mark; Yuan, Beibei; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-07-10

    Those planning, managing and working in health systems worldwide routinely need to make decisions regarding strategies to improve health care and promote equity. Systematic reviews of different kinds can be of great help to these decision-makers, providing actionable evidence at every step in the decision-making process. Although there is growing recognition of the importance of systematic reviews to inform both policy decisions and produce guidance for health systems, a number of important methodological and evidence uptake challenges remain and better coordination of existing initiatives is needed. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, housed within the World Health Organization, convened an Advisory Group on Health Systems Research (HSR) Synthesis to bring together different stakeholders interested in HSR synthesis and its use in decision-making processes. We describe the rationale of the Advisory Group and the six areas of its work and reflects on its role in advancing the field of HSR synthesis. We argue in favour of greater cross-institutional collaborations, as well as capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries, to advance the science and practice of health systems research synthesis. We advocate for the integration of quasi-experimental study designs in reviews of effectiveness of health systems intervention and reforms. The Advisory Group also recommends adopting priority-setting approaches for HSR synthesis and increasing the use of findings from systematic reviews in health policy and decision-making.

  14. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  15. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products.

  16. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  17. [The research advance of brain derived neurotrophic factor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, J

    2000-12-01

    Recent research advances in neuroscience show that neurotrophic factors are proteins that affect selectively various kinds of neurons of CNS and PNS. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is another neurotrophic factor that was first reported by Barde, a German chemist, thirty years later after the nerve growth factor had been found out. BDNF plays an important role in the growth, development, differentiation, maintenance and regeneration of various types of neurons in the CNS and has potential application to the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, Huntington's chorea and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this paper, the structure, function and potential clinical application of BDNF were reviewed.

  18. Impact of new instrumentation on advanced turbine research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of an orderly test program that progresses from the simplest stationary geometry to the more complex, three dimensional, rotating turbine stage. The instrumentation requirements for this evolution of testing are described. The heat transfer instrumentation is emphasized. Recent progress made in devising new measurement techniques has greatly improved the development and confirmation of more accurate analytical methods for the prediction of turbine performance and heat transfer. However, there remain challenging requirements for novel measurement techniques that could advance the future research to be done in rotating blade rows of turbomachines.

  19. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  20. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  1. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  2. Studies regarding the quality of numerical weather forecasts of the WRF model integrated at high-resolutions for the Romanian territory

    DOE PAGES

    Iriza, Amalia; Dumitrache, Rodica C.; Lupascu, Aurelia; ...

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to evaluate the quality of high-resolution weather forecasts from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model. The lateral and boundary conditions were obtained from the numerical output of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at 7 km horizontal resolution. Furthermore, the WRF model was run for January and July 2013 at two horizontal resolutions (3 and 1 km). The numerical forecasts of the WRF model were evaluated using different statistical scores for 2 m temperature and 10 m wind speed. Our results showed a tendency of the WRF model to overestimate the valuesmore » of the analyzed parameters in comparison to observations.« less

  3. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  4. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  5. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Miseon; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Jae Weon

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7-9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review.

  6. Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing advanced energy-conversion technologies for use with both radioisotope power systems and fission surface power systems for many decades. Under NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Science Theme, Technology Program, Glenn is developing the next generation of advanced Stirling convertors (ASCs) for use in the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The next-generation power-conversion technologies require high efficiency and high specific power (watts electric per kilogram) to meet future mission requirements to use less of the Department of Energy's plutonium-fueled general-purpose heat source modules and reduce system mass. Important goals include long-life (greater than 14-yr) reliability and scalability so that these systems can be considered for a variety of future applications and missions including outer-planet missions and continual operation on the surface of Mars. This paper provides an update of the history and status of the ASC being developed for Glenn by Sunpower Inc. of Athens, Ohio.

  7. New features in WRF-SFIRE and the wildfire forecasting and danger system in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, J.; Amram, S.; Beezley, J. D.; Kelman, G.; Kochanski, A. K.; Kondratenko, V. Y.; Lynn, B. H.; Regev, B.; Vejmelka, M.

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in computational capabilities of computer clusters made operational deployments of coupled atmosphere-fire models feasible, as the weather and fire spread forecast can be nowadays generated faster than real time. This paper presents new developments in the coupled WRF-SFIRE model and related software in past two years, being a response to the needs of the community interested in operational testing of WRF-SFIRE. We describe a new concept of the fireline intensity intended to better inform about the local fire front properties and fire danger. We present a fuel moisture model and a fuel moisture data assimilation system based on the Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) observations, allowing for fire simulations across landscapes and time scales of varying fuel moisture conditions. The paper also describes the implementation of a coupling with the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol schemes in WRF-Chem allowing for simulation of smoke dispersion and effects of fires on air quality, as well as a data assimilation method allowing for starting the fire simulations from an observed fire perimeters instead of ignition points. Finally, an example of an operational deployment and new visualization and the data management tools are presented.

  8. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2004-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant source of x-rays. This 3rd-generation 7-GeV synchrotron source can accomodate 34 insertion device ports, of which 30 are committed, and 24 are currently operating. In Fiscal Year 2002, we had 2767 unique users carry out at least one experiment at the source, of which 35research in materials science or condensed matter physics. Techniques commonly used by condensed matter scientists include single-crystal and powder diffraction, high-pressure studies, inelastic scattering, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, magnetic scattering and fluctuation spectroscopy. Access to the Advanced Photon Source can be either as a general user (www.aps.anl.gov) or as a partner user. Proposals from general users are encouraged, and beamtime is granted based on competitive review. Our capacity to accomodate more general users continues to increase. Typically, partner users build specialized equipment which is made available to general users. Many of our sectors have been built and operated by external Collaborative Access Teams, which support general users who enter through the APS centralized system. With the help of partnerships, the APS continues to evolve state-of-the-art beamlines of interest to condensed matter scientists, in areas such as inelastic scattering and nano-imaging. The Advanced Photon Source is closely connected with the new Center for Nanoscale Materials User Facility at Argonne. In this talk I will present notable examples of recent condensed matter physics experiments which utilized the unique capabilities of existing beamlines, and discuss future beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source.

  9. Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekić, Ljiljana; Mihalović, Ana; Dimitrijević, Vladimir; Rebora, Nicola; Parodi, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project Ljiljana Dekić (1), Ana Mihalović (1), Vladimir Dimitrijević (1), Nicola Rebora (2), Antonio Parodi (2) (1)Republic HydroMeteorological Service of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, (2)CIMA Research Foundation, Savona, Italy In May 2014 Balkan region was affected with the continuous heavy rainfall, the heaviest in 120 years of recording observation, causing extensive flooding. Serbia suffered human casualties, huge infrastructure and industrial destruction and agricultural damage. Cyclone development and trajectory was very well predicted by RHMSS operational WRF NMM numerical model but extreme precipitation was not possible to predict with sufficient precision. Simulation of extreme rainfall situations using different numerical weather prediction models can indicate weakness of the model and point out importance of specified physical approach and parameterization schemes. The FP7 Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology DRIHM project gives a framework for using different models in forecasting extreme weather events. One of the DRIHM component is Rainfall Filtered Autoregressive Model RainFARM for stochastic rainfall downscaling. Objective of the DRIHM project was developing of standards and conversion of the data for seamless use of meteorological and hydrological models in flood prediction. This paper describes numerical tests and results of WRF NMM nonhydrostatic model and RainFARM downscaling applied on WRF NMM outputs. Different physics options in WRF NMM and their influence on precipitation amount were investigated. RainFARM was applied on every physical option with downscaling from 4km to 500m and 100m horizontal resolution and 100 ensemble members. We analyzed locations on the catchments in Serbia where flooding was the strongest and the most destructive. Statistical evaluation of ensemble output gives new insight into the sub scale precipitation

  10. A changing landscape for advance directives in dementia research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Robin

    2010-02-01

    The number of persons afflicted by dementia has increased steadily. The need for research leading to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is widely recognized. However, dementia patients eventually lose the capacity to consent to the very research that could lead to discoveries of effective interventions. Worldwide, surrogate decision-making remains the primary means of consent for this population. This significantly restricts the autonomy of competent patients who wish to prospectively consent to research and do not wish to relinquish this decision to a third party. Advance research directives (ARDs) have been proposed as a mechanism for prospective consent for persons who anticipate cognitive impairment, as in the case of prodromal or early stage dementia patients. Currently, few guidelines specifically address the use of ARDs despite calls for official recognition. This absence of official guidelines regarding ARDs renders this mechanism susceptible to misuse, under-use, or non-use in instances where it could be advantageous for individuals, their families/caregivers, and progress in dementia research and treatment. This paper explores the changing landscape of ARDs, identifying relevant scientific, social, and policy developments, and queries whether, under these circumstances, reticence to use, recognize, or regulate ARDs is justified. It addresses some of the persistent issues related to vulnerability, the role of surrogates, and scope of prospective consent, and concludes that ARDs can serve as an important mechanism of autonomy and empowerment, and that protections should be crafted such that the availability of this option is not limited to those who also appoint a surrogate.

  11. [Research advances in methyl bromide in the ocean].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-na; Xie, Wen-xia; Cui, Yu-qian; Chen, Jian-lei; Ye, Si-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected.

  12. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  13. Research advances on potential neurotoxicity of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianshu; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Yilu; Tang, Meng

    2016-03-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology, quantum dots (QDs) as advanced nanotechnology products have been widely used in biological and biomedical studies, including neuroscience, due to their superior optical properties. In recent years, there has been intense concern regarding the toxicity of QDs with a growing number of studies. However, the knowledge of neurotoxic consequences of QDs applied in living organisms is lagging behind their development, while a potential risk of neurotoxicity arises if mass production of QDs leads to increased exposure and distribution in the nervous system. Owing to the quantum size effect of QDs, they are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier or moving along neural pathways and entering the brain. Nevertheless, the interactions of QDs with cells and tissues in the central nervous system are not well understood. This review highlighted research advances on the neurotoxicity of QDs in the central nervous system, including oxidative stress injury, elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels and autophagy to damage in vitro neural cells, and impairments of synaptic transmission and plasticity as well as brain functions in tested animals, with the hope of throwing light on future research directions of QD neurotoxicity, which is a demanding topic that requires further exploration.

  14. Advanced Virtual Reality Simulations in Aerospace Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, L.; Trivailo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent research developments at Aerospace Engineering, RMIT University have demonstrated great potential for using Virtual Reality simulations as a very effective tool in advanced structures and dynamics applications. They have also been extremely successful in teaching of various undergraduate and postgraduate courses for presenting complex concepts in structural and dynamics designs. Characteristic examples are related to the classical orbital mechanics, spacecraft attitude and structural dynamics. Advanced simulations, reflecting current research by the authors, are mainly related to the implementation of various non-linear dynamic techniques, including using Kane's equations to study dynamics of space tethered satellite systems and the Co-rotational Finite Element method to study reconfigurable robotic systems undergoing large rotations and large translations. The current article will describe the numerical implementation of the modern methods of dynamics, and will concentrate on the post-processing stage of the dynamic simulations. Numerous examples of building Virtual Reality stand-alone animations, designed by the authors, will be discussed in detail. These virtual reality examples will include: The striking feature of the developed technology is the use of the standard mathematical packages, like MATLAB, as a post-processing tool to generate Virtual Reality Modelling Language files with brilliant interactive, graphics and audio effects. These stand-alone demonstration files can be run under Netscape or Microsoft Explorer and do not require MATLAB. Use of this technology enables scientists to easily share their results with colleagues using the Internet, contributing to the flexible learning development at schools and Universities.

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  16. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  17. GPU-Accelerated Stony-Brook University 5-class Microphysics Scheme in WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system. Microphysics plays an important role in weather and climate prediction. Several bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the WRF, with different numbers of simulated hydrometeor classes and methods for estimating their size fall speeds, distributions and densities. Stony-Brook University scheme (SBU-YLIN) is a 5-class scheme with riming intensity predicted to account for mixed-phase processes. In the past few years, co-processing on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) has been a disruptive technology in High Performance Computing (HPC). GPUs use the ever increasing transistor count for adding more processor cores. Therefore, GPUs are well suited for massively data parallel processing with high floating point arithmetic intensity. Thus, it is imperative to update legacy scientific applications to take advantage of this unprecedented increase in computing power. CUDA is an extension to the C programming language offering programming GPU's directly. It is designed so that its constructs allow for natural expression of data-level parallelism. A CUDA program is organized into two parts: a serial program running on the CPU and a CUDA kernel running on the GPU. The CUDA code consists of three computational phases: transmission of data into the global memory of the GPU, execution of the CUDA kernel, and transmission of results from the GPU into the memory of CPU. CUDA takes a bottom-up point of view of parallelism is which thread is an atomic unit of parallelism. Individual threads are part of groups called warps, within which every thread executes exactly the same sequence of instructions. To test SBU-YLIN, we used a CONtinental United States (CONUS) benchmark data set for 12 km resolution domain for October 24, 2001. A WRF domain is a geographic region of interest discretized into a 2-dimensional grid parallel to the ground. Each grid point has

  18. The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1992-11-30

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of [approximately] 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 [times] 10[sup 19] M[sup [minus]2] [center dot] S[sup [minus]1]. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

  19. The Advanced Neutron Source research and development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.

    1992-11-30

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is being designed as a user-oriented neutron research laboratory centered around the most intense continuous beams of thermal and subthermal neutrons in the world. The ANS will be built around a new research reactor of {approximately} 330 MW fission power, producing an unprecedented peak thermal flux of > 7 {times} 10{sup 19} M{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} S{sup {minus}1}. Primarily a research facility, the ANS will accommodate more than 1000 academic, industrial, and government researchers each year. They will conduct basic research in all branches of science-as well as applied research-leading to better understanding of new materials, including high temperature super conductors, plastics, and thin films. Some 48 neutron beam stations will be set up in the ANS beam rooms and the neutron guide hall for neutron scattering and for fundamental and nuclear physics research. There also will be extensive facilities for materials irradiation, isotope production, and analytical chemistry. The R&D program will focus on the four objectives: Address feasibility issues; provide analysis support; evaluate options for improvement in performance beyond minimum requirements; and provide prototype demonstrations for unique facilities. The remainder of this report presents (1) the process by which the R&D activities are controlled and (2) a discussion of the individual tasks that have been identified for the R&D program, including their justification, schedule and costs. The activities discussed in this report will be performed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and through subcontracts with industry, universities, and other national laboratories. It should be noted that in general a success path has been assumed for all tasks.

  20. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  1. Advanced parallel programming models research and development opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Zhaofang.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a large research and development effort within the high-performance computing community on advanced parallel programming models. This research can potentially have an impact on parallel applications, system software, and computing architectures in the next several years. Given Sandia's expertise and unique perspective in these areas, particularly on very large-scale systems, there are many areas in which Sandia can contribute to this effort. This technical report provides a survey of past and present parallel programming model research projects and provides a detailed description of the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. The PGAS model may offer several improvements over the traditional distributed memory message passing model, which is the dominant model currently being used at Sandia. This technical report discusses these potential benefits and outlines specific areas where Sandia's expertise could contribute to current research activities. In particular, we describe several projects in the areas of high-performance networking, operating systems and parallel runtime systems, compilers, application development, and performance evaluation.

  2. Comparison of Spatial and Temporal Rainfall Characteristics in WRF-Simulated Precipitation to Gauge and Radar Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data are used for USEPA multimedia air and water quality modeling applications, within the CMAQ modeling system to estimate wet deposition and to evaluate future climate and land-use scenarios. While it is not expected that hi...

  3. Refinement of horizontal resolution in dynamical downscaling of climate information using WRF: Costs, benefits, and lessons learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamical downscaling techniques have previously been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) using a nested WRF at 108- and 36-km. Subsequent work extended one-way nesting down to 12-km resolution. Recently, the EPA Office of Research and Development used com...

  4. Precipitation Retrievals in typhoon domain combining of FY3C MWHTS Observations and WRF Predicted Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieying, HE; Shengwei, ZHANG; Na, LI

    2017-02-01

    A passive sub-millimeter precipitation retrievals algorithm is provided based on Microwave Humidity and Temperature Sounder (MWHTS) onboard the Chinese Feng Yun 3C (FY-3C) satellite. Using the validated global reference physical model NCEP/WRF/VDISORT), NCEP data per 6 hours are downloaded to run the Weather Research and Forecast model WRF, and derive the typical precipitation data from the whole world. The precipitation retrieval algorithm can operate either on land or on seawater for global. To simply the calculation procedure and save the training time, principle component analysis (PCA) was adapted to filter out the redundancy caused by scanning angle and surface effects, as well as system noise. According to the comparison and validation combing with other precipitation sources, it is demonstrated that the retrievals are reliable for surface precipitation rate higher than 0.1 mm/h at 15km resolution.

  5. Production of 3D wind field near the surface using WRF and MUKLIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukjun, L.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme weather conditions become frequent and severe with global warming. To prevent and cope forest disaster like a forest fire, we need an accurate micrometeorological prediction system for mountainous regions. This study addressed the forest fires occurred at Bonghwa and Gangneung in March, 2013. We constructed and optimized the prediction system that were required to interpret and simulate the forest micrometeorology. At first, we examined WRF physical sensitivity. Subsequently, KMA AWS observation data were assimilated using three-dimensional variation data assimilation method. The effectiveness of the assimilation was examined by using AWS observations enhanced with the Forest Research Institute observations. Finally, The 100 meters spatial resolution wind data were obtained by using the MUKLIMO for the given wind vector from WRF.

  6. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF VERSION 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, Don; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W. M.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Pisso, I.; Bukhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-11-01

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for cal- culating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. This multiscale need from the modeler community has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this document, we present a version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteoro- logical model. Simple procedures on how to run FLEXPART-WRF are presented along with special options and features that differ from its predecessor versions. In addition, test case data, the source code and visualization tools are provided to the reader as supplementary material.

  7. Assimilation of Dual-Polarimetric Radar Observations with WRF GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Fehnel, Traci; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Dual-polarimetric (dual-pol) radar typically transmits both horizontally and vertically polarized radio wave pulses. From the two different reflected power returns, more accurate estimate of liquid and solid cloud and precipitation can be provided. The upgrade of the traditional NWS WSR-88D radar to include dual-pol capabilities will soon be completed for the entire NEXRAD network. Therefore, the use of dual-pol radar network will have a broad impact in both research and operational communities. The assimilation of dual-pol radar data is especially challenging as few guidelines have been provided by previous research. It is our goal to examine how to best use dual-pol radar data to improve forecast of severe storm and forecast initialization. In recent years, the Development Testbed Center (DTC) has released the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DA system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The community GSI system runs in independently environment, yet works functionally equivalent to operational centers. With collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, this study explores regional assimilation of the dual-pol radar variables from the WSR-88D radars for real case storms. Our presentation will highlight our recent effort on incorporating the horizontal reflectivity (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP), and radial velocity (VR) data for initializing convective storms, with a significant focus being on an improved representation of hydrometeor fields. In addition, discussion will be provided on the development of enhanced assimilation procedures in the GSI system with respect to dual-pol variables. Beyond the dual-pol variable assimilation procedure developing within a GSI framework, highresolution (=1 km) WRF model simulations and storm scale data assimilation experiments will be examined, emphasizing both model initialization and short-term forecast

  8. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  9. The benefits of basic research: advances in reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    At the Population Council's Center for Biomedical Research basic research is being conducted on the reproductive system with a view to develop new contraceptive and reproductive health technologies. Research in the Reproductive Physiology Program at the Center is carried out by reproductive endocrinologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists working in eight laboratories. In several of the laboratories the function of hormones that regulate spermatogenesis is studied. Scientists in Milan Bagchi's laboratory have developed a model system, composed of cellular components in a test tube, that allows them to study the full sequence of events involved in signal transduction. In James Catterall's laboratory, scientists study how androgens regulate sexual development at the molecular level. The steroid hormones cortisol and corticosterone play critical roles in mammalian fetal development. Scientists in several laboratories study the function of two specialized testicular cells: the Leydig and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cell synthesizes and secretes testosterone, an androgen that regulates spermatogenesis. The Sertoli cell maintains the environment in which spermatogenesis occurs. Researchers in Glen Gunsalus's laboratory study an androgen-binding protein secreted by the Sertoli cell. In collaboration with scientists at the Shanghai Research Center of Biotechnology, they used advanced genetic techniques to create a biologically active form of the protein in silk worm larvae. Scientists in Patricia Morris's laboratory recently identified molecular signals that control the interactions between developing sperm and Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the laboratory of David Phillips, scientists are investigating how the HIV virus penetrates the outer layer of cells in the genital tract and infects underlying cells. In 1994 a vaginally applied microbicide was developed that may inhibit infection by sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Applications of basic research such

  10. Development of efficient GPU parallelization of WRF Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, H.; Huang, H.-L. A.; Goldberg, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere and where its character is directly affected by its contact with the underlying planetary surface. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transport in the whole atmospheric column. It determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the more stable layer above. It thus provides an evolutionary model of atmospheric temperature, moisture (including clouds), and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. For such purposes, several PBL models have been proposed and employed in the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model of which the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme is one. To expedite weather research and prediction, we have put tremendous effort into developing an accelerated implementation of the entire WRF model using graphics processing unit (GPU) massive parallel computing architecture whilst maintaining its accuracy as compared to its central processing unit (CPU)-based implementation. This paper presents our efficient GPU-based design on a WRF YSU PBL scheme. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU, the GPU-based YSU PBL scheme achieves a speedup of 193× with respect to its CPU counterpart running on one CPU core, whereas the speedup for one CPU socket (4 cores) with respect to 1 CPU core is only 3.5×. We can even boost the speedup to 360× with respect to 1 CPU core as two K40 GPUs are applied.

  11. Development of efficient GPU parallelization of WRF Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Chen, H.; Huang, H.-L. A.; Goldberg, M. D.

    2014-11-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the atmosphere and where its character is directly affected by its contact with the underlying planetary surface. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transport in the whole atmospheric column. It determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the more stable layer above. It thus provides an evolutionary model of atmospheric temperature, moisture (including clouds), and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. For such purposes, several PBL models have been proposed and employed in the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model of which the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme is one. To expedite weather research and prediction, we have put tremendous effort into developing an accelerated implementation of the entire WRF model using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) massive parallel computing architecture whilst maintaining its accuracy as compared to its CPU-based implementation. This paper presents our efficient GPU-based design on WRF YSU PBL scheme. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU, the GPU-based YSU PBL scheme achieves a speedup of 193× with respect to its Central Processing Unit (CPU) counterpart running on one CPU core, whereas the speedup for one CPU socket (4 cores) with respect to one CPU core is only 3.5×. We can even boost the speedup to 360× with respect to one CPU core as two K40 GPUs are applied.

  12. Sensitivity of WRF-chem predictions to dust source function specification in West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabavi, Seyed Omid; Haimberger, Leopold; Samimi, Cyrus

    2017-02-01

    Dust storms tend to form in sparsely populated areas covered by only few observations. Dust source maps, known as source functions, are used in dust models to allocate a certain potential of dust release to each place. Recent research showed that the well known Ginoux source function (GSF), currently used in Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-chem), exhibits large errors over some regions in West Asia, particularly near the IRAQ/Syrian border. This study aims to improve the specification of this critical part of dust forecasts. A new source function based on multi-year analysis of satellite observations, called West Asia source function (WASF), is therefore proposed to raise the quality of WRF-chem predictions in the region. WASF has been implemented in three dust schemes of WRF-chem. Remotely sensed and ground-based observations have been used to verify the horizontal and vertical extent and location of simulated dust clouds. Results indicate that WRF-chem performance is significantly improved in many areas after the implementation of WASF. The modified runs (long term simulations over the summers 2008-2012, using nudging) have yielded an average increase of Spearman correlation between observed and forecast aerosol optical thickness by 12-16 percent points compared to control runs with standard source functions. They even outperform MACC and DREAM dust simulations over many dust source regions. However, the quality of the forecasts decreased with distance from sources, probably due to deficiencies in the transport and deposition characteristics of the forecast model in these areas.

  13. Quality assessment and assimilation of Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR radiances into WRF assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents an initial assessment of the quality of radiances measured from SAPHIR (Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity) on board Megha-Tropiques (Indo-French joint satellite), launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation on 12 October 2011. The radiances measured from SAPHIR are compared with those simulated by the radiative transfer model (RTM) using radiosondes measurements, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder retrievals, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyzed fields over the Indian subcontinent, during January to November 2012. The radiances from SAPHIR are also compared with the similar measurements available from Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on board MetOp-A and NOAA-18/19 satellites, during January to November 2012. A limited comparison is also carried out between SAPHIR measured and the RTM computed radiances using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyzed fields, during May and November 2012. The comparison of SAPHIR measured radiances with RTM simulated and MHS observed radiances reveals that SAPHIR observations are of good quality. After the initial assessment of the quality of the SAPHIR radiances, these radiances have been assimilated within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. Analysis/forecast cycling experiments with and without SAPHIR radiances are performed over the Indian region during the entire month of May 2012. The assimilation of SAPHIR radiances shows considerable improvements (with moisture analysis error reduction up to 30%) in the tropospheric analyses and forecast of moisture, temperature, and winds when compared to NCEP analyses and radiances measurement obtained from MHS, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, and High Resolution Infrared Sounder. Assimilation of SAPHIR radiances also resulted in substantial improvement in the precipitation forecast skill when compared with satellite-derived rain. Overall

  14. Comparing UCLALES-SALSA and WRF-Chem LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonttila, Juha; Dunne, Eimear; Ahola, Jaakko; Korhonen, Hannele; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2016-04-01

    The new UCLALES-SALSA model, which uses a sectional representation of aerosols and cloud droplets, is compared against the LES configuration of the established WRF-Chem model. Two configurations of WRF-Chem are compared: the first using the sectional MOSAIC aerosol representation, and the second using the modal MADE/SORGAM representation. Both sets of WRF-Chem simulations use the two-moment Morrisson bulk cloud scheme. Wherever possible, the three sets of simulations have identical processes and initial conditions. By comparing UCLALES-SALSA against an established model in an ideal scenario, we demonstrate that the new model provides a realistic representation of warm cloud processes. The two configurations of WRF-Chem make it possible (to an extent) to isolate whether differences in model outputs are due to meteorological or microphysical effects.

  15. WRF Simulations of the 20-22 January 2007 Snow Events over Eastern Canada: Comparison with In-Situ and Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Matsui, T.; Cifelli, R.; Huo, A.; Lang, S.; Tokay, A.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Jackson, G.; Rutledge, S.; Petersen, W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to improve cold season precipitation measurements in middle and high latitudes through the use of high-frequency passive microwave radiometry. For this, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard microphysics scheme is coupled with a satellite data simulation unit (WRF-SDSU) that has been developed to facilitate over-land snowfall retrieval algorithms by providing a virtual cloud library and microwave brightness temperature (Tb) measurements consistent with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). This study tested the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme in WRF for two snowstorm events, a lake effect and a synoptic event, that occurred between 20 and 22 January 2007 over the Canadian CloudSAT/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) site in Ontario, Canada. The 24h-accumulated snowfall predicted by the WRF model with the Goddard microphysics was comparable to the observed accumulated snowfall by the ground-based radar for both events. The model correctly predicted the onset and ending of both snow events at the CARE site. WRF simulations capture the basic cloud properties as seen by the ground-based radar and satellite (i.e., CloudSAT, AMSU-B) observations as well as the observed cloud streak organization in the lake event. This latter result reveals that WRF was able to capture the cloud macro-structure reasonably well.

  16. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Blaze, Gina M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science and exploration missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. The ASRG will utilize two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source to electricity. NASA GRC has initiated several experiments to demonstrate the functionality of the ASC, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation, and ASRG simulation for mobile applications. The in-air and thermal vacuum test articles are intended to provide convertor performance data over an extended operating time. These test articles mimic some features of the ASRG without the requirement of low system mass. Operation in thermal vacuum adds the element of simulating deep space. This test article is being used to gather convertor performance and thermal data in a relevant environment. The ASRG simulator was designed to incorporate a minimum amount of support equipment, allowing integration onto devices powered directly by the convertors, such as a rover. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and implementation of these experiments.

  17. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  18. Recent Advances in Research on Widow Spider Venoms and Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Widow spiders have received much attention due to the frequently reported human and animal injures caused by them. Elucidation of the molecular composition and action mechanism of the venoms and toxins has vast implications in the treatment of latrodectism and in the neurobiology and pharmaceutical research. In recent years, the studies of the widow spider venoms and the venom toxins, particularly the α-latrotoxin, have achieved many new advances; however, the mechanism of action of the venom toxins has not been completely clear. The widow spider is different from many other venomous animals in that it has toxic components not only in the venom glands but also in other parts of the adult spider body, newborn spiderlings, and even the eggs. More recently, the molecular basis for the toxicity outside the venom glands has been systematically investigated, with four proteinaceous toxic components being purified and preliminarily characterized, which has expanded our understanding of the widow spider toxins. This review presents a glance at the recent advances in the study on the venoms and toxins from the Latrodectus species. PMID:26633495

  19. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  20. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-08-01

    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  1. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  2. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  3. High Resolution WRF Modeling for MATERHORN Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Z.; Dimitrova, R.; Fernando, H. J.; Leo, L.; Di Sabatino, S.; Zsedrovits, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used for high resolution simulation of flow around Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed during MATERHORN field campaigns (www.nd.edu/~dynamics/materhorn). The aim was to provide guidance for instrument siting and map possible flow structures emanating from topographic and thermal inhomogeneities. Intriguing flow features were noted: short-lived nature of down-slope and down-valley flows due to mutual interactions between multiple nocturnal flows, drainage of cold pools between basins through sills that separate them, channelized flow expanding into nearby cold pools forming intrusions, critical (stagnation, convergence and divergence) points due to flow interactions, flow separation and wake vortices in the presence of synoptic winds, and interaction between synoptic and thermally driven flow that modifies both. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing model predictions with observations of the two MATERHORN field campaigns (October 2012 and May 2013). This research was funded by Office of Naval Research Grant # N00014-11-1-0709.

  4. XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

    November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

  5. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  6. The neutron texture diffractometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yun-Tao; Tian, Geng-Fang; Gao, Jian-Bo; Yu, Zhou-Xiang; Li, Yu-Qing; Wu, Li-Qi; Yang, Lin-Feng; Sun, Kai; Wang, Hong-Li; Santisteban, J. r.; Chen, Dong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at the China Advanced Research Reactor, due to strong demand for texture measurement with neutrons from the domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study texture in commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of zirconium alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurements with the results obtained in HIPPO at LANSCE and Kowari at ANSTO illustrates the reliability of the texture diffractometer. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11105231, 11205248, 51327902) and International Atomic Energy Agency-TC program (CPR0012)

  7. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  8. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  9. Review on advances in nanoscale microscopy in cement research.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advancement of nanotechnology, manipulation and characterization of materials in nano scale have become an obvious part of construction related technology. This review will focus on some of the nanoscopy techniques that are most frequently used in current research of cement based nanostructured materials. In particular scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, tomography, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy are addressed. A number of case studies related to microscopic characterization of nano materials utilizing the aforementioned techniques from the published literature are discussed. While these approaches are beginning to yield promising insight, continued progress will definitely provide a potential sustainable solution for the design, development and promotion towards nanoscale engineering of cementitious materials.

  10. Lipids from heterotrophic microbes: advances in metabolism research.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Matyas; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-02-01

    Heterotrophic oleaginous microorganisms are capable of producing over 20% of their weight in single cell oils (SCOs) composed of triacylglycerols (TAGs). These TAGs contain fatty acids, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, that are well-suited for biodiesel applications. Although some of these microbes are able to accumulate SCOs while growing on inexpensive agro-industrial biomass, the competition with plant oil resources means that a significant increase in productivity is desired. The present review aims to summarize recent details in lipid metabolism research and engineering (e.g. direct fatty acid ethyl ester production), as well as culture condition optimization and innovations, such as solid-state or semi-solid-state fermentation, that can all contribute to higher productivity and further advancement of the field.

  11. [Recent advances of genetic research on paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias].

    PubMed

    Li, Xun-hua; Chen, Su-qin; Wang, Yi-ming

    2008-08-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis/dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) is one of the most common types of praoxysmal dyskinesia. It is characterized by recurrent episodic dystonia and/or choreoathetotic attacks triggered by sudden voluntary movement. Some patients have a history of febrile infantile convulsion. PKD commonly occurs sporadically or as an autosomal-dominant familial trait with variable penetrance. It has been linked to 16p12-q12 or 16q13-q22 loci in various families of different populations, which suggests a genetic heterogeneity. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of PKD await further elucidation, although ion channelopathy is suggested as a probable underlying etiology. Here, the recent advances of the genetic research on PKD will be reviewed.

  12. [Advances in the researches of lutein and alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianrong; Lin, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    Lutein, a kind of oxycarotenoid, can pass the blood brain barrier and preferentially accumulate in the human brain, which is the most abundant carotenoid in human brain. Evidence from multiple studies suggested that lutein was closely related to age-related cognitive decline and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in human. Dietary, plasma and brain concentrations of lutein were negatively associated with age-related cognitive decline. Lutein concentrations in plasma and brain were significantly lower in AD patients than those of health control. In human brain, lutein was the sole carotenoid which consistently associated with a range of cognitive function measures. In elderly women, lutein supplement can improve the cognitive function. In this article, we systematically reviewed the literature on the role of lutein in age-related cognitive decline and alzheimer's disease and its possible mechanisms. It may prove some benefit information for the advanced research and prevention of AD.

  13. [Research advances in soil fungal diversity and molecular ecology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Huiwen; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Chenggang

    2004-10-01

    Fungi are a kind of important soil microorganisms that participate in the decomposition of organic materials and supply nutrients to the plant through symbiosis. But, they can also reduce the output of food due to the existence of pathogenic fungi. Soil fungal diversity plays a fundamentally unique role in maintaining the balance of ecosystem and in supplying large amount of undeveloped resources for the people. In this paper, soil fungal diversity was expatiated from the viewpoints of species diversity, habitant diversity and functional diversity, and furthermore, the research advances in the molecular ecology of soil fungal diversity were reviewed from the aspects of the fungal diversity of farmland, woodland, pasture, extreme environment, and other complex environments. The affecting factors of soil fungal diversity were discussed, and the development trend of the study on soil fungal diversity was also approached.

  14. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-03-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  15. Advanced research and technology program for advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  16. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  17. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to be

  18. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  19. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  20. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  1. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace. Part 2, The role of advanced research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R&D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R&D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based.

  2. Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, John

    2013-06-30

    The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

  3. Impact of improved soil climatology and intialization on WRF-chem dust simulations over West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omid Nabavi, Seyed; Haimberger, Leopold; Samimi, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    Meteorological forecast models such as WRF-chem are designed to forecast not only standard atmospheric parameters but also aerosol, particularly mineral dust concentrations. It has therefore become an important tool for the prediction of dust storms in West Asia where dust storms have the considerable impact on living conditions. However, verification of forecasts against satellite data indicates only moderate skill in prediction of such events. Earlier studies have already indicated that the erosion factor, land use classification, soil moisture, and temperature initializations play a critical role in the accuracy of WRF-chem dust simulations. In the standard setting the erosion factor and land use classification are based on topographic variations and post-processed images of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) during the period April 1992-March 1993. Furthermore, WRF-chem is normally initialized by the soil moisture and temperature of Final Analysis (FNL) model on 1.0x1.0 degree grids. In this study, we have changed boundary initial conditions so that they better represent current changing environmental conditions. To do so, land use (only bare soil class) and the erosion factor were both modified using information from MODIS deep blue AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth). In this method, bare soils are where the relative frequency of dust occurrence (deep blue AOD > 0.5) is more than one-third of a given month. Subsequently, the erosion factor, limited within the bare soil class, is determined by the monthly frequency of dust occurrence ranging from 0.3 to 1. It is worth to mention, that 50 percent of calculated erosion factor is afterward assigned to sand class while silt and clay classes each gain 25 percent of it. Soil moisture and temperature from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were utilized to provide these initializations in higher resolution of 0.25 degree than in the standard setting. Modified and control simulations were

  4. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  5. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF version 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, D.; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, J. D.; Easter, R. C.; Pisso, I.; Burkhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for calculating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. This multiscale need has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this document, we present a FLEXPART version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model. We explain how to run and present special options and features that differ from its predecessor versions. For instance, a novel turbulence scheme for the convective boundary layer has been included that considers both the skewness of turbulence in the vertical velocity as well as the vertical gradient in the air density. To our knowledge, FLEXPART is the first model for which such a scheme has been developed. On a more technical level, FLEXPART-WRF now offers effective parallelization and details on computational performance are presented here. FLEXPART-WRF output can either be in binary or Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format with efficient data compression. In addition, test case data and the source code are provided to the reader as Supplement. This material and future developments will be accessible at http://www.flexpart.eu.

  6. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF version 3.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, D.; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, J. D.; Easter, R. C.; Pisso, I.; Burkhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-11-01

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for calculating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such that occurring after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime, FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. A need for further multiscale modeling and analysis has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this paper, we present a FLEXPART version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteorological model. We explain how to run this new model and present special options and features that differ from those of the preceding versions. For instance, a novel turbulence scheme for the convective boundary layer has been included that considers both the skewness of turbulence in the vertical velocity as well as the vertical gradient in the air density. To our knowledge, FLEXPART is the first model for which such a scheme has been developed. On a more technical level, FLEXPART-WRF now offers effective parallelization, and details on computational performance are presented here. FLEXPART-WRF output can either be in binary or Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, both of which have efficient data compression. In addition, test case data and the source code are provided to the reader as a Supplement. This material and future developments will be accessible at http://www.flexpart.eu.

  7. Numerical simulations of heavy rainfall over central Korea on 21 September 2010 using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ui-Yong; Hong, Jinkyu; Hong, Song-You; Shin, Hyeyum Hailey

    2015-06-01

    On 21 September 2010, heavy rainfall with a local maximum of 259 mm d-1 occurred near Seoul, South Korea. We examined the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in reproducing this disastrous rainfall event and identified the role of two physical processes: planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics (MPS) processes. The WRF model was forced by 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final analysis (FNL) data for 36 hours form 1200 UTC 20 to 0000 UTC 22 September 2010. Twenty-five experiments were performed, consisting of five different PBL schemes—Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE), Bougeault and Lacarrere (BouLac), and University of Washington (UW)—and five different MPS schemes—WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6), Goddard, Thompson, Milbrandt 2-moments, and Morrison 2-moments. As expected, there was a specific combination of MPS and PBL schemes that showed good skill in forecasting the precipitation. However, there was no specific PBL or MPS scheme that outperformed the others in all aspects. The experiments with the UW PBL or Thompson MPS scheme showed a relatively small amount of precipitation. Analyses form the sensitivity experiments confirmed that the spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation was dominated by the PBL processes, whereas the MPS processes determined the amount of rainfall. It was also found that the temporal evolution of the precipitation was influenced more by the PBL processes than by the MPS processes.

  8. Urban irrigation effects on WRF-UCM summertime forecast skill over the Los Angeles metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, we explicitly address the impacts of urban irrigation on the local hydrological cycle by integrating a previously developed irrigation scheme within the coupled framework of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Canopy Models (WRF-UCM) over the semiarid Los Angeles metropolitan area. We focus on the impacts of irrigation on the urban water cycle and atmospheric feedback. Our results demonstrate a significant sensitivity of WRF-UCM simulated surface turbulent fluxes to the incorporation of urban irrigation. Introducing anthropogenic moisture, vegetated pixels show a shift in the energy partitioning toward elevated latent heat fluxes. The cooling effects of irrigation on daily peak air temperatures are evident over all three urban types, with the largest influence over low-intensity residential areas (average cooling of 1.64°C). The evaluation of model performance via comparison against CIMIS (California Irrigation Management Information System) evapotranspiration (ET) estimates indicates that WRF-UCM, after adding irrigation, performs reasonably during the course of the month of July, tracking day-to-day variability of ET with notable consistency. In the nonirrigated case, CIMIS-based ET fluctuations are significantly underestimated by the model. Our analysis shows the importance of accurate representation of urban irrigation in modeling studies, especially over water-scarce regions such as the Los Angeles metropolitan area. We also illustrate that the impacts of irrigation on simulated energy and water cycles are more critical for longer-term simulations due to the interactions between irrigation and soil moisture fluctuations.

  9. Modifications to WRF's dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin

    2015-12-01

    Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in the acoustic substepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature θ with one for the moist potential temperature θm=θ(1 + 1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic substeps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. This modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.

  10. Implementation of spaceborne lidar-retrieved canopy height in the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junhong; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-06-01

    Canopy height is closely related to biomass and aerodynamic properties, which regulate turbulent transfer of energy and mass at the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. However, this key information has been prescribed as a constant value in a fixed plant functional type in atmospheric models. This paper is the first to report impacts of using realistic forest canopy height, retrieved from spaceborne lidar, on regional climate simulation by using the canopy height data in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model's land surface model. Numerical simulations were conducted over the Amazon Basin during summer season. Over this region, the lidar-retrieved canopy heights were higher than the default values used in the WRF, which are dependent only on plant functional type. By modifying roughness length and zero-plane displacement height, the change of canopy height resulted in changes in surface energy balance by regulating aerodynamic conductances and vertical temperature gradient, thus modifying the lifting condensation level and equivalent potential temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer. Our analysis also showed that the WRF model better reproduced the observed precipitation when lidar-retrieved canopy height was used over the Amazon Basin.

  11. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  12. Fingerprint identification: advances since the 2009 National Research Council report

    PubMed Central

    Champod, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss the major developments in the area of fingerprint identification that followed the publication of the National Research Council (NRC, of the US National Academies of Sciences) report in 2009 entitled: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. The report portrayed an image of a field of expertise used for decades without the necessary scientific research-based underpinning. The advances since the report and the needs in selected areas of fingerprinting will be detailed. It includes the measurement of the accuracy, reliability, repeatability and reproducibility of the conclusions offered by fingerprint experts. The paper will also pay attention to the development of statistical models allowing assessment of fingerprint comparisons. As a corollary of these developments, the next challenge is to reconcile a traditional practice dominated by deterministic conclusions with the probabilistic logic of any statistical model. There is a call for greater candour and fingerprint experts will need to communicate differently on the strengths and limitations of their findings. Their testimony will have to go beyond the blunt assertion of the uniqueness of fingerprints or the opinion delivered ispe dixit. PMID:26101284

  13. Fingerprint identification: advances since the 2009 National Research Council report.

    PubMed

    Champod, Christophe

    2015-08-05

    This paper will discuss the major developments in the area of fingerprint identification that followed the publication of the National Research Council (NRC, of the US National Academies of Sciences) report in 2009 entitled: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. The report portrayed an image of a field of expertise used for decades without the necessary scientific research-based underpinning. The advances since the report and the needs in selected areas of fingerprinting will be detailed. It includes the measurement of the accuracy, reliability, repeatability and reproducibility of the conclusions offered by fingerprint experts. The paper will also pay attention to the development of statistical models allowing assessment of fingerprint comparisons. As a corollary of these developments, the next challenge is to reconcile a traditional practice dominated by deterministic conclusions with the probabilistic logic of any statistical model. There is a call for greater candour and fingerprint experts will need to communicate differently on the strengths and limitations of their findings. Their testimony will have to go beyond the blunt assertion of the uniqueness of fingerprints or the opinion delivered ispe dixit.

  14. [Research advances in cadmium pollution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-rong; Zhang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil-bearing crop in the world, and as well, an important resource of plant protein and a main raw material for food processing. With the increasing of its direct human consumption and food processing, the Cd concentration in peanut kernel has aroused great concern in recent years. China is a main country of the production and exportation of peanut, but the Cd enrichment in peanut kernel is the main obstacle for its peanut export trade. In this paper, the research advances in Cd pollution of peanut kernel were reviewed, based on the characteristics and mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in peanut kernel, the intra-specific variation of kernel Cd content, and the measures in controlling kernel Cd content. Two strategies were put forward for controlling Cd pollution of peanut kernel, i.e., to reduce the Cd uptake by main root system of peanut plant, and to control the transference of Cd from root to fruit (kernel). In order to applying the strategies effectively, researches on the mechanisms of Cd accumulation in peanut kernel should be enhanced in three aspects, i.e., root vitality and its relationship with Cd accumulation in kernel, mechanism of fruit Cd absorption and its contribution to kernel Cd content, and mechanism of Cd transference in plants and its effects on kernel Cd content.

  15. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  16. [Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the

  17. Evolution of Mesoscale Convective System over the South Western Peninsular India: Observations from Microwave Radiometer and Simulations using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Sijikumar, S.; Renju, R.; Tinu, K. A.; Raju, Suresh C.

    2012-07-01

    Meso-scale Convective Systems (MCS) are important in view of their large cumulous build-up, vertical extent, short horizontal extent and associated thundershowers. The Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) over the equatorial coastal station Thiruvanathapuram (Trivandrum, 8.55oN, 76.9oE), has been utilized to understand the genesis of Mesoscale convective system (MCS), that occur frequently during the pre-monsoon season. Examination of the measurement of relative humidity, temperature and cloud liquid water measurements, over the zenith and two scanning elevation angles (15o) viewing both over the land and the sea respectively revealed that the MCS generally originate over the land during early afternoon hours, propagate seawards over the observational site and finally dissipate over the sea, with accompanying rainfall and latent heat release. The simulations obtained using Advanced Research-Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model effectively reproduces the thermodynamical and microphysical properties of the MCS. The time duration and quantity of rainfall obtained by the simulations also well compared with the observations. Analysis also suggests that wind shear in the upper troposphere is responsible for the growth and the shape of the convective cloud.

  18. Modelling of a Zonda wind event in a complex terrain region using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R. P.; Cremades, P. G.; Lakkis, G.; Allende, D. G.; Santos, R.; Puliafito, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The air quality modeling in a regional scale requires the coupling to Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, mainly when a high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as in those cases related to large pollutants emissions episodes or extreme weather events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) is a last generation NWP model which computes temperature, pressure, humidity and wind fields in high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to perform simulations in complex terrain regions, WRF must be locally configured to obtain a proper representation of the physical processes, and an independent validation must be performed, both under common and extreme conditions. Once the local configuration is obtained, a full atmospheric chemistry modeling can be performed by means of WRF-Chem. In this work a mesoescale event of Zonda wind (similar to Foehn and Chinook winds) affecting the topographically complex mountainous region of Mendoza (Argentina) on February 15th, 2007 is represented using WRF. The model results are compared to the Argentine National Weather Service (SMN) observations at "El Plumerillo" station (WMO #87418), showing a good performance. A description of the local model configuration and most important physical parameterizations selected for the simulations is given, including the improvement of the default resolution of land use and land cover (LULC) fields. The high resolution modeling domain considered is centered at the city of Mendoza (32° 53' South, 68° 50' West), it extends 200 km N/S × 160 km E/W and includes a 3-nested domain downscaling of 36, 12 and 4 km resolution, respectively. The results for the Zonda wind episode show a very good performance of the model both in spatial and temporal scales. The temporal dew point variation (the physical variable that best describes the Zonda wind) shows a good agreement with the measured values, with a sharp decrease of 20 °C (from 16 °C to -4 °C) in 3 hours. A full 3-D regional

  19. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Poriti, Sal

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing high-efficiency free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in radioisotope power systems (RPSs) since 1999. The current effort is in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Sunpower, Inc., and the NASA GRC. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) to convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As reliability is paramount to a RPS capable of providing spacecraft power for potential multi-year missions, GRC provides direct technology support to the ASRG flight project in the areas of reliability, convertor and generator testing, high-temperature materials, structures, modeling and analysis, organics, structural dynamics, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and permanent magnets to reduce risk and enhance reliability of the convertor as this technology transitions toward flight status. Convertor and generator testing is carried out in short- and long-duration tests designed to characterize convertor performance when subjected to environments intended to simulate launch and space conditions. Long duration testing is intended to baseline performance and observe any performance degradation over the life of the test. Testing involves developing support hardware that enables 24/7 unattended operation and data collection. GRC currently has 14 Stirling convertors under unattended extended operation testing, including two operating in the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG-EU). Test data and high-temperature support hardware are discussed for ongoing and future ASC tests with emphasis on the ASC-E and ASC-E2.

  20. SOMs-Based Analysis of WRF Extreme Daily Precipitation in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze daily extremes of precipitation produced with a polar-optimized version of the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model that simulated 19 years on the domain developed for the Regional Arctic System (RASM) model. Analysis focuses on Alaska, because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans, both of which provide a large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has an important impact on orographically-forced precipitation. In order to understand the circulation characteristics conducive for extreme precipitation events, we use Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to find general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process. In our analysis, we use mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies to train the SOM. We examine daily widespread extreme precipitation events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation. Using the SOM procedure, we map days with widespread extremes onto the SOM's array of circulation patterns. This mapping aids in determining which nodes are being accessed at higher frequencies, and hence, which circulations are more conducive to extreme events. We show that there are multiple circulation patterns responsible for extreme precipitation differentiated by where they produce extreme events in our analysis region. Additionally, we plot composites of several meteorological fields for SOM nodes being accessed by both extreme and non-extreme events to determine what specific conditions are necessary for a widespread extreme event. Composites of individual nodes (or of adjacent nodes in SOM space) produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all extreme events, which can include multiple synoptic circulation regimes. We also trace the temporal evolution of extreme events through SOM space. Thus, our analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric

  1. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  2. Weather Research and Forecasting Model Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III; Hoeth, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This abstract describes work that will be done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in assessing the success of different model configurations in predicting "wind cycling" cases at Edwards Air Force Base, CA (EAFB), in which the wind speeds and directions oscillate among towers near the EAFB runway. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model allows users to choose among two dynamical cores - the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). There are also data assimilation analysis packages available for the initialization of the WRF model - the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS). Having a series of initialization options and WRF cores, as well as many options within each core, creates challenges for local forecasters, such as determining which configuration options are best to address specific forecast concerns. The goal of this project is to assess the different configurations available and determine which configuration will best predict surface wind speed and direction at EAFB.

  3. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  4. Evaluation of Diagnostic CO2 Flux and Transport Modeling in NU-WRF and GEOS-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Tao, Z.; Wang, J. S.; Ott, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.

    2015-12-01

    We report on recent diagnostic (constrained by observations) model simulations of atmospheric CO2 flux and transport using a newly developed facility in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF) model. The results are compared to CO2 data (ground-based, airborne, and GOSAT) and to corresponding simulations from a global model that uses meteorology from the NASA GEOS-5 Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The objective of these intercomparisons is to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the respective models in pursuit of an overall carbon process improvement at both regional and global scales. Our guiding hypothesis is that the finer resolution and improved land surface representation in NU-WRF will lead to better comparisons with CO2 data than those using global MERRA, which will, in turn, inform process model development in global prognostic models. Initial intercomparison results, however, have generally been mixed: NU-WRF is better at some sites and times but not uniformly. We are examining the model transport processes in detail to diagnose differences in the CO2 behavior. These comparisons are done in the context of a long history of simulations from the Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model, based on GEOS-5 meteorology and Carnegie Ames-Stanford Approach-Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA-GFED) fluxes, that capture much of the CO2 variation from synoptic to seasonal to global scales. We have run the NU-WRF model using unconstrained, internally generated meteorology within the North American domain, and with meteorological 'nudging' from Global Forecast System and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) in an effort to optimize the CO2 simulations. Output results constrained by NARR show the best comparisons to data. Discrepancies, of course, may arise either from flux or transport errors and compensating errors are possible. Resolving their interplay is also important to using the data in

  5. Toward Improved Land Surface Initialization in Support of Regional WRF Forecasts at the Kenya Meteorological Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case. Jonathan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Kabuchanga, Eric; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding and drought are two key forecasting challenges for the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD). Atmospheric processes leading to excessive precipitation and/or prolonged drought can be quite sensitive to the state of the land surface, which interacts with the boundary layer of the atmosphere providing a source of heat and moisture. The development and evolution of precipitation systems are affected by heat and moisture fluxes from the land surface within weakly-sheared environments, such as in the tropics and sub-tropics. These heat and moisture fluxes during the day can be strongly influenced by land cover, vegetation, and soil moisture content. Therefore, it is important to represent the land surface state as accurately as possible in numerical weather prediction models. Enhanced regional modeling capabilities have the potential to improve forecast guidance in support of daily operations and high-end events over east Africa. KMD currently runs a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in real time to support its daily forecasting operations, invoking the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) dynamical core. They make use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / National Weather Service Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) to manage and produce the WRF-NMM model runs on a 7-km regional grid over eastern Africa. Two organizations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, SERVIR and the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, have established a working partnership with KMD for enhancing its regional modeling capabilities. To accomplish this goal, SPoRT and SERVIR will provide experimental land surface initialization datasets and model verification capabilities to KMD. To produce a land-surface initialization more consistent with the resolution of the KMD-WRF runs, the NASA Land Information System (LIS

  6. Modeling the Colorado Front Range Flood of 2013 with Coupled WRF and WRF-Hydro System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, E.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. Flash floods are one of the most damaging natural disasters producing large socio-economic losses. Projected impacts of climate change include increases in the magnitude and the frequency of flash floods all around the world. Therefore, it is important to understand the physical processes of flash flooding to enhance our capacity for prediction, prevention, risk management, and recovery. However, understanding these processes is ambitious because of small spatial scale and sudden nature of flash floods, interactions with complex topography and land use, difficulty in defining initial soil moisture conditions, non-linearity of catchment response, and high space-time variability of storm characteristics. Thus, detailed regional case studies are needed, especially with respect to the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. One such flash flood event occurred recently in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado during September 9-15, 2013 causing 10 fatalities and $3B cost in damages. An unexpected persistent and moist weather pattern located over the mountains and produced seven-day extreme rainfall fed by moisture input from the Gulf of Mexico. We used a coupled WRF-WRF-Hydro modeling system to simulate this event for better understanding of the physical process and of the sensitivity of the hydrologic response to storm characteristics, initial soil moisture conditions, and watershed characteristics.

  7. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  8. Two Decades of WRF/CMAQ simulations over the continental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Confidence in the application of models for forecasting and regulatory assessments is furthered by conducting four types of model evaluation: operational, dynamic, diagnostic, and probabilistic. Operational model evaluation alone does not reveal the confidence limits that can be associated with modeled air quality concentrations. This paper presents novel approaches for performing dynamic model evaluation and for evaluating the confidence limits of ozone exceedances using the WRF/CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for the period from 1990 to 2010. The methodology presented here entails spectral decomposition of ozone time series using the KZ filter to assess the variations in the strengths of the synoptic (i.e., weather-induced variation) and baseline (i.e., long-term variation attributable to emissions, policy, and trends) forcings embedded in the modeled and observed concentrations. A method is presented where the future year observations are estimated based on the changes in the concentrations predicted by the model applied to the current year observations. The proposed method can provide confidence limits for ozone exceedances for a given emission reduction scenario. We present and discuss these new approaches to identify the strengths of the model in representing the changes in simulated O3 air quality over the 21-year period. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates

  9. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  10. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine.

    PubMed

    Bak, J G; Lee, S G; Kim, H S

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as ∼0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement.

  11. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Kim, H. S.

    2011-06-15

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as {approx}0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement.

  12. [Research advances in heavy metals pollution ecology of diatom].

    PubMed

    Ding, Teng-Da; Ni, Wan-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2012-03-01

    Diatom, due to its high sensitivity to environmental change, is one of the bio-indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, and some typical diatom species have been applied to indicate the heavy metals pollution of water body. With the focus on the surface water heavy metals pollution, this paper reviewed the research advances in the toxic effect of heavy metals pollution on diatom, biosorption and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by diatom, ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom to heavy metals pollution, and roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals pollution. The growth tendency of diatom and the morphological change of frustule under heavy metals pollution as well as the differences in heavy metals biosorption and bioaccumulation by diatom, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of diatom on heavy metals surface complexation and ion exchange, and the roles of diatom as bio-indicator and in ecological restoration of heavy metals polluted water body were also discussed. This review could provide scientific evidences for the prevention of aquatic ecosystems heavy metals pollution and related early warning techniques.

  13. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  14. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-03-05

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations.

  15. Review: Advances in delta-subsidence research using satellite methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the world's major river deltas are sinking relative to local sea level. The effects of subsidence can include aquifer salinization, infrastructure damage, increased vulnerability to flooding and storm surges, and permanent inundation of low-lying land. Consequently, determining the relative importance of natural vs. anthropogenic pressures in driving delta subsidence is a topic of ongoing research. This article presents a review of knowledge with respect to delta surface-elevation loss. The field is rapidly advancing due to applications of space-based techniques: InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar), GPS (global positioning system), and satellite ocean altimetry. These techniques have shed new light on a variety of subsidence processes, including tectonics, isostatic adjustment, and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment compaction. They also confirm that subsidence associated with fluid extraction can outpace sea-level rise by up to two orders of magnitude, resulting in effective sea-level rise that is one-hundred times faster than the global average rate. In coming years, space-based and airborne instruments will be critical in providing near-real-time monitoring to facilitate management decisions in sinking deltas. However, ground-based observations continue to be necessary for generating complete measurements of surface-elevation change. Numerical modeling should seek to simulate couplings between subsidence processes for greater predictive power.

  16. WRF Dynamical Downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis for China 1.Climatic Means during 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianghui; Bi, Xunqiang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a dynamically downscaled climatology over East Asia by using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, forced by the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR-v2). The whole experiment is a 111 year (1900-2010) continuous run at 50 km horizontal resolution. Climatic means among observations, the driving fields and WRF results during the last three decades (1981-2010) are examined in continental China, and our focus is on surface air (2-m) temperature and precipitation in both summer and winter. WRF dynamically downscaling is able to reproduce the main features of surface air temperature in two seasons in China, and outperforms the driving fields in regional details due to topographic forcing. Surface air temperature biases are reduced as much as 1~2°.For precipitation, the simulated results can reproduce the decreasing pattern from southeast to northwest China in winter. For summer rainfall, the WRF simulated results reproduce the right magnitude of heavy rainfall center around the southeastern coastal area, better than the driving field. One of the significant improvements is that an unrealistic center of summer precipitation in Southeast China in 20CR-v2 is eliminated. However, the simulated results underestimate winter surface air temperature in northern China and winter rainfall in some regions in southeast China.

  17. Impact of ECMWF, NCEP, and NCMRWF global model analysis on the WRF model forecast over Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The global model analysis has significant impact on the mesoscale model forecast as global model provides initial condition (IC) and lateral boundary conditions (LBC) for the mesoscale model. With this objective, four operational global model analyses prepared from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS), NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS), and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) are used daily to generate IC and LBC of the mesoscale model during 13th December 2012 to 13th January 2013. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.4, broadly used for short-range weather forecast, is adopted in this study as mesoscale model. After initial comparison of global model analyses with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved temperature and moisture profiles, daily WRF model forecasts initialized from global model analyses are compared with in situ observations and AIRS profiles. Results demonstrated that forecasts initialized from the ECMWF analysis are closer to AIRS-retrieved profiles and in situ observations compared to other global model analyses. No major differences are occurred in the WRF model forecasts when initialized from the NCEP GDAS and GFS analyses, whereas these two analyses have different spatial resolutions and observations used for assimilation. Maximum RMSD is seen in the NCMRWF analysis-based experiments when compared with AIRS-retrieved profiles. The rainfall prediction is also improved when WRF model is initialized from the ECMWF analysis compared to the NCEP and NCMRWF analyses.

  18. Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, M.; Freitas, S. R.; Grell, G.; Webley, P.; Peckham, S.; McKeen, S. A.; Egan, S. D.

    2013-04-01

    We describe a new functionality within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem) that allows simulating emission, transport, dispersion, transformation and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. Emissions from both an explosive eruption case and a relatively calm degassing situation are considered using the most recent volcanic emission databases. A preprocessor tool provides emission fields and additional information needed to establish the initial three-dimensional cloud umbrella/vertical distribution within the transport model grid, as well as the timing and duration of an eruption. From this source condition, the transport, dispersion and sedimentation of the ash cloud can be realistically simulated by WRF-Chem using its own dynamics and physical parameterization as well as data assimilation. Examples of model applications include a comparison of tephra fall deposits from the 1989 eruption of Mount Redoubt (Alaska) and the dispersion of ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. Both model applications show good coincidence between WRF-Chem and observations.

  19. Skill Test of the West-WRF and GFS Models Verified Using CalWater Dropsonde Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirdjian, R.; Martin, A.; Ralph, F. M.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (AR) play a crucial role in the horizontal transport of water vapor and moist static energy in the midlatitudes and in delivering water to a variety of continental climate zones. In California, up to 60% of the annual precipitation depends on the arrival of a small number of AR. Despite their importance, state-of-the art atmospheric circulation models are consistently poor in predicting AR location and timing. We will demonstrate that model predictions also contain large errors in the magnitude of AR horizontal vapor transport. In this study we aim to compare the prediction skill in horizontal water vapor transport from a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecast (West-WRF) and the Global Forecast System (GFS) models. We verify model skill using dropsonde observations taken from the CalWater 2014 - 2015 field campaigns and a ground-based network of co-located wind profiling radar and GPS receivers. We compare each model across a large number of lead times ranging from 12 hours to 8 days. Our preliminary results suggest that the Integrated Vapor Transport (IVT) and total vapor flux are more accurately predicted by the higher resolution West-WRF model. Furthermore, we find that GFS typically has a consistent 2-6 hour lag in the timing of peak water vapor flux compared to the West-WRF model. Physical explanations of the more accurate West-WRF horizontal vapor transport and the apparent delay in peak vapor flux timing are also examined.

  20. High resolution CO2 transport modeling system WRF-VRPM and its application in studying near-field of continental CO2 monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadov, R.; Gerbig, C.; Kretschmer, R.; Pillai, D.; Koerner, S.; Roedenbeck, C.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentration from global networks, mostly consisting of remote sites are used in combination with inverse modeling to estimate exchange fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere. These continental measurement sites, close to variable sources and sinks of CO2, are often located in meteorologically complex areas: terrain induced mesoscale phenomena such as sea-land, (lake, river, forest, etc.) breezes and mountain-valley circulations make their representation in global scale coarse resolution atmospheric models that are used in the inversions quite difficult. In order to better understand the impact of such mesoscale transport effects on atmospheric CO2 distributions, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to the diagnostic biosphere model Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM), which provides high-resolution biospheric CO2 fluxes based on MODIS satellite indices. We have run WRF-VPRM for April and September, 2007 covering the intensive periods of the active CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy observation campaign held in SW France, using the CO2 fields from the global model TM3 for initialization and lateral boundary conditions. Here we present the model validation for CO2 and a wide range of meteorological fields obtained from ground based measurements and from aircraft platforms during the campaign. In addition we have compared the modeled CO2 concentration time series against observations at two towers operated during the campaign in the vicinity of the coastline and further inland. The comparison against meteorological data reveals the ability of the WRF model in capturing the mesoscale flows which have also a strong impact on CO2 measurements at the towers. The comparison of simulated and observed CO2 fields shows that the near-field flux patterns, often in combination with mesoscale circulations, play an important role in the development of measured

  1. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  2. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  3. Improving the WRF model's simulation over sea ice surface through coupling with a complex thermodynamic sea ice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Huang, J.; Luo, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the air-ice-ocean interaction, but it is often represented simply in many regional atmospheric models. The Noah sea ice model, which has been widely used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, exhibits cold bias in simulating the Arctic sea ice temperature when validated against the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) in situ observations. According to sensitivity tests, this bias is attributed not only to the simulation of snow depth and turbulent fluxes but also to the heat conduction within snow and ice. Compared with the Noah sea ice model, the high-resolution thermodynamic snow and ice model (HIGHTSI) has smaller bias in simulating the sea ice temperature. HIGHTSI is further coupled with the WRF model to evaluate the possible added value from better resolving the heat transport and solar penetration in sea ice from a complex thermodynamic sea ice model. The cold bias in simulating the surface temperature over sea ice in winter by the original Polar WRF is reduced when HIGHTSI rather than Noah is coupled with the WRF model, and this also leads to a better representation of surface upward longwave radiation and 2 m air temperature. A discussion on the impact of specifying sea ice thickness in the WRF model is presented. Consistent with previous research, prescribing the sea ice thickness with observational information would result in the best simulation among the available methods. If no observational information is available, using an empirical method based on the relationship between sea ice concentration and sea ice thickness could mimic the large-scale spatial feature of sea ice thickness. The potential application of a thermodynamic sea ice model in predicting the change in sea ice thickness in a RCM is limited by the lack of sea ice dynamic processes in the model and the coarse assumption on the initial value of sea ice thickness.

  4. Impacts of updated green vegetation fraction data on WRF simulations of the 2006 European heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refslund, J.; Dellwik, E.; Hahmann, A. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Boegh, E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change studies suggest an increase in heat wave occurrences over Europe in the coming decades. Extreme events with excessive heat and associated drought will impact vegetation growth and health and lead to alterations in the partitioning of the surface energy. In this study, the atmospheric conditions during the heat wave year 2006 over Europe were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To account for the drought effects on the vegetation, new high-resolution green vegetation fraction (GVF) data were developed for the domain using NDVI data from MODIS satellite observations. Many empirical relationships exist to convert NDVI to GVF and both a linear and a quadratic formulation were evaluated. The new GVF product has a spatial resolution of 1 km2 and a temporal resolution of 8 days. To minimize impacts from low-quality satellite retrievals in the NDVI series, as well as for comparison with the default GVF climatology in WRF, a new background climatology using 10 recent years of observations was also developed. The annual time series of the new GVF climatology was compared to the default WRF GVF climatology at 18 km2 grid resolution for the most common land use classes in the European domain. The new climatology generally has higher GVF levels throughout the year, in particular an extended autumnal growth season. Comparison of 2006 GVF with the climatology clearly indicates vegetation stresses related to heat and drought. The GVF product based on a quadratic NDVI relationship shows the best agreement with the magnitude and annual range of the default input data, in addition to including updated seasonality for various land use classes. The new GVF products were tested in WRF and found to work well for the spring of 2006 where the difference between the default and new GVF products was small. The WRF 2006 heat wave simulations were verified by comparison with daily gridded observations of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and

  5. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID and WRF/Polyphemus in Europe - Part 1: Model description, evaluation of meteorological predictions, and aerosol-meteorology interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Wu, S.-Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2013-07-01

    Comprehensive model evaluation and comparison of two 3-D air quality modeling systems (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF)/Polyphemus and WRF with chemistry and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) (WRF/Chem-MADRID)) are conducted over Western Europe. Part 1 describes the background information for the model comparison and simulation design, the application of WRF for January and July 2001 over triple-nested domains in Western Europe at three horizontal grid resolutions: 0.5°, 0.125°, and 0.025°, and the effect of aerosol/meteorology interactions on meteorological predictions. Nine simulated meteorological variables (i.e., downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (SWDOWN and LWDOWN), outgoing longwave radiation flux (OLR), temperature at 2 m (T2), specific humidity at 2 m (Q2), relative humidity at 2 m (RH2), wind speed at 10 m (WS10), wind direction at 10 m (WD10), and precipitation (Precip)) are evaluated using available observations in terms of spatial distribution, domainwide daily and site-specific hourly variations, and domainwide performance statistics. The vertical profiles of temperature, dew points, and wind speed/direction are also evaluated using sounding data. WRF demonstrates its capability in capturing diurnal/seasonal variations and spatial gradients and vertical profiles of major meteorological variables. While the domainwide performance of LWDOWN, OLR, T2, Q2, and RH2 at all three grid resolutions is satisfactory overall, large positive or negative biases occur in SWDOWN, WS10, and Precip even at 0.125° or 0.025° in both months and in WD10 in January. In addition, discrepancies between simulations and observations exist in T2, Q2, WS10, and Precip at mountain/high altitude sites and large urban center sites in both months, in particular, during snow events or thunderstorms. These results indicate the model's difficulty in capturing meteorological variables in complex terrain and

  6. Advancing Transdisciplinary Research: The Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gehlert, Sarah; Hall, Kara; Vogel, Amanda; Hohl, Sarah; Hartman, Sheri; Nebeling, Linda; Redline, Susan; Schmitz, Kathryn; Thornquist, Mark; Patterson, Ruth; Thompson, Beti

    2014-09-01

    Strategies for constructing and maintaining cross-disciplinary teams are in their infancy. We outline strategies to support one form, transdisciplinary research, in a major initiative of the National Cancer Institute, the Transdisciplinary Research in Energetics and Cancer 2 (TREC2) initiative. Discussion of the TREC2 sites' experiences with transdisciplinarity is structured around a conceptual model that identifies four iterative phases of transdisciplinary research. An active coordination center, regular face-to-face meetings, and input from external advisors were instrumental in moving TREC2 to the translation phase. The possibilities for advancements in the science of energetics and cancer increased as investigator ties became denser. TREC2 can be seen as a flagship effort in transdisciplinary science that provides lessons on moving ideas from development to translation.

  7. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  8. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    PubMed

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids.

  9. WRF model evaluation for the urban heat island assessment under varying land use/land cover and reference site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Shweta; Mohan, Manju

    2016-10-01

    Urban heat island effect in Delhi has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in situ and satellite observations. The model performs reasonably well for urban heat island intensity (UHI) estimation and is able to reproduce trend of UHI for urban areas. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM which results in reduction in root mean-squared errors (RMSE) for temperatures from 1.63 °C (2.89 °C) to 1.13 °C (2.75 °C) for urban (non-urban) areas. Modification of LULC also improves performance for non-urban areas. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a reference point at the periphery of the city away from populated and built-up areas for UHI estimation is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas, and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. UHI estimated by WRF model (with and without UCM) with respect to reference rural site compares well with the UHI based on observed in situ data. An alternative methodology is explored using a green area with minimum temperature within the city as a reference site. This alternative methodology works well with observed UHIs and WRF-UCM-simulated UHIs but has poor performance for WRF-simulated UHIs. It is concluded that WRF model can be applied for UHI estimation with classical methodology based on rural reference site. In general, many times WRF model performs satisfactorily, though WRF-UCM always shows a better performance. Hence, inclusion of appropriate representation of urban canopies and land use-land cover is important for improving predictive capabilities of the mesoscale models.

  10. Research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zhang; Xiaofang, Chen; Xun, Huang; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-20

    -wide genetic basis of the species-specific physiological and pathological characteristics as well as their adaptation to environmental conditions. In this review, we make a first attempt to summarize the research advances on animal genetics in China in 2015, with an emphasis on the achievements led by Chinese scientists and carried out in Chinese institutions. We will briefly discuss the significance of their research and contributions of Chinese scientists in animal genetics.

  11. Research Priorities in the Seminary Professorate: Scholarly Research and Academic Writing as Criterion for Rank Advancement in Graduate Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Skip

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to surface definitions for scholarly research employed in Association of Theological Schools seminaries, identify the application of scholarly research as a criteria for rank advancement, and form a scholarly research productivity reference point. The research revealed that while definitions of scholarly…

  12. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  13. Brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016: advances, challenges and controversies.

    PubMed

    Keep, Richard F; Jones, Hazel C; Drewes, Lester R

    2017-02-02

    This editorial highlights some of the advances that occurred in relation to brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016. It also aims to raise some of the attendant controversies and challenges in such research.

  14. Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: History, Research, and Recent NIH–Supported Advances Past ... History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine Gout—Before Modern Medicine Before medical research discovered the ...

  15. Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W. T.; Bela, M. M.; Pereira, G.; Trembath, J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2014-09-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign took detailed in-situ flight measurements of aerosol during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. Developments have been made to the Weather research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to improve the representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region by coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume rise parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM) fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (5-20 μg sm-3) of particulate organic matter at high altitude (6-8 km) over tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp decrease above 2-4 km altitude. This difference was attributed to the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical depths (AOD). The smaller fire size lowered the injection height of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol loadings between 4-5 km altitude. Over eastern Cerrado (savannah-like) regions, both modelled and measured aerosol loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented AOD magnitude well (between 0.3-1.5) over western tropical forest fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more significant. Over eastern Cerrado regions, WRF

  16. Using a Coupled Lake Model with WRF to Improve High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, M.; Bullock, R.; Nolte, C. G.; Alapaty, K.; Otte, T.; Gula, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes can play a significant role in regional climate by modifying air masses through fluxes of heat and moisture and by modulating inland extremes in temperature. Representing these effects becomes more important as regional climate modeling efforts employ finer grid spacing in order to simulate smaller scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model does not simulate lakes explicitly. Instead, lake points are treated as ocean points, with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) interpolated from the nearest neighboring ocean point in the driving coarse-scale fields. This can result in substantial errors for inland lakes such as the Great Lakes. Although prescribed lake surface temperatures (LSTs) can be used for retrospective modeling applications, this may not be desirable for applications involving downscaling future climate scenarios from a global climate model (GCM). In such downscaling simulations, lakes that impact the regional climate in the area of interest may not be resolved by the coarser global input fields. Explicitly simulating the LST would allow WRF to better represent interannual variability in regions significantly affected by lakes, and the influence of such variability on temperature and precipitation patterns. Therefore, coupling a lake model to WRF may lead to more reliable assessments of the impacts of extreme events on human health and the environment. We employ a version of WRF coupled to the Freshwater Lake model, FLake (Gula and Peltier 2012). FLake is a 1D bulk lake model which provides updated LSTs and ice coverage throughout the integration. This two-layer model uses a temperature-depth profile which includes a homogeneous mixed layer at the surface and a thermocline below. The shape of the thermocline is assumed, based on past theoretical and observational studies. Therefore, additional variables required for FLake to run are minimal, and it does not require tuning for individual lakes. These characteristics are advantageous for a

  17. Characterising Brazilian biomass burning emissions using WRF-Chem with MOSAIC sectional aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Darbyshire, E.; Morgan, W. T.; Bela, M. M.; Pereira, G.; Trembath, J.; Kaiser, J. W.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-03-01

    The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign took detailed in situ flight measurements of aerosol during the 2012 dry season to characterise biomass burning aerosol and improve understanding of its impacts on weather and climate. Developments have been made to the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to improve the representation of biomass burning aerosol in the region, by coupling a sectional aerosol scheme to the plume-rise parameterisation. Brazilian Biomass Burning Emissions Model (3BEM) fire emissions are used, prepared using PREP-CHEM-SRC, and mapped to CBM-Z and MOSAIC species. Model results have been evaluated against remote sensing products, AERONET sites, and four case studies of flight measurements from the SAMBBA campaign. WRF-Chem predicted layers of elevated aerosol loadings (5-20 μg sm-3) of particulate organic matter at high altitude (6-8 km) over tropical forest regions, while flight measurements showed a sharp decrease above 2-4 km altitude. This difference was attributed to the plume-rise parameterisation overestimating injection height. The 3BEM emissions product was modified using estimates of active fire size and burned area for the 2012 fire season, which reduced the fire size. The enhancement factor for fire emissions was increased from 1.3 to 5 to retain reasonable aerosol optical depths (AODs). The smaller fire size lowered the injection height of the emissions, but WRF-Chem still showed elevated aerosol loadings between 4-5 km altitude. Over eastern cerrado (savannah-like) regions, both modelled and measured aerosol loadings decreased above approximately 4 km altitude. Compared with MODIS satellite data and AERONET sites, WRF-Chem represented AOD magnitude well (between 0.3-1.5) over western tropical forest fire regions in the first half of the campaign, but tended to over-predict them in the second half, when precipitation was more significant. Over eastern cerrado regions, WRF

  18. Application of a Mesoscale Atmospheric Coupled Fire Model BRAMS-FIRE to Alentejo Woodland Fire and Comparison of Performance with the Fire Model WRF-Sfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, S. R.; Menezes, I. C.; Stockler, R.; Mello, R.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Corte-Real, J. A. M.; Surový, P.

    2014-12-01

    Models of fuel with the identification of vegetation patterns of Montado ecosystem in Portugal was incorporated in the mesoscale Brazilian Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) and coupled with a spread woodland fire model. The BRAMS-FIRE is a new system developed by the "Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos" (CPTEC/INPE, Brazil) and the "Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrâneas" (ICAAM, Portugal). The fire model used in this effort was originally, developed by Mandel et al. (2013) and further incorporated in the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Two grids of high spatial resolution were configured with surface input data and fuel models integrated for simulations using both models BRAMS-FIRE and WRF-SFIRE. One grid was placed in the plain land near Beja and the other one in the hills of Ossa to evaluate different types of fire propagation and calibrate BRAMS-FIRE. The objective is simulating the effects of atmospheric circulation in local scale, namely the movements of the heat front and energy release associated to it, obtained by this two models in an episode of woodland fire which took place in Alentejo area in the last decade, for application to planning and evaluations of agro woodland fire risks. We aim to model the behavior of forest fires through a set of equations whose solutions provide quantitative values of one or more variables related to the propagation of fire, described by semi-empirical expressions that are complemented by experimental data allow to obtain the main variables related advancing the perimeter of the fire, as the propagation speed, the intensity of the fire front and fuel consumption and its interaction with atmospheric dynamic system. References Mandel, J., J. D. Beezley, G. Kelman, A. K. Kochanski, V. Y. Kondratenko, B. H. Lynn, and M. Vejmelka, 2013. New features in WRF-SFIRE and the wildfire forecasting and danger system in Israel. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, submitted

  19. Application of a mesoscale atmospheric coupled fire model BRAMS-SFIRE to Alentejo wildland fire and comparison of performance with the fire model WRF-SFIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Isilda; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Mello, Rafael; Ribeiro, Nuno; Corte-Real, João; Surový, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Models of fuel with the identification of vegetation patterns of Montado ecosystem in Portugal was incorporated in the mesoscale Brazilian Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) and coupled with a spread wildland fire model. The BRAMS-FIRE is a new system developed by the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE, Brazil) and the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrâneas (ICAAM, Portugal). The fire model used in this effort was originally, developed by Mandel et al. (2013) and further incorporated in the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Two grids of high spatial resolution were configured with surface input data and fuel models integrated for simulations using both models BRAMS-SFIRE and WRF-SFIRE. One grid was placed in the plain land and the other one in the hills to evaluate different types of fire propagation and calibrate BRAMS-SFIRE. The objective is simulating the effects of atmospheric circulation in local scale, namely the movements of the heat front and energy release associated to it, obtained by this two models in an episode of wildland fire which took place in Alentejo area in the last decade, for application to planning and evaluations of agro wildland fire risks. We aim to model the behavior of forest fires through a set of equations whose solutions provide quantitative values of one or more variables related to the propagation of fire, described by semi-empirical expressions that are complemented by experimental data allow to obtain the main variables related advancing the perimeter of the fire, as the propagation speed, the intensity of the fire front and fuel consumption and its interaction with atmospheric dynamic system References Mandel, J., J. D. Beezley, G. Kelman, A. K. Kochanski, V. Y. Kondratenko, B. H. Lynn, and M. Vejmelka, 2013. New features in WRF-SFIRE and the wildfire forecasting and danger system in Israel. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, submitted, Numerical Wildfires, Carg

  20. 2009 Biospecimen research network symposium: advancing cancer research through biospecimen science.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen M; Compton, Carolyn C; Lim, Mark D; Vaught, Jimmie; Christiansen, Katerina N; Alper, Joe

    2009-09-01

    This report details the proceedings of the 2009 Biospecimen Research Network (BRN) Symposium that took place on March 16 to 18, 2009, the second in a series of annual symposia sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research. The BRN Symposium is a public forum addressing the relevance of biospecimen quality to progress in cancer research and the systematic investigation needed to understand how different methods of collection, processing, and storage of human biospecimens affect subsequent molecular research results. More than 300 participants from industry, academia, and government attended the symposium, which featured both formal presentations and a day of workshops aimed at addressing several key issues in biospecimen science. An additional 100 individuals participated via a live webcast (archived at http://brnsymposium.com). The BRN Symposium is part of a larger program designed as a networked, multidisciplinary research approach to increase the knowledge base for biospecimen science. Biospecimens are generally understood to represent an accurate representation of a patient's disease biology, but can instead reflect a combination of disease biology and the biospecimen's response to a wide range of biological stresses. The molecular signatures of disease can thus be confounded by the signatures of biospecimen biological stress, with the potential to affect clinical and research outcomes through incorrect diagnosis of disease, improper use of a given therapy, and irreproducible research results that can lead to misinterpretation of artifacts as biomarkers. Biospecimen research represents the kind of bricks-and-mortar research that provides a solid scientific foundation for future advances that will directly help patients.