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Sample records for advanced scanning probe

  1. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  2. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu K; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  3. Recent advances in submolecular resolution with scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Leo

    2011-04-01

    Recently scanning probe microscopy has made tremendous progress in imaging organic molecules with high lateral resolution. Atoms and bonds within individual molecules have been clearly resolved, indicating the exciting potential of this technique for studying molecular structures, bonding within and between molecules, molecular conformational changes and chemical reactions at the single-molecule level. It turns out that the key step enabling such studies is an atomically controlled functionalization of the microscope tip. In this Perspective, the different techniques used for high-resolution molecular imaging, their implementations, advantages and limitations are described, and possible scientific areas of applications are discussed.

  4. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  5. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  6. Electrical characterization of dislocations in gallium nitride using advanced scanning probe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Blake Shelley Ginsberg

    GaN-based materials are promising for high speed and power applications such as amplifier and communications circuits. Ga, In, and AIN-based alloys span a wide optical range (2--6.1 eV) and exhibit strong polarizations making them useful in many devices; however, films are highly defective (˜10 8 dislocations cm-2) due to lack of suitable substrates. Thus, nanoscale electronic characterization of these dislocations is critical for device and growth optimization. Scanning probe techniques enable characterization at length-scales unattainable by conventional techniques. First, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) was used to image surface potential variations due to charged dislocations in HVPE-grown GaN. The film's structural evolution "with thickness was monitored showing a decrease in dislocation density, likely through dislocation reaction. Numerical simulations were used to investigate tip-size effects when imaging highly localized (tens of nm) potential variations indicating that measured dislocation induced potential features in GaN can be much smaller (˜80%) than true variations. Next, capacitance variations in MBE-grown HFETs, due to dislocations-induced carrier depletion, were imaged with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The distribution of these charged centers was correlated with buffer schemes showing that an AIN buffer leads to pseudomorphic (2D) nucleation and randomly distributed misfit dislocations while deposition directly on SiC results in island (3D) nucleation and a domain structure with dislocations grouped at domain boundaries. Hall measurements and numerical simulations were also carried out to further study the implications of these microstructures. Numerical results indicated that randomly distributed dislocations deplete a larger fraction of free carriers than the same density of grouped dislocations and correlated favorably with Hall results. Correlated SKPM and conductive AFM (C-AFM) measurements were then used to study

  7. Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskell, Todd G.; Sarid, Dror; Workman, Richard K.; Pyle, Jason L.

    1997-03-01

    A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the grown material by altering the lithographic environment. Silicon nitride growth is shown to result from lithography on silicon samples in an environment of annhydrous ammonia.

  8. Development and application of multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Kubo, Osamu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Higuchi, Seiji; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Okuda, Taichi; Kuwahara, Yuji; Takami, Kazuhiro; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-04-03

    In the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Kubo, O.; Shingaya, Y.; Higuchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Jiang, C. S.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Takami, K.; Aono, M.

    2012-04-03

    the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes for nanoarchitectonic materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoarchitectonic systems are of interest for utilizing a vast range of nanoscale materials for future applications requiring a huge number of elemental nanocomponents. To explore the science and technology of nanoarchitectonics, advanced characterization tools that can deal with both nanoscale objects and macroscopically extended nanosystems are demanded. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs) are powerful tools that meet this demand because they take the advantages of conventional scanning probe microscopes and realize atomically precise electrical measurements, which cannot be done with conventional microprobing systems widely used in characterizing materials and devices. Furthermore, an MP-SPM can be used to operate some nanoarchitectonic systems. In this review, we overview the indispensable features of MP-SPMs together with the past, present and future of MP-SPM technology.

  11. Studies in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror

    1995-06-01

    The following is a final report on our work in the field of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), which has been funded by the AFOSR under Contract #F49620-92-J-0164. The AFOSR funding was instrumental in the establishment of a multi-lab facility at the Optical Sciences Center, which performs research in SPM using two ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) STM facilities, and several Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) facilities. The fabrication and characterization work performed in the SPM Laboratory is supplemented by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), available in other departments on campus. The report covers the following areas: (1) GaAs and CdSe Structures, (2) Optical Interactions on a nm and nsec Scales, (3) Fullerenes on Gold, (4) Fullerenes on MoS2, (5) Fullerenes on Si, (6) SiC, (7) Nanotubes, (8) Scanning Force Microscopy, and (9) Biology.

  12. Scanning probe microscopy in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, King Lun; Yao, Nan

    2004-09-01

    This review discusses the recent progress in the application of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in catalysis. SPM proves to be an invaluable technique for imaging catalytic surfaces and interfaces. Most SPM research is related to the structural and morphological transformation associated with catalyst preparation and use. Real-time SPM observation of surface dynamics including adsorption, diffusion and reaction, provides invaluable insights to the mechanism of catalysis. SPM is also used to shape and manipulate surfaces and surface processes. Fabrication of nanostructured catalysts, direct manipulation of adsorbed atoms and molecules and tip-mediated reactions are some examples of new SPM approach in catalyst research.

  13. Surface Studies by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Seob

    The scanning probe microscopy reported here includes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The scanning tunneling microscope is a novel tool which can reveal the atomic structure and electronic properties of surfaces using a probe with a sharp tip. An additional technique, atomic force microscopy has the potential to record geometric structures for both conducting and non -conducting materials. The first AFM designs utilized short range forces between a small stylus and a sample surface to produce high resolution images of defects and structural features of the surface. The current-voltage characteristics were also investigated during dynamic changes of the tunnel current and barrier height with an additional technology, tunneling spectroscopy. An advanced design for an AFM has been developed which utilizes a dielectric tunnel junction to retain the high sensitivity of tunnel current control over force ranges between 10^{-6} and 10 ^{-11}N. This AFM has been successfully applied to physical and biological samples. Scanning probe techniques have been developed and applied to a range of sample types including conductors, semi-conductors and non-conductors. Each technique utilizes the same electronics, computers, and imaging facilities. A fundamental problem of the atomic structure of graphite has existed since the inception of STM images. The experimental and theoretical hypotheses have been considered and a resolution of the problem has been developed as reported in this dissertation. Unprecedented resolving power, greater than 1A, has confirmed our hypothesis and has been correctly correlated with the structure of graphite surface. This dissertation also presents the results from studies of the surface structure of: MoS_2 , Cu, Au, Ag, Si, CdTe, HgTe, Fe_2 O_3, mica, gypsum, purple membranes with protein chains, and an organic photoconducting material, by scanning probe microscopes.

  14. Theoretical simulation of scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Methods of theoretical simulation of scanning probe microscopy, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy(AFM) and Kelvin prove force microscopy (KPFM) have been reviewed with recent topics as case studies. For the case of the STM simulation, the importance of the tip electronic states is emphasized and some advanced formalism is presented based on the non-equilibrium Green's function theory beyond Bardeen's perturbation theory. For the simulation of AFM, we show examples of 3D-force map for AFM in water, and theoretical analyses for a nano-mechanical experiment on a protein molecule. An attempt to simulate KPFM images based on the electrostatic multi-pole interaction between a tip and a sample is also introduced.

  15. Exploring Scanning Probe Microscopy with Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror

    1997-10-01

    This book/software edition provides a complete set of computational models that describe the physical phenomena associated with scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and related technologies. Its self-contained presentation spares researchers the valuable time spent hunting through the technical literature in search of prior theoretical results required to understand the models presented. Mathematica code for all examples is included both in the book and at the accompanying ftp site, affording the freedom to change, at will, the values and parameters of specific problems or even modify the programs themselves to suit various modeling needs. Exploring Scanning Probe Microscopy with Mathematica is both a solid professional reference and an advanced-level text, beginning with scanning probe microscopy basics and moving on to cutting-edge techniques, experiments, and theory. In the section devoted to atomic force microscopy, Dr. Sarid describes the mechanical properties of cantilevers, atomic force microscope tip-sample interactions, and cantilever vibration characteristics. This is followed by an in-depth treatment of theoretical and practical aspects of tunneling phenomena, including metal-insulator-metal tunneling and Fowler-Nordheim field emission. The final section features chapters covering density of states in arbitrary dimensions, quantum wells and dots, and electrostatics.

  16. Studies in Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    refereed journals, as well as two books titled Scanning Force Microscopy, With Applications to Electric, Magnetic, and Atomic Forces published by Oxford University Press in 1991 and a revised edition in 1994.

  17. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale.

  18. Scanned probe microscope for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Shcherbakov, Anatolyi A.; Malakhaeva, Alina N.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Yuri P.

    1997-12-01

    In our biophysical laboratory has been developed a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for biological application. The SPM allows to investigate a biological samples' surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 by 10 micrometers. Some different biological objects were visualized by means of the SPM viz. bacteria (E. Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), macromolecules (DNA, plague proteins) and phage (T2).

  19. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  20. Plasmonic interferometry: Probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollet, Oriane; Bachelier, Guillaume; Genet, Cyriaque; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien

    2014-03-01

    We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using scanning-probe tips as SP launchers. We apply our approach to Young double-hole interferometry experiments in a scanning tunneling microscope discussed recently in the literature as well as to new experiments—reported here—with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope source positioned near a ring-like aperture slit in a thick gold film. In both experimental configurations, the agreement between experiments and model is very good. Our work reveals the role of the launching dipole orientations and magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the interference imaging process. It also stresses the different orientations of the effective dipoles associated with the two different scanning-probe techniques.

  1. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  2. Scanning probe microscopy of biomedical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenkiste, S. O.; Davies, M. C.; Roberts, C. J.; Tendler, S. J. B.; Williams, P. M.

    1998-02-01

    The development of the scanning probe microscopes over the past decade has provided a number of exciting new surface analytical techniques making a significant progress in the characterisation of biomedical interfaces. In this review, several examples are presented to illustrate that SPM is a powerful and promising tool for surface investigations including biomolecules, cell membranes, polymers and even living cells. The ability of the SPM instrument to monitor adhesion phenomena and provide quantitative information about intermolecular interactions is also described. Moreover, the huge potential of the scanning probe microscopes to study dynamic processes at interfaces under nearly physiological conditions is highlighted. Novel applications in the field of biochemistry, microbiology, biomaterial engineering, drug delivery and even medicine are discussed.

  3. Intermittent contact hydration scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aloisi, G; Bacci, F; Carlà, M; Dolci, D

    2010-07-01

    Hydration scanning probe microscopy is a technique similar to scanning tunneling microscopy, in which the probe current, sustained by the slight surface conduction of a thin hydration layer covering an insulating support surface, is essentially electrochemical in nature instead of electronic tunneling. Such a technique allows the imaging of a great variety of samples, including insulators, provided that they are hydrophilic, as well as the study of molecular samples of biological interest (such as DNA) fixed on a suitable supporting surface. The main problem to obtain stable and reproducible images comes from the very critical determination of the operating conditions under which the probe-hydration layer interaction does not lead to the formation of a relatively large water meniscus. It has been suggested that this issue can be removed by adding a high frequency oscillation to the probe movement, as in tapping atomic force microscopy. Meniscus formation and breakup have been investigated in order to determine the best values for the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillation. Results obtained in this mode are discussed in comparison with the usual continuous contact mode.

  4. Advanced Langmuir Probe (LP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic response of the MK-2 version of the Langmuir probe amplifier was studied. The settling time of the step response is increased by: (1) stray node-to-ground capacitance at series connections between high value feedback resistors; and (2) input capacitance due to the input cable, FET switches, and input source follower. The stray node-to-ground capacitances can be reduced to tolerable levels by elevating the string of feedback resistors above the printing board. A new feedback network was considered, with promising results. The design uses resistances having much lower nominal values, thereby minimizing the effect of stray capacitances. Faster settling times can be achieved by using an operational amplifier having a higher gain-bandwidth product.

  5. Big, Deep, and Smart Data in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alex; ...

    2016-09-27

    Scanning probe microscopy techniques open the door to nanoscience and nanotechnology by enabling imaging and manipulation of structure and functionality of matter on nanometer and atomic scales. We analyze the discovery process by SPM in terms of information flow from tip-surface junction to the knowledge adoption by scientific community. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by merging of SPM and advanced data mining, visual analytics, and knowledge discovery technologies.

  6. Functional Scanning Probe Imaging of Nanostructured Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Cox, Phillip A; Ginger, David S

    2016-09-20

    From hybrid perovskites to semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends for organic photovoltaics, many new materials being explored for energy harvesting and storage exhibit performance characteristics that depend sensitively on their nanoscale morphology. At the same time, rapid advances in the capability and accessibility of scanning probe microscopy methods over the past decade have made it possible to study processing/structure/function relationships ranging from photocurrent collection to photocarrier lifetimes with resolutions on the scale of tens of nanometers or better. Importantly, such scanning probe methods offer the potential to combine measurements of local structure with local function, and they can be implemented to study materials in situ or devices in operando to better understand how materials evolve in time in response to an external stimulus or environmental perturbation. This Account highlights recent advances in the development and application of scanning probe microscopy methods that can help address such questions while filling key gaps between the capabilities of conventional electron microscopy and newer super-resolution optical methods. Focusing on semiconductor materials for solar energy applications, we highlight a range of electrical and optoelectronic scanning probe microscopy methods that exploit the local dynamics of an atomic force microscope tip to probe key properties of the solar cell material or device structure. We discuss how it is possible to extract relevant device properties using noncontact scanning probe methods as well as how these properties guide materials development. Specifically, we discuss intensity-modulated scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (IM-SKPM), time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM), frequency-modulated electrostatic force microscopy (FM-EFM), and cantilever ringdown imaging. We explain these developments in the context of classic atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods that exploit the physics of

  7. Global standardization of scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Shingo; Kurosawa, Tomizo

    2007-02-01

    Recent efforts to achieve global standardization of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) including noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), especially through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and related research, are surveyed. Since the unification of terminology for SPM is a prerequisite for standardization, it should have the first priority, followed by the unification of data management and treatment, which will enable access to and processing of SPM data collected by different types of instrument. Among the various SPM analytical methods, the dimensional metrology of SPM is regarded to be the first priority for standardization. This requires solving two basic problems: calibrating the x, y, and z coordinate axes with traceability to the SI unit of length, and eliminating the morphological artefacts caused by the shape of the probe tip. Pre-standardization efforts on restoring distorted images and characterizing the tip shape during use are discussed.

  8. Full information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-04-04

    Apparatus and methods are described for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy based on acquisition of full probe response. The full probe response contains valuable information about the probe-sample interaction that is lost in traditional scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy methods. The full probe response is analyzed post data acquisition using fast Fourier transform and adaptive filtering, as well as multivariate analysis. The full response data is further compressed to retain only statistically significant components before being permanently stored.

  9. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Obadiah G.

    Nanostructured composites of organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials for the manufacture of low-cost solar cells. Understanding how the nanoscale morphology of these materials affects their efficiency as solar energy harvesters is crucial to their eventual potential for large-scale deployment for primary power generation. In this thesis we describe the use of optoelectronic scanning-probe based microscopy methods to study this efficiency-structure relationship with nanoscale resolution. In particular, our objective is to make spatially resolved measurements of each step in the power conversion process from photons to an electric current, including charge generation, transport, and recombination processes, and correlate them with local device structure. We have achieved two aims in this work: first, to develop and apply novel electrically sensitive scanning probe microscopy experiments to study the optoelectronic materials and processes discussed above; and second, to deepen our understanding of the physics underpinning our experimental techniques. In the first case, we have applied conductive-, and photoconductive atomic force (cAFM & pcAFM) microscopy to measure both local photocurrent collection and dark charge transport properties in a variety of model and novel organic solar cell composites, including polymer/fullerene blends, and polymer-nanowire/fullerene blends, finding that local heterogeneity is the rule, and that improvements in the uniformity of specific beneficial nanostructures could lead to large increases in efficiency. We have used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and time resolved-electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) to characterize all-polymer blends, quantifying their sensitivity to photochemical degradation and the subsequent formation of local charge traps. We find that while trEFM provides a sensitive measure of local quantum efficiency, SKPM is generally unsuited to measurements of efficiency, less sensitive than tr

  10. Design of a scanning probe microscope with advanced sample treatment capabilities: An atomic force microscope combined with a miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source.

    PubMed

    Hund, Markus; Herold, Hans

    2007-06-01

    We describe the design and performance of an atomic force microscope (AFM) combined with a miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source working at a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz. State-of-the-art scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) have limited in situ sample treatment capabilities. Aggressive treatments such as plasma etching or harsh treatments such as etching in aggressive liquids typically require the removal of the sample from the microscope. Consequently, time consuming procedures are required if the same sample spot has to be imaged after successive processing steps. We have developed a first prototype of a SPM which features a quasi in situ sample treatment using a modified commercial atomic force microscope. A sample holder is positioned in a special reactor chamber; the AFM tip can be retracted by several millimeters so that the chamber can be closed for a treatment procedure. Most importantly, after the treatment, the tip is moved back to the sample with a lateral drift per process step in the 20 nm regime. The performance of the prototype is characterized by consecutive plasma etching of a nanostructured polymer film.

  11. Information Acquisition & Processing in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen; Proksch, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Much of the imaging and spectroscopy capabilities of the existing 20,000+ scanning probe microscopes worldwide relies on specialized data processing that links the microsecond (and sometimes faster) time scale of cantilever motion to the millisecond (and sometimes slower) time scale of image acquisition and feedback. In most SPMs, the cantilever is excited to oscillate sinusoidally and the time-averaged amplitude and/or phase are used as imaging or control signals. Traditionally, the step of converting the rapid motion of the cantilever into an amplitude or phase is performed by phase sensitive homodyne or phase-locked loop detection. The emergence of fast configurable data processing electronics in last several years has allowed the development of non-sinusoidal data acquisition and processing methods. Here, we briefly review the principles and limitations of phase sensitive detectors and discuss some of the emergent technologies based on rapid spectroscopic measurements in frequency- and time domains.

  12. Scanning probe microscopy of protein nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kathleen Ann

    The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens grows electrically-conductive pili, which act as protein nanowires, in order to transfer electrons from the cell to electron acceptors in its environment when direct charge transfer through the cell membrane is not feasible. Understanding the electronic structure of the pili can provide insight into fundamental processes of electron transfer in biological systems. This study investigated the electronic structure of these protein nanowires using the toolbox of scanning probe microscopy, specifically scanning tunneling microscopy and point tunneling spectroscopy. These measurements were performed at 77 K and at room temperature. The measured data are compared to theoretical calculations. Density of states measurements using tunneling spectroscopy show that these pili act as narrow-gap biological semiconductors at 77 K. The onset of nonzero density of states remains within the metabolically-relevant voltage range. At room temperature, spectroscopy of the pili retains a gap-like structure, but this pseudogap is raised to a nonzero density of states at even the smallest applied voltages. These pilus nanowires also exhibit a distinct spatial dependence of the density of states across the breadth of the pili.

  13. Electrostatic Surface Characterization by Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Yaojian

    1995-01-01

    The electrostatic properties of surfaces are important in biological, polymer and semiconductor physics. Several newly developed scanning probe microscopies can provide nanometer scale characterization of these surfaces. In the course of this work, an Electrostatic Force Microscope (EFM) and a Kelvin Probe Force Microscope (KPFM) have been built using interferometric force detection. An EFM is a modified noncontact mode Atomic Force Microscope, capable of simultaneously measuring surface topography, surface charge or surface potential, and capacitance. A KPFM is similar to the classical Kelvin method in measuring surface potential, only in this case, forces are detected instead of currents. A 10^{-4} A/surdHz displacement detection sensitivity has been achieved. A 200 A spatial resolution and a sub-mV electrostatic potential sensitivity have been demonstrated. The capability of the EFM to map charge and dielectric variations on biological and polymeric surfaces has been demonstrated. Studies have been made on red blood cells, modified Teflon FEP films, and contact lens materials. A quantitative method to measure surface charge density on a nanometer scale has been established. The redistribution of mobile surface ions has been visualized for the first time by the EFM on a submicron scale. It has been shown that the drift in the saturation current observed on the open gate field effect transistor is due to the migration of mobile surface ions under lateral fields. Atomic ordering in GaInP, controlled either by growth temperature or by substrate misorientation, has been studied by the KPFM both in cross section and on the growth plane. It is shown that KPFM is capable of distinguishing ordered GaInP from disordered GaInP. The contrast is observed to depend on the applied ac amplitude used in the measurement. The experiments indicate that ordering in GaInP modifies the density and/or lifetime of the surface states.

  14. Creating and Probing Graphene Electron Optics with Local Scanning Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroscio, Joseph

    Ballistic propagation and the light-like dispersion of graphene charge carriers make graphene an attractive platform for optics-inspired graphene electronics where gate tunable potentials can control electron refraction and transmission. In analogy to optical wave propagation in lenses, mirrors and metamaterials, gate potentials can be used to create a negative index of refraction for Veselago lensing and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In circular geometries, gate potentials can induce whispering gallery modes (WGM), similar to optical and acoustic whispering galleries albeit on a much smaller length scale. Klein scattering of Dirac carriers plays a central role in determining the coherent propagation of electron waves in these resonators. In this talk, I examine the probing of electron resonators in graphene confined by linear and circular gate potentials with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tip in the STM tunnel junction serves both as a tunable local gate potential, and as a probe of the graphene states through tunneling spectroscopy. A combination of a back gate potential, Vg, and tip potential, Vb, creates and controls a circular pn junction that confines the WGM graphene states. The resonances are observed in two separate channels in the tunneling spectroscopy experiment: first, by directly tunneling into the state at the bias energy eVb, and, second, by tunneling from the resonance at the Fermi level as the state is gated by the tip potential. The second channel produces a fan-like set of WGM peaks, reminiscent of the fringes seen in planar geometries by transport measurements. The WGM resonances split in a small applied magnetic field, with a large energy splitting approaching the WGM spacing at 0.5 T. These results agree well with recent theory on Klein scattering in graphene electron resonators. This work is done in collaboration with Y. Zhao, J. Wyrick, F.D. Natterer, J. F. Rodriquez-Nieva, C. Lewandoswski, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. B

  15. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer ismore » severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.« less

  16. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  17. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  18. Scanning probe and nanopore DNA sequencing: core techniques and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Lund, John; Parviz, Babak A

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the current state of research towards DNA sequencing using nanopore and scanning probe techniques. Additionally, we provide methods for the creation of two key experimental platforms for studies relating to nanopore and scanning probe DNA studies: a synthetic nanopore apparatus and an atomically flat conductive substrate with stretched DNA molecules.

  19. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-01-03

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  20. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  1. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-15

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  2. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  3. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.

    1996-12-31

    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  4. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-07-01

    The development of scanning probe microscopy repositioned modern physics. When Rohrer and Binnig first used electronic tunnelling effects to image atoms and quantum states they did more than pin down theoretical hypotheses to real-world observables; the scanning tunnelling microscope fed imaginations, prompting researchers to consider new directions and possibilities [1]. As Rohrer once commented, 'We could show that you can easily manipulate or position something small in space with an accuracy of 10 pm.... When you can do that, you simply have ideas of what you can do' [2]. The development heralded a cavalry of scanning probe techniques—such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) [3-5], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [6-8] and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) [9, 10]—that still continue to bring nanomaterials and nanoscale phenomena into fresh focus. Not long after the development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, Binnig, Quate and Gerber collaborating in California in the US published work on a new type of microscope also capable of atomic level resolution [3]. The original concept behind scanning tunnelling microscopy uses electrical conductance, which places substantial limitations on the systems that it can image. Binnig, Quate and Gerber developed the AFM to 'feel' the topology of surfaces like the needle of an old fashioned vinyl player. In this way insulators could be imaged as well. The development of a force modulation mode AFM extended the tool's reach to soft materials making images of biological samples accessible with the technique [4]. There have now been a number of demonstrations of image capture at rates that allow dynamics at the nanoscale to be tracked in real time, opening further possibilities in applications of the AFM as described in a recent review by Toshio Ando at Kanazawa University [5]. Researchers also found a way to retrieve optical information at 'super-resolution' [6, 7]. Optical microscopy provides spectral

  5. Developments of scanning probe microscopy with stress/strain fields.

    PubMed

    Guo, H X; Fujita, D

    2011-12-01

    An innovative stress/strain fields scanning probe microscopy in ultra high vacuum (UHV) environments is developed for the first time. This system includes scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM). Two piezo-resistive AFM cantilever probes and STM probes used in this system can move freely in XYZ directions. The nonoptical frequency shift detection of the AFM probe makes the system compact enough to be set in the UHV chambers. The samples can be bent by an anvil driven by a step motor to induce stress and strain on their surface. With a direct current (dc) power source, the sample can be observed at room and high temperatures. A long focus microscope and a monitor are used to observe the samples and the operation of STM and AFM. Silicon(111) surface in room temperature and silicon(001) surface in high temperature with stress were investigated to check the performance of the scanning probe microscope.

  6. Three-dimensional Analysis of Nanomaterials by Scanning Probe Nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anton E.; Agapova, Olga I.; Mochalov, Konstantin E.; Agapov, Igor I.

    Micro and nanostructure of scaffolds made from fibroin of Bombyx mori silkworm by salt leaching technique was studied by scanning probe nanotomography. Nanopores with dimensions in range from 30 to 180 nm are observed in the scaffold volume. Three - dimensional analysis of obtained data shows that degree of scaffold nanoporosity is 0.5% and nanopores are not interconnected with each other. Usage of scanning probe nanotomography technique enables to obtain unique nanoscale information of 3D structure of biopolymer nanomaterials.

  7. Single-nanoparticle-terminated tips for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko

    2006-03-28

    We have developed a wet-chemistry procedure to attach a 10-40 nm colloidal gold nanoparticle to the top of a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) probe tip, making experiments of single nanoparticle interaction possible. This procedure of particle attachment is flexible and can be modified to attach nanoparticles of different kinds and sizes. The single-nanoparticle-terminated tips also have potential in various other applications, such as probes of enhanced sensitivity for optical and magnetic modes SPM.

  8. Advantages of Using Soft Materials in Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Wang, Mary X.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-03-01

    Scanning probes based upon soft materials provide new capabilities and insights into the science of scanning probe lithography. Specifically, we have explored a cantilever-free architecture that consists of an array of sharp probes on an elastomeric film on a glass slide. This architecture allows every probe in an array to be in simultaneous, gentle contact with a surface, allowing one to perform lithography with millions of probes in parallel. Here, we describe three recent developments in cantilever-free scanning probe lithography that were enabled by the elastomeric material. 1) As the mechanical properties of elastomers can be readily tuned, it is possible to tailor the spring constant of the probes.1 2) The high coefficient of thermal expansion of elastomers means that local heating can be used to physically actuate individual probes allowing for arbitrary patterning.2 3) Solvents retained in the elastomer can mediate molecular printing and allow a user to pattern hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials in totally dry environments. 1D. J. Eichelsdoerfer, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 664 (2013). 2K. A. Brown, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 12921 (2013).

  9. Nanoelectrical probing with multiprobe SPM Systems compatible with scanning electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Ignatov, Andrey; Taha, Hesham; Zhinoviev, Oleg; Komissar, Anatoly; Krol, Alexander; Lewis, David

    2011-03-01

    A scanning electron microscope compatible platform that permits multiprobe atomic force microscopy based nanoelectrical characterization will be described. To achieve such multiple parameter nanocharacterization with scanning electron microscope compatibility involves a number of innovations both in instrument and probe design. This presentation will focus on how these advances were achieved and the results obtained with such instrumentation on electrical nano-characterization and electrical nano-manipulation. The advances include: 1. Specialized scanners; 2. An ultrasensitive feedback mechanism based on tuning forks with no optical feedback interference that can induce carriers in semiconductor devices; and 3. Unique probes compatible with multiprobe geometries in which the probe tips can be brought into physical contact with one another. Experiments will be described with such systems that will include multiprobe electrical measurements with metal and glass coated coaxial nanowires of platinum. This combination of scanning electron microscopes integrated with multiprobe instrumentation allows for important applications not available today in the field of semiconductor processing technology.

  10. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach

    DOE PAGES

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2016-04-21

    Energy technologies of the 21st century require an understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales – from single atoms to macroscopic devices. Our short review provides a summary of recent studies dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. In this discussion we present the advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  11. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Mark; Martins, Bruno V. C.; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2014-04-15

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe.

  12. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  13. Open Source Scanning Probe Microscopy Control Software package GXSM

    SciTech Connect

    Zahl, P.; Wagner, T.; Moller, R.; Klust, A.

    2010-05-01

    GXSM is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used for powerful multidimensional image/data processing, analysis, and visualization. Connected to an instrument, it is operating many different flavors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy or, in general, two-dimensional multichannel data acquisition instruments. The GXSM core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and floating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals, and acquires the data during SPM measurements. The programmable GXSM vector probe engine performs virtually any thinkable spectroscopy and manipulation task, such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy or tip formation. The GXSM software is released under the GNU general public license and can be obtained via the internet.

  14. Open Source Scanning Probe Microscopy Control Software Package Gxsm

    SciTech Connect

    Zahl P.; Wagner, T.; Moller, R.; Klust, A.

    2009-08-10

    Gxsm is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used for powerful multidimensional image/data processing, analysis, and visualization. Connected toan instrument, it is operating many different avors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy(STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) or in general two-dimensional multi channel data acquisition instruments. The Gxsm core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and oating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor (DSP) subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals and acquires the data during SPM measurements. The programmable Gxsm vector probe engine performs virtually any thinkable spectroscopy and manipulation task, such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) or tip formation. The Gxsm software is released under the GNU general public license (GPL) and can be obtained via the Internet.

  15. Optimization of Designs for Nanotube-based Scanning Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, V. M.; Gates, T. S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of designs for nanotube-based scanning probes, which may be used for high-resolution characterization of nanostructured materials, is examined. Continuum models to analyze the nanotube deformations are proposed to help guide selection of the optimum probe. The limitations on the use of these models that must be accounted for before applying to any design problem are presented. These limitations stem from the underlying assumptions and the expected range of nanotube loading, end conditions, and geometry. Once the limitations are accounted for, the key model parameters along with the appropriate classification of nanotube structures may serve as a basis for the design optimization of nanotube-based probe tips.

  16. Microfluidic push-pull probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Cortes-Salazar, Fernando; Lesch, Andreas; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic push-pull probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) consisting of a working microelectrode, an integrated counter/reference electrode and two microchannels for pushing and pulling an electrolyte solution to and away from a substrate. With such a configuration, a droplet of a permanently renewed redox mediator solution is maintained just at the probe tip to carry out SECM measurements on initially dry substrates or in microenvironments. For SECM imaging purposes, the probe fabricated in a soft polymer material is used in a contact regime. SECM images of various gold-on-glass samples demonstrate the proof-of-concept of a push-pull probe for local surface activity characterization with high spatial resolution even on vertically oriented substrates. Finite element computations were performed to guide the improvement of the probe sensitivity.

  17. Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dremov, Vyacheslav Fedorov, Pavel; Grebenko, Artem; Fedoseev, Vitaly

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

  18. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  19. Band Excitation in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Recognition and Functional Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesse, S.; Vasudevan, R. K.; Collins, L.; Strelcov, E.; Okatan, M. B.; Belianinov, A.; Baddorf, A. P.; Proksch, R.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2014-04-01

    Field confinement at the junction between a biased scanning probe microscope's tip and solid surface enables local probing of various bias-induced transformations, such as polarization switching, ionic motion, and electrochemical reactions. The nanoscale size of the biased region, smaller or comparable to that of features such as grain boundaries and dislocations, potentially allows for the study of kinetics and thermodynamics at the level of a single defect. In contrast to classical statistically averaged approaches, this approach allows one to link structure to functionality and deterministically decipher associated mesoscopic and atomistic mechanisms. Furthermore, responses measured as a function of frequency and bias can serve as a fingerprint of local material functionality, allowing for local recognition imaging of inorganic and biological systems. This article reviews current progress in multidimensional scanning probe microscopy techniques based on band excitation time and voltage spectroscopies, including discussions on data acquisition, dimensionality reduction, and visualization, along with future challenges and opportunities for the field.

  20. Massively Multiplexed Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Shim, Wooyoung; Boya, Radha; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Liu, Guoliang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-03-01

    Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography has emerged as a low-cost technique for rapidly patterning nanoscale materials. In this architecture, an array of probes is fabricated on a soft backing layer that provides mechanical compliance to each probe while an underlying hard surface maintains the structural integrity of the array. One drawback of this technique is that each probe in the array acts simultaneously and thus generates a copy of the same pattern. Here, we discuss recent efforts to incorporate heaters into these probe arrays so that when a given heater is activated, the thermal expansion of the elastomer actuates a single tip. We find thermal actuation to be powerful enough to actuate individual tips over 4 μm with minimal crosstalk, fast enough to actuate on relevant time scales (20 ms), and scalable by virtue of being electrically addressable. Furthermore, tuning the individual heaters allows for variability in the arrays to be compensated for precisely, resulting in high quality nanopatterning. The addition of tunable actuators transforms cantilever-free scanning probe lithography into a technique capable of true desktop nanofabrication.

  1. Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Xue, Ping; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G

    2014-01-15

    We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ∼6 μm spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ∼25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated.

  2. Note: A scanning thermal probe microscope that operates in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigouy, Lionel; Lalouat, Loïc; Mortier, Michel; Löw, Peter; Bergaud, Christian

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a scanning thermal probe microscope that operates in liquid environments. The thermal sensor is a fluorescent particle glued at the end of a sharp tungsten tip. Since light emission is a strongly thermally sensitive effect, the measurement of the particle fluorescence variations allows the determination of the temperature. No electrical wiring of the probe is needed. As a demonstrative example, we have measured the temperature map of a Joule-heated microheater immersed in a water/glycerol solution. Both topographical and thermal images are obtained with a good sensitivity.

  3. MEMS-based high speed scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Disseldorp, E C M; Tabak, F C; Katan, A J; Hesselberth, M B S; Oosterkamp, T H; Frenken, J W M; van Spengen, W M

    2010-04-01

    The high speed performance of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) is improved if a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device is employed for the out-of-plane scanning motion. We have carried out experiments with MEMS high-speed z-scanners (189 kHz fundamental resonance frequency) in both atomic force microscope and scanning tunneling microscope modes. The experiments show that with the current MEMS z-scanner, lateral tip speeds of 5 mm/s can be achieved with full feedback on surfaces with significant roughness. The improvement in scan speed, obtained with MEMS scanners, increases the possibilities for SPM observations of dynamic processes. Even higher speed MEMS scanners with fundamental resonance frequencies in excess of a megahertz are currently under development.

  4. Versatile scanned probe microscope: technical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-03-01

    In our biophysical laboratory a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for technical and biological application has been developed. The SPM allows to investigate sample surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope, atomic force microscope and near field scanning optical microscope. The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 X 10 micrometers . Different technical and biological applications of the SPM are demonstrated. Results of the SPM investigations of different carbon, metal and dielectric films are described. The SPM comparison study of electrical breakdown and the conduction bistable switching effect in thin dielectric films of oxides and fluorides of some rare earth metals has been discussed. Some biological applications of the SPM viz. visualization of different bacteria (E.Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), bacteria thin sections, macromolecules (plague proteins) and plague phage has been described.

  5. Adaptive probe trajectory scanning probe microscopy for multiresolution measurements of interface geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Oleg S.; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive scanning method in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is developed for studies of surfaces with a highly-non-uniform information density such as nanowires or interfaces in disordered media. In path-engineered SPM, the surface is pre-scanned to locate features, and a secondary scan is acquired with the pixel density concentrated in the vicinity of the objects of interest. Here, we demonstrate this approach for piezoresponse force microscopy, and develop approaches for fractal and self-affine characterization of domain interfaces. The relationship between the variational roughness, structure factor, and correlation functions is established and resolution effects on these parameters are determined

  6. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Ramos, Michael; Richmond, Scott; Moore, David P.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Joyce, Stephen A.; Usov, Igor O.

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. These first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  7. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    DOE PAGES

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; ...

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. In conclusion, these first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  8. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  9. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  10. The use of scanning probe microscopy to characterize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, T.; Yao, L.; Beatty, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scanning probe microscopy for the examination of atomic scale phenomena in polymers has been well documented, but the use of scanning probe microscopy to examine submicron scale structures has not been well documented. The purpose of this project was to examine the structure of polymer blends on a submicron scale. Two different systems were studied; a blend of recycled thermoplastics and a blend of ground rubber tire particles in a polystyrene matrix. Topographical images, z modulation plots, internal sensor measurements, and lateral force microscopy images were obtained for both systems. The plots were compared to the structures that we were expected to obtain. A second method of mathematical analysis, fractal dimension measurement, was also performed on the topographical images. Fractal dimension measurement has been correlated to fracture toughness in homopolymers, but the correlation has not been established for polymer blends. Comparison of both methods will be shown.

  11. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  12. Integrated microfluidic linking chip for scanning probe nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kee Suk; Wang, Xuefeng; Shaikh, Kashan; Bullen, David; Goluch, Edgar; Zou, Jun; Liu, Chang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2004-07-01

    This letter reports an architecture for a microfluidic chip that dresses (inks) multiple nanolithography tips in a high-density array in a parallel and multiplexed fashion. The microfluidic chip consists of multiple precision patterned thin-film poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patches serving as porous inking pads. Inking chemicals are supplied from loading reservoirs to the inking pads through microfluidic channels. The gas-permeable thin PDMS membranes allow ink molecules to diffuse through while preventing bulk liquid from overflowing or evaporating. The inking chip provides high-density inking, easy loading of inks, and reduced evaporation losses. We present the fabrication process and inking of scanning probe contact printing probes and commercial nitride probes.

  13. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  14. Scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback.

    PubMed

    Dede, M; Urkmen, K; Girişen, O; Atabak, M; Oral, A; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D

    2008-02-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains with high spatial and magnetic field resolution of approximately 50 nm and 7 mG/Hz(1/2) at room temperature. In the SHPM technique, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) feedback is used to keep the Hall sensor in close proximity of the sample surface. However, STM tracking SHPM requires conductive samples; therefore the insulating substrates have to be coated with a thin layer of gold. This constraint can be eliminated with the AFM feedback using sophisticated Hall probes that are integrated with AFM cantilevers. However it is very difficult to micro fabricate these sensors. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The Hall sensor chip is simply glued at the end of a 32.768 kHz or 100 kHz Quartz crystal, which is used as force sensor. An LT-SHPM system is used to scan the samples. The sensor assembly is dithered at the resonance frequency using a digital Phase Locked Loop circuit and frequency shifts are used for AFM tracking. SHPM electronics is modified to detect AFM topography and the frequency shift, along with the magnetic field image. Magnetic domains and topography of an Iron Garnet thin film crystal, NdFeB demagnetised magnet and hard disk samples are presented at room temperature. The performance is found to be comparable with the SHPM using STM feedback.

  15. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area.

  16. Scanning probe microscopy investigation of complex-oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Feng

    Advances in the growth of precisely tailored complex-oxide heterostructures have led to new emergent behavior and associated discoveries. One of the most successful examples consists of an ultrathin layer of LaAlO 3 (LAO) deposited on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO), where a high mobility quasi-two dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) is formed at the interface. Such 2DEL demonstrates a variety of novel properties, including field tunable metal-insulator transition, superconductivity, strong spin-orbit coupling, magnetic and ferroelectric like behavior. Particularly, for 3-unit-cell (3 u.c.) LAO/STO heterostructures, it was demonstrated that a conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) tip can be used to "write" or "erase" nanoscale conducting channels at the interface, making LAO/STO a highly flexible platform to fabricate novel nanoelectronics. This thesis is focused on scanning probe microscopy studies of LAO/STO properties. We investigate the mechanism of c-AFM lithography over 3 u.c. LAO/STO in controlled ambient conditions by using a vacuum AFM, and find that the water molecules dissociated on the LAO surface play a critical role during the c-AFM lithography process. We also perform electro-mechanical response measurements over top-gated LAO/STO devices. Simultaneous piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and capacitance measurements reveal a correlation between LAO lattice distortion and interfacial carrier density, which suggests that PFM could not only serve as a powerful tool to map the carrier density at the interface but also provide insight into previously reported frequency dependence of capacitance enhancement of top-gated LAO/STO structures. To study magnetism at the LAO/STO interface, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) are carried out to search for magnetic signatures that depend on the carrier density at the interface. Results demonstrate an electronicallycontrolled ferromagnetic phase on top-gated LAO

  17. Band Excitation in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Recognition and Functional Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Vasudevan, Dr. Rama; Collins, Liam; Strelcov, Evgheni; Okatan, Mahmut B; Belianinov, Alex; Baddorf, Arthur P; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Field confinement at the junction between a biased scanning probe microscope s (SPM) tip and solid surface enables local probing of various bias-induced transformations such as polarization switching, ionic motion, or electrochemical reactions to name a few. The nanoscale size of the biased region is smaller or comparable to features like grain boundaries and dislocations, potentially allows for the study of kinetics and thermodynamics at the level of a single defect. In contrast to classical statistically averaged approaches, this allows one to link structure to functionality and deterministically decipher associated mesoscopic and atomistic mechanisms. Furthermore, this type of information can serve as a fingerprint of local material functionality, allowing for local recognition imaging. Here, current progress in multidimensional SPM techniques based on band-excitation time and voltage spectroscopies is illustrated, including discussions on data acquisition, dimensionality reduction, and visualization along with future challenges and opportunities for the field.

  18. Mapping the local particle plasmon sensitivity with a scanning probe

    PubMed Central

    Schaffernak, Gernot; Belitsch, Martin; Gašparić, Marija; Leitgeb, Verena; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.; Hohenau, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We probe the local sensitivity of an optically excited plasmonic nanoparticle by changing the local dielectric environment through a scanning glass fiber tip. Recording the particle plasmon scattering spectrum for each tip position allows us to observe spectral resonance shifts concurrent with changes in scattering intensity and plasmon damping. For the tip-induced spectral shifts we find the strongest sensitivity at the particle edges, in accordance with the spatial plasmonic field profile. In contrast, the strongest sensitivity occurs at the center of the particle if the scattering intensity is probed at the short wavelength slope of the plasmon resonance instead of the resonance position. This bears important implications for plasmonic sensing, in particular when done at a single light wavelength. PMID:27603414

  19. Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-03-01

    We describe a novel displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies using an integrated optical micro ring resonator. This device operates by means of monitoring the changes in the transmission spectrum of a high finesse micro ring resonator. Finite element method simulations were carried out to obtain the optimum sensor design and finite difference time domain simulation was used to obtain the transfer characteristics of micro ring resonators. Operation principles and sensitivity calculations are discussed in detail. To achieve high sensitivity, we have studied different types of ring resonator. The highest sensitivity is obtained in a race-track resonator. This new design should provide sensitivities as high as ~10-4 Å-1.

  20. Localized charge imaging with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orihuela, M. F.; Somoza, A. M.; Colchero, J.; Ortuño, M.; Palacios-Lidón, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose an intuitive and easily implementable approach to model and interpret scanning Kelvin probe microscopy images of insulating samples with localized charges. The method, based on the image charges method, has been validated by a systematic comparison of its predictions with experimental measurements performed on charge domains of different sizes, injected in polymethyl methacrylate discontinuous films. The agreement between predictions and experimental lateral profiles, as well as with spectroscopy tip-sample distance curves, supports its consistency. The proposed procedure allows obtaining quantitative information such as total charge and the size of a charge domain and allows estimating the most adequate measurement parameters.

  1. Method for nanoscale spatial registration of scanning probes with substrates and surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to methods and apparatuses for aligning a scanning probe used to pattern a substrate, by comparing the position of the probe to a reference location or spot on the substrate. A first light beam is focused on a surface of the substrate as a spatial reference point. A second light beam then illuminates the scanning probe being used for patterning. An optical microscope images both the focused light beam, and a diffraction pattern, shadow, or light backscattered by the illuminated scanning probe tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM), which is typically the tip of the scanning probe on an atomic force microscope (AFM). Alignment of the scanning probe tip relative to the mark is then determined by visual observation of the microscope image. This alignment process may be repeated to allow for modification or changing of the scanning probe microscope tip.

  2. Developments on the NMi-VSL traceable scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirscherl, Kai; Koops, K. R.

    2003-11-01

    We will report on the progress of our project to realize a traceable Scanning Probe Microscope at the Van Swinden Laboratorium of the Nederlands Meetinstituut in the Netherlands. The traceable Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is constructed from a separate AFM head, a 3D translation stage and an accurate 3D laser interferometer system. Nanometer uncertainty can be maintained in the entire scanning volume of 100 μm × 100 μm × 20 μm. Apart from providing direct traceability to the SI unit of length, the coordinates provided by the laser interferometer are also used in a closed loop position feedback controller to realize accurate positioning at arbitrary locations within the volume provided by the translation stage. In this paper we will emphasize the development of the control system.

  3. Manipulations of atoms and molecules by scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ampere A; Li, Zhuang

    2007-08-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), has become a powerful tool in building nanoscale structures required by modern industry. In this article, the use of SPM for the manipulation of atoms and molecules for patterning nanostructures for opt-electronic and biomedical applications is reviewed. The principles and procedures of manipulation using STM and AFM-based technologies are presented with an emphasis on their ability to create a wide variety of nanostructures for different applications. The interaction among the atoms/molecules, surface, and tip are discussed. The approaches for positioning the atom/molecule from and to the desired locations and for precisely controlling its movement are elaborated for each specific manipulation technique. As an AFM-based technique, the dip-pen nanolithography is also included. Finally, concluding remarks on technological improvement and future research is provided.

  4. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution.

  5. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip–sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal–semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  6. Multiple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope with nanoscale positional recognition function

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Machida, Shinichi; Aono, Masakazu; Laurent, Olivier; Komatsubara, Takashi; Obori, Kenichi; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2010-07-15

    Over the past decade, multiple-scanning-probe microscope systems with independently controlled probes have been developed for nanoscale electrical measurements. We developed a quadruple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope (QSPTM) that can determine and control the probe position through scanning-probe imaging. The difficulty of operating multiple probes with submicrometer precision drastically increases with the number of probes. To solve problems such as determining the relative positions of the probes and avoiding of contact between the probes, we adopted sample-scanning methods to obtain four images simultaneously and developed an original control system for QSPTM operation with a function of automatic positional recognition. These improvements make the QSPTM a more practical and useful instrument since four images can now be reliably produced, and consequently the positioning of the four probes becomes easier owing to the reduced chance of accidental contact between the probes.

  7. Scanning thermal microscopy with heat conductive nanowire probes.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Maria; Bolshakov, Alexey; Tovee, Peter D; Zeze, Dagou A; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2016-03-01

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), which enables measurement of thermal transport and temperature distribution in devices and materials with nanoscale resolution is rapidly becoming a key approach in resolving heat dissipation problems in modern processors and assisting development of new thermoelectric materials. In SThM, the self-heating thermal sensor contacts the sample allowing studying of the temperature distribution and heat transport in nanoscaled materials and devices. The main factors that limit the resolution and sensitivities of SThM measurements are the low efficiency of thermal coupling and the lateral dimensions of the probed area of the surface studied. The thermal conductivity of the sample plays a key role in the sensitivity of SThM measurements. During the SThM measurements of the areas with higher thermal conductivity the heat flux via SThM probe is increased compared to the areas with lower thermal conductivity. For optimal SThM measurements of interfaces between low and high thermal conductivity materials, well defined nanoscale probes with high thermal conductivity at the probe apex are required to achieve a higher quality of the probe-sample thermal contact while preserving the lateral resolution of the system. In this paper, we consider a SThM approach that can help address these complex problems by using high thermal conductivity nanowires (NW) attached to a tip apex. We propose analytical models of such NW-SThM probes and analyse the influence of the contact resistance between the SThM probe and the sample studied. The latter becomes particularly important when both tip and sample surface have high thermal conductivities. These models were complemented by finite element analysis simulations and experimental tests using prototype probe where a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is exploited as an excellent example of a high thermal conductivity NW. These results elucidate critical relationships between the performance of the SThM probe on

  8. Perspective: Structure and dynamics of water at surfaces probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Bian, Ke; Lin, Zeren; Jiang, Ying

    2016-10-28

    The detailed and precise understanding of water-solid interaction largely relies on the development of atomic-scale experimental techniques, among which scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has proven to be a noteworthy example. In this perspective, we review the recent advances of STM techniques in imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of water molecules. We discuss how those newly developed techniques are applied to probe the structure and dynamics of water at solid surfaces with single-molecule and even submolecular resolution, paying particular attention to the ability of accessing the degree of freedom of hydrogen. In the end, we present an outlook on the directions of future STM studies of water-solid interfaces as well as the challenges faced by this field. Some new scanning probe techniques beyond STM are also envisaged.

  9. Sub-20 nm patterning of thin layer WSe2 by scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dago, Arancha I.; Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of thin layer transition metal dichalcogenides have raised considerable interest in the fabrication of advanced field-effect transistors and ultrasensitive sensors. Downscaling those devices to the nanoscale depends on the development of cost-effective and robust alternative nanolithographies. Here we demonstrate the direct, resist-less and reproducible nanopatterning of tungsten diselenide thin layers. By using oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) we have generated arrays of dots with a width of 13 nm and periodicity of 40 nm. We have also patterned a point contact of 35 nm and a nanoscale field-effect transistor. The direct and resistless fabrication of WSe2 nanoscale devices by oxidation scanning probe lithography opens a straightforward and reliable method for processing transition metal dichalcogenides materials.

  10. Perspective: Structure and dynamics of water at surfaces probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Bian, Ke; Lin, Zeren; Jiang, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The detailed and precise understanding of water-solid interaction largely relies on the development of atomic-scale experimental techniques, among which scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has proven to be a noteworthy example. In this perspective, we review the recent advances of STM techniques in imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of water molecules. We discuss how those newly developed techniques are applied to probe the structure and dynamics of water at solid surfaces with single-molecule and even submolecular resolution, paying particular attention to the ability of accessing the degree of freedom of hydrogen. In the end, we present an outlook on the directions of future STM studies of water-solid interfaces as well as the challenges faced by this field. Some new scanning probe techniques beyond STM are also envisaged.

  11. Theoretical Analysis of a Dual-Probe Scanning Tunneling Microscope Setup on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R.; Petersen, Dirch H.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-03-01

    Experimental advances allow for the inclusion of multiple probes to measure the transport properties of a sample surface. We develop a theory of dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy using a Green's function formalism, and apply it to graphene. Sampling the local conduction properties at finite length scales yields real space conductance maps which show anisotropy for pristine graphene systems and quantum interference effects in the presence of isolated impurities. Spectral signatures in the Fourier transforms of real space conductance maps include characteristics that can be related to different scattering processes. We compute the conductance maps of graphene systems with different edge geometries or height fluctuations to determine the effects of nonideal graphene samples on dual-probe measurements.

  12. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  13. Design and manufacturing of scanning probe acoustic microscope test phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiaoyue; Song, Jitao; Ding, Mingyue

    2015-03-01

    Acquiring nondestructive internal structures acoustic image as well as the morphology images using scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM) is a challenge and no known metrology tools to identify the ultrasonic internal resolution and detectable depth of SPAM in a nondestructive way. Monitoring these defects necessitates the identification of their technical parameters of SPAM. In this paper, the specific materials (test phantoms) were designed and processed so that the ultrasound internal resolution of SPAM in nondestructive imaging of the embedded or buried substructures as well as the morphology images were measured. Experimental results demonstrated the successful identification of embedded or buried defects under the test phantom with the resolution of 50nm for SPAM as well as the detectable depth of more than 100μm.

  14. Nanopatterning reconfigurable magnetic landscapes via thermally assisted scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Albisetti, E; Petti, D; Pancaldi, M; Madami, M; Tacchi, S; Curtis, J; King, W P; Papp, A; Csaba, G; Porod, W; Vavassori, P; Riedo, E; Bertacco, R

    2016-06-01

    The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method.

  15. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction of the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.

  16. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    DOE PAGES

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; ...

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction ofmore » the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.« less

  17. 3D scanning Hall probe microscopy with 700 nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dede, M.; Akram, R.; Oral, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this report, we present a three dimensional (3D) imaging of magnetic field vector B → (x,y,z) emanating from the magnetic material surfaces using a scanning Hall probe microscopy (3D-SHPM) down to a 700 nm spatial resolution. The Hall probe is used to measure Bz(x,y) on the specimen surface at different heights with the step size of Δz = 250 nm, as we move away from the surface in z direction, until the field decays to zero. These set of images are then used to get ∂Bz(x,y)/∂x and ∂Bz(x,y)/∂y at different z by numerical differentiation. Using the Maxwell's equations in the source free region, Bx(x,y) and By(x,y) can be calculated by integrating ∂Bz(x,y)/∂x and ∂Bz(x,y)/∂y in the z direction. Alternatively, the gradients can also be measured in the Hall gradiometer configuration directly. The operation of the 3D-SHPM is demonstrated by imaging Bx(x,y), By(x,y) and Bz(x,y) on a hard disk specimen at a 700 nm resolution, using both of these methods at 77 K. The system is capable of operating from 300 K down to 4 K range.

  18. Probing access resistance of solid-state nanopores with a scanning-probe microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-06

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a scanning-probe microscope is developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning-probe tip is near a voltage-biased nanometer-scale pore (10–100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, the relative pore resistance increases due to the tip and ΔR/R0 is estimated as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R0 also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ≈10 nm, experiments show that ΔR/R0 depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst–Planck equations. Furthermore, the measurements show that ΔR/R0 goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally; they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip.

  19. Probing Access Resistance of Solid-state Nanopores with a Scanning Probe Microscope Tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-06

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a Scanning Probe Microscope has been developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning probe tip is near a voltage biased nanometer-scale pore (10-100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, we estimate the relative pore resistance increase due to the tip, ΔR/R(0), as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R(0) also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ~10 nm, our experiments show that ΔR/R(0) depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Furthermore, our measurements show that ΔR/R(0) goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally, they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip.

  20. Analysis of Scanned Probe Images for Magnetic Focusing in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Sagar; Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Philip; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    We have used cooled scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to study electron motion in nanoscale devices. The charged tip of the microscope was raster-scanned at constant height above the surface as the conductance of the device was measured. The image charge scatters electrons away, changing the path of electrons through the sample. Using this technique, we imaged cyclotron orbits that flow between two narrow contacts in the magnetic focusing regime for ballistic hBN-graphene-hBN devices. We present herein an analysis of our magnetic focusing imaging results based on the effects of the tip-created charge density dip on the motion of ballistic electrons. The density dip locally reduces the Fermi energy, creating a force that pushes electrons away from the tip. When the tip is above the cyclotron orbit, electrons are deflected away from the receiving contact, creating an image by reducing the transmission between contacts. The data and our analysis suggest that the graphene edge is rather rough, and electrons scattering off the edge bounce in random directions. However, when the tip is close to the edge, it can enhance transmission by bouncing electrons away from the edge, toward the receiving contact. Our results demonstrate that cooled SPM is a promising tool to investigate the motion of electrons in ballistic graphene devices.

  1. Teaching Plasmonics, Scanning Probe Microscopy and Other Useful Experiments at the Upper Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Erik

    2012-10-01

    It is important to teach students concepts and experimental skills relating to modern research being performed today. Experiments that help educate students about the latest research helps them get jobs and into the doors at many great academic institutions. PSU's Advanced Experimental Class for physics undergraduates offers many novel experiments to help the students accomplish this task. Labs involving Plasmonics, thin film deposition, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and more will be discussed. In addition, a new NSF funded project involving the building of a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) SPM will be discussed.

  2. Scanning probe microscopes go video rate and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, M. J.; Crama, L.; Schakel, P.; van Tol, E.; van Velzen-Williams, G. B. E. M.; Overgauw, C. F.; ter Horst, H.; Dekker, H.; Okhuijsen, B.; Seynen, M.; Vijftigschild, A.; Han, P.; Katan, A. J.; Schoots, K.; Schumm, R.; van Loo, W.; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Frenken, J. W. M.

    2005-05-01

    In this article we introduce a, video-rate, control system that can be used with any type of scanning probe microscope, and that allows frame rates up to 200images/s. These electronics are capable of measuring in a fast, completely analog mode as well as in the more conventional digital mode. The latter allows measurements at low speeds and options, such as, e.g., atom manipulation, current-voltage spectroscopy, or force-distance curves. For scanning tunneling microscope (STM) application we implemented a hybrid mode between the well-known constant-height and constant-current modes. This hybrid mode not only increases the maximum speed at which the surface can be imaged, but also improves the resolution at lower speeds. Acceptable image quality at high speeds could only be obtained by pushing the performance of each individual part of the electronics to its limit: we developed a preamplifier with a bandwidth of 600kHz, a feedback electronics with a bandwidth of 1MHz, a home-built bus structure for the fast data transfer, fast analog to digital converters, and low-noise drivers. Future improvements and extensions to the control electronics can be realized easily and quickly, because of its open architecture with its modular plug-in units. In the second part of this article we show our high-speed results. The ultrahigh vacuum application of these control electronics on our (UHV)-STM enabled imaging speeds up to 0.3mm/s, while still obtaining atomic step resolution. At high frame rates, the images suffered from noticeable distortions, which we have been able to analyze by virtue of the unique access to the error (dZ) signal. The distortions have all been associated with mechanical resonances in the scan head of the UHV-STM. In order to reduce such resonance effects, we have designed and built a scan head with high resonance frequencies (⩾64kHz), especially for the purpose of testing the fast electronics. Using this scanner we have reached video-rate imaging speeds

  3. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  4. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  5. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Jesse, Stephen; Karapetian, Edgar; Mirman, Boris; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2007-08-01

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  6. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Karapetian, Edgar; Mirman, B; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  7. In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

    2004-10-01

    The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

  8. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  9. Monitoring charge storage processes in nanoscale oxides using electrochemical scanning probe microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Lu, Ping; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-11-01

    Advances in electrochemical energy storage science require the development of new or the refinement of existing in situ probes that can be used to establish structure - activity relationships for technologically relevant materials. The drive to develop reversible, high capacity electrodes from nanoscale building blocks creates an additional requirement for high spatial resolution probes to yield information of local structural, compositional, and electronic property changes as a function of the storage state of a material. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing a lithium ion battery positive electrode into its basic constituents of ion insertion host particles and a carbon current collector. This model system is then probed in an electrochemical environment using a combination of atomic force microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy to correlate local activity with morphological and electronic configurational changes. Cubic spinel Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are grown on graphite surfaces using vacuum deposition methods. The structure and composition of these particles are determined using transmission electron microscopy and Auger microprobe analysis. The response of these particles to initial de-lithiation, along with subsequent electrochemical cycling, is tracked using scanning probe microscopy techniques in polar aprotic electrolytes (lithium hexafluorophosphate in ethylene carbonate:diethylcarbonate). The relationship between nanoparticle size and reversible ion insertion activity will be a specific focus of this paper.

  10. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  11. Catalytic reaction processes revealed by scanning probe microscopy. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Bao, Xinhe; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-05-19

    Heterogeneous catalysis is of great importance for modern society. About 80% of the chemicals are produced by catalytic reactions. Green energy production and utilization as well as environmental protection also need efficient catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanisms is crucial to improve the existing catalysts and develop new ones with better activity, selectivity, and stability. Three components are involved in one catalytic reaction: reactant, product, and catalyst. The catalytic reaction process consists of a series of elementary steps: adsorption, diffusion, reaction, and desorption. During reaction, the catalyst surface can change at the atomic level, with roughening, sintering, and segregation processes occurring dynamically in response to the reaction conditions. Therefore, it is imperative to obtain atomic-scale information for understanding catalytic reactions. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a very appropriate tool for catalytic research at the atomic scale because of its unique atomic-resolution capability. A distinguishing feature of SPM, compared to other surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is that there is no intrinsic limitation for SPM to work under realistic reaction conditions (usually high temperature and high pressure). Therefore, since it was introduced in 1981, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been widely used to investigate the adsorption, diffusion, reaction, and desorption processes on solid catalyst surfaces at the atomic level. STM can also monitor dynamic changes of catalyst surfaces during reactions. These invaluable microscopic insights have not only deepened the understanding of catalytic processes, but also provided important guidance for the development of new catalysts. This Account will focus on elementary reaction processes revealed by SPM. First, we will demonstrate the power of SPM to investigate the adsorption and diffusion process of reactants on catalyst surfaces

  12. Testing of Advanced Generic Scan Mechanisms (AGSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. J.; Forshaw, T.; Parzianello, G.

    2013-09-01

    AGSM was envisaged as a generic scan drive mechanism for large across track scanners (e.g. EGPM mission). The two Breadboard Models (BBM's) tested in this programme were foreseen as technology demonstrators and incorporated some novel features, i.e:• Electrical power transfer through the ball bearings• Lead-lubricated bearings with lightweight, ball riding cages for long lifetime (120 million revs) with lead-bronze inserts to replenish lubricant.• A small (< 1 microlitre) drop of Z25 oil added to one bearing to help reduce wear of the lead lubricant film during ground operation.This paper details the results and findings from testing BBM2 and compares them to those from testing carried out on a previous BBM (BBM1) [1].

  13. PVD prepared molecular glass resists for scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Strohriegl, Peter; Wagner, Daniel; Krohn, Felix; Schedl, Andreas; Bonanni, Simon; Holzner, Felix; Rawlings, Colin; Dürig, Urs; Knoll, Armin W.

    2016-03-01

    In the presented work solvent-free film preparation from molecular glass resists, the evaluation of the patterning performance using thermal scanning probe lithography (tSPL) and an efficient etch transfer process are demonstrated. As the presented materials have a high tendency to crystallize and thus form crystalline films of bad quality when processed by solution casting, two component mixtures prepared by coevaporation were investigated. Stable amorphous films were obtained by selecting compatible material pairs for the coevaporation. One optimized material pair is based on trissubstituted, twisted resist materials with a distinct difference in molecular design. Here a high resolution tSPL prepared pattern of 18 nm half pitch in a 10 nm thick film is demonstrated. A further optimization is reported for "small" cubic silsequioxane molecules. Again single component films show independent to applied film preparation techniques bad film forming properties due to the high crystallinity of the symmetric cubic silsequioxane molecules. But coevaporation of the phenyl substituted octaphenylsilsequioxane combined with the fully aromatic 2,2',7,7'-tetraphenyl-9,9'-spirobi[fluorene] results in stable amorphous thin films. tSPL investigations demonstrate the patternability by writing high resolution line features of 20 nm half pitch. An important advantage of such a silicon rich resist material is that it can be directly converted to SiO2, yielding to a patterned hardmask of SiO2. This proof of principle is demonstrated and an efficient pattern transfer of 60 nm half pitch line into the underlying HM8006 is reported.

  14. A resonant scanning dipole-antenna probe for enhanced nanoscale imaging.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lars; van 't Oever, Jorick; van Hulst, Niek F

    2013-11-13

    We present a scanning antenna probe that provides 35 nm optical hotspots with a 16-fold excitation enhancement. A resonant optical antenna, tuned to operation in the visible, is carved into the aluminum-coated scanning probe. The antenna resonances, field localization, excitation, and polarization response are probed in the near-field by scanning over single fluorescent nanobeads. At the same time, the distance-dependent coupling of the emission to the antenna mode is mapped. Good agreement with theory is obtained. The presented scanning antenna approach is useful for both nanoscale plasmonic mode imaging and (bio)imaging.

  15. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  16. Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ustun, Teoman; Wollstein, Gadi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Gabriele, Michelle L.; Dilworth, William D.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    An upgraded optical coherence tomography system with integrated retinal tracker (TOCT) was developed. The upgraded system uses improved components to extend the tracking bandwidth, fully integrates the tracking hardware into the optical head of the clinical OCT system, and operates from a single software platform. The system was able to achieve transverse scan registration with sub-pixel accuracy (~10 μm). We demonstrate several advanced scan sequences with the TOCT, including composite scans averaged (co-added) from multiple B-scans taken consecutively and several hours apart, en face images collected by summing the A-scans of circular, line, and raster scans, and three-dimensional (3D) retinal maps of the fovea and optic disc. The new system achieves highly accurate OCT scan registration yielding composite images with significantly improved spatial resolution, increased signal-to-noise ratio, and reduced speckle while maintaining well-defined boundaries and sharp fine structure compared to single scans. Precise re-registration of multiple scans over separate imaging sessions demonstrates TOCT utility for longitudinal studies. En face images and 3D data cubes generated from these data reveal high fidelity image registration with tracking, despite scan durations of more than one minute. PMID:19498823

  17. Axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using wavelength change without moving mechanism in sensor probe.

    PubMed

    Maru, Koichi

    2011-03-28

    A scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) without any moving mechanism in its sensor probe is proposed. In the proposed scanning LDV, the measurement position is axially scanned by change in the wavelength of the light input to the sensor probe, instead of using a moving mechanism in the sensor probe. For this purpose, a tunable laser and diffraction gratings are used, and the sensor probe including the gratings is separated from the main body including the tunable laser. To demonstrate the scanning function based on the proposed concept, an experiment was conducted using optical fibers, a commercial tunable laser and a setup of the sensor probe consisting of bulk optical components. As the experimental result, it is found that the measurement positions estimated from the measured beat frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The scan ranges over a wavelength range of 30 nm are estimated to be 29.3 mm when the beam angle to the measurement position at the wavelength of 1540 nm is 10° and 20.8 mm when the beam angle is 15°. The result indicates that the scanning function by means of changing the wavelength input to the sensor probe is successfully demonstrated for the first time. The proposed method has the potential for realizing a scanning LDV with a simple, compact and reliable sensor probe.

  18. Paired-angle-rotation scanning optical coherence tomography forward-imaging probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jigang; Conry, Michael; Gu, Chunhui; Wang, Fei; Yaqoob, Zahid; Yang, Changhuei

    2006-05-01

    We report a novel forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), needle-probe paired-angle-rotation scanning OCT (PARS-OCT) probe. The probe uses two rotating angled gradient-index lenses to scan the output OCT probe beam over a wide angular arc (˜19° half-angle) of the region forward of the probe. Among other advantages, this probe design is readily amenable to miniaturization and is capable of a variety of scan modes, including volumetric scans. To demonstrate the advantages of the probe design, we have constructed a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and employed it to acquire four OCT images, with a 45° angle between adjacent images, of the gill structure of a Xenopus laevis tadpole. The system sensitivity was measured to be 93 dB by using the prototype probe with an illumination power of 450 μW on the sample. Moreover, the axial and the lateral resolutions of the probe are 9.3 and 10.3-12.5 μm, respectively.

  19. Application of scanning acoustic microscopy to advanced structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex; Klima, Stanley J.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presentod of research investigations of several acoustic microscopy techniques for application to structural ceramics for advanced heat engines. Results obtained with scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) are compared. The techniques were evaluated on research samples of green and sintered monolithic silicon nitrides and silicon carbides in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing deliberately introduced flaws. Strengths and limitations of the techniques are described with emphasis on statistics of detectability of flaws that constitute potential fracture origins.

  20. Recent advances in thiol and sulfide reactive probes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Peng, Hanjing; Wang, Binghe

    2014-06-01

    Because of the biological relevance of thiols and sulfides such as cysteine, homocysteine, glutathione and hydrogen sulfide, their detection has attracted a great deal of research interest. Fluorescent probes are emerging as a new strategy for thiol and hydrogen sulfide analysis due to their high sensitivity, low cost, and ability to detect and image thiols in biological samples. In this short review, we have summarized recent advances in the development of thiol and hydrogen sulfide reactive fluorescent probes. These probes are compared and contrasted with regard to their designing strategies, mechanisms, photophysical properties, and/or reaction kinetics. Biological applications of these probes are also discussed.

  1. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50,000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  2. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50 000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  3. Multifunctional cantilever-free scanning probe arrays coated with multilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Wooyoung; Brown, Keith A.; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Rasin, Boris; Liao, Xing; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning probe instruments have expanded beyond their traditional role as imaging or “reading” tools and are now routinely used for “writing.” Although a variety of scanning probe lithography techniques are available, each one imposes different requirements on the types of probes that must be used. Additionally, throughput is a major concern for serial writing techniques, so for a scanning probe lithography technique to become widely applied, there needs to be a reasonable path toward a scalable architecture. Here, we use a multilayer graphene coating method to create multifunctional massively parallel probe arrays that have wear-resistant tips of uncompromised sharpness and high electrical and thermal conductivities. The optical transparency and mechanical flexibility of graphene allow this procedure to be used for coating exceptionally large, cantilever-free arrays that can pattern with electrochemical desorption and thermal, in addition to conventional, dip-pen nanolithography. PMID:23086161

  4. Metamaterial-inspired miniaturized microwave edge coupled surface scanning probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiwatcharagoses, Nophadon; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet; Udpa, Lalita

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept on sub-wavelength resolution imaging and surface scanning using metamaterial based near field sensor array. Multiple split ring resonator structures (SRRs), having different band stop frequencies, are implemented in a microstrip transmission line configuration. A mirror image copy of these resonators is also incorporated on the transmission line to achieve built in frequency references. A smart card is scanned to detect buried antenna and Si chip within the plastic card.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Tip Probes: Stability and Lateral Resolution in Scanning Probe Microscopy and Application to Surface Science to Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Chao, Kuo-Jen; Stevens, Ramsey M. D.; Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, Alan; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present results on the stability and lateral resolution capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) scanning probes as applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface topography images of ultra-thin films (2-5 nm thickness) obtained with AFM are used to illustrate the lateral resolution capability of single-walled carbon nanotube probes. Images of metal films prepared by ion beam sputtering exhibit grain sizes ranging from greater than 10 nm to as small as approximately 2 nm for gold and iridium respectively. In addition, imaging stability and lifetime of multi-walled carbon nanotube scanning probes are studied on a relatively hard surface of silicon nitride (Si3N4). AFM images Of Si3N4 surface collected after more than 15 hrs of continuous scanning show no detectable degradation in lateral resolution. These results indicate the general feasibility of CNT tips and scanning probe microscopy for examining nanometer-scale surface features of deposited metals as well as non-conductive thin films. AFM coupled with CNT tips offers a simple and nondestructive technique for probing a variety of surfaces, and has immense potential as a surface characterization tool in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  6. A fast scanning probe for DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Salmonson, J.; Moyer, R.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Schmitz, L.; Hill, D. N.

    1992-10-01

    A fast reciprocating probe has been developed for DIII-D which can penetrate the separatrix during H mode with up to 5 MW of NBI heating. The probe has been designed to carry various sensor tips into the scrape-off layer at a velocity of 3 m/s and dwell motionless for a programmed period of time. The driving force is provided by a pneumatic cylinder charged with helium to facilitate greater mass flow. The first series of experiments have been done using a Langmuir probe head with five graphite tips to measure radial profiles of ne, Te, φf, ñe, and φ˜f. The amplitude and phase of the fluctuating quantities are measured by using specially constructed vacuum compatible 5-kV coaxial transmission lines which allow us to extend the measurements into the MHz range. TTZ ceramic bearings and fast stroke bellows were also specially designed for the DIII-D probe. Initial measurements will be presented.

  7. A fast scanning probe for D3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Salmonson, J.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.; Schmitz, L.; Hill, D. N.

    A fast reciprocating probe was developed for D3-D which can penetrate the separatrix during H - mode with up to 5MW of NBI heating. The probe was designed to carry various sensor tips into the scrape-off layer at a velocity of 3 m/sec and dwell motionless for a programmed period of time. The driving force is provided by a pneumatic cylinder charged with helium to facilitate greater mass flow. The first series of experiments were done using a Langmuir probe head with 5 graphite tips to measure radial profiles of n(sub e), T(sub e), phi(sub f), (n tilde)(sub e), and (phi tilde)(sub f). The amplitude and phase of the fluctuating quantities are measured by using specially constructed vacuum compatible 5 kV coaxial transmission lines which allow us to extend the measurements into the MHz range. TTZ ceramic bearings and fast stroke bellows were also specially designed for the D3-D probe. Initial measurements will be presented.

  8. Two Simple Classroom Demonstrations for Scanning Probe Microscopy Based on a Macroscopic Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajkova, Zdenka; Fejfar, Antonin; Smejkal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    This article describes two simple classroom demonstrations that illustrate the principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based on a macroscopic analogy. The analogy features the bumps in an egg carton to represent the atoms on a chemical surface and a probe that can be represented by a dwarf statue (illustrating an origin of the prefix…

  9. Theory of Near-Field Scanning with a Probe Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    NF samples are then processed to produce FF patterns. The processing, known as the NF-to-FF transformation [1][2], is exact and rigorous in that, if...location and is a critical input to the NF-to-FF transformation . The expansion coefficients b(−) of the total outgoing field determines the extent of...of error, we provided a probe array compensation theory based on the Lorentz reciprocity theorem [29]. The theory permits expression of the open

  10. Fast scanning probe for the NSTX spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; Crocker, N.; Chousal, L.; Hernandez, R.; Chalfant, J.; Kugel, H.; Roney, P.; Wertenbaker, J.; Collaboration: NSTX Team

    2009-12-15

    We describe a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe and drive system, which has four main new features: (1) use of high-temperature, vacuum, circuit boards instead of cables to reduce weight and increase to 21 the number of possible connections, (2) rotatable and removable shaft, (3) 10 tip construction with designed hardware bandwidth up to 10 MHz, and (4) a detachable and modular tip assembly for easy maintenance. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive capable of speeds {approx}7 m/s and {approx}20g's acceleration in order to reach the scrape-off layer (SOL) and pedestal regions and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat deposition to the tips and head in a power density environment of 1-10 MW/m{sup 2}. The National Spherical Torus Experiment SOL features electron temperature, T{sub e}{approx}10-30 eV, and electron density, n{sub e}{approx}0.1-5x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} while the pedestal features n{sub e}{approx}0.5-1.5x10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} and T{sub e}{approx}30-150 eV. The probe described here has ten tips which obtain a wide spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile T{sub e}(r), electron density profile n{sub e}(r) and Mach number profile M(r), floating potential V{sub f}(r), poloidal and radial electric field profiles E{sub {theta}}(r) and E{sub {rho}}(r), saturation current profile I{sub sat}(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe and show representative radial profiles of various parameters.

  11. Fast scanning probe for the NSTX spherical tokamak.

    PubMed

    Boedo, J A; Crocker, N; Chousal, L; Hernandez, R; Chalfant, J; Kugel, H; Roney, P; Wertenbaker, J

    2009-12-01

    We describe a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe and drive system, which has four main new features: (1) use of high-temperature, vacuum, circuit boards instead of cables to reduce weight and increase to 21 the number of possible connections, (2) rotatable and removable shaft, (3) 10 tip construction with designed hardware bandwidth up to 10 MHz, and (4) a detachable and modular tip assembly for easy maintenance. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive capable of speeds approximately 7 m/s and approximately 20g's acceleration in order to reach the scrape-off layer (SOL) and pedestal regions and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat deposition to the tips and head in a power density environment of 1-10 MW/m2. The National Spherical Torus Experiment SOL features electron temperature, T(e) approximately 10-30 eV, and electron density, n(e) approximately 0.1-5x10(12) cm(-3) while the pedestal features n(e) approximately 0.5-1.5x10(13) cm(-3) and T(e) approximately 30-150 eV. The probe described here has ten tips which obtain a wide spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile T(e)(r), electron density profile n(e)(r) and Mach number profile M(r), floating potential V(f)(r), poloidal and radial electric field profiles E(theta)(r) and E(rho)(r), saturation current profile I(sat)(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe and show representative radial profiles of various parameters.

  12. Fast scanning probe for the NSTX spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.; Crocker, N.; Chousal, L.; Hernandez, R.; Chalfant, J.; Kugel, H.; Roney, P.; Wertenbaker, J.; NSTX Team

    2009-12-01

    We describe a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe and drive system, which has four main new features: (1) use of high-temperature, vacuum, circuit boards instead of cables to reduce weight and increase to 21 the number of possible connections, (2) rotatable and removable shaft, (3) 10 tip construction with designed hardware bandwidth up to 10 MHz, and (4) a detachable and modular tip assembly for easy maintenance. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive capable of speeds ˜7 m/s and ˜20g's acceleration in order to reach the scrape-off layer (SOL) and pedestal regions and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat deposition to the tips and head in a power density environment of 1-10 MW/m2. The National Spherical Torus Experiment SOL features electron temperature, Te˜10-30 eV, and electron density, ne˜0.1-5×1012 cm-3 while the pedestal features ne˜0.5-1.5×1013 cm-3 and Te˜30-150 eV. The probe described here has ten tips which obtain a wide spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile Te(r), electron density profile ne(r) and Mach number profile M(r ), floating potential Vf(r), poloidal and radial electric field profiles Eθ(r) and Eρ(r), saturation current profile Isat(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe and show representative radial profiles of various parameters.

  13. Surface characterization of InP trenches embedded in oxide using scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarino, Manuel; Chintala, Ravi; Moussa, Alain; Merckling, Clement; Eyben, Pierre; Paredis, Kristof; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Metrology for structural and electrical analyses at device level has been identified as one of the major challenges to be resolved for the sub-14 nm technology nodes. In these advanced nodes, new high mobility semiconductors, such as III-V compounds, are grown in narrow trenches on a Si substrate. Probing the nature of the defects, the defect density, and the role of processing steps on the surface of such structures are prime metrology requirements. In order to enable defect analysis on a (III-V) surface, a proper sample preparation for oxide removal is of primary importance. In this work, the effectiveness of different chemical cleanings and thermal annealing procedures is investigated on both blanket InP and oxide embedded InP trenches by means of scanning probe microscopy techniques. It is found that the most effective approach is a combination of an HCl-based chemical cleaning combined with a low-temperature thermal annealing leading to an oxide free surface with atomically flat areas. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been the preferred method for such investigations on blanket films due to its intrinsic sub-nm spatial resolution. However, its application on oxide embedded structures is non-trivial. To perform STM on the trenches of interest (generally <20 nm wide), we propose a combination of non-contact atomic force microscopy and STM using the same conductive atomic force microscopy tip Our results prove that with these procedures, it is possible to perform STM in narrow InP trenches showing stacking faults and surface reconstruction. Significant differences in terms of roughness and terrace formation are also observed between the blanket and the oxide embedded InP.

  14. Surface characterization of InP trenches embedded in oxide using scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarino, Manuel E-mail: manuelmannarino@gmail.com; Chintala, Ravi; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Moussa, Alain; Merckling, Clement; Eyben, Pierre; Paredis, Kristof

    2015-12-14

    Metrology for structural and electrical analyses at device level has been identified as one of the major challenges to be resolved for the sub-14 nm technology nodes. In these advanced nodes, new high mobility semiconductors, such as III–V compounds, are grown in narrow trenches on a Si substrate. Probing the nature of the defects, the defect density, and the role of processing steps on the surface of such structures are prime metrology requirements. In order to enable defect analysis on a (III–V) surface, a proper sample preparation for oxide removal is of primary importance. In this work, the effectiveness of different chemical cleanings and thermal annealing procedures is investigated on both blanket InP and oxide embedded InP trenches by means of scanning probe microscopy techniques. It is found that the most effective approach is a combination of an HCl-based chemical cleaning combined with a low-temperature thermal annealing leading to an oxide free surface with atomically flat areas. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been the preferred method for such investigations on blanket films due to its intrinsic sub-nm spatial resolution. However, its application on oxide embedded structures is non-trivial. To perform STM on the trenches of interest (generally <20 nm wide), we propose a combination of non-contact atomic force microscopy and STM using the same conductive atomic force microscopy tip Our results prove that with these procedures, it is possible to perform STM in narrow InP trenches showing stacking faults and surface reconstruction. Significant differences in terms of roughness and terrace formation are also observed between the blanket and the oxide embedded InP.

  15. Handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography: developments, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Demian, D.; Sinescu, C.; Cernat, R.; Dobre, G.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Topala, F. I.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present the handheld scanning probes that we have recently developed in our current project for biomedical imaging in general and for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in particular. OCT is an established, but dynamic imagistic technique based on laser interferometry, which offers micrometer resolutions and millimeters penetration depths. With regard to existing devices, the newly developed handheld probes are simple, light and relatively low cost. Their design is described in detail to allow for the reproduction in any lab, including for educational purposes. Two probes are constructed almost entirely from off-the-shelf components, while a third, final variant is constructed with dedicated components, in an ergonomic design. The handheld probes have uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer scanners therefore they achieve transversal sections through the biological sample investigated - in contrast to handheld probes equipped with bi-dimensional (2D) scanners that can also achieve volumetric (3D) reconstructions of the samples. These latter handheld probes are therefore also discussed, as well as the possibility to equip them with galvanometer 2D scanners or with Risley prisms. For galvanometer scanners the optimal scanning functions studied in a series of previous works are pointed out; these functions offer a higher temporal efficiency/duty cycle of the scanning process, as well as artifact-free OCT images. The testing of the handheld scanning probes in dental applications is presented, for metal ceramic prosthesis and for teeth.

  16. Fabrication of scanning thermal microscope probe with ultra-thin oxide tip and demonstration of its enhanced performance.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heebum; Hwang, Gwangseok; Kwon, Ohmyong

    2016-12-01

    With the vigorous development of new nanodevices and nanomaterials, improvements in the quantitation and resolution of the measurement of nanoscale energy transport/conversion phenomena have become increasingly important. Although several new advanced methods for scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) have been developed to meet these needs, such methods require a drastic enhancement of SThM probe performance. In this study, by taking advantage of the characteristics of micromechanical structures where their mechanical stability is maintained even when the film that composes the structures becomes extremely thin, we develop a new design of SThM probe whose tip is made of ultra-thin SiO2 film (~100nm), fabricate the SThM probes, and demonstrate experimentally that the tip radius, thermal time constant, and thermal sensitivity of the probe are all improved. We expect the development of new high-performance SThM probes, along with the advanced measurement methods, to allow the measurement of temperature and thermal properties with higher spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy, ultimately making essential contributions to diverse areas of science and engineering related to the nanoscale energy transport/conversion phenomena.

  17. Wall scanning probe for high-field side plasma measurements on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Smick, Noah; LaBombard, Brian

    2009-02-01

    A new, high-field side scanning probe has been added to Alcator C-Mod's complement of edge diagnostics. The wall scanning probe is designed to provide all the benefits of a linear plunge, multielectrode scanning probe while working from the confined space of the inner tokamak wall. The drive mechanism is an embedded coil which produces a torque with the ambient toroidal magnetic field when energized, thus allowing the probe to plunge to different preprogramed depths at different times during a plasma discharge. The probe tip is designed for easy replacement and is presently configured to operate as a modified, high heat-flux "Gundestrup-type" probe with four tungsten electrodes. The probe has demonstrated the ability to obtain cross-field profiles for electron temperature, density, floating potential, and plasma flow information (parallel and perpendicular to B) up to a depth of a few millimiters inside the last-closed flux surface in standard C-Mod discharges. The tungsten-tipped probe has proved very robust and shows little or no damage though it routinely handles surface heat fluxes on the order of 100 MW/m(2) at peak insertion.

  18. Resonance oscillation damping of a scanning microscope probe by a near-surface viscous liquid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslenikov, I. I.; Reshetov, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Viscous liquid layer motion between a probe with a tip shaped as a paraboloid of revolution and a surface is considered for semicontact-mode operation of a scanning probe microscope. The presence of a viscous liquid layer leads to energy dissipation and is one of the factors responsible for the decrease in the probe oscillation amplitude. The Reynolds equation for viscous liquid motion is used to obtain an analytic solution to the problem. The formula derived for the loss is compared with experimental data obtained for probes and layers with various curvature radii and viscosities.

  19. Improved accuracy and speed in scanning probe microscopy by image reconstruction from non-gridded position sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Dominik; Meyer, Travis R.; Farnham, Rodrigo; Brune, Christoph; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Ashby, Paul D.

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has facilitated many scientific discoveries utilizing its strengths of spatial resolution, non-destructive characterization and realistic in situ environments. However, accurate spatial data are required for quantitative applications but this is challenging for SPM especially when imaging at higher frame rates. We present a new operation mode for scanning probe microscopy that uses advanced image processing techniques to render accurate images based on position sensor data. This technique, which we call sensor inpainting, frees the scanner to no longer be at a specific location at a given time. This drastically reduces the engineering effort of position control and enables the use of scan waveforms that are better suited for the high inertia nanopositioners of SPM. While in raster scanning, typically only trace or retrace images are used for display, in Archimedean spiral scans 100% of the data can be displayed and at least a two-fold increase in temporal or spatial resolution is achieved. In the new mode, the grid size of the final generated image is an independent variable. Inpainting to a few times more pixels than the samples creates images that more accurately represent the ground truth.

  20. Combining scanning probe microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A new versatile tool, combining Shear Force Microscopy and X-Ray Spectroscopy was designed and constructed to obtain simultaneously surface topography and chemical mapping. Using a sharp optical fiber as microscope probe, it is possible to collect locally the visible luminescence of the sample. Results of tests on ZnO and on ZnWO4 thin layers are in perfect agreement with that obtained with other conventional techniques. Twin images obtained by simultaneous acquisition in near field of surface topography and of local visible light emitted by the sample under X-Ray irradiation in synchrotron environment are shown. Replacing the optical fibre by an X-ray capillary, it is possible to collect local X-ray fluorescence of the sample. Preliminary results on Co-Ti sample analysis are presented. PMID:21711848

  1. Scanning Probe Microscopy of DNA with a Quartz Tuning Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. M.; Nunes, G., Jr.

    2001-03-01

    Quartz tuning-forks have recently been put to use as highly sensitive force detectors in atomic force microscopy (AFM).(F.J.Giessibl et al.), Science 289, 422 (2000). In this study we have applied a home-built, tuning-fork based AFM to the investigation of single and double stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA). We operate the microscope in the non-contact mode (typical tip amplitude ~1 nm) with a variety of tips (e.g. Si, Si_3N_4, W). Here we report on recent results showing that the apparent height of plasmid dsDNA on mica substrates depends on both the tip material and imaging frequency shift. This talk will also review our efforts to probe ssDNA with a chemically functionalized tip. Current and future prospects for this dynamic-mode, chemically-sensitive force microscopy technique will be discussed.

  2. Scanning Probe Evaluation of Electronic, Mechanical and Structural Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virwani, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of a range of properties from three different classes of materials: mixed ionic electronic conductors, low-k dielectrics, and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. (1) Mixed ionic electronic conductors are being investigated as novel diodes to drive phase-change memory elements. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured with direct-current and pulsed-mode conductive AFM (C-AFM). The challenges to reliability of the C-AFM method include the electrical integrity of the probe, the sample and the contacts, and the minimization of path capacitance. The role of C-AFM in the optimization of these electro-active materials will be presented. (2) Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are used in microprocessors as interlayer insulators, a role directly affected by their mechanical performance. The mechanical properties of nanoporous silicate low-k thin films are investigated in a comparative study of nanomechanics measured by AFM and by traditional nanoindentation. Both methods are still undergoing refinement as reliable analytical tools for determining nanomechanical properties. We will focus on AFM, the faster of the two methods, and its developmental challenges of probe shape, cantilever force constant, machine compliance and calibration standards. (3) Magnetic nanoparticles are being explored for their use in patterned media for magnetic storage. Current methods for visualizing the core-shell structure of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles include dye-staining the polymer shell to provide contrast in transmission electron microscopy. AFM-based fast force-volume measurements provide direct visualization of the hard metal oxide core within the soft polymer shell based on structural property differences. In particular, the monitoring of adhesion and deformation between the AFM tip and the nanoparticle, particle-by-particle, provides a reliable qualitative tool to visualize core-shell contrast without the use

  3. A scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution, large area, variable height magnetic field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gorky; Kramer, R. B. G.; Dempsey, N. M.; Hasselbach, K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a scanning Hall probe microscope operating in ambient conditions. One of the unique features of this microscope is the use of the same stepper motors for both sample positioning as well as scanning, which makes it possible to have a large scan range (few mm) in the x and y directions, with a scan resolution of 0.1 μm. Protocols have been implemented to enable scanning at different heights from the sample surface. The z range is 35 mm. Microstructured Hall probes of size 1-5 μm have been developed. A minimum probe-sample distance <2 μm has been obtained by the combination of new Hall probes and probe-sample distance regulation using a tuning fork based force detection technique. The system is also capable of recording local B(z) profiles. We discuss the application of the microscope for the study of micro-magnet arrays being developed for applications in micro-systems.

  4. Development of a scanning touch probe with 5-axis measuring functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Lai, Kuan-Wen; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a five-axis scanning touch probe with high precision and low contact force. The development of scanning touch probe is consisted of three parts: mechanism design, optical path design, and rotation structure design. The mechanism design contains three parts, Z-axis system, XY-axis system, and probe mechanism. The Z-axis system applies the characteristic of the thin sheet spring to move vertically. In the design of XY-axis system, a micro-beam is employed, through which length, width, and thickness of the micro-beam and corresponding dimensions of the leaf spring are designed according to the selected contact force. The freedom degree is limited to three. And the center of the mechanism is equipped with a stylus to inhibit displacement of the Z-axis. The contact between the probe and the work piece only leads to change in the angles of X- and Y-axes, achieving the feature of 2-degree freedom. To enable rapid change for the probes, this study designs a probe mechanism, reliability of which is analyzed and validated with ANSYS software, so that the design of 3-degree freedom mechanism is completed. The sensor has a laser diode to coordinate with Position Sensor Detector (PSD) which works with the optical path designed to measure placement of Z-axis and angle placement of XY-axis. The rotation structure refers to the principle of 5-axis machining design, and the two rotary axes (A- and C-axis) to join the self-developed scanning probe. This design can achieve independent measurements and eliminate the dynamic measurement error that three-axis scanning systems typically have. By validation through an experiment, the three-dimensional scanning touch probe developed by this study has a measuring range of +/-1mm×+/-1mm×1mm, and unidirectional repeatability of 0.6μm.

  5. Microbial Nanowire Electronic Structure Probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veazey, Joshua P.; Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart H.

    2010-03-01

    Complex molecules produced by living organisms provide laboratories for interesting physical properties. The study of such interesting physics, likewise, gives new insight into intriguing biological processes. We have studied the pilus nanowires expressed by the bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, using high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). G. sulfurreducens is a metal reducing bacterium that has evolved electrically conductive pili to efficiently transfer electrons across large distances.footnotetextG. Reguera, K.D. McCarthy, T. Mehta, J.S. Nicoll, M.T. Tuominen, and D.R. Lovley, Nature 435, 1098 (2005) Here we employ the electronic sensitivity of STM to resolve the molecular substructure and the local electronic density of states (LDOS) along the nanowire, in an effort to elucidate the mechanism of conduction. We observe LDOS dependent upon the location of the tip above the nanowire.

  6. Characterization of carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mark J.; Chen, Dong; Jacobsen, Bruce P.; Sarid, Dror; Lamb, Lowell D.; Tinker, Frank A.; Jiao, Jun; Huffman, Donald R.; Seraphin, Supapan; Zhou, Dan

    Carbon nanotubes, fabricated by the Ebbesen-Ajayan method, were imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and were compared to images obtained with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM images revealed an abundance of elongated structures ranging in diameter from 3.0 to 30 nm, and with lengths of up to 0.8 μm. Many of the structures possessed several graphitic shells as if the tubes were nested one in the other. Reproducible images of the tubular structures, typically 20 nm in diameter and with a large variation in length, were obtained with both STM and AFM when the nanotubes were deposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(111), confirming that the nested structures observed with HRTEM do indeed have a tubular morphology. No single-walled, bare nanotubes or spherical fullerenes (typical of the Krätschmer-Huffman process) were observed.

  7. Characterization of carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mark J.; Chen, Dong; Jacobsen, Bruce P.; Sarid, Dror; Lamb, Lowell D.; Tinker, Frank A.; Jiao, Jun; Huffman, Donald R.; Seraphin, Supapan; Zhou, Dan

    1993-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes, fabricated by the Ebbesen-Ajayan method, were imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and were compared to images obtained with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM images revealed an abundance of elongated structures ranging in diameter from 3.0 to 30 nm, and with lengths of up to 0.8 μm. Many of the structures possessed several graphitic shells as if the tubes were nested one in the other. Reproducible images of the tubular structures, typically 20 nm in diameter and with a large variation in length, were obtained with both STM and AFM when the nanotubes were deposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(111), confirming that the nested structures observed with HRTEM do indeed have a tubular morphology. No single-walled, bare nanotubes or spherical fullerenes (typical of the Krätschmer-Huffman process) were observed.

  8. An evaluation of a combined scanning probe and optical microscope for lunar regolith studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Pike, W. T.; Staufer, U.; Claus, D.; Rodenburg, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The microscopic properties of the lunar regolith such as the shape, the surface texture and the size distribution are required for an understanding of both past surface processes and potential hazards for future human exploration [1]. To reveal the particle morphology at the sub micrometer scale, scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), first used on the 2008 Phoenix mission [1], is a proven approach; however, there are two main challenges for the measurement of lunar particles. Firstly, the SPM tip is liable to move particles during scanning, even when using the lower contact forces of the dynamic-mode imaging. Hence the particles need to be stabilised during imaging. Secondly, typically the AFM tip extends about 10 μm from its cantilever, so larger particles protruding more than this height above their substrates cannot be scanned completely. To immobilize particles and eliminate large particles during SPM scanning, micromachined Si substrates, which have been successfully applied in the Phoenix project for Mars investigation in 2008 [2], have been investigated for lunar analogue material. On these substrates micrometer pits are patterned and serve as traps to enhance the stability of the AFM scanning by grasping the particles. In addition, the diameter of pits can determine the size of dusts to be captured and reduce the adhesion for the larger dust and so eliminate the oversized particles. To extend the imaging range and assist in selecting scan areas for the SPM, we use a type of lensless optical imaging (LOM) which uses ptychographic diffractive imaging [3] to eliminate the restrictions and performance limitations of conventional focusing devices. As a reference, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which minimizes particle-probe interactions and has the advantage of an extended depth of field, is employed to image the same particle fields at resolutions covering both the SPM and LOM. By comparing the differences and the similarities between SEM and LOM images, the

  9. Advanced three-dimensional scan methods in the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausotte, T.; Percle, B.; Jäger, G.

    2009-08-01

    The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine developed at the Ilmenau University of Technology was originally designed for surface measurements within a measuring volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm. The interferometric length measuring and drive systems make it possible to move the stage with a resolution of 0.1 nm and a positioning uncertainty of less than 10 nm in all three axes. Various measuring tasks are possible depending on the installed probe system. Most of the sensors utilized are one-dimensional surface probes; however, some tasks require measuring sidewalls and other three-dimensional features. A new control system, based on the I++ DME specification, was implemented in the device. The I++ DME scan functions were improved and special scan functions added to allow advanced three-dimensional scan methods, further fulfilling the demands of scanning force microscopy and micro-coordinate measurements. This work gives an overview of these new functions and the application of them for several different measurements.

  10. The Scanning Mass Spectrometry Probe: A Scanning Probe Electrospray Ion Source for Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Submerged Interfaces and Transient Events in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Peter A.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2009-01-01

    The scanning mass spectrometry (SMS) probe is new electrospray ion source. Motivated by the need for untargeted chemical imaging of dynamic events in solution, we have exploited an approach to electrospray ionization (ESI) that allows continuous sampling from a highly localized volume (~picoliters) in a liquid environment, softly ionizes molecules in the sample to render them amenable for mass spectrometric analysis, and sends the ions to the mass spectrometer. The key underlying concepts for our approach are1)Treating the electrospray capillary inlet as a chemical scanning probe, and2)Locating the electrospray point as close as possible to the sampling point, thus providing the shortest response time possible. This approach enables chemical monitoring or imaging of submerged interfaces, providing access to details of spatial heterogeneity and temporal changes within liquid samples. It also permits direct access to liquid/ liquid interfaces for ESI-MS analysis. In this Letter we report the first demonstrations of these capabilities of the SMS probe, and describe some of the probe's basic characteristics. PMID:19904914

  11. Hollow Cathode and Keeper-region Plasma Measurements Using Ultra-fast Miniature Scanning Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Watkins, Ron M.; Katz, Ira

    2004-01-01

    In order to support the development of comprehensive performance and life models for future deep space missions that will utilize ion thrusters, we have undertaken a study of the plasma structure in hollow cathodes using an new pneumatic scanning probe diagnostic. This device is designed to insert a miniature probe directly into the hollow cathode orifice from either the upstream insert region in the interior of the hollow cathode, or from the downstream keeper-plasma region at the exit of the hollow cathode, to provide complete axial profiles of the discharge plasma parameters. Previous attempts to diagnose this region with probes was Limited by the melting of small probes in the intense discharge near the orifice, or caused significant perturbation of the plasma by probes large enough to survive. Our new probe is extremely compact, and when configured as a single Langmuir probe, the ceramic tube insulator is only 0.5mm in diameter and the current collecting conductor has a total area of 0.002 cm2. A series of current-voltage characteristics are obtained by applying a rapid sawtooth voltage waveform to the probe as it is scanned by the pneumatic actuator into and out of the plasma region, The bellow-sealed pneumatic drive scans the probe 4 cm in the cathode insert region and 10 cm in the anode/keeper plasmas region at average speeds of about 1 mm/msec, and the residence time at the end of the insertion stroke in the densest part of the plasma near the orifice is measured to be only 10 msec. Since the voltage sweep time is fast compared to the motion of the probe, axial profiles of the plasma density, temperature and potential with reasonable spatial resolution are obtained. Measurements of the internal cathode pressures and the axial plasma-parameter profiles for a hollow cathode operating at discharge currents of up to 35 A in xenon will be presented.

  12. Latent fingerprint visualization using a scanning Kelvin probe in conjunction with vacuum metal deposition.

    PubMed

    Dafydd, Hefin; Williams, Geraint; Bleay, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The application of vacuum metal deposition before scanning Kelvin probe visualization of fingerprints is investigated. The potential contrast between fingerprint ridges and furrows is maximized by the use of silver deposition for non-noble metals and gold-zinc deposition for noble metals. The higher susceptibility of eccrine fingerprints to vacuum metal overdeposition is confirmed. Additionally, fingerprints are best developed individually and by building the metal deposition slowly to protect against overdevelopment and variation in the rate of metal condensation. The progress of the metal deposition can be monitored using the scanning Kelvin probe by reference to the change in potential and continuity of the new potential on the surface. The use of acetic acid solution for the recovery of overVMD-developed samples is shown not to be useful. Applying the metal deposition has the additional prospect of increasing surface conductivity and homogeneity and both can aid fingerprint visualization using the scanning Kelvin probe.

  13. Multi-scale Imaging of Cellular and Sub-cellular Structures using Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Rice, A. F.

    2005-03-01

    Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy is a new scanning probe capability under development within our group to reliably return to and directly interact with a specific nanobiological feature of interest. In previous work, we have successfully recognized and classified tubular versus globular biological objects from experimental atomic force microscope images using a method based on normalized central moments [ref. 1]. In this paper we extend this work to include recognition schemes appropriate for cellular and sub-cellular structures. Globular cells containing tubular actin filaments are under investigation. Thus there are differences in external/internal shapes and scales. Continuous Wavelet Transform with a differential Gaussian mother wavelet is employed for multi- scale analysis. [ref. 1] Q. Chen, V. Ayres and L. Udpa, ``Biological Investigation Using Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy,'' Proceedings 3rd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, vol. 2, p 863-865 (2003).

  14. Electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire transistors fabricated by scanning probe and electron beam lithographies.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yu Kyoung; Chiesa, Marco; Garcia, Ricardo

    2013-08-09

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors have been fabricated by oxidation scanning probes and electron beam lithographies. The analysis and comparison of the electron mobility and subthreshold swing shows that the device performance is not affected by the top-down fabrication method. The two methods produce silicon nanowire transistors with similar electrical features, although oxidation scanning probe lithography generates nanowires with smaller channel widths. The values of the electron mobility and the subthreshold swing, 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 500 mV dec(-1), respectively, are similar to those obtained from bottom-up methods. The compatibility of top-down methods with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) procedures, the good electrical properties of the nanowire devices and the potential for making sub-10 nanowires, in particular by using oxidation scanning probe lithography, make those methods attractive for device fabrication.

  15. Resolving 2D Amorphous Materials with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Buechner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered significant scientific interest due to their potential technological applications. Alongside the emphasis on crystalline materials, such as graphene and hexagonal BN, a new class of 2D amorphous materials must be pursued. For amorphous materials, a detailed understanding of the complex structure is necessary. Here we present a structural study of 2D bilayer silica on Ru(0001), an insulating material which is weakly coupled to the substrate. Atomic structure has been determined with a dual mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) sensor in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperatures, revealing a network of different ring sizes. Liquid AFM measurements with sub-nanometer resolution bridge the gap between clean UHV conditions and the environments that many material applications demand. Samples are grown and characterized in vacuum and subsequently transferred to the liquid AFM. Notably, the key structural features observed, namely nanoscale ring networks and larger holes to the substrate, show strong quantitative agreement between the liquid and UHV microscopy measurements. This provides direct evidence for the structural stability of these silica films for nanoelectronics and other applications. KMB acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  16. Electromechanical Detection in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Tip Models and Materials Contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen; Bravina, S. L.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology in the last two decades was stimulated by the emergence of scanning probe microscopy techniques capable of accessing local material properties, including transport, mechanical, and electromechanical behaviors, on the nanoscale. Here, we analyze the general principles of electromechanical probing by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), a scanning probe technique applicable to a broad range of piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials. The relationship between vertical and lateral PFM signals and material properties is derived analytically for two cases: transversally isotropic piezoelectric materials in the limit of weak elastic anisotropy, and anisotropic piezoelectric materials in the limit of weak elastic and dielectric anisotropies. The integral representations for PFM response for fully anisotropic material are also obtained. The image formation mechanism for conventional (e.g., sphere and cone) and multipole tips corresponding to emerging shielded and strip-line-type probes is analyzed. Possible applications for orientation imaging on the nanoscale and molecular resolution imaging are discussed.

  17. Efficient electrochemical etching method to fabricate sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Pilkyu; Kim, Jun Ho; Jeong, Mun Seok; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin; Jeong, Sungho

    2006-10-15

    A new technique based on electrochemical etching for the fabrication of sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes is introduced. In the proposed method, a small Teflon mass is attached to the end of an immersed tungsten wire using an aluminum tape, which leads to a significant enhancement of yield rate of sharp tungsten tips with an apex size below 100 nm to over 60%. The functionality of the tungsten tips fabricated by the proposed method is verified by measuring the topography of a standard sample using a shear-force scanning probe microscope.

  18. WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Horcas, I; Fernández, R; Gómez-Rodríguez, J M; Colchero, J; Gómez-Herrero, J; Baro, A M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we briefly describe the most relevant features of WSXM, a freeware scanning probe microscopy software based on MS-Windows. The article is structured in three different sections: The introduction is a perspective on the importance of software on scanning probe microscopy. The second section is devoted to describe the general structure of the application; in this section the capabilities of WSXM to read third party files are stressed. Finally, a detailed discussion of some relevant procedures of the software is carried out.

  19. Development of a scanning surface probe for nanoscale tip-enhanced desorption/ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kent A.; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Ng, Kin; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2008-12-01

    We report on the development of a versatile scanning apparatus for nanoscale surface sampling that utilizes the interaction of laser radiation at a sharp probe tip to effect desorption/ablation on opaque substrates. The process, which currently yields surface craters as small as ˜50 nm diameter×5 nm deep, has been demonstrated with both metal-coated and bare silicon tips. Desorption/ablation under the tip occurs at illumination intensities below the corresponding optical far-field threshold, suggesting that the latter process should not degrade the spatial resolution attainable for proposed chemical imaging methods based on the scanning surface probe.

  20. Detection of Luminescent Nanodiamonds Using a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope with an Aperture Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Shenderova, O. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy (SNOM) with an aperture probe has been used to map the luminescence of isolated submicron diamond crystallites. 532-nm laser light was used to excite luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The sizes of the analyzed diamond crystallites were determined with an atomic-force microscope. The optical resolution for the lateral dimensions of the luminescing diamond crystallites was doubled on going from confocal luminescence microscopy to scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy with a 290-nm probe aperture diameter.

  1. RTSPM: real-time Linux control software for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, V; Mehta, M M

    2013-01-01

    Real time computer control is an essential feature of scanning probe microscopes, which have become important tools for the characterization and investigation of nanometer scale samples. Most commercial (and some open-source) scanning probe data acquisition software uses digital signal processors to handle the real time data processing and control, which adds to the expense and complexity of the control software. We describe here scan control software that uses a single computer and a data acquisition card to acquire scan data. The computer runs an open-source real time Linux kernel, which permits fast acquisition and control while maintaining a responsive graphical user interface. Images from a simulated tuning-fork based microscope as well as a standard topographical sample are also presented, showing some of the capabilities of the software.

  2. Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Dontsov, Anton; Monakhov, Andrei; Alekseev, Prokhor; Titkov, Alexander; Baranov, Alexei; Girard, Paul; Arinero, Richard; Teissier, Roland

    2015-04-27

    An operating semiconductor laser has been studied using a scanning probe microscope. A shift of the resonance frequency of probe that is due to its heating by laser radiation has been analyzed. The observed shift is proportional to the absorbed radiation and can be used to measure the laser near field or its output power. A periodical dependence of the measured signal has been observed as a function of distance between the probe and the surface of the laser due to the interference of the outgoing and cantilever-reflected waves. Due to the multiple reflections resulting in the interference, the light absorption by the probe cantilever is greatly enhanced compared with a single pass case. Interaction of infrared emission of a diode laser with different probes has been studied.

  3. High-spatial-resolution scanning capacitance microscope using all-metal probe with quartz tuning fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitou, Yuichi; Ookubo, Norio

    2004-09-01

    The scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) reported here uses a frequency modulation (FM) technique to control the distance between the sample and an all-metal probe. The probe was attached to a quartz tuning fork in a configuration minimizing the perturbation due to the probe. The FM-SCM yields two images of ∂C/∂V and ∂C/∂Z signals, where C is capacitance sensed by the probe, Z the probe-sample distance, and V a bias voltage, respectively. On a cross section of a field effect transistor, the two-dimensional p -n junction locus was observed with a spatial resolution better than 5nm in the ∂C/∂V image. The ∂C/∂Z images of polysilicon gate electrodes and highly doped source/drain regions have higher contrast than the ∂C/∂V images.

  4. Study on the SPR responses of various DNA probe concentrations by parallel scan spectral SPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Suihua; Liu, Le; Lu, Weiping; Zhang, Yaou; He, Yonghong; Guo, Jihua

    2008-12-01

    SPR sensors have become a high sensitive and label free method for characterizing and quantifying chemical and biochemical interactions. However, the relations between the SPR refractive index response and the property (such as concentrations) of biochemical probes are still lacking. In this paper, an experimental study on the SPR responses of varies concentrations of Legionella pneumophila mip DNA probes is presented. We developed a novel two-dimensional SPR sensing technique-parallel scan spectral SPR imaging-to detect an array of mip gene probes. This technique offers quantitative refractive index information with a high sensing throughput. By detecting mip DNA probes with different concentrations, we obtained the relations between the SPR refractive index response and the concentrations of mip DNA probes. These results are valuable for design and developing SPR based mip gene biochips.

  5. Gwyscan: a library to support non-equidistant scanning probe microscope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, Petr; Yacoot, Andrew; Grolich, Petr; Valtr, Miroslav; Nečas, David

    2017-03-01

    We present a software library and related methodology for enabling easy integration of adaptive step (non-equidistant) scanning techniques into metrological scanning probe microscopes or scanning probe microscopes where individual x, y position data are recorded during measurements. Scanning with adaptive steps can reduce the amount of data collected in SPM measurements thereby leading to faster data acquisition, a smaller amount of data collection required for a specific analytical task and less sensitivity to mechanical and thermal drift. Implementation of adaptive scanning routines into a custom built microscope is not normally an easy task: regular data are much easier to handle for previewing (e.g. levelling) and storage. We present an environment to make implementation of adaptive scanning easier for an instrument developer, specifically taking into account data acquisition approaches that are used in high accuracy microscopes as those developed by National Metrology Institutes. This includes a library with algorithms written in C and LabVIEW for handling data storage, regular mesh preview generation and planning the scan path on basis of different assumptions. A set of modules for Gwyddion open source software for handling these data and for their further analysis is presented. Using this combination of data acquisition and processing tools one can implement adaptive scanning in a relatively easy way into an instrument that was previously measuring on a regular grid. The performance of the presented approach is shown and general non-equidistant data processing steps are discussed.

  6. Cyclic Voltammetry Probe Approach Curves with Alkali Amalgams at Mercury Sphere-Cap Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Probes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Zachary J; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2017-03-07

    We report a method of precisely positioning a Hg-based ultramicroelectrode (UME) for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) investigations of any substrate. Hg-based probes are capable of performing amalgamation reactions with metal cations, which avoid unwanted side reactions and positive feedback mechanisms that can prove problematic for traditional probe positioning methods. However, prolonged collection of ions eventually leads to saturation of the amalgam accompanied by irreversible loss of Hg. In order to obtain negative feedback positioning control without risking damage to the SECM probe, we implement cyclic voltammetry probe approach surfaces (CV-PASs), consisting of CVs performed between incremental motor movements. The amalgamation current, peak stripping current, and integrated stripping charge extracted from a shared CV-PAS give three distinct probe approach curves (CV-PACs), which can be used to determine the tip-substrate gap to within 1% of the probe radius. Using finite element simulations, we establish a new protocol for fitting any CV-PAC and demonstrate its validity with experimental results for sodium and potassium ions in propylene carbonate by obtaining over 3 orders of magnitude greater accuracy and more than 20-fold greater precision than existing methods. Considering the timescales of diffusion and amalgam saturation, we also present limiting conditions for obtaining and fitting CV-PAC data. The ion-specific signals isolated in CV-PACs allow precise and accurate positioning of Hg-based SECM probes over any sample and enable the deployment of CV-PAS SECM as an analytical tool for traditionally challenging conditions.

  7. Interactions between two C60 molecules measured by scanning probe microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; González, César; Mohn, Fabian; Gross, Leo; Meyer, Gerhard; Berndt, Richard

    2015-11-01

    {{{C}}}60-functionalized tips are used to probe {{{C}}}60 molecules on Cu(111) with scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy. Distinct and complex intramolecular contrasts are found. Maximal attractive forces are observed when for both molecules a [6,6] bond faces a hexagon of the other molecule. Density functional theory calculations including parameterized van der Waals interactions corroborate the observations.

  8. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  9. Multi-objective optimal design of high frequency probe for scanning ion conductance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renfei; Zhuang, Jian; Ma, Li; Li, Fei; Yu, Dehong

    2016-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy(SICM) is an emerging non-destructive surface topography characterization apparatus with nanoscale resolution. However, the low regulating frequency of probe in most existing modulated current based SICM systems increases the system noise, and has difficulty in imaging sample surface with steep height changes. In order to enable SICM to have the capability of imaging surfaces with steep height changes, a novel probe that can be used in the modulated current based hopping mode is designed. The design relies on two piezoelectric ceramics with different travels to separate position adjustment and probe frequency regulation in the Z direction. To further improve the resonant frequency of the probe, the material and the key dimensions for each component of the probe are optimized based on the multi-objective optimization method and the finite element analysis. The optimal design has a resonant frequency of above 10 kHz. To validate the rationality of the designed probe, microstructured grating samples are imaged using the homebuilt modulated current based SICM system. The experimental results indicate that the designed high frequency probe can effectively reduce the spike noise by 26% in the average number of spike noise. The proposed design provides a feasible solution for improving the imaging quality of the existing SICM systems which normally use ordinary probes with relatively low regulating frequency.

  10. Scanning hall probe microscopy of AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Rafael; Daniels, George; Larbalestier, David; Gibbons, Brady; Matias, Vladimir; Moler, Kathryn; Beasley, Malcolm

    2005-03-01

    Magnetic imaging of current-induced vortex movement in superconducting films yields detailed information about dissipation and the path of an applied current. In our large-area scanning hall probe microscope, a flow cryostat cools a sample while a micro-Hall probe is rastered near its surface using a 3-axis stepper-motor-based stage with submicron resolution and centimeter scan range. Hall probe time traces taken at each point are assembled into movies of the flux penetration as a function of time over a cycle of AC sample current. YBCO films grown on several substrates are examined, including bicrystal substrates that induce a single grain boundary across the current path and metal tapes that give rise to a grain boundary network. An extended Bean model allows us to extract pinning forces and critical currents of the intragrain film and its grain boundaries.

  11. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  12. Single-molecule chemistry and physics explored by low-temperature scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Ingmar; Gross, Leo; Liljeroth, Peter

    2011-08-28

    It is well known that scanning probe techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) routinely offer atomic scale information on the geometric and the electronic structure of solids. Recent developments in STM and especially in non-contact AFM have allowed imaging and spectroscopy of individual molecules on surfaces with unprecedented spatial resolution, which makes it possible to study chemistry and physics at the single molecule level. In this feature article, we first review the physical concepts underlying image contrast in STM and AFM. We then focus on the key experimental considerations and use selected examples to demonstrate the capabilities of modern day low-temperature scanning probe microscopy in providing chemical insight at the single molecule level.

  13. Sub-10 nm lateral spatial resolution in scanning capacitance microscopy achieved with solid platinum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, E.; Williams, C. C.

    2004-02-01

    Sub-10 nm resolution can be obtained in scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) if the probe tip is approximately of the same size. Such resolution is observed, although infrequently, with present commercially available probes. To acquire routine sub-10 nm resolution, a solid Pt metal probe has been developed with a sub-10 nm tip radius. The probe is demonstrated by SCM imaging on a cross-sectioned 70 nm gatelength field-effect transistor (FET), a shallow implant (n+/p, 24 nm junction depth), and an epitaxial staircase (p, ˜75 nm steps). Sub-10 nm resolution is demonstrated on the FET device over the abrupt meeting between a silicon-on-insulator oxide layer and a neighboring Si region. Comparable resolution is observed on the implant structure, and quantitative SCM dopant profiling is performed on it with sub-10 nm accuracy. Finally, the epitaxial staircase structure is quantitatively profiled demonstrating the accuracy obtained in quantitative profiling with the tips.

  14. Influence of probe-sample temperature difference on thermal mapping contrast in scanning thermal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak-Bałata, Anna; Juszczyk, Justyna; Trefon-Radziejewska, Dominika; Bodzenta, Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of a temperature difference through a probe-sample contact on thermal contrast in Scanning Thermal Microscopy imaging. A variety of combinations of temperature differences in the probe-sample system were first analyzed based on an electro-thermal finite element model. The numerical analysis included cooling the sample, as well as heating the sample and the probe. Due to the simplicity in the implementation, experimental verification involved modifying the standard imaging technique by heating the sample. Experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 298 K and 328 K. Contrast in thermal mapping was improved for a low probe current with a heated sample.

  15. Bases for time-resolved probing of transient carrier dynamics by optical pump-probe scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Munenori; Yoshida, Shoji; Mera, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Osamu; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2013-10-07

    The tangled mechanism that produces optical pump-probe scanning tunneling microscopy spectra from semiconductors was analyzed by comparing model simulation data with experimental data. The nonlinearities reflected in the spectra, namely, the excitations generated by paired laser pulses with a delay time, the logarithmic relationship between carrier density and surface photovoltage (SPV), and the effect of the change in tunneling barrier height depending on SPV, were examined along with the delay-time-dependent integration process used in measurement. The optimum conditions required to realize reliable measurement, as well as the validity of the microscopy technique, were demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Characterization of semiconductor nanowires using Raman spectroscopy and multifunctional scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudi, Afsoon

    Over the past decade, research on wide bandgap semiconductor nanowires has become one of the most active areas within the nanoscience community. Particularly, there has been extensive research on ZnO and GaN nanowires due to their promising applications in next-generation optoelectronics and highly efficient photovoltaics. Central to realizing these applications is a fundamental understanding of physical properties, such as impurity incorporations, phonon dynamics, and carrier transport. Multi-functional scanning probe microscopy and spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy are suitable tools for studying these properties in individual nanowires. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy, aided by mass spectrometry, was used to identify unintentional impurities in ZnO and GaN nanowires and their incorporation route. Phonon dynamics, in particular the enharmonic phonon coupling strength, was also studied by Raman spectroscopy. A near-field scanning photocurrent microscopy was used to directly measure minority carrier diffusion length and to determine its diameter dependence in individual ZnO nanowires. The origin of this diameter dependence was elucidated by surface photovoltage measurements using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and finite-element simulations. In addition, a demonstration of probing heat transport along nanowires and across various nanowire device interfaces using scanning thermal microscopy combined with Raman spectroscopy was also presented.

  17. 0.1-nanometer resolution positioning stage for sub-10 nm scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbringer-Doroshovets, Nataliya; Balzer, Felix; Fuessl, Roland; Manske, Eberhard; Kaestner, Marcus; Schuh, Andreas; Zoellner, Jens-Peter; Hofer, Manuel; Guliyev, Elshad; Ahmad, Ahmad; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-03-01

    High Performance Single Nanometer Lithography (SNL) is an enabling technology for beyond CMOS and future nanoelectronics. To keep on with scaling down nanoelectronic components, novel instrumentation for nanometer precise placement, overlay alignment and measurement are an essential pre-requirement to realize Next Generation Lithography (NGL) systems. In particular, scanning probe based methods for surface modification and lithography are an emerging method for producing sub-10 nm features. In this study, we demonstrate nano-scale lithography using a scanning probe based method in combination with a Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine. The latter one has a measuring range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm, 0.1 nanometer resolution and outstanding nanometer accuracy. The basic concept consists of a special arrangement allowing Abbe error free measurements in all axes over the total scan range. Furthermore, the Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machine is able to store the exact location that can be found again with an accuracy of less than 2.5 nanometers. This system is also predestinated for critical dimension, quality and overlay control. The integrated scanning probe lithography is based on electric-field-induced patterning of calixarene. As a result, repeated step response tests are presented in this paper.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  19. The flexible and modern open source scanning probe microscopy software package GXSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahl, Percy; Bierkandt, Markus; Schröder, Stefan; Klust, Andreas

    2003-03-01

    GXSM is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used both in stand alone mode for powerful image processing and analysis and connected to an instrument operating many different flavors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy or in general two-dimensional multichannel data acquisition instruments. The GXSM core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and floating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals, and acquires the data during SPM measurements. In addition it performs sophisticated spectroscopy tasks such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The GXSM software is released under the GNU general public license and can be obtained via the Internet.

  20. Long range electronic transport in microbial nanowires bridging an electrode and scanned probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veazey, Joshua; Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Walsh, Kathy; Sun, Jiebing; Zhang, Pengpeng; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    The filament-like appendages known as pili, expressed by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, are believed to act as electrically conductive nanowires. Previously, we used scanning tunneling microscopy to study the local density of states at different positions along the wire. However, the long range electron transfer believed to occur in this protein has not been directly observed. Here we discuss a system for verifying long range transport using a scanning probe technique. Transport at distances of more than a few nanometers would require a novel biological electron transfer process. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (MCB-1021948) and the Michigan State University Foundation (Strategic Partnership Grant).

  1. A reverse pendulum bath cryostat design suitable for low temperature scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyde, M.; Thielsch, G.; Rust, H.-P.; Freund, H.-J.

    2005-03-01

    A new low temperature, ultrahigh vacuum cryostat design has been developed for atomic force and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements. A microscope can be operated at 5 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The microscope body is thermally connected to a reverse pendulum and completely surrounded by a radiation shield. The design allows in situ dosing and irradiation of the sample as well as for easy access of tip and sample. The temperature performance and the vibrational properties of the reverse pendulum design are demonstrated in detail. A brief overview of low temperature instrumentation in scanning probe microscopy is given.

  2. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2011-07-15

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  3. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2011-07-01

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  4. Toward the Atomic-Level Mass Analysis of Biomolecules by the Scanning Atom Probe.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masahiro

    2016-12-22

    In 1994, a new type of atom probe instrument, named the scanning atom probe (SAP), was proposed. The unique feature of the SAP is the introduction of a small extraction electrode, which scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field, required for field evaporation of surface atoms in a small space, between the specimen and the electrode. Thus, the SAP does not require a sharp specimen tip. This indicates that the SAP can mass analyze the specimens which are difficult to form in a sharp tip, such as organic materials and biomolecules. Clean single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), made by high-pressure carbon monoxide process are found to be the best substrates for biomolecules. Various amino acids and dipeptide biomolecules were successfully mass analyzed, revealing characteristic clusters formed by strongly bound atoms in the specimens. The mass analysis indicates that SAP analysis of biomolecules is not only qualitative, but also quantitative.

  5. "Multipoint Force Feedback" Leveling of Massively Parallel Tip Arrays in Scanning Probe Lithography.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hanaul; Jung, Goo-Eun; Kim, Sukhyun; Yun, Seong-Hun; Jo, Ahjin; Kahng, Se-Jong; Cho, Nam-Joon; Cho, Sang-Joon

    2015-09-16

    Nanoscale patterning with massively parallel 2D array tips is of significant interest in scanning probe lithography. A challenging task for tip-based large area nanolithography is maintaining parallel tip arrays at the same contact point with a sample substrate in order to pattern a uniform array. Here, polymer pen lithography is demonstrated with a novel leveling method to account for the magnitude and direction of the total applied force of tip arrays by a multipoint force sensing structure integrated into the tip holder. This high-precision approach results in a 0.001° slope of feature edge length variation over 1 cm wide tip arrays. The position sensitive leveling operates in a fully automated manner and is applicable to recently developed scanning probe lithography techniques of various kinds which can enable "desktop nanofabrication."

  6. Carbon Nanotube Scanning Probe for Surface Profiling of DUV and 193 nm Photoresist Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Stevens, Ramsey M. D.; Barber, Jabulani; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Sanchez, Martha I.; Larson, Carl; Hinsberg, William D.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continual scaling down of semiconductors to 100 nm and below necessitates a characterization technique to resolve high aspect ratio features in the nanoscale regime. This paper reports the use of atomic force microscope coupled with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotube scanning probe tip for the purpose of imaging surface profile of photoresists. Multi-walled carbon nanotube tips used in this work are 5-10 nm in diameter and about a micron long. Their exceptional mechanical strength and ability to reversibly buckle enable to resolve steep, deep nanometer-scale features. Images of photoresist patterns generated by 257 nm interference lithography as well as 193 nm lithography are presented to demonstrate multi-walled carbon nanotube scanning probe tip for applications in metrology.

  7. Solar extreme ultraviolet sensor and advanced langmuir probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronka, N. R.; Block, B. P.; Carignan, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    For more than two decades, the staff of the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) has collaborated with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the design and implementation of Langmuir probes (LP). This program of probe development under the direction of Larry Brace of GSFC has evolved methodically with innovations to: improve measurement precision, increase the speed of measurement, and reduce the weight, size, power consumption and data rate of the instrument. Under contract NAG5-419 these improvements were implemented and are what characterize the Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). Using data from the Langmuir Probe on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Brace and Walter Hoegy of GSFC demonstrated a novel method of monitoring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. This led to the idea of developing a sensor similar to a Langmuir probe specifically designed to measure solar EUV (SEUV) that uses a similar electronics package. Under this contract, a combined instrument package of the ALP and SEUV sensor was to be designed, constructed, and laboratory tested. Finally the instrument was to be flight tested as part of sounding rocket experiment to acquire the necessary data to validate this method for possible use in future earth and planetary aeronomy missions. The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the electronics hardware and software for this instrument, since the actual sensors were suppied by GSFC. Due to budget constraints, only a flight model was constructed. These electronics were tested and calibrated in the laboratory, and then the instrument was integrated into the rocket payload at Wallops Flight Facility where it underwent environmental testing. After instrument recalibration at SPRL, the payload was reintegrated and launched from the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks Alaska. The payload was successfully recovered and after refurbishment underwent further testing and developing to improve its performance for future use.

  8. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined.

  9. Nanocarbon-scanning probe microscopy synergy: fundamental aspects to nanoscale devices.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Narendra; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-05-14

    Scanning probe techniques scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have emerged as unique local probes for imaging, manipulation, and modification of surfaces at the nanoscale. Exercising the fabrication of atomic and nansocale devices with desired properties have demanded rapid development of scanning probe based nanolithographies. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) and local anodic oxidation (LAO) have been widely employed for fabricating functional patterns and prototype devices at nanoscale. This review discusses the progress in AFM bias lithography with focus on nanocarbon species on which many functional quantum device structures have been realized using local electrochemical and electrostatic processes. As water meniscus is central to AFM bias lithography, the meniscus formation, estimation and visualization is discussed briefly. A number of graphene-based nanodevices have been realized on the basis AFM bias lithography in the form of nanoribbons, nanorings and quantum dots with sufficiently small dimensions to show quantum phenomena such as conductance fluctuations. Several studies involving graphitic surfaces and carbon nanotubes are also covered. AFM based scratching technique is another promising approach for the fabrication of nanogap electrodes, important in molecular electronics.

  10. Probe Scanning Support System by a Parallel Mechanism for Robotic Echography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kenta; Oyamada, Masami; Takachi, Yuuki; Masuda, Kohji

    We propose a probe scanning support system based on force/visual servoing control for robotic echography. First, we have designed and formulated its inverse kinematics the construction of mechanism. Next, we have developed a scanning method of the ultrasound probe on body surface to construct visual servo system based on acquired echogram by the standalone medical robot to move the ultrasound probe on patient abdomen in three-dimension. The visual servo system detects local change of brightness in time series echogram, which is stabilized the position of the probe by conventional force servo system in the robot, to compensate not only periodical respiration motion but also body motion. Then we integrated control method of the visual servo with the force servo as a hybrid control in both of position and force. To confirm the ability to apply for actual abdomen, we experimented the total system to follow the gallbladder as a moving target to keep its position in the echogram by minimizing variation of reaction force on abdomen. As the result, the system has a potential to be applied to automatic detection of human internal organ.

  11. The probe profile and lateral resolution of scanning transmission electron microscopy of thick specimens.

    PubMed

    Demers, Hendrix; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Drouin, Dominique; de Jonge, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Lateral profiles of the electron probe of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were simulated at different vertical positions in a micrometers-thick carbon sample. The simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method in CASINO software. A model was developed to fit the probe profiles. The model consisted of the sum of a Gaussian function describing the central peak of the profile and two exponential decay functions describing the tail of the profile. Calculations were performed to investigate the fraction of unscattered electrons as a function of the vertical position of the probe in the sample. Line scans were also simulated over gold nanoparticles at the bottom of a carbon film to calculate the achievable resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the number of electrons. The resolution was shown to be noise limited for film thicknesses less than 1 μm. Probe broadening limited the resolution for thicker films. The validity of the simulation method was verified by comparing simulated data with experimental data. The simulation method can be used as quantitative method to predict STEM performance or to interpret STEM images of thick specimens.

  12. Investigation of the contrast inversion effect on hydrophilic surfaces using Pt/C whisker probes in a scanning force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, M. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Levichev, V. V.; Golubok, A. O.

    2015-02-01

    We compare the spatial resolution and image contrast of an erythrocyte surface obtained by means of scanning force microscopy (SFM) with conventional hydrophobic Si probes and probes modified by hydrophilic Pt/C whisker probes. It is shown that probes with Pt/C nanowhiskers provide a higher spatial resolution and contrast when imaging relief on the surface of erythrocytes. The contrast inversion is revealed in some areas of the SFM images when replacing Si probes by probes with Pt/C nanowhiskers. The origin of this inversion in the tapping and contact modes is discussed.

  13. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yongpeng; Li, Changming; Liang, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Guoqing; Sun, Huibin; Luong, John H. T.

    2008-12-01

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al 2O 3 and TiO 2) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl 2) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al 2O 3 and TiO 2 nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  14. Novel control scheme for a high-speed metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbringer-Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Shen, J. C.; Jäger, G.

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago, an interferometer-based metrological scanning probe microscope (SPM) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany. The specialty of this SPM is the combined deflection detection system that comprises an interferometer and a beam deflection. Due to this system it is possible to simultaneously measure the displacement, bending and torsion of the probe (cantilever). The SPM is integrated into a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) and allows measurements with a resolution of 0.1 nm over a range of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm. Excellent results were achieved for measurements of calibrated step height and lateral standards and these results are comparable to the calibration values from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Dorozhovets N et al 2007 Proc. SPIE 6616 661624-1-7). The disadvantage was a low attainable scanning speed and accordingly large expenditure of time. Control dynamics and scanning speed are limited because of the high masses of the stage and corner mirror of the machine. For the vertical axis an additional high-speed piezoelectric drive is integrated in the SPM in order to increase the measuring dynamics. The movement of the piezoelectric drive is controlled and traceable measured by the interferometer. Hence, nonlinearity and hysteresis in the actuator do not affect the measurement. The outcome of this is an improvement of the bending control of the cantilever and much higher scan speeds of up to 200 µm s-1.

  15. MEMS-based non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.

  16. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-09-26

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND's size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques.

  17. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-09-01

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques.

  18. Arc Welders' pneumoconiosis: application of advanced scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L; Abraham, J L; DeNee, P B; Smith, J R

    1978-01-01

    Study of lung tissue from necropsy of a 58-year-old arc welder with arc welders' pneumoconiosis, confirmed by history, chest radiography, and pathology, demonstrates the versatility and usefulness of new techniques in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron imaging, the most familiar SEM mode, showed heavy cellular infiltrates in alveoli, the interstitium, and within the interstices of loose whorled fibrotic nodules. Backscattered electron imaging, in which contrast is proportional to elemental atomic number, revealed intracellular metal particles not otherwise visible. Microprobe analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, mapped elemeental iron over the particle image and identified traces of silicon in the whorled nodules. Arc welders' pneumoconiosis appears to be more than a benign siderosis resulting from particulate iron deposition. Simultaneous exposure to other components of welding fumes may alter the pathologic picture, inducing a more complicated fibrotic reaction. The more recently developed advanced techniques of SEM are well suited to the study of pneumoconioses and other problems of heterogenous tissue and mixed chemical systems.

  19. Ultrafast nanoscale imaging of surface charges by scanning resistive probe microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, H.; Ryu, K.; Park, H.; Park, C.; Jeon, D.; Kim, Y. K.; Jung, J.; Min, D-K.; Kim, Y.; Lee, H. N.; Park, Y.; Shin, H.; Hong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {mu}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

  20. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of InP nanowires with Scanning Probe Microscopy in PeakForce QNM mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geydt, P.; Dunaevskiy, M.; Alekseev, P.; Kakko, J.-P.; Haggrén, T.; Lähderanta, E.; Lipsanen, H.

    2016-11-01

    In this manuscript, we present the study of elastic properties of InP nanowires with help of scanning probe microscope in advanced PeakForce Tapping® regime. The measuring method was developed in order to investigate the Young's modulus of these cone-shaped structures with significant accuracy. The difference in InP elasticity for wurtzite phase and zinc- blende phase was revealed. It was shown that elastic modulus of InP nanowires significantly increases from 60 GPa to more than 100 GPa when diameter of a nanowire is reduced below 50 nm. The core-shell model for InP nanowire was used for the explanation of this effect.

  1. A sensitive charge scanning probe based on silicon single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Su; Xinxing, Li; Hua, Qin; Xiaofeng, Gu

    2016-04-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be extremely sensitive electrometers owing to their high charge sensitivity. In this work, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator-based SET scanning probe. The fabricated SET is located about 10 μm away from the probe tip. The SET with a quantum dot of about 70 nm in diameter exhibits an obvious Coulomb blockade effect measured at 4.1 K. The Coulomb blockade energy is about 18 meV, and the charge sensitivity is in the order of 10-5-10-3 e/Hz1/2. This SET scanning probe can be used to map charge distribution and sense dynamic charge fluctuation in nanodevices or circuits under test, realizing high sensitivity and high spatial resolution charge detection. Project supported by the Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ201152), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11403084), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (Nos. JUSRP51510, JUDCF12032), and the Graduate Student Innovation Program for Universities of Jiangsu Province (No. CXLX12_0724).

  2. Hot-spot detection and calibration of a scanning thermal probe with a noise thermometry gold wire sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitas, Angelo; Wolgast, Steven; Covington, Elizabeth; Kurdak, Cagliyan

    2013-02-01

    Measuring the temperature profile of a nanoscale sample using scanning thermal microscopy is challenging due to a scanning probe's non-uniform heating. In order to address this challenge, we have developed a calibration sample consisting of a 1-μm wide gold wire, which can be heated electrically by a small bias current. The Joule heating in the calibration sample wire is characterized using noise thermometry. A thermal probe was scanned in contact over the gold wire and measured temperature changes as small as 0.4 K, corresponding to 17 ppm changes in probe resistance. The non-uniformity of the probe's temperature profile during a typical scan necessitated the introduction of a temperature conversion factor, η, which is defined as the ratio of the average temperature change of the probe with respect to the temperature change of the substrate. The conversion factor was calculated to be 0.035 ± 0.007. Finite element analysis simulations indicate a strong correlation between thermal probe sensitivity and probe tip curvature, suggesting that the sensitivity of the thermal probe can be improved by increasing the probe tip curvature, though at the expense of the spatial resolution provided by sharper tips. Simulations also indicate that a bow-tie metallization design could yield an additional 5- to 7-fold increase in sensitivity.

  3. Scanning probe microscopy: instrumentation and applications on thin films and magnetic multilayers.

    PubMed

    Karoutsos, Vagelis

    2009-12-01

    In this article we present a review on instrumentation and the modes of operation of a scanning probe microscope. In detail, we review the main techniques of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), which are Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), focusing our attention on the latter one. The AFM instrument provides information on the roughness and grain size of thin films. As an example we review recent results on two metallic thin film systems: thin Ag films deposited on glass, and Ni/Pt compositionally modulated multilayers deposited on glass, Si, and polyimide substrates. To show the validity of the grain size measurements, we compare the data with the ones resulting from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. We show that the AFM results are reliable for grain diameters as small as 14 nm, which is approximately comparable to the tip radius. Finally, we deal with Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) results on Co/Pt and Co/Au multilayers. We observe perpendicularly magnetized domains. The domain configurations are correlated to the magnetization hysteresis curves.

  4. A Mythical History of the Scanning Probe Microscope - How it Could Have Been

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elings, Virgil

    2007-03-01

    The path from the ground breaking Topografiner by Young et. al. in 1972 to the current Atomic Force Microscopes was tortuous, to say the least. Now as an entrepreneur, they say that you should study the problem, work out a plan, and then execute the plan. Since this rarely works for me in real life, let's follow the mythical history of Phil the physics student whose simple approach to scanning probe microscopes during his summer job may explain life better than real life did. Comparisons between Phil's experience and real life will be made along the way to show how random real life was compared to Phil's straightforward approach. We will follow Phil as he goes from the Scanning Touching Microscope (STM) to the All Fancy Microscope (AFM) and ends up with a current scanning probe microscope. The ``lesson'' in this story is that when you are doing something new, you learn so much while you are doing it that what you thought at the beginning (the plan) is rarely the best way to go. It is more important, I believe, for entrepreneurs to explore possibilities and keep their eyes open along the way rather than pretend the path they are on is the right one. Phil is mythical because he always knew where he was headed and it was always the right direction. So how does Phil's story end? I'm working on it and will tell you at the March Meeting.

  5. Tunnelling junctions with additional degrees of freedom: An extended toolbox of scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-05-01

    Considering studies of molecular adsorption we review recent developments in the field of scanning probe microscopy and in particular in scanning tunnelling microscopy, concentrating on the progress that has been achieved by controlled decoration of the microscope tip. A view is presented according to which the tip decoration generally introduces additional degrees of freedom into the scanning junction and thus extends its functionality. In particular tips decorated with atomic point-like particles may attain the additional function of a force sensor which is realized through the degrees of freedom associated with the relative position of the decorating probe-particle with respect to the tip. It is shown how the force sensor function of such tips helps when studying large molecular adsorbates. Further prospects of more complex junctions equipped with numerous internal degrees of freedom are discussed. It is argued that the main problem impeding the utilization of such junctions is related to their control. An approach towards a higher degree of control is presented that is based on the analysis of single molecule manipulation experiments.

  6. The Use Of Scanning Probe Microscopy To Investigate Crystal-Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2007-04-16

    Over the past decade there has been a natural drive to extend the investigation of dynamic surfaces in fluid environments to higher resolution characterization tools. Various aspects of solution crystal growth have been directly visualized for the first time. These include island nucleation and growth using transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy; elemental step motion using scanning probe microscopy; and the time evolution of interfacial atomic structure using various diffraction techniques. In this lecture we will discuss the use of one such in situ method, scanning probe microscopy, as a means of measuring surface dynamics during crystal growth and dissolution. We will cover both practical aspects of imaging such as environmental control, fluid flow, and electrochemical manipulation, as well as the types of physical measurements that can be made. Measurements such as step motion, critical lengths, nucleation density, and step fluctuations, will be put in context of the information they provide about mechanistic processes at surfaces using examples from metal and mineral crystal growth.

  7. A servomechanism for a micro-electro-mechanical-system-based scanning-probe data storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazi, A.; Lantz, M. A.; Cherubini, G.; Pozidis, H.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based scanning-probe data storage devices are emerging as potential ultra-high-density, low-access-time, and low-power alternatives to conventional data storage. One implementation of probe-based storage uses thermomechanical means to store and retrieve information in thin polymer films. One of the challenges in building such devices is the extreme accuracy and the short latency required in the navigation of the probes over the polymer medium. This paper focuses on the design and characterization of a servomechanism to achieve such accurate positioning in a probe-based storage prototype. In our device, the polymer medium is positioned on a MEMS scanner with x/y-motion capabilities of about 100 µm. The device also includes thermal position sensors that provide x/y-position information to the servo controller. Based on a discrete state-space model of the scanner dynamics, a controller is designed using the linear quadratic Gaussian approach with state estimation. The random seek performance of this approach is evaluated and compared with that of the conventional proportional, integrator, and derivative (PID) approach. The results demonstrate the superiority of the state-space approach, which achieves seek times of about 4 ms in a ± 50 µm range. Finally, the experimental results show that closed-loop track following using the thermal position-sensor signals is feasible and yields a position-error standard deviation of approximately 2 nm.

  8. Probing the limits of the Derjaguin approximation with scanning force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Todd, Brian A; Eppell, Steven J

    2004-06-08

    We have measured the interaction force between a silicon nitride scanning force microscopy (SFM) probe and the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite as a function of pH and ionic concentration in aqueous solutions. Forces in the range +/- 50 pN were reconstructed from measured signals using dynamical analysis of the cantilever. We modeled the force-separation data using a flat plate electric double-layer interaction and assumed the Derjaguin approximation to adapt the flat plate geometry for the SFM probe shape. Measured forces were well modeled by the theory at high ionic concentrations (10 and 100 mM), where Debye lengths were 3.0 and 0.96 nm, respectively. The theory failed to model forces at a lower ionic concentration (1 mM), where the Debye length was 9.6 nm. To investigate this, we calibrated the SFM probe geometry using blind reconstruction and obtained an apex radius of 7 nm. This value suggested that failure of the theory was due to an invalidation of the Derjaguin approximation at long Debye lengths, where the characteristic length scale for the interaction was larger than the size of the SFM probe. The errors were reduced by replacing the Derjaguin approximation with a surface element integration. The result experimentally demonstrates the limitations of the Derjaguin approximation for predicting interactions of nanoscale colloids.

  9. Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy of Magnetic Vortices inVery Underdoped yttrium-barium-copper-oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guikema, Janice Wynn; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-12-02

    Since their discovery by Bednorz and Mueller (1986), high-temperature cuprate superconductors have been the subject of intense experimental research and theoretical work. Despite this large-scale effort, agreement on the mechanism of high-T{sub c} has not been reached. Many theories make their strongest predictions for underdoped superconductors with very low superfluid density n{sub s}/m*. For this dissertation I implemented a scanning Hall probe microscope and used it to study magnetic vortices in newly available single crystals of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (Liang et al. 1998, 2002). These studies have disproved a promising theory of spin-charge separation, measured the apparent vortex size (an upper bound on the penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab}), and revealed an intriguing phenomenon of ''split'' vortices. Scanning Hall probe microscopy is a non-invasive and direct method for magnetic field imaging. It is one of the few techniques capable of submicron spatial resolution coupled with sub-{Phi}{sub 0} (flux quantum) sensitivity, and it operates over a wide temperature range. Chapter 2 introduces the variable temperature scanning microscope and discusses the scanning Hall probe set-up and scanner characterizations. Chapter 3 details my fabrication of submicron GaAs/AlGaAs Hall probes and discusses noise studies for a range of probe sizes, which suggest that sub-100 nm probes could be made without compromising flux sensitivity. The subsequent chapters detail scanning Hall probe (and SQUID) microscopy studies of very underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} crystals with T{sub c} {le} 15 K. Chapter 4 describes two experimental tests for visons, essential excitations of a spin-charge separation theory proposed by Senthil and Fisher (2000, 2001b). We searched for predicted hc/e vortices (Wynn et al. 2001) and a vortex memory effect (Bonn et al. 2001) with null results, placing upper bounds on the vison energy inconsistent with the theory. Chapter

  10. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  11. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph [Placitas, NM; Roach, Dennis P [Albuquerque, NM; Rackow, Kirk A [Albuquerque, NM; Nelson, Ciji L [Albuquerque, NM; Dasch, Cameron J [Boomfield Hills, MI; Moore, David G [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-03

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  12. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P; Rackow, Kirk A; Nelson, Ciji L; Dasch, Cameron J; Moore, David G

    2013-02-12

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  13. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Hachtel, Jordan A.; Marvinney, Claire; Mouti, Anas; ...

    2016-03-02

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows usmore » to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. Furthermore, the approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.« less

  14. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Hachtel, Jordan A.; Marvinney, Claire; Mouti, Anas; Mayo, Daniel; Mu, Richard R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Haglund, R. F.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-03-02

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. Furthermore, the approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.

  15. Chemical and Crystallographic Characterization of the Tip Apex in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Pielmeier, Florian; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2014-02-01

    The apex atom of a W scanning probe tip reveals a nonspherical charge distribution as probed by a CO molecule bonded to a Cu(111) surface [Welker et al., Science 336, 444 (2012).]. Three high-symmetry images were observed and related to three low-index crystallographic directions of the W bcc crystal. Open questions remained, such as the detectability of a contamination of W tips by sample material (here Cu), and the applicability of the method to distinguish other atomic species. In this work, we investigate bulk Cu and Fe tips. In both cases, we can associate our data with the fcc (Cu) and bcc (Fe) crystal structures using a simple electrostatic model that is based on the partial filling of d orbitals.

  16. Innovative advanced occlusion planning with superimposed CT and optical scans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Gilbert

    2011-04-01

    In order to increase the likelihood of a successful treatment plan outcome, it is critical to be able to effectively view the patient's underlying bony skeletal relationship of his or her TMJ. An innovative approach suggested to achieve this is to use the CT scan, optical scan, and Kois deprogrammer. Once the vertical dimension has been increased, the novelty of this approach is the ability to superimpose both scans along with the Kois deprogrammer and, using computer software, evaluate the TMJ position in three dimensions. This case presentation describes how TMJ CT scan evaluation is used in planning a complex rehabilitation case, given that the occlusion structures can be visualized independently and interactively.

  17. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Hamed; Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; van den Dool, Teun; van Es, Maarten H.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm3. It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz1/2. A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm2 to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  18. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghian, Hamed E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl; Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; Dool, Teun van den; Es, Maarten H. van

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm{sup 3}. It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz{sup 1/2}. A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm{sup 2} to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  19. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Hamed; Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; van den Dool, Teun; van Es, Maarten H

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm(3). It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz(1/2). A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm(2) to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  20. Bioelectromechanical Imaging by Scanning Probe Microscopy: Galvani's Experiment at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Shin, Junsoo; Jesse, Stephen; Grichko, V.; Thundat, Thomas George; Baddorf, Arthur P; Gruverman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery in the late 18th century of electrically induced mechanical response in muscle tissue, coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena has been shown to be a near-universal feature of biological systems. Here, we employ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to measure the sub-Angstrom mechanical response of a biological system induced by an electric bias applied to a conductive SPM tip. Visualization of the spiral shape and orientation of protein fibrils with 5 nm spatial resolution in a human tooth and chitin molecular bundle orientation in a butterfly wing is demonstrated. In particular, the applicability of SPM-based techniques for the determination of molecular orientation is discussed.

  1. Scanning probe microscopy study of microcells from the organ surface Bonghan corpuscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joonhyung; Baik, Ku Youn; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lee, Nam Joo; Kang, Chi Jung

    2007-04-01

    Microcells from organ surface Bonghan corpuscles [B. H. Kim, J. Acad. Med. Sci. DPR Kor. 90, 1 (1963)] of mammals have been studied by using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In order to further investigate their physical and electrical properties at better resolution, many different modes of scanning probe microscopy were used in this research. Their surface morphology was studied by topography imaging and error-signal imaging of atomic force microscopy and their mechanical properties were investigated by force modulation microscopy. Electrostatic force microscopy was also used for their electrical characterization.

  2. Material Transport and Synthesis by Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xing

    Reliably synthesizing and transporting materials in nanoscale is the key question in many fields of nanotechnology. Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography, by replacing fragile and costly cantilevers with a robust and low cost elastomeric structure, fundamentally solved the low-throughput nature of scanning probe lithography, which has great potential to be a powerful and point-of-use tool for high throughput synthesis of various kinds of nanomaterials. Two nanolithographic methods, polymer pen lithography (PPL) and beam pen lithography (BPL), have been developed based on the cantilever-free architecture to directly deliver materials and transfer energy to substrates, respectively. The first portion of my thesis, including chapter two and chapter three, addresses major challenges remaining in the cantilever-free scanning probe lithographic techniques. Chapter two details the role of contact force in polymer pen lithography. A geometric model was developed to quantitatively explain the relationship between the z-piezo extension, the contact force and the resulted feature size. With such a model, force can be used as the in-situ feedback during the patterning and a new method for leveling the pen arrays was developed, which utilizes the total force between the pen arrays and the surface to achieve leveling with a tilt of less than 0.004°. In chapter three, massively multiplexed near-field photolithography has been demonstrated by combining BPL with a batch method to fabricate nanometer scale apertures in parallel fashion and a strategy to individually actuation of each pen in the pen array are discussed. This transformative combination enables one to writing arbitrary patterns composed of diffraction-unlimited features over square centimeter areas that are in registry with existing patterns and nanostructures, creating a unified tool for constructing and studying nanomaterials. The second portion of this thesis focuses on applications of cantilever-free scanning

  3. Adsorption of biological molecules to a solid support for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller, D J; Amrein, M; Engel, A

    1997-07-01

    Scanning probe microscopes are now established tools to study the surface structure of biological macromolecules under physiological conditions. Sample preparation methods for this microscopy all have the objective to attach the specimen firmly to a support. Here we analyse the commonly used method of adsorbing biological specimens to freshly cleaved mica. This is facilitated by adjusting the electrolyte concentration and the pH of the buffer solution. Native macromolecular systems absorbed to mica in this way can be reproducibly imaged at submolecular resolution.

  4. Scanning probe microscopy of atoms and molecules on insulating films: from imaging to molecular manipulation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerhard; Gross, Leo; Mohn, Fabian; Repp, Jascha

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of single atoms and molecules on ultrathin insulating films have led to a wealth of novel observations and insights. Based on the reduced electronic coupling to the metallic substrate, these techniques allow the charge state of individual atoms to be controlled, orbitals of individual molecules to be imaged and metal-molecule complexes to be built up. Near-contact AFM adds the unique capabilities of imaging and probing the chemical structure of single molecules with atomic resolution. With the help of atomic/molecular manipulation techniques, chemical binding processes and molecular switches can be studied in detail.

  5. What is Scanning Probe Microscopy? And How Can It Be Used In Failure Analysis?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1999-03-26

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques are not suitable as global defect-localization tools. They can, however, pinpoint the exact location of the defects once the approximate locations of the defects have been identified by other failure analysis techniques. SPM techniques also provide information such as 3-D topology, current, surface potential, and 2-D dopant profile that may not be readily obtainable with other techniques. This information, coupled with the unparalleled spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity can be used by failure analysts for root cause analysis.

  6. Asymmetric actuating structure generates negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi Yan, Gang; Bin Liu, Yong; Hua Feng, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    An asymmetric actuating structure generating negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies is proposed in this paper. The actuator structure consists of two piezostacks, one is used for actuating while the other is for counterbalancing. In contrast with balanced structure, the two piezostacks are installed at the same side of the supporting base. The effectiveness of the structure is proved by some experiments with the actuators fixed to the free end of a cantilever. Experimental results show that almost all of the vibration modes of the cantilever are suppressed effectively at a wide frequency range of 90 Hz-10 kHz.

  7. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanuelidu, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for high resolution magnetic imaging based on its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities afforded by long spin coherence times. Although the NV center has been successfully implemented as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at room temperature, it has remained an outstanding challenge to extend this capability to cryogenic temperatures, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. In this talk, we present NV magnetic imaging at T = 6 K, first benchmarking the technique with a magnetic hard disk sample, then utilizing the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with Tc = 30 K. In addition, we discuss other candidate solid-state systems that can benefit from the high spatial resolution and field sensitivity of the scanning NV magnetometer.

  8. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  9. Enabling freehand lateral scanning of optical coherence tomography needle probes with a magnetic tracking system

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Boon Y.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Sampson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-resolution three-dimensional position tracking method that allows an optical coherence tomography (OCT) needle probe to be scanned laterally by hand, providing the high degree of flexibility and freedom required in clinical usage. The method is based on a magnetic tracking system, which is augmented by cross-correlation-based resampling and a two-stage moving window average algorithm to improve upon the tracker's limited intrinsic spatial resolution, achieving 18 µm RMS position accuracy. A proof-of-principle system was developed, with successful image reconstruction demonstrated on phantoms and on ex vivo human breast tissue validated against histology. This freehand scanning method could contribute toward clinical implementation of OCT needle imaging. PMID:22808429

  10. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  11. Characterizing Surfaces of the Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Ilmenite with Scanning Probe Microcopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.

    1997-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of about 2.5eV. Initial radiation studies indicate that ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Two scanning probe microscopy methods have been used to characterize the surface of samples taken from Czochralski grown single crystals. The two methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), are based on different physical principles and therefore provide different information about the samples. AFM provides a direct, three-dimensional image of the surface of the samples, while STM give a convolution of topographic and electronic properties of the surface. We will discuss the differences between the methods and present preliminary data of each method for ilmenite samples.

  12. Orthogonal Supramolecular Polymer Formation on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) Surfaces Characterized by Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongxiang; Zhang, Siqi; Geng, Yanfang; Niu, Chunmei; Yin, Shouchun; Zeng, Qingdao; Li, Min

    2015-10-27

    Formation of an orthogonal supramolecular polymer on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface was demonstrated for the first time by means of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to characterize the variation of both the thickness and the topography of the film formed from (1) monomer 1, (2) monomer 1/Zn(2+), and (3) monomer 1/Zn(2+)/cross-linker 2, respectively. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to monitor the self-assembly behavior of monomer 1 itself, as well as 1/Zn(2+) ions binary system on graphite surface, further testifying for the formation of linear polymer via coordination interaction at the single molecule level. These results, given by the strong surface characterization tool of SPM, confirm the formation of the orthogonal polymer on the surface of graphite, which has great significance in regard to fabricating a complex superstructure on surfaces.

  13. A review of scanning probe microscopy investigations of liposome-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, M R; Reed, C J; Rostron, C; Hasirci, V

    2005-01-01

    Liposome-DNA complexes are one of the most promising systems for the protection and delivery of nucleic acids to combat neoplastic, viral, and genetic diseases. In addition, they are being used as models in the elucidation of many biological phenomena such as viral infection and transduction. In order to understand these phenomena and to realize the mechanism of nucleic acid transfer by liposome-DNA complexes, studies at the molecular level are required. To this end, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is increasingly being used in the characterization of lipid layers, lipid aggregates, liposomes, and their complexes with nucleic acid molecules. The most attractive attributes of SPM are the potential to image samples with subnanometer spatial resolution under physiological conditions and provide information on their physical and mechanical properties. This review describes the application of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the two most commonly applied SPM techniques, in the characterisation of liposome-DNA complexes.

  14. MRT letter: An extended scanning probe microscopy system for macroscopic topography imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2014-10-01

    Enlightened by the principle of scanning probe microscopy or atomic force microscope (AFM), we proposed a novel surface topography imaging system based on the scanning of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever. The height of sample surface can be obtained by recording the cantilever's strain using an ultra-sensitive strain gauge and the Z-axis movement is realized by electric bending of the cantilever. This system can be operated in the way similar to the contact mode in AFM, with the practical height detection resolution better than 100 nm. Imaging of the inner surface of a steel tube and on a transparent wing of a honey bee were conducted and the obtained results showed that this proposed system is a very promising solution for in situ topography mapping.

  15. Self-sensing cantilevers with integrated conductive coaxial tips for high-resolution electrical scanning probe metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerli, Alexandre J.; Harjee, Nahid; Koenig, Markus; Garcia, Andrei G. F.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2015-07-01

    The lateral resolution of many electrical scanning probe techniques is limited by the spatial extent of the electrostatic potential profiles produced by their probes. Conventional unshielded conductive atomic force microscopy probes produce broad potential profiles. Shielded probes could offer higher resolution and easier data interpretation in the study of nanostructures. Electrical scanning probe techniques require a method of locating structures of interest, often by mapping surface topography. As the samples studied with these techniques are often photosensitive, the typical laser measurement of cantilever deflection can excite the sample, causing undesirable changes electrical properties. In this work, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of probes that integrate coaxial tips for spatially sharp potential profiles with piezoresistors for self-contained, electrical displacement sensing. With the apex 100 nm above the sample surface, the electrostatic potential profile produced by our coaxial tips is more than 2 times narrower than that of unshielded tips with no long tails. In a scan bandwidth of 1 Hz-10 kHz, our probes have a displacement resolution of 2.9 Å at 293 K and 79 Å at 2 K, where the low-temperature performance is limited by amplifier noise. We show scanning gate microscopy images of a quantum point contact obtained with our probes, highlighting the improvement to lateral resolution resulting from the coaxial tip.

  16. Self-sensing cantilevers with integrated conductive coaxial tips for high-resolution electrical scanning probe metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Haemmerli, Alexandre J.; Pruitt, Beth L.; Harjee, Nahid; Koenig, Markus; Garcia, Andrei G. F.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-07-21

    The lateral resolution of many electrical scanning probe techniques is limited by the spatial extent of the electrostatic potential profiles produced by their probes. Conventional unshielded conductive atomic force microscopy probes produce broad potential profiles. Shielded probes could offer higher resolution and easier data interpretation in the study of nanostructures. Electrical scanning probe techniques require a method of locating structures of interest, often by mapping surface topography. As the samples studied with these techniques are often photosensitive, the typical laser measurement of cantilever deflection can excite the sample, causing undesirable changes electrical properties. In this work, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of probes that integrate coaxial tips for spatially sharp potential profiles with piezoresistors for self-contained, electrical displacement sensing. With the apex 100 nm above the sample surface, the electrostatic potential profile produced by our coaxial tips is more than 2 times narrower than that of unshielded tips with no long tails. In a scan bandwidth of 1 Hz–10 kHz, our probes have a displacement resolution of 2.9 Å at 293 K and 79 Å at 2 K, where the low-temperature performance is limited by amplifier noise. We show scanning gate microscopy images of a quantum point contact obtained with our probes, highlighting the improvement to lateral resolution resulting from the coaxial tip.

  17. Characterization of thin film semiconductors by scanning probe microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gichuhi, Anthony

    We have used scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, tunneling spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry to study the electrosynthesis of II-VI compound semiconductors with special emphasis on ZnS, CdS, and HgS. This dissertation will focus mainly on the electrochemical and scanning probe (STM and AFM) applications to these compounds, in addition to novel materials such as CoSb. We hope to understand the structural, as well optical properties of these materials. Finally, we hope to develop a recipe for the electrosynthesis of high quality semiconductor films. In Chapter 2, we report an electrochemical, scanning probe microscopic and Raman spectroscopic investigation of thin US films grown by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) aimed at understanding the role played by the order of deposition on film quality. In Chapter 3, we report a study of electrosynthesized CdS-HgS heterojunctions using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and electrochemistry. US thin films were grown by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy onto Au(111) substrates and were terminated with a single HgS monolayer. In Chapter 4, the structure and chemical composition of electrosynthesized ZnS thin films on Au(111) substrates grown by alternating underpotential deposition and oxidative adsorption cycles of S and Zn from solution precursors was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In Chapter 5, conditions for the growth of. stable mercury sulfide (HgS) monolayers on Au(111) surfaces using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy have been investigated. HgS thin films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Chapter 6: This chapter describes the use of resonance Raman spectroscopy to characterize thin films of the II-VI compound semiconductors electrosynthesized on metal surfaces. We describe how resonance

  18. Nanolithography by scanning probes on calixarene molecular glass resist using mix-and-match lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-07-01

    Going "beyond the CMOS information-processing era," taking advantage of quantum effects occurring at sub-10-nm level, requires novel device concepts and associated fabrication technologies able to produce promising features at acceptable cost levels. Herein, the challenge affecting the lithographic technologies comprises the marriage of down-scaling the device-relevant feature size towards single-nanometer resolution with a simultaneous increase of the throughput capabilities. Mix-and-match lithographic strategies are one promising path to break through this trade-off. Proof-of-concept combining electron beam lithography (EBL) with the outstanding capabilities of closed-loop electric field current-controlled scanning probe nanolithography (SPL) is demonstrated. This combination, whereby also extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is possible instead of EBL, enables more: improved patterning resolution and reproducibility in combination with excellent overlay and placement accuracy. Furthermore, the symbiosis between EBL (EUVL) and SPL expands the process window of EBL (EUVL) beyond the state of the art, allowing SPL-based pre- and post-patterning of EBL (EUVL) written features at critical dimension levels with scanning probe microscopy-based pattern overlay alignment capability. Moreover, we are able to modify the EBL (EUVL) pattern even after the development step. The ultra-high resolution mix-and-match lithography experiments are performed on the molecular glass resist calixarene using a Gaussian e-beam lithography system operating at 10 keV and a home-developed SPL setup.

  19. Novel failure analysis techniques using photon probing with a scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Rife, J.L.; Barton, D.L.; Henderson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Three new failure analysis techniques for integrated circuits (ICs) have been developed using localized photon probing with a scanning optical microscope (SOM). The first two are light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) imaging techniques that (1) localize open-circuited and damaged junctions and (2) image transistor logic states. The third technique uses the SOM to control logic states optically from the IC backside. LIVA images are produced by monitoring the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as a laser beam is scanned over the IC. High selectivity for localizing defects has been demonstrated using the LIVA approach. Logic state mapping results, similar to previous work using biased optical beam induced current (OBIC) and laser probing approaches have also been produced using LIVA. Application of the two LIVA based techniques to backside failure analysis has been demonstrated using an infrared laser source. Optical logic state control is based upon earlier work examining transistor response to photon injection. The physics of each method and their applications for failure analysis are described.

  20. Facile Preparation of a Platinum Silicide Nanoparticle-Modified Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, James; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we propose an ultra-facile approach to prepare a platinum silicide nanoparticle-modified tip apex (PSM tip) used for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). We combined a localized fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (LFAGRR) and atmospheric microwave annealing (AMA) to deposit a single platinum silicide nanoparticle with a diameter of 32 nm on the apex of a bare silicon tip of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The total process was completed in an ambient environment in less than 3 min. The improved potential resolution in the SKPM measurement was verified. Moreover, the resolution of the topography is comparable to that of a bare silicon tip. In addition, the negative charges found on the PSM tips suggest the possibility of exploring the use of current PSM tips to sense electric fields more precisely. The ultra-fast and cost-effective preparation of the PSM tips provides a new direction for the preparation of functional tips for scanning probe microscopy.

  1. Scanning probe microscopy studies on the adsorption of selected molecular dyes on titania

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Lukasz; Olszowski, Piotr; Jöhr, Res; Hinaut, Antoine; Glatzel, Thilo; Such, Bartosz; Meyer, Ernst; Szymonski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide, or titania, sensitized with organic dyes is a very attractive platform for photovoltaic applications. In this context, the knowledge of properties of the titania–sensitizer junction is essential for designing efficient devices. Consequently, studies on the adsorption of organic dyes on titania surfaces and on the influence of the adsorption geometry on the energy level alignment between the substrate and an organic adsorbate are necessary. The method of choice for investigating the local environment of a single dye molecule is high-resolution scanning probe microscopy. Microscopic results combined with the outcome of common spectroscopic methods provide a better understanding of the mechanism taking place at the titania–sensitizer interface. In the following paper, we review the recent scanning probe microscopic research of a certain group of molecular assemblies on rutile titania surfaces as it pertains to dye-sensitized solar cell applications. We focus on experiments on adsorption of three types of prototypical dye molecules, i.e., perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), phtalocyanines and porphyrins. Two interesting heteromolecular systems comprising molecules that are aligned with the given review are discussed as well. PMID:28144513

  2. Scanning probe microscopy studies on the adsorption of selected molecular dyes on titania.

    PubMed

    Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S; Zajac, Lukasz; Olszowski, Piotr; Jöhr, Res; Hinaut, Antoine; Glatzel, Thilo; Such, Bartosz; Meyer, Ernst; Szymonski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide, or titania, sensitized with organic dyes is a very attractive platform for photovoltaic applications. In this context, the knowledge of properties of the titania-sensitizer junction is essential for designing efficient devices. Consequently, studies on the adsorption of organic dyes on titania surfaces and on the influence of the adsorption geometry on the energy level alignment between the substrate and an organic adsorbate are necessary. The method of choice for investigating the local environment of a single dye molecule is high-resolution scanning probe microscopy. Microscopic results combined with the outcome of common spectroscopic methods provide a better understanding of the mechanism taking place at the titania-sensitizer interface. In the following paper, we review the recent scanning probe microscopic research of a certain group of molecular assemblies on rutile titania surfaces as it pertains to dye-sensitized solar cell applications. We focus on experiments on adsorption of three types of prototypical dye molecules, i.e., perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), phtalocyanines and porphyrins. Two interesting heteromolecular systems comprising molecules that are aligned with the given review are discussed as well.

  3. Laser-based technology of scanning near-field optical probes fabrication: study of kinetics and progress of measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, Vadim P.; Kalachev, Alexey I.; Kaporsky, Lev N.; Volkov, Sergey A.; Voznesensky, Nikolay B.

    2003-02-01

    Basic principles of laser assisted process of fiber etching for scanning near-field optical (SNO) probes formation and control technique are presented. The thermal and temporal regimes are considered in order to provide stable reproducibility and high quality of a tapered end of the optical fiber. Problems of adequate definition of the scanning imaging properties of a SNO probe are discussed. Thus an optical method of far-field registration and processing together with a new autoelectronic emission method are considered for solution of the task of a subwavelength SNO probe aperture measurement and estimation of its apparatus function.

  4. Scanning-probe-microscopy of polyethylene terephthalate surface treatment by argon ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Beltran, Francisco; Sanchez, Isaac C.; España-Sánchez, Beatriz L.; Mota-Morales, Josué D.; Carrillo, Salvador; Enríquez-Flores, C. I.; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne; Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The effect of argon (Ar+) ion beam treatment on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples was studied by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the changes in surface topography were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) sheds light of adhesion force between treated polymer films and a Pt/Cr probe under dry conditions, obtaining the contact potential difference of material. As a result of Ar+ ion bombardment, important surface chemical changes were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements such as chains scission and incorporation of nitrogen species. Ion beam treatment increases the surface roughness from 0.49 ± 0.1 nm to 7.2 ± 0.1 nm and modify the surface potential of PET samples, decreasing the adhesive forces from 12.041 ± 2.1 nN to 5.782 ± 0.06 nN, and producing a slight increase in the electronic work function (Φe) from 5.1 V (untreated) to 5.2 V (treated). Ar+ ion beam treatment allows to potentially changing the surface properties of PET, modifying surface adhesion, improving surface chemical changes, wetting properties and surface potential of polymers.

  5. Methods of determining the contact between a probe and a surface under scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nien, C.-H.; Tsai, C. H.; Shin, K. Y.; Jian, W. B.

    2006-10-15

    Based on the charging effect common to various kinds of electron microscopy, we have developed novel methods of determining 'when' and 'where' a probe starts to contact an electrically isolated surface. The touchdown of an electrically grounded probe leads to an acute change in the imaging contrast of the contacted surface, which also causes a rapid jump (ranging from a few to tens of picoamperes) of the grounding current. Thus, the detection of contact can be carried out in both qualitative and quantitative manners, providing a basis for establishing relevant standard procedures. In addition, we have achieved the spatial mapping of the contact point(s) using a specially designed lithographical pattern with two mutually vertical sets of parallel conductive lines. The precision of this mapping technique is simply determined by the pitch of parallel lines, which can be as small as the capability achievable in e-beam lithography. A possible 'one-probe' version of the electrical characterization is also discussed with the same underlying principle, which may turn out to be indispensable for various studies and applications of nanostructures. Further development along this track is promising to realize an instrumentally simple version of 'scanning electron spectroscopy' with various modes.

  6. Scanning thermo-ionic microscopy for probing local electrochemistry at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshghinejad, Ahmadreza; Nasr Esfahani, Ehsan; Wang, Peiqi; Xie, Shuhong; Geary, Timothy C.; Adler, Stuart B.; Li, Jiangyu

    2016-05-01

    Conventional electrochemical characterization techniques based on voltage and current measurements only probe faradaic and capacitive rates in aggregate. In this work we develop a scanning thermo-ionic microscopy (STIM) to probe local electrochemistry at the nanoscale, based on imaging of Vegard strain induced by thermal oscillation. It is demonstrated from both theoretical analysis and experimental validation that the second harmonic response of thermally induced cantilever vibration, associated with thermal expansion, is present in all solids, whereas the fourth harmonic response, caused by local transport of mobile species, is only present in ionic materials. The origin of STIM response is further confirmed by its reduced amplitude with respect to increased contact force, due to the coupling of stress to concentration of ionic species and/or electronic defects. The technique has been applied to probe Sm-doped Ceria and LiFePO4, both of which exhibit higher concentrations of mobile species near grain boundaries. The STIM gives us a powerful method to study local electrochemistry with high sensitivity and spatial resolution for a wide range of ionic systems, as well as ability to map local thermomechanical response.

  7. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demian, Dorin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-01-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic—for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat—in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated. PMID:25107512

  8. Design and testing of prototype handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Demian, Dorin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Cernat, Ramona; Topala, Florin Ionel; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-08-01

    Three simple and low-cost configurations of handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography have been developed. Their design and testing for dentistry applications are presented. The first two configurations were built exclusively from available off-the-shelf optomechanical components, which, to the best of our knowledge, are the first designs of this type. The third configuration includes these components in an optimized and ergonomic probe. All the designs are presented in detail to allow for their duplication in any laboratory with a minimum effort, for applications that range from educational to high-end clinical investigations. Requirements that have to be fulfilled to achieve configurations which are reliable, ergonomic-for clinical environments, and easy to build are presented. While a range of applications is possible for the prototypes developed, in this study the handheld probes are tested ex vivo with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system built in-house, for dental constructs. A previous testing with a swept source optical coherence tomography system has also been performed both in vivo and ex vivo for ear, nose, and throat-in a medical environment. The applications use the capability of optical coherence tomography to achieve real-time, high-resolution, non-contact, and non-destructive interferometric investigations with micrometer resolutions and millimeter penetration depth inside the sample. In this study, testing the quality of the material of one of the most used types of dental prosthesis, metalo-ceramic is thus demonstrated.

  9. An exchangeable-tip scanning probe instrument for the analysis of combinatorial libraries of electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Eric D.; Wang, Hongsen; Legard, Anna E.; Ritzert, Nicole L.; Bruce Van Dover, Robert; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2013-02-01

    A combined scanning differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (SDEMS)-scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) apparatus is described. The SDEMS is used to detect and spatially resolve volatile electrochemically generated species at the surface of a substrate electrode. The SECM can electrochemically probe the reactivity of the surface and also offers a convenient means of leveling the sample. It is possible to switch between these two different scanning tips and techniques without moving the sample and while maintaining potential control of the substrate electrode. A procedure for calibration of the SDEMS tip-substrate separation, based upon the transit time of electrogenerated species from the substrate to the tip is also described. This instrument can be used in the characterization of combinatorial libraries of direct alcohol fuel cell anode catalysts. The apparatus was used to analyze the products of methanol oxidation at a Pt substrate, with the SDEMS detecting carbon dioxide and methyl formate, and a PtPb-modified Pt SECM tip used for the selective detection of formic acid. As an example system, the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation activity of a sputter-deposited binary PtRu composition spread in acidic media was analyzed using the SDEMS. These results are compared with those obtained from a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay.

  10. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

  11. An exchangeable-tip scanning probe instrument for the analysis of combinatorial libraries of electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Rus, Eric D; Wang, Hongsen; Legard, Anna E; Ritzert, Nicole L; Van Dover, Robert Bruce; Abruña, Héctor D

    2013-02-01

    A combined scanning differential electrochemical mass spectrometer (SDEMS)-scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) apparatus is described. The SDEMS is used to detect and spatially resolve volatile electrochemically generated species at the surface of a substrate electrode. The SECM can electrochemically probe the reactivity of the surface and also offers a convenient means of leveling the sample. It is possible to switch between these two different scanning tips and techniques without moving the sample and while maintaining potential control of the substrate electrode. A procedure for calibration of the SDEMS tip-substrate separation, based upon the transit time of electrogenerated species from the substrate to the tip is also described. This instrument can be used in the characterization of combinatorial libraries of direct alcohol fuel cell anode catalysts. The apparatus was used to analyze the products of methanol oxidation at a Pt substrate, with the SDEMS detecting carbon dioxide and methyl formate, and a PtPb-modified Pt SECM tip used for the selective detection of formic acid. As an example system, the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation activity of a sputter-deposited binary PtRu composition spread in acidic media was analyzed using the SDEMS. These results are compared with those obtained from a pH-sensitive fluorescence assay.

  12. Characterization of High Resolution Resists and Metal Shims by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, B. A.; Marnock, R. J.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies such as compact disc (CD) manufacturing, hologram embossing, and security printing rely on the reproduction of micro-patterns generated on surfaces by optical or electron-beam lithographic writing onto electron-beam or photoresists. The periodicity of such patterns varies from sub-micron to several microns, with depths up to 0.5 [mu]m. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) is becoming a routine tool for analysis of these micro-patterns, to check on depths and lateral dimensions of features. Direct scanning of resist-covered plates is now possible, without damage, using resonant low-contact force SPM with etched silicon cantilevers. Metal shims produced from the master resist plates can also be scanned and checked for defects prior to production of embossed foils. The present article discusses examples of the use of a Digital Instruments 3100 microscope in analysis of production electron-beam lithography plates with a 0.5 [mu]m resist thickness. We also examine features of nickel replicas (father and mother shims) produced by electroforming from the original plate. With SPM measurements of the development profile of a particular plate, corrections can be made to exposures and development times during production to correct errors. An example is given of such a feedback process.

  13. Advanced gamma ray technology for scanning cargo containers.

    PubMed

    Orphan, Victor J; Muenchau, Ernie; Gormley, Jerry; Richardson, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS gamma ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced gamma ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers.

  14. Raman mapping using advanced line-scanning systems: geological applications.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Sylvain; Beyssac, Olivier; Benzerara, Karim

    2008-11-01

    By allowing nondestructive chemical and structural imaging of heterogeneous samples with a micrometer spatial resolution, Raman mapping offers unique capabilities for assessing the spatial distribution of both mineral and organic phases within geological samples. Recently developed line-scanning Raman mapping techniques have made it possible to acquire Raman maps over large, millimeter-sized, zones of interest owing to a drastic decrease of the data acquisition time without losing spatial or spectral resolution. The synchronization of charge-coupled device (CCD) measurements with x,y motorized stage displacement has allowed dynamic line-scanning Raman mapping to be even more efficient: total acquisition time may be reduced by a factor higher than 100 compared to point-by-point mapping. Using two chemically and texturally complex geological samples, a fossil megaspore in a metamorphic rock and aragonite-garnet intergrowths in an Eclogitic marble, we compare here two recent versions of line-scanning Raman mapping systems and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages in terms of acquisition time, image quality, spatial and imaging resolutions, and signal-to-noise ratio. We show that line-scanning Raman mapping techniques are particularly suitable for the characterization of such samples, which are representative of the general complexity of geological samples.

  15. Reduced Sampling Size with Nanopipette for Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kohigashi, Tsuyoshi; Otsuka, Yoichi; Shimazu, Ryo; Matsumoto, Takuya; Iwata, Futoshi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with ambient sampling and ionization can rapidly and easily capture the distribution of chemical components in a solid sample. Because the spatial resolution of MSI is limited by the size of the sampling area, reducing sampling size is an important goal for high resolution MSI. Here, we report the first use of a nanopipette for sampling and ionization by tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization (t-SPESI). The spot size of the sampling area of a dye molecular film on a glass substrate was decreased to 6 μm on average by using a nanopipette. On the other hand, ionization efficiency increased with decreasing solvent flow rate. Our results indicate the compatibility between a reduced sampling area and the ionization efficiency using a nanopipette. MSI of micropatterns of ink on a glass and a polymer substrate were also demonstrated. PMID:28101441

  16. Visualization of Elasticity Distribution of Single Human Chromosomes by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Keisuke; Hoshi, Osamu; Fukushi, Daisuke; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Haga, Hisashi; Kawabata, Kazushige

    2005-07-01

    We succeeded in visualizing the spatial distribution of the local elasticity of mitotic human chromosomes in a liquid environment using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Force-versus-indentation curves (force curves) were collected over an entire single chromosome. To estimate the local elasticity of thin chromosomes from the force curves, we examined the validity of a previously proposed model that takes into account the effect of the finite thickness of samples on the estimation of the local elasticity. The force curves obtained are well represented by the model within a small indentation range. The elasticity obtained is independent of the indentation within an indentation range of 100 nm. Such fitting procedures for the force curves collected are carried out over the entire chromosome, and the elasticity distribution of a single chromosome is visualized.

  17. High-precision calibration of a Scanning-Probe Microscope (SPM) for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, D.A.; Lohr, J.D.; Hansen, D.; Lines, M.

    1996-12-31

    For ordinary SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) work, accuracy of XYZ length measurements of about 5% is acceptable. This is accomplished by periodic calibration checks (and adjustments, if required). Measurement of critical dimensions such as feature width and spacing on integrated circuits of compact discs requires much higher accuracy. For example, the new DVD (digital video disc) standard calls for a mean track pitch of 740 nm with a maximum allowable jitter (range) of 30 nm. To achieve a range of 30 nm, the standard deviation should be 10 nm or less. According to the gage-maker`s rule, the measurement tool should be 4x more precise than the object being measured, so we need a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. This report describes the combined use of a new type of calibration standard and new software to meet these requirements.

  18. Scanning probe acoustic microscopy of extruded starch materials: direct visual evidence of starch crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongdong; Liu, Boxiang; Li, Mengxing; Wei, Min; Li, Hua; Liu, Peng; Wan, Tuo

    2013-10-15

    Scanning probe acoustic microscopy (SPAM) has been successfully used to study inorganic and keratin biomaterials. However, few studies have attempted to apply SPAM to structural study of non-keratin organic materials such as starch based materials. This study investigated hardness and surface finish to establish sample preparation method suitable for SPAM imaging and acquired clear acoustic images of extruded starch materials. Acquired acoustic images directly exhibited certain structure of starch materials and provided visual evidence of starch material components and aggregates. In addition, through correlating acoustic images with X-ray diffraction data, crystal-structural information in nano-scale was obtained and acoustic image contrast showed a linear relationship with starch amylose content in extruded starch materials.

  19. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu

    2010-05-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.

  20. Fabrication of co-axial field emitter tips for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Yeon; Robinson, Alex P G; Palmer, Richard E

    2010-04-16

    We report on the fabrication of a co-axial tip for application to scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy (SPELS). The device consists of a 23.3 microm tall tip on a 76 microm tall mesa with a multilayer Si/Au/HfO(2)/Au structure; the outer Au and HfO(2) layers are stripped from the apex of the tip. The inner Au layer is used as a field emitting layer and the outer Au layer is grounded to screen the electric field between the tip and the substrate. The co-axial tip shows comparable field emission characteristics to electrochemically etched tungsten tips. The SPELS spectra of graphite obtained with the new tips show pi and sigma plasmon peaks and intense secondary electron emission peaks. It is anticipated that such co-axial tips will present a significant advantage for future angular resolved SPELS measurements.

  1. Fabrication of sub-12 nm thick silicon nanowires by processing scanning probe lithography masks

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoung Ryu, Yu; Garcia, Ricardo; Aitor Postigo, Pablo; Garcia, Fernando

    2014-06-02

    Silicon nanowires are key elements to fabricate very sensitive mechanical and electronic devices. We provide a method to fabricate sub-12 nm silicon nanowires in thickness by combining oxidation scanning probe lithography and anisotropic dry etching. Extremely thin oxide masks (0.3–1.1 nm) are transferred into nanowires of 2–12 nm in thickness. The width ratio between the mask and the silicon nanowire is close to one which implies that the nanowire width is controlled by the feature size of the nanolithography. This method enables the fabrication of very small single silicon nanowires with cross-sections below 100 nm{sup 2}. Those values are the smallest obtained with a top-down lithography method.

  2. Friedel oscillations in graphene-based systems probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Pierre; Brihuega, Iván; Cherkez, Vladimir; Gómez-Rodríguez, Jose Marìa; Veuillen, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    For the last 25 years, scientists have demonstrated the capabilities of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to visualize in real space the response of a two-dimensional electron gas to atomic-scale impurities. The analysis of the Friedel oscillations surrounding the impurities yields valuable information regarding the elastic scattering properties, the band structure, the doping level and the symmetry of the electronic states in the two-dimensional host system. We will address in this article the use of this technique for probing the electronic properties of graphene, the star two-dimensional compound of the last decade. In particular, we will emphasize how this technique can be pushed up to unravel the electronic pseudospin, a distinctive degree of freedom of graphene's Dirac fermions.

  3. Simple electronics for inertial and Pan-type piezoelectric positioners used in scanning probe microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, LeuJen; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, Alfred K. H.; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new type of circuit designed for driving piezoelectric positioners that rely on the stick-slip phenomenon. The circuit can be used for inertial positioners that have only one piezoelectric element (or multiple elements that are moved simultaneously) or for designs using a sequential movement of independent piezoelectric elements. A relay switches the piezoelectric elements between a high voltage source and ground, thus creating a fast voltage step followed by a slow ramp produced by the exponential discharging of the piezoelectric elements through a series resistor. A timing cascade is generated by having each relay power the next relay in the sequence. This design is simple and inexpensive. While it was developed for scanning probe microscopes, it may be useful for any piezoelectric motor based on a fast jump followed by a slow relaxation.

  4. Combined scanning probe nanotomography and optical microspectroscopy: a correlative technique for 3D characterization of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Mochalov, Konstantin E; Efimov, Anton E; Bobrovsky, Alexey; Agapov, Igor I; Chistyakov, Anton A; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor

    2013-10-22

    Combination of 3D structural analysis with optical characterization of the same sample area on the nanoscale is a highly demanded approach in nanophotonics, materials science, and quality control of nanomaterial. We have developed a correlative microscopy technique where the 3D structure of the sample is reconstructed on the nanoscale by means of a "slice-and-view" combination of ultramicrotomy and scanning probe microscopy (scanning probe nanotomography, SPNT), and its optical characteristics are analyzed using microspectroscopy. This approach has been used to determine the direct quantitative relationship of the 3D structural characteristics of nanovolumes of materials with their microscopic optical properties. This technique has been applied to 3D structural and optical characterization of a hybrid material consisting of cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) that can be used for photochemical patterning and image recording through the changes in the dissymmetry factor of the circular polarization of QD emission. The differences in the polarization images and fluorescent spectra of this hybrid material have proved to be correlated with the arrangement of the areas of homogeneous distribution and heterogeneous clustering of QDs. The reconstruction of the 3D nanostructure of the liquid crystal matrix in the areas of homogeneous QDs distribution has shown that QDs do not perturb the periodic planar texture of the cholesteric liquid crystal matrix, whereas QD clusters do perturb it. The combined microspectroscopy-nanotomography technique will be important for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles on the structural organization of organic and liquid crystal matrices and biomedical materials, as well as quality control of nanotechnology fabrication processes and products.

  5. Scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM) in fluids: Mapping mechanical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Legleiter, Justin; Park, Matthew; Cusick, Brian; Kowalewski, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    One of the major thrusts in proximal probe techniques is combination of imaging capabilities with simultaneous measurements of physical properties. In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), the most straightforward way to accomplish this goal is to reconstruct the time-resolved force interaction between the tip and surface. These tip–sample forces can be used to detect interactions (e.g., binding sites) and map material properties with nanoscale spatial resolution. Here, we describe a previously unreported approach, which we refer to as scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM), in which the TMAFM cantilever acts as an accelerometer to extract tip–sample forces during imaging. This method utilizes the second derivative of the deflection signal to recover the tip acceleration trajectory. The challenge in such an approach is that with real, noisy data, the second derivative of the signal is strongly dominated by the noise. This problem is solved by taking advantage of the fact that most of the information about the deflection trajectory is contained in the higher harmonics, making it possible to filter the signal by “comb” filtering, i.e., by taking its Fourier transform and inverting it while selectively retaining only the intensities at integer harmonic frequencies. Such a comb filtering method works particularly well in fluid TMAFM because of the highly distorted character of the deflection signal. Numerical simulations and in situ TMAFM experiments on supported lipid bilayer patches on mica are reported to demonstrate the validity of this approach. PMID:16551751

  6. Imaging ac losses in superconducting films via scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Rafael B.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Feldmann, D. Matthew; Beasley, M. R.

    2007-04-01

    Various local probes have been applied to understanding current flow through superconducting films, which are often surprisingly inhomogeneous. Here, we show that magnetic imaging allows quantitative reconstruction of both current density J and electric field E resolved in time and space in a film carrying subcritical ac current. Current reconstruction entails inversion of the Biot-Savart law, while electric fields are reconstructed using Faraday’s law. We describe the corresponding numerical procedures, largely adapting existing work to the case of a strip carrying ac current, but including other methods of obtaining the complete electric field from the inductive portion determined by Faraday’s law. We also delineate the physical requirements behind the mathematical transformations. We then apply the procedures to images of a strip of YBa2Cu3O7-δ carrying an ac current at 400Hz . Our scanning Hall probe microscope produces a time series of magnetic images of the strip with 1μm spatial resolution and 25μs time resolution. Combining the reconstructed J and E , we obtain a complete characterization including local critical current density, E-J curves, and power losses. This analysis has a range of applications from fundamental studies of vortex dynamics to practical coated conductor development.

  7. Scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM) in fluids: Mapping mechanical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legleiter, Justin; Park, Matthew; Cusick, Brian; Kowalewski, Tomasz

    2006-03-01

    One of the major thrusts in proximal probe techniques is combination of imaging capabilities with simultaneous measurements of physical properties. In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), the most straightforward way to accomplish this goal is to reconstruct the time-resolved force interaction between the tip and surface. These tip-sample forces can be used to detect interactions (e.g., binding sites) and map material properties with nanoscale spatial resolution. Here, we describe a previously unreported approach, which we refer to as scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM), in which the TMAFM cantilever acts as an accelerometer to extract tip-sample forces during imaging. This method utilizes the second derivative of the deflection signal to recover the tip acceleration trajectory. The challenge in such an approach is that with real, noisy data, the second derivative of the signal is strongly dominated by the noise. This problem is solved by taking advantage of the fact that most of the information about the deflection trajectory is contained in the higher harmonics, making it possible to filter the signal by “comb” filtering, i.e., by taking its Fourier transform and inverting it while selectively retaining only the intensities at integer harmonic frequencies. Such a comb filtering method works particularly well in fluid TMAFM because of the highly distorted character of the deflection signal. Numerical simulations and in situ TMAFM experiments on supported lipid bilayer patches on mica are reported to demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  8. Scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM) in fluids: mapping mechanical properties of surfaces at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Legleiter, Justin; Park, Matthew; Cusick, Brian; Kowalewski, Tomasz

    2006-03-28

    One of the major thrusts in proximal probe techniques is combination of imaging capabilities with simultaneous measurements of physical properties. In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), the most straightforward way to accomplish this goal is to reconstruct the time-resolved force interaction between the tip and surface. These tip-sample forces can be used to detect interactions (e.g., binding sites) and map material properties with nanoscale spatial resolution. Here, we describe a previously unreported approach, which we refer to as scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM), in which the TMAFM cantilever acts as an accelerometer to extract tip-sample forces during imaging. This method utilizes the second derivative of the deflection signal to recover the tip acceleration trajectory. The challenge in such an approach is that with real, noisy data, the second derivative of the signal is strongly dominated by the noise. This problem is solved by taking advantage of the fact that most of the information about the deflection trajectory is contained in the higher harmonics, making it possible to filter the signal by "comb" filtering, i.e., by taking its Fourier transform and inverting it while selectively retaining only the intensities at integer harmonic frequencies. Such a comb filtering method works particularly well in fluid TMAFM because of the highly distorted character of the deflection signal. Numerical simulations and in situ TMAFM experiments on supported lipid bilayer patches on mica are reported to demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  9. Quantifying charge carrier concentration in ZnO thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maragliano, C.; Lilliu, S.; Dahlem, M. S.; Chiesa, M.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last years there has been a renewed interest for zinc oxide semiconductor, mainly triggered by its prospects in optoelectronic applications. In particular, zinc oxide thin films are being widely used for photovoltaic applications, in which the determination of the electrical conductivity is of great importance. Being an intrinsically doped material, the quantification of its doping concentration has always been challenging. Here we show how to probe the charge carrier density of zinc oxide thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, a technique that allows measuring the contact potential difference between the tip and the sample surface with high spatial resolution. A simple electronic energy model is used for correlating the contact potential difference with the doping concentration in the material. Limitations of this technique are discussed in details and some experimental solutions are proposed. Two-dimensional doping concentration images acquired on radio frequency-sputtered intrinsic zinc oxide thin films with different thickness and deposited under different conditions are reported. We show that results inferred with this technique are in accordance with carrier concentration expected for zinc oxide thin films deposited under different conditions and obtained from resistivity and mobility measurements. PMID:24569599

  10. Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes.

    PubMed

    Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schwartzberg, Adam; Cornaglia, Matteo; Ismach, Ariel; Urban, Jeffrey J; Pang, Yuanjie; Gordon, Reuven; Bokor, Jeffrey; Salmeron, Miquel B; Ogletree, D Frank; Ashby, Paul; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James

    2011-03-09

    We have demonstrated hyperspectral tip-enhanced Raman imaging on dielectric substrates using linearly polarized light and nanofabricated coaxial antenna tips. A full Raman spectrum was acquired at each pixel of a 256 by 256 pixel contact-mode atomic force microscope image of carbon nanotubes grown on a fused silica microscope coverslip, allowing D and G mode intensity and D-mode peak shifts to be measured with ∼20 nm spatial resolution. Tip enhancement was sufficient to acquire useful Raman spectra in 50-100 ms. Coaxial scan probes combine the efficiency and enhanced, ultralocalized optical fields of plasmonically coupled antennae with the superior topographical imaging properties of sharp metal tips. The yield of the coaxial tip fabrication process is close to 100%, and the tips are sufficiently durable to support hours of contact-mode force microscope imaging. Our coaxial probes avoid the limitations associated with the "gap-mode" imaging geometry used in most tip-enhanced Raman studies to date, where a sharp metal tip is held ∼1 nm above a metallic substrate with the sample located in the gap.

  11. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  12. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-03-01

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithography, where a material contrast of 13% is observed, with a lateral resolution of 25 nm, between the silver and graphite in electron reflectivity images. Topological contrast mechanisms such as edge enhancement and shadowing are also observed, giving rise to additional features in the electron reflectivity images. The same instrument configuration has been used to measure electron energy loss spectra on bare graphite, where the zero loss peak, π band plasmon loss peak and secondary electron peaks are observed. Using this simple and compact analyzer an STM, with sufficient open access to the tip-sample junction, may easily be augmented to provide simultaneous elemental and topographic mapping, supplementing STM image measurements with FE sample current and electron reflectivity images, as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, in the same instrument.

  13. Magnetic hydroxyapatite coatings as a new tool in medicine: A scanning probe investigation.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, A; Bianchi, M; Kaciulis, S; Mezzi, A; Brucale, M; Cavallini, M; Herrmannsdoerfer, T; Chanda, G; Uhlarz, M; Cellini, A; Pedna, M F; Sambri, V; Marcacci, M; Russo, A

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite films enriched with magnetite have been fabricated via a Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD) system with the final aim of representing a new platform able to disincentivate bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. The chemical composition and magnetic properties of films were respectively examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. The morphology and conductive properties of the magnetic films were investigated via a combination of scanning probe technologies including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Interestingly, the range of adopted techniques allowed determining the preservation of the chemical composition and magnetic properties of the deposition target material while STM analysis provided new insights on the presence of surface inhomogeneities, revealing the presence of magnetite-rich islands over length scales compatible with the applications. Finally, preliminary results of bacterial adhesion tests, indicated a higher ability of magnetic hydroxyapatite films to reduce Escherichia coli adhesion at 4h from seeding compared to control hydroxyapatite films.

  14. Invited review article: A 10 mK scanning probe microscopy facility.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Jae; Otte, Alexander F; Shvarts, Vladimir; Zhao, Zuyu; Kuk, Young; Blankenship, Steven R; Band, Alan; Hess, Frank M; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, development and performance of a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) facility operating at a base temperature of 10 mK in magnetic fields up to 15 T. The microscope is cooled by a custom designed, fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible dilution refrigerator (DR) and is capable of in situ tip and sample exchange. Subpicometer stability at the tip-sample junction is achieved through three independent vibration isolation stages and careful design of the dilution refrigerator. The system can be connected to, or disconnected from, a network of interconnected auxiliary UHV chambers, which include growth chambers for metal and semiconductor samples, a field-ion microscope for tip characterization, and a fully independent additional quick access low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) system. To characterize the system, we present the cooling performance of the DR, vibrational, tunneling current, and tip-sample displacement noise measurements. In addition, we show the spectral resolution capabilities with tunneling spectroscopy results obtained on an epitaxial graphene sample resolving the quantum Landau levels in a magnetic field, including the sublevels corresponding to the lifting of the electron spin and valley degeneracies.

  15. Surface point defects on bulk oxides: atomically-resolved scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Setvín, Martin; Wagner, Margareta; Schmid, Michael; Parkinson, Gareth S; Diebold, Ulrike

    2017-03-17

    Metal oxides are abundant in nature and they are some of the most versatile materials for applications ranging from catalysis to novel electronics. The physical and chemical properties of metal oxides are dramatically influenced, and can be judiciously tailored, by defects. Small changes in stoichiometry introduce so-called intrinsic defects, e.g., atomic vacancies and/or interstitials. This review gives an overview of using Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM), in particular Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), to study the changes in the local geometric and electronic structure related to these intrinsic point defects at the surfaces of metal oxides. Three prototypical systems are discussed: titanium dioxide (TiO2), iron oxides (Fe3O4), and, as an example for a post-transition-metal oxide, indium oxide (In2O3). Each of these three materials prefers a different type of surface point defect: oxygen vacancies, cation vacancies, and cation adatoms, respectively. The different modes of STM imaging and the promising capabilities of non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) techniques are discussed, as well as the capability of STM to manipulate single point defects.

  16. Atomic species recognition on oxide surfaces using low temperature scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zong Min; Shi, Yun Bo; Mu, Ji Liang; Qu, Zhang; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Qin, Li; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In scanning probe microscopy (SPM), the chemical properties and sharpness of the tips of the cantilever greatly influence the scanning of a sample surface. Variation in the chemical properties of the sharp tip apex can induce transformation of the SPM images. In this research, we explore the relationship between the tip and the structure of a sample surface using dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) on a Cu(110)-O surface under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperature (78 K). We observed two different c(6 × 2) phase types in which super-Cu atoms show as a bright spot when the tip apex is of O atoms and O atoms show as a bright spot when the tip apex is of Cu atoms. We also found that the electronic state of the tip has a serious effect on the resolution and stability of the sample surface, and provide an explanation for these phenomena. This technique can be used to identify atom species on sample surfaces, and represents an important development in the SPM technique.

  17. Interface circuits for quartz crystal sensors in scanning probe microscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jersch, Johann; Maletzky, Tobias; Fuchs, Harald

    2006-08-01

    Complementary to industrial cantilever based force sensors in scanning probe microscopy (SPM), symmetrical quartz crystal resonators (QCRs), e.g., tuning fork, trident tuning fork, and needle quartz sensors, are of great interest. A self-excitation scheme with QCR is particularly promising and allows the development of cheap SPM heads with excellent characteristics. We have developed a high performance electronic interface based on an amplitude controlled oscillator and a phase-locked loop frequency demodulator applicable for QCR with frequencies from 10 up to 10MHz. The oscillation amplitude of the sensing tip can be set from thermal noise level up to amplitudes of a tenth of nanometers. The device is small, cheap, and highly sensitive in amplitude and frequency measurements. Important features of the design are grounded QCR, parasitic capacity compensation, bridge schematic, and high temperature stability. Characteristic experimental data of the device and its operation in combination with a commercial SPM and a homemade scanning near-field optical microscope are reported. By using the 1MHz needle quartz resonator with a standard atomic force microscope tip attached, atomic scale resolution in ambient conditions is achieved. Furthermore, reproducible measurements on very soft materials (Langmuir-Blodgett layers) with a very stiff needle quartz (˜400000N/m) are possible.

  18. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E

    2017-03-10

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithography, where a material contrast of 13% is observed, with a lateral resolution of 25 nm, between the silver and graphite in electron reflectivity images. Topological contrast mechanisms such as edge enhancement and shadowing are also observed, giving rise to additional features in the electron reflectivity images. The same instrument configuration has been used to measure electron energy loss spectra on bare graphite, where the zero loss peak, π band plasmon loss peak and secondary electron peaks are observed. Using this simple and compact analyzer an STM, with sufficient open access to the tip-sample junction, may easily be augmented to provide simultaneous elemental and topographic mapping, supplementing STM image measurements with FE sample current and electron reflectivity images, as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, in the same instrument.

  19. Scanning electrochemical microscopy as a local probe of oxygen permeability in cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, M; Barker, A L; Macpherson, J V; Unwin, P R; O'Hare, D; Winlove, C P

    2000-01-01

    The use of scanning electrochemical microscopy, a high-resolution chemical imaging technique, to probe the distribution and mobility of solutes in articular cartilage is described. In this application, a mobile ultramicroelectrode is positioned close ( approximately 1 microm) to the cartilage sample surface, which has been equilibrated in a bathing solution containing the solute of interest. The solute is electrolyzed at a diffusion-limited rate, and the current response measured as the ultramicroelectrode is scanned across the sample surface. The topography of the samples was determined using Ru(CN)(6)(4-), a solute to which the cartilage matrix was impermeable. This revealed a number of pit-like depressions corresponding to the distribution of chondrocytes, which were also observed by atomic force and light microscopy. Subsequent imaging of the same area of the cartilage sample for the diffusion-limited reduction of oxygen indicated enhanced, but heterogeneous, permeability of oxygen across the cartilage surface. In particular, areas of high permeability were observed in the cellular and pericellular regions. This is the first time that inhomogeneities in the permeability of cartilage toward simple solutes, such as oxygen, have been observed on a micrometer scale. PMID:10692342

  20. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of cultured myogenic C2C12 cells with scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tylko, G; Karasiński, J; Wróblewski, R; Roomans, G M; Kilarski, W M

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the elemental content of myogenic C2C12 cultured cells was studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) with scanning (SEM EPXMA) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM EPXMA). The best plastic substrate for growing cells was Thermanox. For STEM EPXMA, a Formvar film coated with carbon was found to be suitable substrate. The cells examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed great heterogeneity in their elemental content in comparison with the cells examined in the scanning electron microscope despite of an almost identical preparation procedure for EPXMA. Nevertheless the K/Na ratios obtained from both methods of EPXMA were very close (4.1 and 4.3). We conclude that the observed discrepancy in the elemental content obtained by the two methods may be due to differences in instrumentation and this must be taken into account when planning a comparative study.

  1. Scanning probe microscopies for the creation and characterization of interfacial architectures: Studies of alkyl thiolate monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Green, John -Bruce

    1997-01-10

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers access to the structural and material properties of interfaces, and when combined with macroscopic characterization techniques results in a powerful interfacial development tool. However, the relative infancy of SPM techniques has dictated that initial investigations concentrate on model interfacial systems as benchmarks for testing the control and characterization capabilities of SPM. One such family of model interfacial systems results from the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl thiols to gold. This dissertation examines the application of SPM to the investigation of the interfacial properties of these alkyl thiolate monolayers. Structural investigations result in a proposed explanation for counterintuitive correlations between substrate roughness and heterogeneous electron transfer barrier properties. Frictional measurements are used for characterization of the surface free energy of a series of end-group functionalized monolayers, as well as for the material properties of monolayers composed of varying chain length alkyl thiols. Additional investigations used these characterization techniques to monitor the real-time evolution of chemical and electrochemical surface reactions. The results of these investigations demonstrates the value of SPM technology to the compositional mapping of surfaces, elucidation of interfacial defects, creation of molecularly sized chemically heterogeneous architectures, as well as to the monitoring of surface reactions. However, it is the future which will demonstrate the usefulness of SPM technology to the advancement of science and technology.

  2. Advanced Molecular Probes for Sequence-Specific DNA Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, Alessandro; Manicardi, Alex; Corradini, Roberto

    DNA detection can be achieved using the Watson-Crick base pairing with oligonucleotides or oligonucleotide analogs, followed by generation of a physical or chemical signal coupled with a transducer device. The nature of the probe is an essential feature which determines the performances of the sensing device. Many synthetic processes are presently available for "molecular engineering" of DNA probes, enabling label-free and PCR-free detection to be performed. Furthermore, many DNA analogs with improved performances are available and are under development; locked nucleic acids (LNA), peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and their analogs, morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) and other modified probes have shown improved properties of affinity and selectivity in target recognition compared to those of simple DNA probes. The performances of these probes in sensing devices, and the requirements for detection of unamplified DNA will be discussed in this chapter. Chemistry and architectures for conjugation of probes to reporter units, surfaces and nanostructures will also be discussed. Examples of probes used in ultrasensitive detection of unamplified DNA are listed.

  3. Effects of curved approach paths and advanced displays on pilot scan patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Mixon, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The effect on pilot scan behavior of both advanced cockpit and advanced manuevers was assessed. A series of straight-in and curved landing approaches were performed in the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) simulator. Two comparisons of pilot scan behavior were made: (1) pilot scan behavior for straight-in approaches compared with scan behavior previously obtained in a conventionally equipped simulator, and (2) pilot scan behavior for straight-in approaches compared with scan behavior for curved approaches. The results indicate very similar scanning patterns during the straight-in approaches in the conventional and advanced cockpits. However, for the curved approaches pilot attention shifted to the electronic horizontal situation display (moving map), and a new eye scan path appeared between the map and the airspeed indicator. The very high dwell percentage and dwell times on the electronic displays in the TCV simulator during the final portions of the approaches suggest that the electronic attitude direction indicator was well designed for these landing approaches.

  4. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M. C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.

  5. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M.C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  6. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-06-07

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.

  7. Advances in the calibration of atom probe tomographic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P.; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Stephenson, Leigh T.; Haley, Daniel; Ringer, Simon P.; Geuser, Frederic de; Tsafnat, Guy

    2009-02-01

    Modern wide field-of-view atom probes permit observation of a wide range of crystallographic features that can be used to calibrate the tomographic reconstruction of the analyzed volume. In this study, methodologies to determine values of the geometric parameters involved in the tomographic reconstruction of atom probe data sets are presented and discussed. The influence of the tip to electrode distance and specimen temperature on these parameters is explored. Significantly, their influence is demonstrated to be very limited, indicating a relatively wide regime of experimental parameters space for sound atom probe tomography (APT) experiments. These methods have been used on several specimens and material types, and the results indicate that the reconstruction parameters are specific to each specimen. Finally, it is shown how an accurate calibration of the reconstruction enables improvements to the quality and reliability of the microscopy and microanalysis capabilities of the atom probe.

  8. Design and evaluation of precise current integrator for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczkowski, Kamil; Piasecki, Tomasz; Rudek, Maciej; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2017-03-01

    Several of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques, such as the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) or conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), rely on precise measurements of current flowing between the investigated sample and the conductive nanoprobe. The parameters of current-to-voltage converter (CVC), which should detect current in the picompere range, are of utmost importance to those systems as they determine the microscopes’ measuring capabilities. That was the motivation for research on the precise current integrator (PCI), described in this paper, which could be used as the CVC in the C-AFM systems. The main design goal of the PCI was to provide a small and versatile device with the sub-picoampere level resolution with high dynamic range in the order of nanoamperes. The PCI was based on the integrating amplifier (Texas Instruments DDC112) paired with a STM32F4 microcontroller unit (MCU).The gain and bandwidth of the PCI might be easily changed by varying the integration time and the feedback capacitance. Depending on these parameters it was possible to obtain for example the 2.15 pA resolution at 688 nA range with 1 kHz bandwidth or 7.4 fA resolution at 0.98 nA range with 10 Hz bandwidth. The measurement of sinusoidal current with 28 fA amplitude was also presented. The PCI was integrated with the C-AFM system and used in the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene samples imaging.

  9. Ultra-sharp metal and nanotube-based probes for applications in scanning microscopy and neural recording

    PubMed Central

    Borzenets, I. V.; Yoon, I.; Prior, M. M.; Donald, B. R.; Mooney, R. D.; Finkelstein, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses several methods for manufacturing ultra-sharp probes, with applications geared toward, but not limited to, scanning microscopy (STM, AFM) and intra-cellular recordings of neural signals. We present recipes for making tungsten, platinum/iridium alloy, and nanotube fibril tips. Electrical isolation methods using Parylene-C or PMMA are described. PMID:22550361

  10. PREDICTING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR MINERALS AND XENOBIOTICS: USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  11. Controlled-Resonant Surface Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonance surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 m based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  12. A new centering method of the measuring probe for spiral scanning-based surface profile measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zeng, Pei-Yang; Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-02-01

    Spiral scanning is a high-efficiency scanning mode for surface profile measurement systems. The most important priority to realize the spiral scanning mode is to accurately align the measuring probe with the rotational centre of the spindle. This paper proposes a novel centre alignment method of the measuring probe, which is considered to be suitable for any type of spiral scanning surface measurement systems. The proposed method, which only needs a tilted flat mirror as the artefact, makes the time-consuming centre alignment process of the measuring probe become much easier and faster. The operational steps of the proposed method are presented. Experiments have also been carried out based on a self-developed optical profiler with spiral scanning operation to verity the feasibility of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of conducting a fast alignment (only takes 3 min) while maintaining a high alignment accuracy. Evaluation of the alignment accuracy shows that the centering error is less than 10 µm on the mechanical guide rail stage and about 1.7 µm on the air-bearing stage.

  13. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926-1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface.

  14. Interfacial chemistry at metal/CdTe contacts as probed by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.-Y.; Wei, C.; Rajeshwar, K.

    1994-10-01

    All four possible chemical reactivity patterns, namely, outdiffusion of Te (metal-Cd alloy formation), Cd outdiffusion (metal telluride compound formation), comparable chemical reactivity of the metal towards both Cd and Te (no Cd or Te outdiffusion), and chemical inertness of the metal towards CdTe, were differentiated via the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique from a study of the interaction of nine different metals toward CdTe powder. The fusion signatures of free Cd or Te, exotherms due to compound or alloy formation, along with the thermal transitions of the metal telluride and/or the intermetallic were used for this purpose. These reactivity patterns are discussed within the framework of two different thermodynamic models. Both virgin and chemically etched CdTe surfaces were examined, and found to exhibit rather different reactivity trends towards the metal. The ramifications of these results in terms of the electronic properties of metal/CdTe contacts are discussed. Finally, DSC is shown to be useful for probing alterations in the CdTe surface chemistry as a result of the etch treatment.

  15. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: general dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.

  16. Electrochemical and scanning probe microscopic characterization of spontaneously adsorbed organothiolate monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Sze-Shun Season

    1999-12-10

    This dissertation presented several results which add to the general knowledge base regarding organothiolates monolayer spontaneously adsorbed at gold films. Common to the body of this work is the use of voltammetric reductive resorption and variants of scanning probe microscopy to gain insight into the nature of the monolayer formation process as well as the resulting interface. The most significant result from this work is the success of using friction force microscopy to discriminate the end group orientation of monolayer chemisorbed at smooth gold surfaces with micrometer resolution (Chapter 4). The ability to detect the differences in the orientational disposition is demonstrated by the use PDMS polymer stamp to microcontact print an adlayer of n-alkanethiolate of length n in a predefine pattern onto a gold surface, followed by the solution deposition of a n-alkanethiol of n ± 1 to fill in the areas on the gold surface intentionally not coated by the stamping process. These two-component monolayers can be discriminated by using friction force microscopy which detects differences in friction contributed by the differences in the orientation of the terminal groups at surfaces. This success has recently led to the detection of the orientation differences at nanometer scale. Although the substrates examined in this work consisted entirely of smooth gold films, the same test can be performed on other smooth substrates and monolayer materials.

  17. Multi-step process control and characterization of scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. A.; Ruskell, T. G.; Pyle, J. L.; Workman, R. K.; Yao, X.; Hunt, J. P.; Sarid, D.; Parks, H. G.; Vermeire, B.

    An atomic force microscope with a conducting tip (CT-AFM) was used to fabricate and characterize nanometer scale lines of (1) silicon oxide and (2) silicon nitride on H-terminated n-type silicon (100) wafers. In process (1), a negative bias was applied to the tip of the CT-AFM system and the resulting electric field caused electrolysis of ambient water vapor and local oxidation of the silicon surface. In addition, the accompanying current was detected by a sub-pA current amplifier. In process (2), the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere containing a small partial pressure of ammonia resulted in the local nitridation of the surface. The CT-AFM system was also used to locate and study the dielectric properties of the silicon-oxide lines as well as copper islands buried under 20 nm of silicon dioxide. A computer-controlled feedback system and raster scanning of the sample produced simultaneous topographic and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling maps of the structures under study. Detailed aspects of nanolithography and local-probe Fowler-Nordheim characterization using a CT-AFM will be discussed.

  18. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.

  19. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; ...

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify themore » findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.« less

  20. Observations of liver cancer cells in scanning probe acoustic microscope: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiaoyue; Xi, Qing; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Ding, Mingyue

    2016-04-01

    Scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM) can be used to acquire the morphology image as well as the non-destructive internal structures acoustic image. However, the observations of the morphology image as well as the internal structures acoustic image of liver cancer cells in SPAM are few. In this paper, we cultured 4 different types of liver cancer cells on the silicon wafer and coverslip to observe their morphology images as well as acoustic images in SPAM, and made a preliminary study of the 8 types of cells specimens (hereinafter referred to as the silicon specimens and coverslips specimens). The experimental measurement results showed that some cellular pseudopodium were observed in the morphology images of the coverslip specimens while no such cellular pseupodium were appeared in the morphology images of the silicon specimens, which concluded that the living liver cancer cells were less likely to grow on the silicon wafer. SPAM provides a rapid and sensitive visual method for studying the morphology and internal structures of the cancer cells. The proposed method can be also used to obtain the morphology and internal information in both solid and soft material wafers, such as silicon and cells, with the resolution of nanometer scale.

  1. Direct imaging of defect formation in strained organic flexible electronics by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Tobias; Travaglini, Lorenzo; Lai, Stefano; Patruno, Luca; de Miranda, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa; Cosseddu, Piero; Fraboni, Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The development of new materials and devices for flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. Scanning Kelvin-Probe Microscopy (SKPM) is a unique technique for nanoelectronic investigations as it combines non-invasive measurement of surface topography and surface electrical potential. Here we show that SKPM in non-contact mode is feasible on deformed flexible samples and allows to identify strain induced electronic defects. As an example we apply the technique to investigate the strain response of organic thin film transistors containing TIPS-pentacene patterned on polymer foils. Controlled surface strain is induced in the semiconducting layer by bending the transistor substrate. The amount of local strain is quantified by a mathematical model describing the bending mechanics. We find that the step-wise reduction of device performance at critical bending radii is caused by the formation of nano-cracks in the microcrystal morphology of the TIPS-pentacene film. The cracks are easily identified due to the abrupt variation in SKPM surface potential caused by a local increase in resistance. Importantly, the strong surface adhesion of microcrystals to the elastic dielectric allows to maintain a conductive path also after fracture thus providing the opportunity to attenuate strain effects.

  2. Charge injection on insulators via scanning probe microscopy techniques: towards data storage devices.

    PubMed

    Silva-Pinto, E; Neves, B R A

    2010-07-01

    The idea of contact electrification aiming the development of nano-scale data storage devices has been explored through a careful investigation of charge injection on insulating films (SiO2 and PMMA) via scanning probe microscopy techniques. A complete route for data storage, showing simple and effective ways to write (inject the charge with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip), to read (detect the charge with electric force microscopy), to store (keep sample charge by changing ambient and surface conditions) and to erase the information (make the discharge process faster) is proposed and discussed. A detailed study of the influence of several parameters like AFM mode, bias voltage, relative humidity and surface hydrophobicity is also presented to optimize both charge injection and discharge processes. Results show that monitoring parameters such as ambient relative humidity and surface hydrophobic/hydrophilic character enable the control of pattern size, lateral dispersion, and storage time. The charge polarity is also dependent on the surface hydrophobicity and either positive or negative charges can become more appropriate for storage depending on the surface hydrophobic/hydrophilic character.

  3. Implementation of atomically defined field ion microscopy tips in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, William; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grütter, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The field ion microscope (FIM) can be used to characterize the atomic configuration of the apices of sharp tips. These tips are well suited for scanning probe microscope (SPM) use since they predetermine the SPM resolution and the electronic structure for spectroscopy. A protocol is proposed for preserving the atomic structure of the tip apex from etching due to gas impurities during the period of transfer from the FIM to the SPM, and estimations are made regarding the time limitations of such an experiment due to contamination with ultra-high vacuum rest gases. While avoiding any current setpoint overshoot to preserve the tip integrity, we present results from approaches of atomically defined tungsten tips to the tunneling regime with Au(111), HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and Si(111) surfaces at room temperature. We conclude from these experiments that adatom mobility and physisorbed gas on the sample surface limit the choice of surfaces for which the tip integrity is preserved in tunneling experiments at room temperature. The atomic structure of FIM tip apices is unchanged only after tunneling to the highly reactive Si(111) surface.

  4. Determination of the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. A.; Il'in, O. I.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques are developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA CNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These techniques are used to study the resistance of VA CNTs. The resistance of an individual VA CNT calculated with the AFM-based technique is shown to be higher than the resistance of VA CNTs determined by the STM-based technique by a factor of 200, which is related to the influence of the resistance of the contact of an AFM probe to VA CNTs. The resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of an individual VA CNT 118 ± 39 nm in diameter and 2.23 ± 0.37 μm in height that are determined by the STM-based technique are 19.28 ± 3.08 kΩ/μm and 8.32 ± 3.18 × 10-4 Ω m, respectively. The STM-based technique developed to determine the resistance per unit length and the electrical resistivity of VA CNTs can be used to diagnose the electrical parameters of VA CNTs and to create VA CNT-based nanoelectronic elements.

  5. Field programmable gate array based reconfigurable scanning probe/optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Derek B; Lawrence, A J; Dzegede, Zechariah K; Hiester, Justin C; Kim, Cliff; Sánchez, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    The increasing popularity of nanometrology and nanospectroscopy has pushed researchers to develop complex new analytical systems. This paper describes the development of a platform on which to build a microscopy tool that will allow for flexibility of customization to suit research needs. The novelty of the described system lies in its versatility of capabilities. So far, one version of this microscope has allowed for successful near-field and far-field fluorescence imaging with single molecule detection sensitivity. This system is easily adapted for reflection, polarization (Kerr magneto-optical (MO)), Raman, super-resolution techniques, and other novel scanning probe imaging and spectroscopic designs. While collecting a variety of forms of optical images, the system can simultaneously monitor topographic information of a sample with an integrated tuning fork based shear force system. The instrument has the ability to image at room temperature and atmospheric pressure or under liquid. The core of the design is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) data acquisition card and a single, low cost computer to control the microscope with analog control circuitry using off-the-shelf available components. A detailed description of electronics, mechanical requirements, and software algorithms as well as examples of some different forms of the microscope developed so far are discussed.

  6. Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor.

    PubMed

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Emmanouilidou, Eve; Ni, Ni; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C

    2016-08-01

    High-spatial-resolution magnetic imaging has driven important developments in fields ranging from materials science to biology. However, to uncover finer details approaching the nanoscale with greater sensitivity requires the development of a radically new sensor technology. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond has emerged as a promising candidate for such a sensor on the basis of its atomic size and quantum-limited sensing capabilities. It has remained an outstanding challenge to implement the NV centre as a nanoscale scanning magnetic probe at cryogenic temperatures, however, where many solid-state systems exhibit non-trivial magnetic order. Here, we present NV magnetic imaging down to 6 K with 3 μT Hz(-1/2) field sensitivity, and use the technique to image vortices in the iron pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As0.7P0.3)2 with critical temperature Tc = 30 K. The expansion of NV-based magnetic imaging to cryogenic temperatures will enable future studies of previously inaccessible nanoscale magnetism in condensed-matter systems.

  7. Direct imaging of defect formation in strained organic flexible electronics by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Tobias; Travaglini, Lorenzo; Lai, Stefano; Patruno, Luca; de Miranda, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa; Cosseddu, Piero; Fraboni, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The development of new materials and devices for flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. Scanning Kelvin-Probe Microscopy (SKPM) is a unique technique for nanoelectronic investigations as it combines non-invasive measurement of surface topography and surface electrical potential. Here we show that SKPM in non-contact mode is feasible on deformed flexible samples and allows to identify strain induced electronic defects. As an example we apply the technique to investigate the strain response of organic thin film transistors containing TIPS-pentacene patterned on polymer foils. Controlled surface strain is induced in the semiconducting layer by bending the transistor substrate. The amount of local strain is quantified by a mathematical model describing the bending mechanics. We find that the step-wise reduction of device performance at critical bending radii is caused by the formation of nano-cracks in the microcrystal morphology of the TIPS-pentacene film. The cracks are easily identified due to the abrupt variation in SKPM surface potential caused by a local increase in resistance. Importantly, the strong surface adhesion of microcrystals to the elastic dielectric allows to maintain a conductive path also after fracture thus providing the opportunity to attenuate strain effects. PMID:27910889

  8. Direct imaging of defect formation in strained organic flexible electronics by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Tobias; Travaglini, Lorenzo; Lai, Stefano; Patruno, Luca; de Miranda, Stefano; Bonfiglio, Annalisa; Cosseddu, Piero; Fraboni, Beatrice

    2016-12-02

    The development of new materials and devices for flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. Scanning Kelvin-Probe Microscopy (SKPM) is a unique technique for nanoelectronic investigations as it combines non-invasive measurement of surface topography and surface electrical potential. Here we show that SKPM in non-contact mode is feasible on deformed flexible samples and allows to identify strain induced electronic defects. As an example we apply the technique to investigate the strain response of organic thin film transistors containing TIPS-pentacene patterned on polymer foils. Controlled surface strain is induced in the semiconducting layer by bending the transistor substrate. The amount of local strain is quantified by a mathematical model describing the bending mechanics. We find that the step-wise reduction of device performance at critical bending radii is caused by the formation of nano-cracks in the microcrystal morphology of the TIPS-pentacene film. The cracks are easily identified due to the abrupt variation in SKPM surface potential caused by a local increase in resistance. Importantly, the strong surface adhesion of microcrystals to the elastic dielectric allows to maintain a conductive path also after fracture thus providing the opportunity to attenuate strain effects.

  9. Integrated cantilever fabrication and system development for ultrasonic and acoustic scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Stephen; Sankaran, Balasubramanian; Altemus, Bruce; Xu, Bai; Geer, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Although the conventional optical lever technology typically used for scanning probe microscope applications has proven highly sensitive, accurate, and cost effective for most applications involving micromachined cantilever deflection measurements, frequency limitations and space needs limit its applicability to emerging ultrasonic-based SPM applications. Recently, the fabrication of cantilevers integrated with actuation and sensing components has opened avenues for feedback-based driving of micromachined cantilevers at higher-order resonance frequencies while sensing average deflection without the need for an optical deflection pathway for average deflection sensing. The work presented here will review recent efforts by our group in fabricating micromachined cantilevers with integrated piezoresistive deflection-sensing components combined with integrated ZnO actuation layers to induce cantilever deflection. These cantilevers are being fabricated for use in a heterodyne force microscopy system (HFM) to enable SPM imaging contrast based on viscoelastic response of a surface in contact with a micromachined tip wherein active-feedback technology is being applied to maintain ultrasonic tip excitation at higher order cantilever resonances. The first and second-pass fabrication results will be presented and reviewed regarding cantilever release and ZnO actuator (and electrode) fabrication. Dynamic response data from these structures, measured via laser Doppler vibrometery reveal the expected resonance structure for a cantilever of these dimensions.

  10. Toward quantitative electrochemical measurements on the nanoscale by scanning probe microscopy: environmental and current spreading effects.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Thomas M; Kumar, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Veith, Gabriel M; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-09-24

    The application of electric bias across tip-surface junctions in scanning probe microscopy can readily induce surface and bulk electrochemical processes that can be further detected though changes in surface topography, Faradaic or conductive currents, or electromechanical strain responses. However, the basic factors controlling tip-induced electrochemical processes, including the relationship between applied tip bias and the thermodynamics of local processes, remains largely unexplored. Using the model Li-ion reduction reaction on the surface in Li-ion conducting glass ceramic, we explore the factors controlling Li-metal formation and find surprisingly strong effects of atmosphere and back electrode composition on the process. We find that reaction processes are highly dependent on the nature of the counter electrode and environmental conditions. Using a nondepleting Li counter electrode, Li particles could grow significantly larger and faster than a depleting counter electrode. Significant Li ion depletion leads to the inability for further Li reduction. Time studies suggest that Li diffusion replenishes the vacant sites after ∼12 h. These studies suggest the feasibility of SPM-based quantitative electrochemical studies under proper environmental controls, extending the concepts of ultramicroelectrodes to the single-digit nanometer scale.

  11. Characterization of the electronic properties of magnetic and semiconductor devices using scanning probe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaadt, Daniel Maria

    In the first part of this dissertation, scanning probe techniques are used in the study of localized charge deposition and subsequent transport in Co nanoclusters embedded in a SiO2 matrix are presented, and the application of this material in a hybrid magneto-electronic device for magnetic field sensing is described. Co nanoclusters are charged by applying a bias voltage pulse between a conductive tip and the sample, and electrostatic force microscopy is used to image charged areas. An exponential decay in the peak charge density is observed with decay times dependent on the nominal Co film thickness and on the sign of the deposited charge. The results are interpreted as a consequence of Coulomb-blockade effects. This study leads to the design of a hybrid magneto-electronic device, in which Co nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 are incorporated into the gate of a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Current flow through the Co nanoclusters leads to a buildup of electronic charge within the gate, and consequently to a transistor threshold voltage shift that varies with applied external magnetic field. The shift in threshold voltage results in an exponential change in subthreshold current and a quadratic change in saturation current. A detailed analysis of the device operation is presented. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the characterization of electronic properties of GaN-based heterostructure devices. Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and spectroscopy (SCS) are used to investigate lateral variations in the transistor threshold voltage and the frequency-dependent response of surface charges and of charge in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The technique is described in detail, electrostatic simulations performed to study the influence of the probe tip geometry on the measured dC/dV spectra are presented, and the limitations of the SCS technique in a variety of applications are evaluated. Features in SCM images and maps of

  12. Planar evanescent microwave imaging probes for nondestructive evaluation of materials with very high spatial resolutions and scan rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood; Wang, Ruoxun

    2001-04-01

    Local probes, such as scanning tunneling, atomic force, near-field scanning, and evanescent microwave microscopes are important material characterization tools with nearly atomic spatial resolutions capable of operating in many different environments. All these probes are currently laboratory tools with limited real-time manufacturing applications because of their low speed. EMM has the greatest potential of acquiring higher scanning speed because it does not require an intimate contact with the material surface. EMM is also capable of characterizing a variety of organic and inorganic materials including metals, semiconductors, and insulators over a wide range of frequencies and length scales. Here we discuss the application of parallel EMMs in monitoring thin-film quality in real-time and in situ. We address data management and mining issues to deal with the very large data bandwidth generated by EMM.

  13. A scanning probe microscope for magnetoresistive cantilevers utilizing a nested scanner design for large-area scans

    PubMed Central

    Förste, Alexander; Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Rott, Karsten; Meyners, Dirk; Gröger, Roland; Reiss, Günter; Quandt, Eckhard; Schimmel, Thomas; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Summary We describe an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the characterization of self-sensing tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) cantilevers. Furthermore, we achieve a large scan-range with a nested scanner design of two independent piezo scanners: a small high resolution scanner with a scan range of 5 × 5 × 5 μm3 is mounted on a large-area scanner with a scan range of 800 × 800 × 35 μm3. In order to characterize TMR sensors on AFM cantilevers as deflection sensors, the AFM is equipped with a laser beam deflection setup to measure the deflection of the cantilevers independently. The instrument is based on a commercial AFM controller and capable to perform large-area scanning directly without stitching of images. Images obtained on different samples such as calibration standard, optical grating, EPROM chip, self-assembled monolayers and atomic step-edges of gold demonstrate the high stability of the nested scanner design and the performance of self-sensing TMR cantilevers. PMID:25821686

  14. A scanning probe microscope for magnetoresistive cantilevers utilizing a nested scanner design for large-area scans.

    PubMed

    Meier, Tobias; Förste, Alexander; Tavassolizadeh, Ali; Rott, Karsten; Meyners, Dirk; Gröger, Roland; Reiss, Günter; Quandt, Eckhard; Schimmel, Thomas; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    We describe an atomic force microscope (AFM) for the characterization of self-sensing tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) cantilevers. Furthermore, we achieve a large scan-range with a nested scanner design of two independent piezo scanners: a small high resolution scanner with a scan range of 5 × 5 × 5 μm(3) is mounted on a large-area scanner with a scan range of 800 × 800 × 35 μm(3). In order to characterize TMR sensors on AFM cantilevers as deflection sensors, the AFM is equipped with a laser beam deflection setup to measure the deflection of the cantilevers independently. The instrument is based on a commercial AFM controller and capable to perform large-area scanning directly without stitching of images. Images obtained on different samples such as calibration standard, optical grating, EPROM chip, self-assembled monolayers and atomic step-edges of gold demonstrate the high stability of the nested scanner design and the performance of self-sensing TMR cantilevers.

  15. Advanced Use of Therma-Probe for Ultra-Shallow Junction Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Janusz; Clarysse, Trudo; Smets, Gerrit; Rosseel, Erik; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2011-11-01

    Therma-Probe® (TP) is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the Statistical Process Control (SPC) monitoring of the various ion implantation steps included in the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor process. This fully optical, hence non-destructive and fast, pump-probe technique measures the probe laser reflectance (DC reflectance) as well as the pump-laser-induced changes in probe reflectance (AC reflectance, also called TW signal). In this paper, we report on the latest advances in the use of TP for the monitoring of ultra-shallow junctions both before and after annealing of the implanted layers.

  16. Probing the temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of polymers at the nanoscale with band excitation thermal scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, M P; Jesse, S; Morozovska, A N; Eliseev, E A; Germinario, L T; Kalinin, S V

    2009-09-30

    Understanding local mechanisms for temperature-induced phase transitions in polymers requires quantitative measurements of the thermomechanical behavior, including glass transition and melting temperatures as well as temperature dependent elastic and loss modulus and thermal expansion coefficients in nanoscale volumes. Here, we demonstrate an approach for probing local thermal phase transitions based on the combination of thermal field confinement by a heated SPM probe and multi-frequency thermomechanical detection. The local measurement of the glass transition temperature is demonstrated and the detection limits are established.

  17. Microscopic techniques bridging between nanoscale and microscale with an atomically sharpened tip - field ion microscopy/scanning probe microscopy/ scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tomitori, Masahiko; Sasahara, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Over a hundred years an atomistic point of view has been indispensable to explore fascinating properties of various materials and to develop novel functional materials. High-resolution microscopies, rapidly developed during the period, have taken central roles in promoting materials science and related techniques to observe and analyze the materials. As microscopies with the capability of atom-imaging, field ion microscopy (FIM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be cited, which have been highly evaluated as methods to ultimately bring forward the viewpoint of reductionism in materials science. On one hand, there have been difficulties to derive useful and practical information on large (micro) scale unique properties of materials using these excellent microscopies and to directly advance the engineering for practical materials. To make bridges over the gap between an atomic scale and an industrial engineering scale, we have to develop emergence science step-by-step as a discipline having hierarchical structures for future prospects by combining nanoscale and microscale techniques; as promising ways, the combined microscopic instruments covering the scale gap and the extremely sophisticated methods for sample preparation seem to be required. In addition, it is noted that spectroscopic and theoretical methods should implement the emergence science.Fundamentally, the function of microscope is to determine the spatial positions of a finite piece of material, that is, ultimately individual atoms, at an extremely high resolution with a high stability. To define and control the atomic positions, the STM and AFM as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have successfully demonstrated their power; the technological heart of SPM lies in an atomically sharpened tip, which can be observed by FIM and TEM. For emergence science we would like to set sail using the tip as a base. Meanwhile, it is significant

  18. Insulated gold scanning tunneling microscopy probes for recognition tunneling in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Tuchband, Michael; He, Jin; Huang, Shuo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Chemically functionalized probes are required for tunneling measurements made via chemical contacts ("Recognition Tunneling"). Here, we describe the etching of gold STM probes suitable for chemical functionalization with moieties bearing thiol groups. Insulated with high density polyethylene, these probes may be used in aqueous electrolytes with sub pA leakage currents. The area of the exposed probe surface was characterized via the saturation current in an electroactive solution (0.1 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6)). Twenty five percent of the probes had an exposed region of 10 nm radius or less.

  19. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert

    2015-12-15

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  20. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications.

    PubMed

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert

    2015-12-01

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  1. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert

    2015-12-01

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  2. Probing the location of displayed cytochrome b562 on amyloid by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, C. J.; Wang, N.; Yang, Z. Y.; Mowat, C. G.; Jarvis, S.; Durkan, C.; Barker, P. D.

    2013-05-01

    Amyloid fibres displaying cytochrome b562 were probed using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) in vacuo. The cytochromes are electron transfer proteins containing a haem cofactor and could, in principle, mediate electron transfer between the tip and the gold substrate. If the core fibres were insulating and electron transfer within the 3D haem network was detected, then the electron transport properties of the fibre could be controlled by genetic engineering. Three kinds of STM images were obtained. At a low bias (<1.5 V) the fibres appeared as regions of low conductivity with no evidence of cytochrome mediated electron transfer. At a high bias, stable peaks in tunnelling current were observed for all three fibre species containing haem and one species of fibre that did not contain haem. In images of this kind, some of the current peaks were collinear and spaced around 10 nm apart over ranges longer than 100 nm, but background monomers complicate interpretation. Images of the third kind were rare (1 in 150 fibres); in these, fully conducting structures with the approximate dimensions of fibres were observed, suggesting the possibility of an intermittent conduction mechanism, for which a precedent exists in DNA. To test the conductivity, some fibres were immobilized with sputtered gold, and no evidence of conduction between the grains of gold was seen. In control experiments, a variation of monomeric cytochrome b562 was not detected by STM, which was attributed to low adhesion, whereas a monomeric multi-haem protein, GSU1996, was readily imaged. We conclude that the fibre superstructure may be intermittently conducting, that the cytochromes have been seen within the fibres and that they are too far apart for detectable current flow between sites to occur. We predict that GSU1996, being 10 nm long, is more likely to mediate successful electron transfer along the fibre as well as being more readily detectable when displayed from amyloid.

  3. Probing core-electron orbitals by scanning transmission electron microscopy and measuring the delocalization of core-level excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-04-01

    By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.

  4. Analytical procedure for experimental quantification of carrier concentration in semiconductor devices by using electric scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takaya; Matsumura, Koji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is based on a contact-mode variant of atomic force microscopy, which is used for imaging two-dimensional carrier (electrons and holes) distributions in semiconductor devices. We introduced a method of quantification of the carrier concentration by experimentally deduced calibration curves, which were prepared for semiconductor materials such as silicon and silicon carbide. The analytical procedure was circulated to research organizations in a round-robin test. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed for practical analysis and for what is expected for industrial pre-standardization from the viewpoint of comparability among users. It was also applied to other electric scanning probe microscopy techniques such as scanning spreading resistance microscopy and scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. Their depth profiles of carrier concentration were found to be in good agreement with those characterized by SCM. These results suggest that our proposed method will be compatible with future next-generation microscopy.

  5. Characterizing nanoscale scanning probes using electron microscopy: A novel fixture and a practical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Tevis D. B.; Wabiszewski, Graham E.; Goodman, Alexander J.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2016-01-15

    The nanoscale geometry of probe tips used for atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements determines the lateral resolution, contributes to the strength of the tip-surface interaction, and can be a significant source of uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of results. While inverse imaging of the probe tip has been used successfully to determine probe tip geometry, direct observation of the tip profile using electron microscopy (EM) confers several advantages: it provides direct (rather than indirect) imaging, requires fewer algorithmic parameters, and does not require bringing the tip into contact with a sample. In the past, EM-based observation of the probe tip has been achieved using ad hoc mounting methods that are constrained by low throughput, the risk of contamination, and repeatability issues. We report on a probe fixture designed for use in a commercial transmission electron microscope that enables repeatable mounting of multiple AFM probes as well as a reference grid for beam alignment. This communication describes the design, fabrication, and advantages of this probe fixture, including full technical drawings for machining. Further, best practices are discussed for repeatable, non-destructive probe imaging. Finally, examples of the fixture’s use are described, including characterization of common commercial AFM probes in their out-of-the-box condition.

  6. SpectraFox: A free open-source data management and analysis tool for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Michael

    In the last decades scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy have become well-established tools in nanotechnology and surface science. This opened the market for many commercial manufacturers, each with different hardware and software standards. Besides the advantage of a wide variety of available hardware, the diversity may software-wise complicate the data exchange between scientists, and the data analysis for groups working with hardware developed by different manufacturers. Not only the file format differs between manufacturers, but also the data often requires further numerical treatment before publication. SpectraFox is an open-source and independent tool which manages, processes, and evaluates scanning probe spectroscopy and microscopy data. It aims at simplifying the documentation in parallel to measurement, and it provides solid evaluation tools for a large number of data.

  7. Non-contact scanning probe technique for electric field measurements based on nanowire field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, A S; Presnov, D E; Bozhev, I V; Evplov, D A; Desmaris, V; Krupenin, V A

    2017-03-28

    We report on the new active tip for scanning probe microscopy allowing the simultaneous measurements of surface topography and its potential profile. We designed and fabricated a field-effect transistor with nanowire channel located on the apex of silicon-on-insulator small chip. The field-effect transistor with nanowire channel was selected due to its extremely high electric field sensitivity even at room temperature. We developed the scanning probe operated in the tuning fork regime and demonstrated its reasonable spatial and field resolution. The proposed device can be a unique tool for high-sensitive, high-resolution, non-destructive potential profile mapping of nanoscale objects in physics, biology and material science. We discuss the ways to optimize the sensor charge sensitivity to the theoretical limit which is 10(-)(3)e/Hz(-1/2) at room temperature.

  8. Chemical Biology Probes from Advanced DNA-encoded Libraries.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Hazem; Klika Škopić, Mateja; Jung, Kathrin; Bugain, Olivia; Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    The identification of bioactive compounds is a crucial step toward development of probes for chemical biology studies. Screening of DNA-encoded small molecule libraries (DELs) has emerged as a validated technology to interrogate vast chemical space. DELs consist of chimeric molecules composed of a low-molecular weight compound that is conjugated to a DNA identifier tag. They are screened as pooled libraries using selection to identify "hits." Screening of DELs has identified numerous bioactive compounds. Some of these molecules were instrumental in gaining a deeper understanding of biological systems. One of the main challenges in the field is the development of synthesis methodology for DELs.

  9. Noise Characteristics of 100nm-scaleGaAs/Al_xGa_{1-x}As Scanning Hall Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, C.W.; Luan, L.; Moler, K.A.; Zeldov, E.; /Weizmann Inst.

    2007-03-23

    The authors have fabricated and characterized GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As two-dimensional electron gas scanning Hall probes for imaging perpendicular magnetic fields at surfaces. The Hall crosses range from 85 x 85 to 1000 x 1000 nm{sup 2}. They study low-frequency noise in these probes, especially random telegraph noise, and show that low-frequency noise can be significantly reduced by optimizing the voltage on a gate over the Hall cross. The authors demonstrate a 100 nm Hall probe with a sensitivity of 0.5 G/{radical}Hz (flux sensitivity of 0.25m {Phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz; spin sensitivity of 1.2 x 10{sup 4} {mu}{sub B}/{radical}Hz) at 3 Hz and 9 K.

  10. A novel method to measure 3 components of magnetic fields with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy/Gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oral, Ahmet; Dede, Munir; Akram, Rizwan

    2009-03-01

    We present the development of a new 4-lead hall gradiometer and a novel method to measure 3 components( Bx, By & Bz) of magnetic fields on specimen surfaces with submicron resolution using Scanning Hall probe Microscope[1] and gradiometer. We used a 1μm size P-HEMT Hall sensor, operated in gradiometer configuration to image Bx, By and Bz distribution of a hard disk sample surface at 77K. The SHPM was used in Quartz Crystal AFM tracking mode[2]. This simple and quick novel method shows ˜40 better spatial resolution compared to previously developed techniques[3] and can be improved even further, down to sub 50nm resolution. 1. Chang, A.M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 1992. 61(16): p. 1974-1976. 2. Dede, M., et al., Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2008. 8(2): p. 619-622. 3. Gregusova, D., et al., Fabrication of a vector Hall sensor for magnetic microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 2003. 82(21): p. 3704-3706.

  11. Inspection results of advanced (sub-50nm design rule) reticles using the TeraScanHR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sier, Jean-Paul; Broadbent, William; Yu, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Results from the recently available TeraScanHR reticle inspection system were published in early 2007. These results showed excellent inspection capability for 45nm logic and 5xnm half-pitch memory advanced production reticles, thus meeting the industry need for the mid-2007 start of production. The system has been in production use since that time. In early 2007, some evidence was shown of capability to inspect reticles for 32nm logic and sub-50nm half-pitch memory, but the results were incomplete due to the limited availability of such reticles. However, more of these advanced reticles have become available since that time. In this paper, inspection results of these advanced reticles from various leading-edge reticle manufacturers using the TeraScanHR are shown. These results indicate that the system has the capability to provide the needed inspection sensitivity for continued development work to support the industry roadmap.

  12. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  13. Nanosphere lithography for advanced all fiber Sers probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisco, Marco; Galeotti, Francesco; Quero, Giuseppe; Grisci, Giorgio; Micco, Alberto; Mercaldo, L.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report a straightforward and cost-effective fabrication route for the development of nano-patterned optical fiber tips. The technique is based on self-assembling polystyrene microspheres at the air/water interface and on their successive transferring on the fiber tip of single mode optical fiber. By applying to the fiber further treatments like particle size reduction, metal coating and sphere removal, different periodic structures have been conveniently realized. The morphological analysis reveals indeed the successful creation on the optical fiber tip of regular metallic-dielectric spheres' arrays as well as metallic patterns with dimensional features down to a submicron scale. Finally, as proof of concept, we demonstrated the capability of the realized patterns to work as efficient Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) fiber probes.

  14. Multi-Functional Scanning Probe Microscope for Imaging of Soft Surfaces and Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This proposal requests the purchase of a RHK Technology ATM 300 Ambient Environment Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM...ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, soft materials, bio/abio...proposal requests the purchase of a RHK Technology ATM 300 Ambient Environment Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) for atomic- and molecular-resolution

  15. Large area scanning probe microscope in ultra-high vacuum demonstrated for electrostatic force measurements on high-voltage devices

    PubMed Central

    Glatzel, Thilo; Schmölzer, Thomas; Schöner, Adolf; Reshanov, Sergey; Bartolf, Holger; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM), has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor. Furthermore, UHV environment allows for the analysis of clean surfaces under controlled environmental conditions. Because of these requirements we built a large area scanning probe microscope operating under UHV conditions at room temperature allowing to perform various electrical measurements, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy, scanning capacitance force microscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy, and also electrostatic force microscopy at higher harmonics. The instrument incorporates beside a standard beam deflection detection system a closed loop scanner with a scan range of 100 μm in lateral and 25 μm in vertical direction as well as an additional fibre optics. This enables the illumination of the tip–sample interface for optically excited measurements such as local surface photo voltage detection. Results: We present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements before and after sputtering of a copper alloy with chromium grains used as electrical contact surface in ultra-high power switches. In addition, we discuss KPFM measurements on cross sections of cleaved silicon carbide structures: a calibration layer sample and a power rectifier. To demonstrate the benefit of surface photo voltage measurements, we analysed the contact potential difference of a silicon carbide p/n-junction under illumination. PMID:26885461

  16. Advances in Mass Spectrometric Tools for Probing Neuropeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchberger, Amanda; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators in the functionality of the brain and other neurological organs. Because neuropeptides exist in a wide range of concentrations, appropriate characterization methods are needed to provide dynamic, chemical, and spatial information. Mass spectrometry and compatible tools have been a popular choice in analyzing neuropeptides. There have been several advances and challenges, both of which are the focus of this review. Discussions range from sample collection to bioinformatic tools, although avenues such as quantitation and imaging are included. Further development of the presented methods for neuropeptidomic mass spectrometric analysis is inevitable, which will lead to a further understanding of the complex interplay of neuropeptides and other signaling molecules in the nervous system.

  17. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  18. Application of a Scanning Thermal Nano-Probe for Thermal Imaging of High Frequency Active devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, Mojtaba; Janus, Pawel; Gotszalk, Teodor; Kompa, Günter; Edinger, Klaus; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2005-09-01

    The first application of a new thermal nano-probe based on the changes of electrical resistivity of a nanometer-sized filament with temperature has been presented for the thermal imaging of microwave power active devices. The integration of the filament the fabrication process of the novel thermal probe with a spatial resolution better than 80 nm and a thermal resolution of the order of 10-3 K have already been presented in reference [J. Microelectron. Eng. \\textbf{57--58} (2001) 737]. To demonstrate the capability of the novel thermal nano-probe the measurements have been successfully performed on a 30 fingers GaAs metal--semiconductor field-effect transistor (GaAs-MESFET) with a maximum power dissipation of 2.5 W. The bias circuit has been designed to suppress the undesired microwave oscillations in the transistor. In this case the power dissipation is equal to the dc power input. The near-field measurements using the nano-probe are compared with infrared measurement and three-dimensional finite element static thermal simulations. The good agreement between simulations and measurements confirms the high capability of the nono-probe for these applications.

  19. A novel design of a scanning probe microscope integrated with an ultramicrotome for serial block-face nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anton E.; Agapov, Igor I.; Agapova, Olga I.; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Mezin, Alexey V.; Molinari, Michael; Nabiev, Igor; Mochalov, Konstantin E.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new concept of a combined scanning probe microscope (SPM)/ultramicrotome apparatus. It enables "slice-and-view" scanning probe nanotomography measurements and 3D reconstruction of the bulk sample nanostructure from series of SPM images after consecutive ultrathin sections. The sample is fixed on a flat XYZ scanning piezostage mounted on the ultramicrotome arm. The SPM measuring head with a cantilever tip and a laser-photodiode tip detection system approaches the sample for SPM measurements of the block-face surface immediately after the ultramicrotome sectioning is performed. The SPM head is moved along guides that are also fixed on the ultramicrotome arm. Thereby, relative dysfunctional displacements of the tip, the sample, and the ultramicrotome knife are minimized. The design of the SPM head enables open frontal optical access to the sample block-face adapted for high-resolution optical lenses for correlative SPM/optical microscopy applications. The new system can be used in a wide range of applications for the study of 3D nanostructures of biological objects, biomaterials, polymer nanocomposites, and nanohybrid materials in various SPM and optical microscopy measuring modes.

  20. A bright future for precision medicine: advances in fluorescent chemical probe design and their clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Megan; Yim, Joshua J.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Medicine Initiative aims to use advances in basic and clinical research to develop therapeutics that selectively target and kill cancer cells. Under the same doctrine of precision medicine, there is an equally important need to visualize these diseased cells to enable diagnosis, facilitate surgical resection and monitor therapeutic response. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for chemists to develop chemically tractable probes that can image cancer in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of optical probes as well as their current and future applications in the clinical management of cancer. The progress in probe development described here suggests that optical imaging is an important and rapidly developing field of study that encourages continued collaboration between chemists, biologists and clinicians to further refine these tools for interventional surgical imaging, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26933740

  1. Nano-optical scan probes: Opening doors to previously-inaccessible parameter spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, James

    2014-06-08

    I will discuss recent progress on new near-field probe geometries, including the “campanile” geometry, which has been used in recent hyperspectral imaging experiments, providing nanoscale spectral information distinct from what is obtained with other methods. Article not available.

  2. Correction for Probe-Position Errors in Planar, Near-Field Scanning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    34 IFEF Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-26 (3): 379-389 (May 1978). 5. Paris, Demetrius T. and others. "Basic Theory of Probe- Compensated...Near-Field Measurements," IFE Transa.tons on Antennas and Propagation, AP-26 (3): 373-379 (May 1978). 6. Joy, Edward B. and Paris, Demetrius T

  3. Two-dimensional dielectric spectroscopy: implementation and validation of a scanning open-ended coaxial probe.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad; Klemer, David P; Raicu, Valerica

    2010-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing and classifying materials based on their electrical properties. In order to perform dielectric measurements on a sample with spatially varying properties, the measuring probe typically is repositioned manually on the surface of the sample for each measurement. In this paper, we present a novel technique, based on a reconfigurable multielectrode array, which facilitates the recording of measurements at various different spatial locations without physically moving the measuring electrodes. By electronically selecting one of the electrodes as the inner line and connecting the remainder of the electrodes together to form the outer line, an open-ended coaxial probe is created, which can be repositioned by simply selecting different electrode combinations; hence the name of a "traveling" coaxial probe. The geometric factor, or the cell constant, of each coaxial probe in the array was estimated from measurements on saline solutions with known electrical characteristics. In order to validate the setup for measurement of dielectric properties of biological cells, the plasma membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivity of yeast cells suspended in aqueous solutions were measured and compared to results from published reports. Dielectric spectroscopy imaging was carried out on tissue phantoms made of an agar gel with inclusions consisting of concentrated yeast cell suspensions. Measurements were performed on the phantoms, and the dielectric data were spatially mapped with respect to electrode location. The spatial electrical data correlated precisely with locations of yeast cell inclusions within the phantoms.

  4. Design of AN Ultra-High Vacuum Scanned Probe Microscope (spm) and Application of SPM to Ceramic Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Gregory Ian

    Scanned probe microscopies are a class of techniques in which a sharp probe is brought very close to a surface by stable micropositioners. Some interaction between them is sensed and may be used to maintain a setpoint value as the probe is scanned above or along the surface. Examples are scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which senses the current that flows when a small bias is imposed between a sharp metal tip and conductive surface, and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which senses the forces between a sharp tip and a surface. These have proved to be sensitive probes of surface structure and chemistry, resolving atom-to-atom variations on the surface. The construction of an AFM/STM instrument compatible with an ultra-high vacuum environment is described. Atomic resolution is demonstrated in both modes. Investigations of the surface structure of various ceramic materials by STM and AFM are discussed. The adsorption of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) onto graphite is explored. Adsorption is enhanced by exposure to TEOS plasma. The results are observed in STM images. The atomic-scale structure of the surface of two molybdenum bronzes, rm Rb_{0.3 }MoO_3 and rm Na_ {0.9}MoO_6O_{17}, is also observed by STM. The STM tip is used to deliberately modify the bronze surfaces. It appears that the tip penetrates the surface under certain conditions. This is attributed in part to the low-dimensional conductivity of the materials. The use of the AFM to measure interfacial forces between the tip and silicate glasses is described. Using a tungsten tip on 30 mole% alkali glasses in ambient conditions and controlled atmosphere, a soft, reacted layer can be detected. The layer is attributed to reaction with CO _2 and water, occurring in the order Li < Na < K. Spatial variations in the adhesion force are observed on alkali glass surfaces, but not on pure v-silica, fractured in vacuum. This heterogeneity was attributed to the alkali glass structure. Pure v-silica was reacted with

  5. Use of scanning near-field optical microscope with an aperture probe for detection of luminescent nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Shenderova, O. A.; Konov, V. I.; Vlasov, I. I.

    2017-02-01

    The suitability of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to image photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles with nanoscale resolution is demonstrated. Isolated diamond nanocrystals with an average size of 100 nm, containing negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers, were chosen as tested material. The NV- luminescence was stimulated by continuous 532 nm laser light. Sizes of analyzed crystallites were monitored by an atomic force microscope. The lateral resolution of the order of 100 nm was reached in SNOM imaging of diamond nanoparticles using 150 nm square aperture of the probe.

  6. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging local modulation of strain field in a hetero interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-13

    We present an innovative method for characterizing the strain field in three dimensions in a hetero interface. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy (LDP-STEM) was employed for imaging the inhomogeneous strain field in a germanium (Ge) layer deposited on a silicon (Si) substrate. In the LDP-STEM image, Ge-atomic columns that are relaxed or strained to the Si substrate in the Si/Ge hetero interface were observed to be distinguishable, allowing for the qualitative characterization of the coherency of the crystal growth. Our results revealed that the strain field is locally modulated along the in-plane direction in the Si/Ge hetero interface.

  7. Bias assisted scanning probe microscopy direct write lithography enables local oxygen enrichment of lanthanum cuprates thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lavini, Francesco; Yang, Nan; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Jesse, Stephen; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Di Castro, Daniele; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Foglietti, Vittorio; Aruta, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Here, scanning probe bias techniques have been used as a method to locally dope thin epitaxial films of La2CuO4 (LCO) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The local electrochemical oxidation of LCO very efficiently introduces interstitial oxygen defects in the thin film. Details on the influence of the tip voltage bias and environmental conditions on the surface morphology have been investigated. The results show that a local uptake of oxygen occurs in the oxidized films.

  8. Correlating Atom Probe Tomography with Atomic-Resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Example of Segregation at Silicon Grain Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Stoffers, Andreas; Barthel, Juri; Liebscher, Christian H; Gault, Baptiste; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Scheu, Christina; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-02-20

    In the course of a thorough investigation of the performance-structure-chemistry interdependency at silicon grain boundaries, we successfully developed a method to systematically correlate aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The correlative approach is conducted on individual APT and TEM specimens, with the option to perform both investigations on the same specimen in the future. In the present case of a Σ9 grain boundary, joint mapping of the atomistic details of the grain boundary topology, in conjunction with chemical decoration, enables a deeper understanding of the segregation of impurities observed at such grain boundaries.

  9. Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy probes of self-assembled, physisorbed monolayers: peeking at the peaks.

    PubMed

    Giancarlo, L C; Flynn, G W

    1998-01-01

    The imaging and control of self-assembled, physisorbed monolayers have been the subject of numerous scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations. The successful interpretation of the structures observed in scanning probe images of molecules self-assembled at liquid-solid and gas-solid interfaces has benefited greatly from recent experimental and theoretical work. These studies are converging on a general tunneling mechanism that accounts for the images of weakly bound, insulating adsorbates. Experiments in which the dynamical behavior of these monolayers has been monitored as a function of time both statically and after the introduction of an external perturbation are described, and novel studies of the selective control of monolayer structure that make use of internal and external electric fields, photons, and solvent coadsorption are reviewed.

  10. Au-Ag template stripped pattern for scanning probe investigations of DNA arrays produced by dip pen nanolithography.

    PubMed

    Baserga, Andrea; Viganò, Marco; Casari, Carlo S; Turri, Stefano; Li Bassi, Andrea; Levi, Marinella; Bottani, Carlo E

    2008-11-18

    We report on DNA arrays produced by dip pen nanolithography (DPN) on a novel Au-Ag micropatterned template stripped surface. DNA arrays have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) showing that the patterned template stripped substrate enables easy retrieval of the DPN-functionalized zone with a standard optical microscope permitting multi-instrument and multitechnique local detection and analysis. Moreover the smooth surface of the Au squares ( approximately 5-10 A roughness) allows AFM/STM to be sensitive to the hybridization of the oligonucleotide array with label-free target DNA. Our Au-Ag substrates, combining the retrieving capabilities of the patterned surface with the smoothness of the template stripped technique, are candidates for the investigation of DPN nanostructures and for the development of label-free detection methods for DNA nanoarrays based on the use of scanning probes.

  11. A combined ion-sputtering and electron-beam annealing device for the in vacuo postpreparation of scanning probes.

    PubMed

    Eder, Georg; Schlögl, Stefan; Macknapp, Klaus; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Lackinger, Markus

    2011-03-01

    We describe the setup, characteristics, and application of an in vacuo ion-sputtering and electron-beam annealing device for the postpreparation of scanning probes (e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The proposed device facilitates the straightforward implementation of a common two-step cleaning procedure, where the first step consists of ion-sputtering, while the second step heals out sputtering-induced defects by thermal annealing. In contrast to the standard way, no dedicated external ion-sputtering gun is required with the proposed device. The performance of the described device is demonstrated by SEM micrographs and energy dispersive x-ray characterization of electrochemically etched tungsten tips prior and after postprocessing.

  12. Covalent binding of biological samples to solid supports for scanning probe microscopy in buffer solution.

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, S; Dolder, M; Schabert, F; Ramsden, J; Engel, A

    1993-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy allows imaging of biological molecules in their native state in buffer solution. To this end samples have to be fixed to a flat solid support so that they cannot be displaced by the scanning tip. Here we describe a method to achieve the covalent binding of biological samples to glass surfaces. Coverslips were chemically modified with the photoactivatable cross-linker N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide. Samples are squeezed between derivatized coverslips and then cross-linked to the glass surface by irradiation with ultraviolet light. Such samples can be imaged repeatedly by the scanning force microscope without loss of image quality, whereas identical but not immobilized samples are pushed away by the stylus. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8312482

  13. Modelling an advanced ManPAD with dual band detectors and a rosette scanning seeker head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birchenall, Richard P.; Richardson, Mark A.; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADs) have been a favoured anti aircraft weapon since their appearance on the military proliferation scene in the mid 1960s. Since this introduction there has been a 'cat and mouse' game of Missile Countermeasures (CMs) and the aircraft protection counter counter measures (CCMs) as missile designers attempt to defeat the aircraft platform protection equipment. Magnesium Teflon Viton (MTV) flares protected the target aircraft until the missile engineers discovered the art of flare rejection using techniques including track memory and track angle bias. These early CCMs relied upon CCM triggering techniques such as the rise rate method which would just sense a sudden increase in target energy and assume that a flare CM had been released by the target aircraft. This was not as reliable as was first thought as aspect changes (bringing another engine into the field of view) or glint from the sun could inadvertently trigger a CCM when not needed. The introduction of dual band detectors in the 1980s saw a major advance in CCM capability allowing comparisons between two distinct IR bands to be made thus allowing the recognition of an MTV flare to occur with minimal false alarms. The development of the rosette scan seeker in the 1980s complemented this advancement allowing the scene in the missile field of view (FOV) to be scanned by a much smaller (1/25) instantaneous FOV (IFOV) with the spectral comparisons being made at each scan point. This took the ManPAD from a basic IR energy detector to a pseudo imaging system capable of analysing individual elements of its overall FOV allowing more complex and robust CCM to be developed. This paper continues the work published in [1,2] and describes the method used to model an advanced ManPAD with a rosette scanning seeker head and robust CCMs similar to the Raytheon Stinger RMP.

  14. Compact MEMS-driven pyramidal polygon reflector for circumferential scanned endoscopic imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaojing; Zhou, Guangya; Yu, Hongbin; Du, Yu; Feng, Hanhua; Tsai, Julius Ming Lin; Chau, Fook Siong

    2012-03-12

    A novel prototype of an electrothermal chevron-beam actuator based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) platform has been successfully developed for circumferential scan. Microassembly technology is utilized to construct this platform, which consists of a MEMS chevron-beam type microactuator and a micro-reflector. The proposed electrothermal microactuators with a two-stage electrothermal cascaded chevron-beam driving mechanism provide displacement amplification, thus enabling a highly reflective micro-pyramidal polygon reflector to rotate a large angle for light beam scanning. This MEMS platform is ultra-compact, supports circumferential imaging capability and is suitable for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) applications, for example, for intravascular cancer detection.

  15. Electrochemical push-pull probe: from scanning electrochemical microscopy to multimodal altering of cell microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Alexandra; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Gheorghiu, Mihaela; Gáspár, Szilveszter; Momotenko, Dmitry; Stanica, Luciana; Lesch, Andreas; Gheorghiu, Eugen; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-04-21

    To understand biological processes at the cellular level, a general approach is to alter the cells' environment and to study their chemical responses. Herein, we present the implementation of an electrochemical push-pull probe, which combines a microfluidic system with a microelectrode, as a tool for locally altering the microenvironment of few adherent living cells by working in two different perturbation modes, namely electrochemical (i.e., electrochemical generation of a chemical effector compound) and microfluidic (i.e., infusion of a chemical effector compound from the pushing microchannel, while simultaneously aspirating it through the pulling channel, thereby focusing the flow between the channels). The effect of several parameters such as flow rate, working distance, and probe inclination angle on the affected area of adherently growing cells was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. As a proof of concept, localized fluorescent labeling and pH changes were purposely introduced to validate the probe as a tool for studying adherent cancer cells through the control over the chemical composition of the extracellular space with high spatiotemporal resolution. A very good agreement between experimental and simulated results showed that the electrochemical perturbation mode enables to affect precisely only a few living cells localized in a high-density cell culture.

  16. Probing of basal planes of MoS2 by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Henson, Tammy D.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Bell, L. Stephen

    1988-06-01

    Atomically resolved images of MoS2 have been obtained using scanning tunneling microscopy with both positively and negatively biased samples yielding the hexagonal symmetry of the surface of the crystal. Also measured were curves of tunneling current as a function of bias voltage, from which the density of states of the valence and conduction bands can be inferred.

  17. Electronic properties of conductive pili of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens probed by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Joshua P; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart H

    2011-12-01

    The metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces conductive protein appendages known as "pilus nanowires" to transfer electrons to metal oxides and to other cells. These processes can be harnessed for the bioremediation of toxic metals and the generation of electricity in bioelectrochemical cells. Key to these applications is a detailed understanding of how these nanostructures conduct electrons. However, to the best of our knowledge, their mechanism of electron transport is not known. We used the capability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe conductive materials with higher spatial resolution than other scanning probe methods to gain insights into the transversal electronic behavior of native, cell-anchored pili. Despite the presence of insulating cellular components, the STM topography resolved electronic molecular substructures with periodicities similar to those reported for the pilus shaft. STM spectroscopy revealed electronic states near the Fermi level, consistent with a conducting material, but did not reveal electronic states expected for cytochromes. Furthermore, the transversal conductance was asymmetric, as previously reported for assemblies of helical peptides. Our results thus indicate that the Geobacter pilus shaft has an intrinsic electronic structure that could play a role in charge transport.

  18. Batch-fabrication of cantilevered magnets on attonewton-sensitivity mechanical oscillators for scanned-probe nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Steven A; Moore, Eric W; Lee, SangGap; Longenecker, Jonilyn G; Wright, Sarah J; Harrell, Lee E; Marohn, John A

    2010-12-28

    We have batch-fabricated cantilevers with ∼100 nm diameter nickel nanorod tips and force sensitivities of a few attonewtons at 4.2 K. The magnetic nanorods were engineered to overhang the leading edge of the cantilever, and consequently the cantilevers experience what we believe is the lowest surface noise ever achieved in a scanned probe experiment. Cantilever magnetometry indicated that the tips were well magnetized, with a ≤ 20 nm dead layer; the composition of the dead layer was studied by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In what we believe is the first demonstration of scanned probe detection of electron-spin resonance from a batch-fabricated tip, the cantilevers were used to observe electron-spin resonance from nitroxide spin labels in a film via force-gradient-induced shifts in cantilever resonance frequency. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetic resonance signal suggests a nonuniform tip magnetization at an applied field near 0.6 T.

  19. Electronic properties of conductive pili of the metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veazey, Joshua P.; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart H.

    2011-12-01

    The metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces conductive protein appendages known as “pilus nanowires” to transfer electrons to metal oxides and to other cells. These processes can be harnessed for the bioremediation of toxic metals and the generation of electricity in bioelectrochemical cells. Key to these applications is a detailed understanding of how these nanostructures conduct electrons. However, to the best of our knowledge, their mechanism of electron transport is not known. We used the capability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe conductive materials with higher spatial resolution than other scanning probe methods to gain insights into the transversal electronic behavior of native, cell-anchored pili. Despite the presence of insulating cellular components, the STM topography resolved electronic molecular substructures with periodicities similar to those reported for the pilus shaft. STM spectroscopy revealed electronic states near the Fermi level, consistent with a conducting material, but did not reveal electronic states expected for cytochromes. Furthermore, the transversal conductance was asymmetric, as previously reported for assemblies of helical peptides. Our results thus indicate that the Geobacter pilus shaft has an intrinsic electronic structure that could play a role in charge transport.

  20. A scanning probe microscopy study of the physisorption and chemisorption of protein molecules onto carboxylate terminated self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N.; Davies, M. C.; Heaton, R. J.; Roberts, C. J.; Tendler, S. J. B.; Williams, P. M.

    Scanning probe microscopy offers the possibility of investigating biomolecular structure and function. However, successful imaging is technically limited by interactions between the probe and the sample. A strong attachment of the biomolecule to the substrate is often required. Here, we investigate the binding of the protein catalase to gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The chemical and physical adsorption of the protein molecules onto SAMs of 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA), 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and a mixture of the two acid thiols (Mixed) was investigated utilizing tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The surface concentration of catalase adsorbed on the SAMs decreased in the order: Mixed>11-MUA>3-MPA. Utilizing the terminal carboxylic acid functionalities, catalase was immobilized with a water soluble carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Immobilization resulted in increased coverage of the protein. SPR studies on silver surfaces modified by these SAMs indicate immobilization of carbodiimide and NHS decreased in the order: Mixed>11-MUA>3-MPA.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a silicon cantilever probe with an integrated quartz-glass (fused-silica) tip for scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, G; Noell, W; Staufer, U; de Rooij, N F; Eckert, R; Freyland, J M; Heinzelmann, H

    2001-10-01

    A cantilever-based probe is introduced for use in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) combined with scanning atomic-force microscopy (AFM). The probes consist of silicon cantilevers with integrated 25-mum-high fused-silica tips. The probes are batch fabricated by microfabrication technology. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the transparent quartz tips are completely covered with an opaque aluminum layer before the SNOM measurement. Static and dynamic AFM imaging was performed. SNOM imaging in transmission mode of single fluorescent molecules shows an optical resolution better than 32 nm.

  2. Molecular-Level Insights into Photocatalysis from Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2013-06-12

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has grown considerably in the decades since Fujishima and Honda's ground-breaking publications of photoelectrochemistry on TiO2. Numerous review articles continue to point to both progress made in the use of heterogeneous materials (such as TiO2) to perform photoconversion processes, and the many opportunities and challenges in heterogeneous photocatalysis research such as solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. The past decade has also seen an increase in the use of molecular-level approaches applied to model single crystal surfaces in an effort to obtain new insights into photocatalytic phenomena. In particular, scanning probe techniques (SPM) have enabled researchers to take a ‘nanoscale’ approach to photocatalysis that includes interrogation of the reactivities of specific sites and adsorbates on a model photocatalyst surface. The rutile TiO2(110) surface has become the prototypical oxide single crystal surface for fundamental studies of many interfacial phenomena. In particular, TiO2(110) has become an excellent model surface for probing photochemical and photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. A variety of experimental approaches have emerged as being ideally suited for studying photochemical reactions on TiO2(110), including desorption-oriented approaches and electronic spectroscopies, but perhaps the most promising techniques for evaluating site-specific properties are those of SPM. In this review, we highlight the growing use of SPM techniques in providing molecular-level insights into surface photochemistry on the model photocatalyst surface of rutile TiO2(110). Our objective is to both illustrate the unique knowledge that scanning probe techniques have already provided the field of photocatalysis, and also to motivate a new generation of effort into the use of such approaches to obtain new insights into the molecular level details of photochemical events occurring at interfaces

  3. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez-Salgado, J.; Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A.; Castro-Domínguez, B.; Hernández-Hernández, P.; Newman, R.C.

    2013-12-15

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  4. Electrical Study of Trapped Charges in Copper-Doped Zinc Oxide Films by Scanning Probe Microscopy for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ting; Zhang, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    Charge trapping properties of electrons and holes in copper-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cu) films have been studied by scanning probe microscopy. We investigated the surface potential dependence on the voltage and duration applied to the copper-doped ZnO films by Kelvin probe force microscopy. It is found that the Fermi Level of the 8 at.% Cu-doped ZnO films shifted by 0.53 eV comparing to undoped ZnO films. This shift indicates significant change in the electronic structure and energy balance in Cu-doped ZnO films. The Fermi Level (work function) of zinc oxide films can be tuned by Cu doping, which are important for developing this functional material. In addition, Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the nature of contact at Pt-coated tip/ZnO:Cu interface is changed from Schottky contact to Ohmic contact by increasing sufficient amount of Cu ions. The charge trapping property of the ZnO films enhance greatly by Cu doping (~10 at.%). The improved stable bipolar charge trapping properties indicate that copper-doped ZnO films are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:28135335

  5. Availability of feature-oriented scanning probe microscopy for remote-controlled measurements on board a space laboratory or planet exploration Rover.

    PubMed

    Lapshin, Rostislav V

    2009-06-01

    Prospects for a feature-oriented scanning (FOS) approach to investigations of sample surfaces, at the micrometer and nanometer scales, with the use of scanning probe microscopy under space laboratory or planet exploration rover conditions, are examined. The problems discussed include decreasing sensitivity of the onboard scanning probe microscope (SPM) to temperature variations, providing autonomous operation, implementing the capabilities for remote control, self-checking, self-adjustment, and self-calibration. A number of topical problems of SPM measurements in outer space or on board a planet exploration rover may be solved via the application of recently proposed FOS methods.

  6. Pointed carbon fiber ultramicroelectrodes: a new probe option for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sripirom, Jiyapa; Kuhn, Sonja; Jung, Ulrich; Magnussen, Olaf; Schulte, Albert

    2013-01-15

    Carbon tips for in situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies in an electrochemical environment were prepared by electrochemical etching of carbon fibers and subsequent coating with electrodeposition paint and a silicone elastomer. The tips obtained were stable in acidic electrolyte and allowed high-resolution in situ imaging of the bare Au(111) electrode surface and of Au(111) covered by monolayers of the octyl-triazatriangulenium molecule.

  7. Nanosecond time-scale semiconductor photoexcitations probed by a scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mark J.; Ruskell, Todd G.; Chen, Dong; Sarid, Dror; Jenkinson, Howard

    1994-01-01

    The high-frequency response of scanning tunneling microscopy of a semiconductor is demonstrated by using the beat frequencies of the longitudinal modes of a HeNe laser at the tunneling junction. We present a comparison of the slow and fast optical response of photoexcited charge carriers in the layered structure semiconductors n-type MoS2 and p-type WSe2 using this method.

  8. Surface structure and analysis with scanning probe microscopy and electron tunneling spectroscopy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Julia

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes the results accomplished during the funding period of this grant (June 1, 1995 to May 31, 1998). The projects are (1) room-temperature atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of NbSe{sub 3} doped with various elements and (2) low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of NbSe{sub 3}. In addition, AFM was used to study the surface morphology and defects of GaAs films grown on Ge and Ge/Si substracts.

  9. Note: Circuit design for direct current and alternating current electrochemical etching of scanning probe microscopy tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbins, Matthew M.; Raigoza, Annette F.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2012-03-01

    We present control circuits designed for electrochemically etching, reproducibly sharp STM probes. The design uses an Arduino UNO microcontroller to allow for both ac and dc operation, as well as a comparator driven shut-off that allows for etching to be stopped in 0.5-1 μs. The Arduino allows the instrument to be customized to suit a wide variety of potential applications without significant changes to hardware. Data is presented for coarse chemical etching of 80:20 platinum-iridium, tungsten, and nickel tips.

  10. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  11. Adlayer structures of anthracenthiol on Au(111) after removal of covering multilayers with probe scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Waleed

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of anthracene-2-thiol (AnT) on Au(111) have been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A preparation of AnT-SAMs from ethanolic solutions results in a deposition of multilayer films. As a result, the general features that have been frequently observed for different systems of thiol-modified gold surfaces are hidden in AnT-SAMs. The thin overlayers on top of the chemisorbed anthracenethiolate monolayer are removed by the STM-tip after a repetitive scanning over the same part of the SAM at nondestructive imaging conditions. After ∼2 h of consecutive and continuous STM scanning, smooth AnT-SAM surfaces were formed. The polished surfaces contain vacancy depressions rather than the elevated gold islands which are typically formed after the adsorption of purely aromatic thiols such as AnT on Au(111). The STM data showed the coexistence of two distinct stable commensurate phases, namely, α and β. High-resolution STM images revealed a (√{ 3 } × 8) structure for the α phase and a (√{ 7 } × 4) R11° structure for the β phase whose unit cells contain, respectively, four and two molecules. The β phase was found to be 50% less densely packed than the α phase. The lower molecular density of the β phase should be correlated with a significantly larger tilt angle of the AnT molecular backbone with respect to the surface normal.

  12. A hybrid analog-digital phase-locked loop for frequency mode non-contact scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M M; Chandrasekhar, V

    2014-01-01

    Non-contact scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has developed into a powerful technique to image many different properties of samples. The conventional method involves monitoring the amplitude, phase, or frequency of a cantilever oscillating at or near its resonant frequency as it is scanned across the surface of a sample. For high Q factor cantilevers, monitoring the resonant frequency is the preferred method in order to obtain reasonable scan times. This can be done by using a phase-locked-loop (PLL). PLLs can be obtained as commercial integrated circuits, but these do not have the frequency resolution required for SPM. To increase the resolution, all-digital PLLs requiring sophisticated digital signal processors or field programmable gate arrays have also been implemented. We describe here a hybrid analog/digital PLL where most of the components are implemented using discrete analog integrated circuits, but the frequency resolution is provided by a direct digital synthesis chip controlled by a simple peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller. The PLL has excellent frequency resolution and noise, and can be controlled and read by a computer via a universal serial bus connection.

  13. Low noise, low heat dissipation, high gain AC-DC front end amplification for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Messina, Paolo; Fradin, F Y; Pittana, Paolo

    2009-02-04

    We report here on the design, construction and testing of a vacuum compatible AC-DC amplification system for low signal measurements with scanning probes. The most important feature of this new amplification system is incorporated within the head of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This is achieved with a very low thermal dissipation radio frequency amplifier at the STM head. The amplifier gain is higher than 40 dB and has a 50 dB maximum. Further, the AC noise figure is 0.7 dB between 100 and 1000 MHz. The noise induced in the DC amplifier is less than 2 pA RMS (root mean square), which enables the microscope to scan over soft insulating molecular layers. Thermal drift at the STM tip-sample interface is below 0.1 nm min(-1) both in air and in vacuum operation. Atomic resolution on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces is reliably achieved. Spin noise measurements are provided as an example of an application.

  14. Low noise, low heat dissipation, high gain AC-DC front end amplification for scanning probe microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Messina, P.; Fradin, F. Y.; Pittana, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the design, construction and testing of a vacuum compatible AC-DC amplification system for low signal measurements with scanning probes. The most important feature of this new amplification system is incorporated within the head of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This is achieved with a very low thermal dissipation radio frequency amplifier at the STM head. The amplifier gain is higher than 40 dB and has a 50 dB maximum. Further, the AC noise figure is 0.7 dB between 100 and 1000 MHz. The noise induced in the DC amplifier is less than 2 pA RMS (root mean square), which enables the microscope to scan over soft insulating molecular layers. Thermal drift at the STM tip-sample interface is below 0.1 nm min{sup -1} both in air and in vacuum operation. Atomic resolution on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces is reliably achieved. Spin noise measurements are provided as an example of an application.

  15. Carbon-fiber tips for scanning probe microscopes and molecular electronics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We fabricate and characterize carbon-fiber tips for their use in combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is used to yield reproducible sub-100-nm apex. We also study electron transport through single-molecule junctions formed by a single octanethiol molecule bonded by the thiol anchoring group to a gold electrode and linked to a carbon tip by the methyl group. We observe the presence of conductance plateaus during the stretching of the molecular bridge, which is the signature of the formation of a molecular junction. PMID:22587692

  16. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Masutomi, Ryuichi Okamoto, Tohru

    2015-06-22

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T.

  17. Mechanistic Study of the Validity of Using Hydroxyl Radical Probes To Characterize Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yin; Chaplin, Brian P

    2017-02-21

    The detection of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)) is typically accomplished by using reactive probe molecules, but prior studies have not thoroughly investigated the suitability of these probes for use in electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), due to the neglect of alternative reaction mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the suitability of four OH(•) probes (coumarin, p-chlorobenzoic acid, terephthalic acid, and p-benzoquinone) for use in EAOPs. Experimental results indicated that both coumarin and p-chlorobenzoic acid are oxidized via direct electron transfer reactions, while p-benzoquinone and terephthalic acid are not. Coumarin oxidation to form the OH(•) adduct product 7-hydroxycoumarin was found at anodic potentials lower than that necessary for OH(•) formation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations found a thermodynamically favorable and non-OH(•) mediated pathway for 7-hydroxycoumarin formation, which is activationless at anodic potentials > 2.10 V/SHE. DFT simulations also provided estimates of E° values for a series of OH(•) probe compounds, which agreed with voltammetry results. Results from this study indicated that terephthalic acid is the most appropriate OH(•) probe compound for the characterization of electrochemical and catalytic systems.

  18. Two-step controllable electrochemical etching of tungsten scanning probe microscopy tips

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasser; Al-Falih, Hisham; Zhang Yaping; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2012-06-15

    Dynamic electrochemical etching technique is optimized to produce tungsten tips with controllable shape and radius of curvature of less than 10 nm. Nascent features such as 'dynamic electrochemical etching' and reverse biasing after 'drop-off' are utilized, and 'two-step dynamic electrochemical etching' is introduced to produce extremely sharp tips with controllable aspect ratio. Electronic current shut-off time for conventional dc 'drop-off' technique is reduced to {approx}36 ns using high speed analog electronics. Undesirable variability in tip shape, which is innate to static dc electrochemical etching, is mitigated with novel 'dynamic electrochemical etching.' Overall, we present a facile and robust approach, whereby using a novel etchant level adjustment mechanism, 30 Degree-Sign variability in cone angle and 1.5 mm controllability in cone length were achieved, while routinely producing ultra-sharp probes.

  19. Apparatus and method for non-contact surface voltage probing by scanning photoelectron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesner, Larry D.

    1992-09-01

    An apparatus and method for non-contact sensing electrical potentials of selected regions on the surface of a sample are provided. A typical sample is an integrated circuit, electronic device, or semiconductor material. The sample is positioned within a vacuum chamber and irradiated with an ultraviolet light beam so that the material emits electrons by the photoelectric effect. The electrons have kinetic energies which are variable according to the electrical potential of the surface of the material. Emitted electrons having kinetic energies within a predetermined range are selected by an electron energy analyzer. An electron detector receives the selected electrons and produces electrical signals corresponding to the energies of said selected electrons. In another embodiment of the invention, a modulated light beam other than the ultraviolet light probe beam irradiates the material in order to produce time varying modulation of the photoelectron energy spectrum.

  20. Scanning thermal probe microscope method for the determination of thermal diffusivity of nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandani, Deepak; Agarwal, Khushboo; Brugger, Juergen; Mehta, Bodh Raj

    2016-08-01

    A commercial scanning thermal microscope has been upgraded to facilitate its use in estimating the radial thermal diffusivity of thin films close to room temperature. The modified setup includes a microcontroller driven microhotplate coupled with a Bluetooth module for wireless control. The microcontroller board (Arduino Leonardo) is used to generate a bias of suitable voltage amplitude and pulse duration which is applied across the microhotplate contact pads. A corresponding heat pulse from the Pt heating element (1 mm2) embedded within the microhotplate is delivered to the lower surface of the thin film (25 mm2) deposited over it. The large difference in the dimensions of the heating source and the thin film surface causes heat to flow radially outwards on the top surface of the latter. The decay of this radial heat wave as it flows outwards is recorded by the scanning thermal microscope in terms of temperature-time (T-t) profiles at varying positions around the central heating zone. A fitting procedure is suggested to extract the thermal diffusivity value from the array of T-t profiles. The efficacy of the above setup has been established by evaluating the thermal diffusivities of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3:Si thin film samples. Further, with only minor alterations in design the capabilities of the above setup can be extended to estimate the axial thermal diffusivity and specific heat of thin films, as a function of temperature.

  1. Scanning thermal probe microscope method for the determination of thermal diffusivity of nanocomposite thin films.

    PubMed

    Varandani, Deepak; Agarwal, Khushboo; Brugger, Juergen; Mehta, Bodh Raj

    2016-08-01

    A commercial scanning thermal microscope has been upgraded to facilitate its use in estimating the radial thermal diffusivity of thin films close to room temperature. The modified setup includes a microcontroller driven microhotplate coupled with a Bluetooth module for wireless control. The microcontroller board (Arduino Leonardo) is used to generate a bias of suitable voltage amplitude and pulse duration which is applied across the microhotplate contact pads. A corresponding heat pulse from the Pt heating element (1 mm(2)) embedded within the microhotplate is delivered to the lower surface of the thin film (25 mm(2)) deposited over it. The large difference in the dimensions of the heating source and the thin film surface causes heat to flow radially outwards on the top surface of the latter. The decay of this radial heat wave as it flows outwards is recorded by the scanning thermal microscope in terms of temperature-time (T-t) profiles at varying positions around the central heating zone. A fitting procedure is suggested to extract the thermal diffusivity value from the array of T-t profiles. The efficacy of the above setup has been established by evaluating the thermal diffusivities of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3:Si thin film samples. Further, with only minor alterations in design the capabilities of the above setup can be extended to estimate the axial thermal diffusivity and specific heat of thin films, as a function of temperature.

  2. Dynamic probe of ZnTe(110) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ken; Yoshida, Shoji; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Kuroda, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    The reconstructed surface structure of the II-VI semiconductor ZnTe (110), which is a promising material in the research field of semiconductor spintronics, was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). First, the surface states formed by reconstruction by the charge transfer of dangling bond electrons from cationic Zn to anionic Te atoms, which are similar to those of IV and III-V semiconductors, were confirmed in real space. Secondly, oscillation in tunneling current between binary states, which is considered to reflect a conformational change in the topmost Zn-Te structure between the reconstructed and bulk-like ideal structures, was directly observed by STM. Third, using the technique of charge injection, a surface atomic structure was successfully fabricated, suggesting the possibility of atomic-scale manipulation of this widely applicable surface of ZnTe.

  3. Oxidation effects on cleaved multiple quantum well surfaces in air observed by scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howells, S.; Gallagher, M. J.; Chen, T.; Pax, P.; Sarid, D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents the first atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of cleaved InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells and compares them with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images taken of the same heterostructure. The images were stable in air for over a day. Based on these results, it is proposed that the mechanism for contrast in the images is due to an oxide layer that grows primarily on the InGaAs wells and not on the InP barriers. Both STM and AFM clearly resolve the individual wells of the heterostructure, although STM measured a larger corrugation than an AFM. STM also exhibited superior lateral resolution of about 2 nm, while AFM had a lateral resolution of approximately 6 nm.

  4. Ozone probe: UV whiskbroom scanning spectroradiometer for earth albedo measurements from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmor, Eli T.

    1993-08-01

    An UV spectro-radiometer operating in the 0.24 - 0.30 micrometers spectral region is being devised for Earth albedo measurements from space aboard the TECHSAT-1 satellite. The sensor incorporates a four-element, wide FOV (14 degree(s)) optic with an interference wedge as a spectral dispersive element. The spatial and spectral scanning is accomplished using a single CsTe cathode photomultiplier operating in the photon-counting mode. The sensor is capable of a 2 mrad spatial and 0.01 micrometers spectral resolution. The sensor is intended to measure the Earth backscattering albedo. The spectral profile of the albedo is a function of the ozone vertical distribution. The scientific goal of this project is to investigate the long-term impact of Kuwaiti oil fires on the stratosphere above the Middle East region. An additional goal is to find out the extent of global ozone depletion over the Middle East.

  5. High-Resolution Imaging of Dendrimers Used in Drug Delivery via Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lifang; Fleming, Christopher J; Riechers, Shawn L; Yin, Nai-Ning; Luo, Juntao; Lam, Kit S; Liu, Gang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Dendrimers and telodendrimer micelles represent two new classes of vehicles for drug delivery that have attracted much attention recently. Their structural characterization at the molecular and submolecular level remains a challenge due to the difficulties in reaching high resolution when imaging small particles in their native media. This investigation offers a new approach towards this challenge, using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By using new sample preparation protocols, this work demonstrates that (a) intramolecular features such as drug molecules and dendrimer termini can be resolved; and (b) telodendrimer micelles can be immobilized on the surface without compromising structural integrity, and as such, high resolution AFM imaging may be performed to attain 3D information. This high-resolution structural information should enhance our knowledge of the nanocarrier structure and nanocarrier-drug interaction and, therefore, facilitate design and optimization of the efficiency in drug delivery.

  6. Simultaneously measured signals in scanning probe microscopy with a needle sensor: Frequency shift and tunneling current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Voigtländer, Bert

    2010-03-01

    We present combined noncontact scanning force microscopy and tunneling current images of a platinum(111) surface obtained by means of a 1 MHz quartz needle sensor. The low-frequency circuit of the tunneling current was combined with a high-frequency signal of the quartz resonator enabling full electrical operation of the sensor. The frequency shift and the tunneling current were detected simultaneously, while the feedback control loop of the topography signal was fed using one of them. In both cases, the free signal that was not connected to the feedback loop reveals proportional-integral controller errorlike behavior, which is governed by the time derivative of the topography signal. A procedure is proposed for determining the mechanical oscillation amplitude by utilizing the tunneling current also including the average tip-sample work function.

  7. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO{sub 3} surface.

  8. Insights into the nanoscale lateral and vertical phase separation in organic bulk heterojunctions via scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintala, R.; Tait, J. G.; Eyben, P.; Voroshazi, E.; Surana, S.; Fleischmann, C.; Conard, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-02-01

    Solution processed polymer (donor) and fullerene (acceptor) bulk heterojunctions are widely used as the photo active layer in organic solar cells. Intimate mixing of these two materials is essential for efficient charge separation and transport. Identifying relative positions of acceptor and donor rich regions in the bulk heterojunction with nanometer scale precision is crucial in understanding intricate details of operation. In this work, a combination of Ar+2000 gas cluster ion beam and scanning probe microscopy is used to examine the lateral and vertical phase separation within regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction. While the Ar+2000 gas cluster ion beam is used as a sputter tool to expose the underneath layers, scanning probe microscopy techniques are used to obtain two-dimensional (2D) electrical maps (with sub-2 nm lateral resolution). The electrical mapping is decoded to chemical composition, essentially producing lateral and vertical maps of phase separation. Thermal stress causes large PCBM-rich hillocks to form, and consequently affecting the balance of P3HT:PCBM heterojunctions, hence a negative impact on the efficiency of the solar cell. We further developed a method to analyze the efficiency of exciton dissociation based on the current maps and a loss of 20% in efficiency is observed for thermally degraded samples compared to fresh un-annealed samples.Solution processed polymer (donor) and fullerene (acceptor) bulk heterojunctions are widely used as the photo active layer in organic solar cells. Intimate mixing of these two materials is essential for efficient charge separation and transport. Identifying relative positions of acceptor and donor rich regions in the bulk heterojunction with nanometer scale precision is crucial in understanding intricate details of operation. In this work, a combination of Ar+2000 gas cluster ion beam and scanning probe microscopy is used to examine the

  9. A flexible implementation of scanning probe microscopy utilizing a multifunction system linked to a PC-Pentium controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchesi, C.; Cricenti, A.; Generosi, R.; Giammichele, C.; Luce, M.; Rinaldi, M.

    1997-10-01

    A flexible electronic setup on a PC platform and the software implementation in Windows Microsoft environment, for a multipurpose head for scanning probe microscopy (SPM), has been developed. The integrated, multiapplication data acquisition system is linked to a PC-Pentium controller, through a digital I/O board, and consists of: (i) an asynchronous acquisition for real time removal of following error from SPM images; (ii) a three-axes, computer controlled micropositioning stage; (iii) software for electronic control, data acquisition, and graphics elaboration performed through subroutines of Visual Basic (Visual Basic Programming System Professional edition for Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation, USA.), and PV-WAVE personal edition. (PV-WAVE Personal edition for Windows is a registered trademark of Visual Numerics, USA.)

  10. Direct fabrication of thin layer MoS{sub 2} field-effect nanoscale transistors by oxidation scanning probe lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Francisco M.; Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo; Marinov, Kolyo; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras

    2015-03-09

    Thin layer MoS{sub 2}-based field effect transistors (FET) are emerging candidates to fabricate very fast and sensitive devices. Here, we demonstrate a method to fabricate very narrow transistor channel widths on a single layer MoS{sub 2} flake connected to gold electrodes. Oxidation scanning probe lithography is applied to pattern insulating barriers on the flake. The process narrows the electron path to about 200 nm. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated FET show a behavior that is consistent with the minimum channel width of the device. The method relies on the direct and local chemical modification of MoS{sub 2}. The straightforward character and the lack of specific requirements envisage the controlled patterning of sub-100 nm electron channels in MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  11. Exploring Local Electrostatic Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy: Implications for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Triboelectricity

    DOE PAGES

    Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2014-09-25

    The implementation of contact mode Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) utilizes the electrostatic interactions between tip and sample when the tip and sample are in contact with each other. Surprisingly, the electrostatic forces in contact are large enough to be measured even with tips as stiff as 4.5 N/m. As for traditional non-contact KPFM, the signal depends strongly on electrical properties of the sample, such as the dielectric constant, and the tip-properties, such as the stiffness. Since the tip is in contact with the sample, bias-induced changes in the junction potential between tip and sample can be measured with highermore » lateral and temporal resolution compared to traditional non-contact KPFM. Significant and reproducible variations of tip-surface capacitance are observed and attributed to surface electrochemical phenomena. Lastly, observations of significant surface charge states at zero bias and strong hysteretic electromechanical responses at non-ferroelectric surface have significant implications for fields such as triboelectricity and piezoresponse force microscopy.« less

  12. Exploring Local Electrostatic Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy: Implications for Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Triboelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Li, Qian; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-09-25

    The implementation of contact mode Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) utilizes the electrostatic interactions between tip and sample when the tip and sample are in contact with each other. Surprisingly, the electrostatic forces in contact are large enough to be measured even with tips as stiff as 4.5 N/m. As for traditional non-contact KPFM, the signal depends strongly on electrical properties of the sample, such as the dielectric constant, and the tip-properties, such as the stiffness. Since the tip is in contact with the sample, bias-induced changes in the junction potential between tip and sample can be measured with higher lateral and temporal resolution compared to traditional non-contact KPFM. Significant and reproducible variations of tip-surface capacitance are observed and attributed to surface electrochemical phenomena. Lastly, observations of significant surface charge states at zero bias and strong hysteretic electromechanical responses at non-ferroelectric surface have significant implications for fields such as triboelectricity and piezoresponse force microscopy.

  13. Scanned Probe Characterization of Atmospheric Effects on diF TESADT Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Cortney; Huston, Shawn; Ward, Jeremy; Obaid, Abdul; Loth, Marsha; Anthony, John; Jurchescu, Oana; Conrad, Brad

    2014-03-01

    Single crystal organic semiconductors have been shown to exhibit carrier mobilities comparable to the silicon currently used in photovoltaics. However, during solution deposition of common organic semiconducting materials the resultant thin-film is often polycrystalline. Device performance and electrical properties of organic thin-film transistors are highly dependent on crystal structure and molecular packing. In polycrystalline thin-films, boundary regions between crystal grains can affect the overall performance of devices, as crystal structure and packing may differ from that of the surrounding crystal regions. These boundary regions may also serve as defect sites, allowing environmental factors, such as oxygen content and humidity, to alter local charge transport through devices. We utilize Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to characterize how grain boundaries alter local conductivity and device performance as a function of doping in 2,8-difluoro-5,11-triethysilylethynyl anthradithiophene (diF TESADT) thin-film transistor surfaces. Device voltage drops at grain boundaries are characterized as a function of both atmospheric dopants and transition time between dopants. NC Space Grant Consortium, Appalachian State University Office of Student Research, Ralph E Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award.

  14. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    SciTech Connect

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.

  15. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    DOE PAGES

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; ...

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps.more » The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.« less

  16. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    PubMed Central

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems. PMID:26584676

  17. Development of Micro-Four-Point Probe Compatible with an Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Canhua

    2015-03-01

    As miniaturization of electronic devices goes on, while more attention has to be paid to the influence of the existence of surfaces and interfaces on the electric and/or magnetic properties of the electronic materials, some researchers have proposed to use the intrinsic surface properties for the development of future devices. On the other side, the existence of crystal surface and interface may reduce the spatial degrees of freedom of the carriers, and thus results in various novel quantum phenomena related to the reduction of dimensionality. It is highly desirable to obtain the electronic structure, morphology information and transport property of a material in situ, since they are strongly related. Based on a commercial apparatus equipped with STM and MBE systems, we developed an electronic transport measurement system that is compatible with the STM. A micro-four-point probe (MFPP) is utilized to increase the surface sensitivity in the transport measurement, which can be conducted at low temperature (Tmin =1 K) and high magnetic field (Bmax =11 T). With this system, we succeeded in detecting superconductivity above 100 K in a single unit-cell layer of FeSe film grown on an Nb-doped strontium titanate.

  18. High-resolution melting analysis using unlabeled probe and amplicon scanning simultaneously detects several lactase persistence variants.

    PubMed

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Vestergaard, Else M; Ladefoged, Søren A; Nissen, Peter H

    2010-12-01

    Lactase persistence and thereby tolerance to lactose is a common trait in people of Northern European descent. It is linked to the LCT -13910C>T variant located in intron 13 of the MCM6 gene 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene. In people of African and Middle Eastern descent, lactase persistence can be associated with other variants nearby the -13910C>T variant, limiting the use of the -13910C>T-based SNP analysis, e.g. TaqMan assays for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Using high-resolution melting analysis, we identified five samples that were heterozygous for the -13915T>G variant among 78 patients genotyped as -13910C/C by a TaqMan assay. All samples originated from patients of probable Middle Eastern descent. In order to detect the -13910 and -13915 variants simultaneously, we developed a new high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis assay based on unlabeled probe genotyping and simultaneous amplicon scanning analysis. By using this assay we were able to distinguish the -13910 and -13915 genotypes clearly. Furthermore, we identified two rare variants, the -13907C>G and -13913T>C. With this method, based on an inexpensive unlabeled probe, it is possible to simultaneously detect the -13910C>T and -13915T>G variants in addition to rarer variants surrounding the -13910 site. This new method may contribute to improve the diagnostic performance of the genetic analysis for lactose intolerance.

  19. Fabrication and Demonstration of Mercury Disc-Well Probes for Stripping-Based Cyclic Voltammetry Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barton, Zachary J; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2017-03-07

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a rising technique for the study of energy storage materials. Hg-based probes allow the extension of SECM investigations to ionic processes, but the risk of irreversible Hg amalgam saturation limits their operation to rapid timescales and dilute analyte solutions. Here, we report a novel fabrication protocol for Hg disc-well ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs), which retain access to stripping information but are less susceptible to amalgam saturation than traditional Hg sphere-caps or thin-films. The amalgamation and stripping behaviors of Hg disc-well UMEs are compared to those of traditional Hg sphere-cap UMEs and corroborated with data from finite element simulations. The improved protection against amalgam saturation allows Hg disc-wells to operate safely in highly concentrated environments at long timescales. The utility of the probes for bulk measurements extends also to SECM studies, where the disc geometry facilitates small tip-substrate gaps and improves both spatial and temporal resolution. Because they can carry out slow, high-resolution anodic stripping voltammetry approaches and imaging in concentrated solutions, Hg disc-well electrodes fill a new analytical niche for studies of ionic reactivity and are a valuable addition to the electrochemical toolbox.

  20. Characterizing the local optoelectronic performance of organic solar cells with scanning-probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, David C.

    2007-12-01

    Conjugated polymers, small molecules, and colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for use in low-cost, thin-film solar cells. The photovoltaic performance of these materials, however, is highly dependent on film structure, and directly correlating local film structures with device performance remains challenging. This dissertation describes several techniques we have developed to probe and control the local optoelectronic properties of organic semiconducting films. First, with an aim of rapidly fabricating photovoltaic films with varying morphology, we demonstrate that Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) can be used to control nanoscale phase separation with sub-150 nm lateral resolution in polymer films that are 20--80 nm thick. This control is based on writing monolayer chemical templates that nucleate phase separation, and we use this technique to study heterogeneous nucleation in thin films. Second, we use time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) to measure photoexcited charge in polymer films with a resolution of 100 nm and 100 mus. We show that such data can predict the external quantum efficiencies of polymer photodiodes, and can thus link device performance with local optoelectronic properties. When applied to the study of blended polyfluorene films, we show that domain centers can buildup charge faster then domain interfaces, which indicates that polymer/polymer blend devices should be modeled as having impure donor/acceptor domains. Third, we use photoconductive atomic force microscopy (pcAFM) to map local photocurrents with 20 nm-resolution in polymer/fullerene solar cells- achieving an order of magnitude better resolution than previous techniques. We present photocurrent maps under short-circuit conditions (zero applied bias), as well as under various applied voltages. We find significant variations in the short-circuit current between regions that appear identical in AFM topography. These variations occur from one domain to

  1. Software system for three-dimensional visualization of micro-object surfaces for scanning probe microscopy using OpenGL graphics library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakuliuk, Nickolay V.

    2002-07-01

    The software system for 3D visualization of micro objects surfaces for scanning probe microscopy is developed. The system is used as a software part of software/hardware complex of scanning probe microscope (SPM) and its kinds. The system represent the results of microscope work in 3D- view. System has convenient GUI and high level of functionality in modes of visualization and in saving result images. Program allows to operate with image of surface in real time by performing scaling, rotation, moving, setting of lighting and color values, setting level of detail for surface in real time by performing scaling, rotation, moving, setting of lighting and color values, setting level of detail for surface rendering. This viewer works together with another part of software system that is responsible for controlling the SPM. The program also can be used as an independent view of scanning probe microscope files.

  2. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy as a probe of multi-Q magnetic states of itinerant magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Eremin, Ilya; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Andersen, Brian M.

    2017-02-01

    The combination of electronic correlations and Fermi surfaces with multiple nesting vectors can lead to the appearance of complex multi-Q magnetic ground states, hosting unusual states such as chiral density waves and quantum Hall insulators. Distinguishing single-Q and multi-Q magnetic phases is however a notoriously difficult experimental problem. Here we propose theoretically that the local density of states (LDOS) near a magnetic impurity, whose orientation may be controlled by an external magnetic field, can be used to map out the detailed magnetic configuration of an itinerant system and distinguish unambiguously between single-Q and multi-Q phases. We demonstrate this concept by computing and contrasting the LDOS near a magnetic impurity embedded in three different magnetic ground states relevant to iron-based superconductors--one single-Q and two double-Q phases. Our results open a promising avenue to investigate the complex magnetic configurations in itinerant systems via standard scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, without requiring spin-resolved capability.

  3. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Hikari; Dynes, Robert; Barber Jr., Richard. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Direct measurements of the superconducting superfluid on the surface of vacuum-cleaved Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (BSCCO) samples are reported. These measurements are accomplished via Josephson tunneling into the sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM) equipped with a superconducting tip. The spatial resolution of the STM of lateral distances less than the superconducting coherence length allows it to reveal local inhomogeneities in the pair wavefunction of the BSCCO. Instrument performance is demonstrated first with Josephson measurements of Pb films followed by the layered superconductor NbSe2. The relevant measurement parameter, the Josephson ICRN product, is discussed within the context of both BCS superconductors and the high transition temperature superconductors. The local relationship between the ICRN product and the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) gap are presented within the context of phase diagrams for BSCCO. Excessive current densities can be produced with these measurements and have been found to alter the local DOS in the BSCCO. Systematic studies of this effect were performed to determine the practical measurement limits for these experiments. Alternative methods for preparation of the BSCCO surface are also discussed.

  4. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy as a probe of multi-Q magnetic states of itinerant magnets.

    PubMed

    Gastiasoro, Maria N; Eremin, Ilya; Fernandes, Rafael M; Andersen, Brian M

    2017-02-08

    The combination of electronic correlations and Fermi surfaces with multiple nesting vectors can lead to the appearance of complex multi-Q magnetic ground states, hosting unusual states such as chiral density waves and quantum Hall insulators. Distinguishing single-Q and multi-Q magnetic phases is however a notoriously difficult experimental problem. Here we propose theoretically that the local density of states (LDOS) near a magnetic impurity, whose orientation may be controlled by an external magnetic field, can be used to map out the detailed magnetic configuration of an itinerant system and distinguish unambiguously between single-Q and multi-Q phases. We demonstrate this concept by computing and contrasting the LDOS near a magnetic impurity embedded in three different magnetic ground states relevant to iron-based superconductors-one single-Q and two double-Q phases. Our results open a promising avenue to investigate the complex magnetic configurations in itinerant systems via standard scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, without requiring spin-resolved capability.

  5. Nanoscale structural and functional mapping of nacre by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xilong; Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2013-11-01

    Nacre has received great attention due to its nanoscale hierarchical structure and extraordinary mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the nanoscale piezoelectric properties of nacre have also been investigated but the structure-function relationship has never been addressed. In this work, firstly we realized quantitative nanomechanical mapping of nacre of a green abalone using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). The modulus of the mineral tablets is determined to be ~80 GPa and that of the organic biopolymer no more than 23 GPa, and the organic-inorganic interface width is determined to be about 34 +/- 9 nm. Then, we conducted both AFAM and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) mapping in the same scanning area to explore the correlations between the nanomechanical and piezoelectric properties. The PFM testing shows that the organic biopolymer exhibits a significantly stronger piezoresponse than the mineral tablets, and they permeate each other, which is very difficult to reproduce in artificial materials. Finally, the phase hysteresis loops and amplitude butterfly loops were also observed using switching spectroscopy PFM, implying that nacre may also be a bio-ferroelectric material. The obtained nanoscale structural and functional properties of nacre could be very helpful in understanding its deformation mechanism and designing biomimetic materials of extraordinary properties.

  6. Propagating human genome information into the real world of protein function using scanned probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppell, Steven J.

    2002-03-01

    Efforts to link protein structure and biochemical function have focused mostly on primary structure, largely because of the abundance of information at this level; all of the amino acid sequences of the 30,000 proteins in the human proteonome are known, whereas the three-dimensional crystal structures of only 1000 proteins have been solved. Clearly, techniques that provide details concerning three-dimensional protein structure are needed to discover mechanisms governing biological function. Here, we have identified a motif in protein tertiary structure at sites of biochemical activity using scanning force microscopy (SFM). We show that sites on aggrecan, a cartilage proteoglycan, that are susceptible to catabolic enzymes are more flexible than other regions of the molecule. The results demonstrate a powerful new technique for investigating molecular scale structure-function relationships and suggest the role of flexibility in aggrecan degradation. This model system will be used to show how tip asymmetries can be accounted for using morphological processing coupled with monte carlo simulation. In addition, we will demonstrate that near-surface high speed force field mapping may be used to extract 6-12 type potentials that exist under physiological conditions. This type of measurement holds some promise toward connecting physical constitutive parameters of biomolecules to their biological specificity.

  7. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy as a probe of multi-Q magnetic states of itinerant magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Eremin, Ilya; Fernandes, Rafael M.; ...

    2017-02-08

    The combination of electronic correlations and Fermi surfaces with multiple nesting vectors can lead to the appearance of complex multi-Q magnetic ground states, hosting unusual states such as chiral density waves and quantum Hall insulators. Distinguishing single-Q and multi-Q magnetic phases is however a notoriously difficult experimental problem. Here we propose theoretically that the local density of states (LDOS) near a magnetic impurity, whose orientation may be controlled by an external magnetic field, can be used to map out the detailed magnetic configuration of an itinerant system and distinguish unambiguously between single-Q and multi-Q phases. We demonstrate this concept bymore » computing and contrasting the LDOS near a magnetic impurity embedded in three different magnetic ground states relevant to iron-based superconductors—one single-Q and two double-Q phases. Our results open a promising avenue to investigate the complex magnetic configurations in itinerant systems via standard scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, without requiring spin-resolved capability.« less

  8. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy as a probe of multi-Q magnetic states of itinerant magnets

    PubMed Central

    Gastiasoro, Maria N.; Eremin, Ilya; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Andersen, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of electronic correlations and Fermi surfaces with multiple nesting vectors can lead to the appearance of complex multi-Q magnetic ground states, hosting unusual states such as chiral density waves and quantum Hall insulators. Distinguishing single-Q and multi-Q magnetic phases is however a notoriously difficult experimental problem. Here we propose theoretically that the local density of states (LDOS) near a magnetic impurity, whose orientation may be controlled by an external magnetic field, can be used to map out the detailed magnetic configuration of an itinerant system and distinguish unambiguously between single-Q and multi-Q phases. We demonstrate this concept by computing and contrasting the LDOS near a magnetic impurity embedded in three different magnetic ground states relevant to iron-based superconductors—one single-Q and two double-Q phases. Our results open a promising avenue to investigate the complex magnetic configurations in itinerant systems via standard scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, without requiring spin-resolved capability. PMID:28176779

  9. Scanning probe microscope visualization of t-loop assembly by TRF2 in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, En-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Fe; Wang, Ju-Jun; Qin, Jing-Fen

    2005-02-01

    Telomeres are essential nucleoprotein structure at the ends of all eukaryotic chromosomes. Our previous work demonstrated that mammalian telomeres were shown to end in a large t-loop structure in vitro and the formation of t-loops was dependent on the presence of TRF2. In this work, the telomere DNA and its complex of TRF2 in HeLa cells has been direct observed in the nanometer resolution regime by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). AFM images showed that the looped structures exited in cell extract containing TRF2, but it disappeared in the protein-deleted samples. When cells were pretreated by UV light plus psoralen, the looped structure could be observed in the protein-deleted samples. SNOM images further demonstrated TRF2 and p53 proteins in cell was bound at the loop junction. Above results suggest that the telomere t-loop structure by TRF2 play a important role in cell-senescence, and might signals p53 protein directly through association with the t-loop junction in cells.

  10. A laser probe based on a Sagnac interferometer with fast mechanical scan for RF surface and bulk acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Kashiwa, Keiskue; Wu, Nan; Omori, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune; Takano, Osamu; Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a phasesensitive laser probe with fast mechanical scan for RF surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) devices. The Sagnac interferometer composed of micro-optic elements was introduced for the selective detection of RF vertical motion associated with RF SAW/BAW propagation and vibration. A high-pass characteristic of the interferometer makes the measurement very insensitive to low-frequency vibration. This feature allows us to apply the fast mechanical scan to the interferometric measurement without badly sacrificing its SNR and spatial resolution. The system was applied to the visualization of a field pattern on the vibrating surface of an RF BAW resonator operating in the 2 GHz range. The field pattern was obtained in 17 min as a 2-D image (500 × 750 pixel with 0.4 μm resolution and SNR of 40 dB). The system was also applied to the characterization of an RF SAW resonator operating in the 1 GHz range, and the applicability of the system was demonstrated.

  11. Two-dimensional nanoscale imaging of gadolinium spins via scanning probe relaxometry with a single spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccione, Matthew; Myers, Bryan; Pascal, Laetitia; Das, Anand; Jayich, Ania

    2015-03-01

    Spin-labeling of molecules with paramagnetic ions is an important approach for determining molecular structure, however current ensemble techniques lack the sensitivity to detect few isolated spins. In this talk, we demonstrate two-dimensional nanoscale imaging of paramagnetic gadolinium compounds using scanning relaxometry of a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Gadopentetate dimeglumine attached to an atomic force microscope tip is controllably interacted with and detected by the NV center, by virtue of the fact that the NV exhibits fast relaxation in the fluctuating magnetic field generated by electron spin flips in the gadolinium. We demonstrate a reduction in the T1 relaxation time of the NV center by over two orders of magnitude, probed with a spatial resolution of 20 nm, limited by thermal drift in ambient conditions. We discuss the importance of mitigating drift to reach truly nanoscale imaging and present progress towards cryogenic scanning magnetometry, along with utilizing chemically functionalized tips to gain greater control over the Gd distribution on the tip. Our result exhibits the viability of the technique for imaging individual spins attached to complex nanostructures or biomolecules, along with studying the magnetic dynamics of isolated spins.

  12. An ultra-low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope for magnetic imaging below 40 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcı, Özgür; Piatek, Julian O.; Jorba, Pau; Dede, Münir; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Oral, Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) for a dilution refrigerator system. A detachable SHPM head with 25.4 mm OD and 200 mm length is integrated at the end of the mixing chamber base plate of the dilution refrigerator insert (Oxford Instruments, Kelvinox MX-400) by means of a dedicated docking station. It is also possible to use this detachable SHPM head with a variable temperature insert (VTI) for 2 K-300 K operations. A microfabricated 1μm size Hall sensor (GaAs/AlGaAs) with integrated scanning tunneling microscopy tip was used for magnetic imaging. The field sensitivity of the Hall sensor was better than 1 mG/√Hz at 1 kHz bandwidth at 4 K. Both the domain structure and topography of LiHoF4, which is a transverse-field Ising model ferromagnet which orders below TC = 1.53 K, were imaged simultaneously below 40 mK.

  13. An ultra-low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope for magnetic imaging below 40 mK.

    PubMed

    Karcı, Özgür; Piatek, Julian O; Jorba, Pau; Dede, Münir; Rønnow, Henrik M; Oral, Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) for a dilution refrigerator system. A detachable SHPM head with 25.4 mm OD and 200 mm length is integrated at the end of the mixing chamber base plate of the dilution refrigerator insert (Oxford Instruments, Kelvinox MX-400) by means of a dedicated docking station. It is also possible to use this detachable SHPM head with a variable temperature insert (VTI) for 2 K-300 K operations. A microfabricated 1μm size Hall sensor (GaAs/AlGaAs) with integrated scanning tunneling microscopy tip was used for magnetic imaging. The field sensitivity of the Hall sensor was better than 1 mG/√Hz at 1 kHz bandwidth at 4 K. Both the domain structure and topography of LiHoF4, which is a transverse-field Ising model ferromagnet which orders below TC = 1.53 K, were imaged simultaneously below 40 mK.

  14. [Scanning for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations by DNA melting analysis with TaqMan probes].

    PubMed

    Botezatu, I V; Panchuk, I O; Stroganova, A M; Senderovich, A I; Kondratova, V N; Shelepov, V P; Lichtenstein, A V

    2017-01-01

    Scanning for mutations by DNA melting analysis (DMA) is based on asymmetric PCR followed by the melting of duplexes formed by single-stranded amplicons with TaqMan probes. The method is optimally suited for clinical genetic testing; it is easy to perform, high-throughput, and sensitive. The detection limit of mutant alleles by the DMA method is about 3%, which is much higher than the sensitivity of Sanger sequencing. In addition, the DMA method is realized in a closed-tube format, while 2-h assay is carried out in a single tube without any intermediate or additional procedures thereby minimizing the risk of cross contamination of the samples. The validation of the DMA method was performed by scanning for mutations of clinically significant genes KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and   PIK3CA in 324 DNA samples from tumors of patients with melanoma, colorectal and lung cancer. DNA was isolated either directly from tumor tissues, or from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The detected mutations were verified by Sanger sequencing. The spectra of mutations identified in each tumor type correspond to the literature data and, thus, validate the use of DMA.

  15. Hand Controlled Manipulation of Single Molecules via a Scanning Probe Microscope with a 3D Virtual Reality Interface.

    PubMed

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2016-10-02

    Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer. For intuitive and efficient manipulation we therefore couple a low-temperature non-contact atomic force/scanning tunneling microscope (LT NC-AFM/STM) to a motion capture system and fully immersive virtual reality goggles. This setup permits "hand controlled manipulation" (HCM), in which the SPM tip is moved according to the motion of the experimenter's hand, while the tip trajectories as well as the response of the SPM junction are visualized in 3D. HCM paves the way to the development of complex manipulation protocols, potentially leading to a better fundamental understanding of nanoscale interactions acting between molecules on surfaces. Here we describe the setup and the steps needed to achieve successful hand-controlled molecular manipulation within the virtual reality environment.

  16. Field dependence of the vortex core size probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Fente, A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; ...

    2016-07-29

    We study the spatial distribution of the density of states (DOS) at zero bias N(r) in the mixed state of single and multigap superconductors. We provide an analytic expression for N(r) based on deGennes' relationship between DOS and the order parameter that reproduces well scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data in several superconducting materials. In the single gap superconductor β-Bi2 Pd, we find that N(r) is governed by a length scale ξH =more » $$\\sqrt{Φ0/2πH}$$ which decreases in rising fields. The vortex core size $C$ ∝ (d Δ/dr|r→0)₋1 differs from ξH by a material dependent numerical factor. The new data on the tunneling conductance and vortex lattice of the 2H-NbSe1.8S0.2 show the in-plane isotropic vortices, suggesting that substitutional scattering removes the in-plane anisotropy found in the two-gap superconductor 2H-NbSe2. We fit the tunneling conductance of 2H-NbSe1.8S0.2 to a two gap model and calculate the vortex core size $C$ for each band. We find that $C$ is field independent and has the same value for both bands. We also analyze the two-band superconductor 2H-NbSe2 and find the same result. Lastly, we conclude that, independently of the magnetic field induced variation of the order parameter values in both bands, the spatial variation of the order parameter close to the vortex core is the same for all bands.« less

  17. Field dependence of the vortex core size probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fente, A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Suderow, H.; Mañas-Valero, S.; Galbiati, M.; Coronado, E.; Kogan, V. G.

    2016-07-29

    We study the spatial distribution of the density of states (DOS) at zero bias N(r) in the mixed state of single and multigap superconductors. We provide an analytic expression for N(r) based on deGennes' relationship between DOS and the order parameter that reproduces well scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data in several superconducting materials. In the single gap superconductor β-Bi2 Pd, we find that N(r) is governed by a length scale ξH = $\\sqrt{Φ0/2πH}$ which decreases in rising fields. The vortex core size $C$ ∝ (d Δ/dr|r→0)₋1 differs from ξH by a material dependent numerical factor. The new data on the tunneling conductance and vortex lattice of the 2H-NbSe1.8S0.2 show the in-plane isotropic vortices, suggesting that substitutional scattering removes the in-plane anisotropy found in the two-gap superconductor 2H-NbSe2. We fit the tunneling conductance of 2H-NbSe1.8S0.2 to a two gap model and calculate the vortex core size $C$ for each band. We find that $C$ is field independent and has the same value for both bands. We also analyze the two-band superconductor 2H-NbSe2 and find the same result. Lastly, we conclude that, independently of the magnetic field induced variation of the order parameter values in both bands, the spatial variation of the order parameter close to the vortex core is the same for all bands.

  18. The transport kinetics of lanthanide species in a single erythrocyte probed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Huo, Q; Lu, J; Li, R; Wang, K

    1999-08-01

    A novel method has been developed to visualize and follow the temporal course of lanthanide transport across the membrane into a single living erythrocyte. By means of confocal scanning microscopy and the optical section technique, the entry of lanthanide ions was followed by the fluorescence quenching of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled membrane and cytosol. From the difference of the quenching kinetics of the whole section and the central area, the time for diffusion through the membrane and the diffusion in the extracellular and intracellular media can be deduced. To clarify the mechanism of lanthanide-induced fluorescence quenching of FITC-labeled erythrocytes and to ensure that this reaction can be used in this method, the reaction was investigated by steady-state fluorescence techniques. The results showed that the lanthanides strongly quenched the florescence emitted by FITC covalently bound to membrane proteins and cytosolic proteins. The static quenching mechanism is responsible for the fluorescence quenching of FITC-labeled proteins by Ln species. The quenching mechanism is discussed on the basis of complex formation. The dependence of fluorescence quenching on both ion size and the total orbital angular momentum L supports the complexation mechanism. The transport time across the membrane is strikingly correlated with Ln species and extracellular concentration. For a given concentration, the transport time of [Ln(cit)2]3- is much shorter than that of Ln3+, since they enter the cells via the anion channel. This is supported by the inhibition effect of 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenendisulfonate on the transport of [Ln(cit)2]3-. On the other hand, the transport of free Ln3+ might be attributed to the enhanced permeability of erythrocytes owing to Ln3+ binding. These findings strongly demonstrate the existence of the non-internalization mechanism of Ln species uptake by erythrocytes.

  19. Probing resistivity and doping concentration of semiconductors at the nanoscale using scanning microwave microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brinciotti, Enrico; Gramse, Georg; Hommel, Soeren; Schweinboeck, Thomas; Altes, Andreas; Fenner, Matthias A; Smoliner, Juergen; Kasper, Manuel; Badino, Giorgio; Tuca, Silviu-Sorin; Kienberger, Ferry

    2015-09-21

    We present a new method to extract resistivity and doping concentration of semiconductor materials from Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) S11 reflection measurements. Using a three error parameters de-embedding workflow, the S11 raw data are converted into calibrated capacitance and resistance images where no calibration sample is required. The SMM capacitance and resistance values were measured at 18 GHz and ranged from 0 to 100 aF and from 0 to 1 MΩ, respectively. A tip-sample analytical model that includes tip radius, microwave penetration skin depth, and semiconductor depletion layer width has been applied to extract resistivity and doping concentration from the calibrated SMM resistance. The method has been tested on two doped silicon samples and in both cases the resistivity and doping concentration are in quantitative agreement with the data-sheet values over a range of 10(-3)Ω cm to 10(1)Ω cm, and 10(14) atoms per cm(3) to 10(20) atoms per cm(3), respectively. The measured dopant density values, with related uncertainties, are [1.1 ± 0.6] × 10(18) atoms per cm(3), [2.2 ± 0.4] × 10(17) atoms per cm(3), [4.5 ± 0.2] × 10(16) atoms per cm(3), [4.5 ± 1.3] × 10(15) atoms per cm(3), [4.5 ± 1.7] × 10(14) atoms per cm(3). The method does not require sample treatment like cleavage and cross-sectioning, and high contact imaging forces are not necessary, thus it is easily applicable to various semiconductor and materials science investigations.

  20. Probing resistivity and doping concentration of semiconductors at the nanoscale using scanning microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinciotti, Enrico; Gramse, Georg; Hommel, Soeren; Schweinboeck, Thomas; Altes, Andreas; Fenner, Matthias A.; Smoliner, Juergen; Kasper, Manuel; Badino, Giorgio; Tuca, Silviu-Sorin; Kienberger, Ferry

    2015-08-01

    We present a new method to extract resistivity and doping concentration of semiconductor materials from Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) S11 reflection measurements. Using a three error parameters de-embedding workflow, the S11 raw data are converted into calibrated capacitance and resistance images where no calibration sample is required. The SMM capacitance and resistance values were measured at 18 GHz and ranged from 0 to 100 aF and from 0 to 1 MΩ, respectively. A tip-sample analytical model that includes tip radius, microwave penetration skin depth, and semiconductor depletion layer width has been applied to extract resistivity and doping concentration from the calibrated SMM resistance. The method has been tested on two doped silicon samples and in both cases the resistivity and doping concentration are in quantitative agreement with the data-sheet values over a range of 10-3 Ω cm to 101 Ω cm, and 1014 atoms per cm3 to 1020 atoms per cm3, respectively. The measured dopant density values, with related uncertainties, are [1.1 +/- 0.6] × 1018 atoms per cm3, [2.2 +/- 0.4] × 1017 atoms per cm3, [4.5 +/- 0.2] × 1016 atoms per cm3, [4.5 +/- 1.3] × 1015 atoms per cm3, [4.5 +/- 1.7] × 1014 atoms per cm3. The method does not require sample treatment like cleavage and cross-sectioning, and high contact imaging forces are not necessary, thus it is easily applicable to various semiconductor and materials science investigations.

  1. Adapted Treatment Guided by Interim PET-CT Scan in Advanced Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Peter; Federico, Massimo; Kirkwood, Amy; Fosså, Alexander; Berkahn, Leanne; Carella, Angelo; d’Amore, Francesco; Enblad, Gunilla; Franceschetto, Antonella; Fulham, Michael; Luminari, Stefano; O’Doherty, Michael; Patrick, Pip; Roberts, Thomas; Sidra, Gamal; Stevens, Lindsey; Smith, Paul; Trotman, Judith; Viney, Zaid; Radford, John; Barrington, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background We tested interim positron-emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) as a measure of early response to chemotherapy in order to guide treatment for patients with advanced Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Methods Patients with newly diagnosed advanced classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma underwent a baseline PET-CT scan, received two cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy, and then underwent an interim PET-CT scan. Images were centrally reviewed with the use of a 5-point scale for PET findings. Patients with negative PET findings after two cycles were randomly assigned to continue ABVD (ABVD group) or omit bleomycin (AVD group) in cycles 3 through 6. Those with positive PET findings after two cycles received BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone). Radiotherapy was not recommended for patients with negative findings on interim scans. The primary outcome was the difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate between randomized groups, a noninferiority comparison to exclude a difference of 5 or more percentage points. Results A total of 1214 patients were registered; 937 of the 1119 patients (83.7%) who underwent an interim PET-CT scan according to protocol had negative findings. With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 3-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival rate in the ABVD group were 85.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1 to 88.6) and 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1 to 98.4), respectively; the corresponding rates in the AVD group were 84.4% (95% CI, 80.7 to 87.5) and 97.6% (95% CI, 95.6 to 98.7). The absolute difference in the 3-year progression-free survival rate (ABVD minus AVD) was 1.6 percentage points (95% CI, −3.2 to 5.3). Respiratory adverse events were more severe in the ABVD group than in the AVD group. BEACOPP was given to the 172 patients with positive findings on the interim scan, and 74.4% had negative findings on a third

  2. Sensor probes and phantoms for advanced transcranial magnetic stimulation system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinglei; Patel, Prashil; Trivedi, Sudhir; Du, Xiaoming; Hong, Elliot; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become one of the most widely used noninvasive method for brain tissue stimulation and has been used as a treatment tool for various neurological and psychiatric disorders including migraine, stroke, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, tinnitus and depression. In the process of developing advanced TMS deep brain stimulation tools, we need first to develop field measurement devices like sensory probes and brain phantoms, which can be used to calibrate the TMS systems. Currently there are commercially available DC magnetic or electric filed measurement sensors, but there is no instrument to measure transient fields. In our study, we used a commercial figure-8 shaped TMS coil to generate transient magnetic field and followed induced field and current. The coil was driven by power amplified signal from a pulse generator with tunable pulse rate, amplitude, and duration. In order to obtain a 3D plot of induced vector electric field, many types of probes were designed to detect single component of electric-field vectors along x, y and z axis in the space around TMS coil. We found that resistor probes has an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) near 3k ohm but it signal output is too weak compared with other techniques. We also found that inductor probes can have very high output for Curl E measurement, but it is not the E-field distribution we are interested in. Probes with electrical wire wrapped around iron coil can directly measure induced E-field with high sensitivity, which matched computer simulation results.

  3. Heterogeneity in polymer solar cells: local morphology and performance in organic photovoltaics studied with scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Groves, Chris; Reid, Obadiah G; Ginger, David S

    2010-05-18

    The use of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) could reduce production costs for solar cells because these materials are solution processable and can be manufactured by roll-to-roll printing. The nanoscale texture, or film morphology, of the donor/acceptor blends used in most OPVs is a critical variable that can dominate both the performance of new materials being optimized in the lab and efforts to move from laboratory-scale to factory-scale production. Although efficiencies of organic solar cells have improved significantly in recent years, progress in morphology optimization still occurs largely by trial and error, in part because much of our basic understanding of how nanoscale morphology affects the optoelectronic properties of these heterogeneous organic semiconductor films has to be inferred indirectly from macroscopic measurements. In this Account, we review the importance of nanoscale morphology in organic semiconductors and the use of electrical scanning probe microscopy techniques to directly probe the local optoelectronic properties of OPV devices. We have observed local heterogeneity of electronic properties and performance in a wide range of systems, including model polymer-fullerene blends such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), newer polyfluorene copolymer-PCBM blends, and even all polymer donor-acceptor blends. The observed heterogeneity in local photocurrent poses important questions, chiefly what information is contained and what is lost when using average values obtained from conventional measurements on macroscopic devices and bulk samples? We show that in many cases OPVs are best thought of as a collection of nanoscopic photodiodes connected in parallel, each with their own morphological and therefore electronic and optical properties. This local heterogeneity forces us to carefully consider the adequacy of describing OPVs solely by "average" properties such as the bulk carrier mobility

  4. CdSe/CdS-quantum rods: fluorescent probes for in vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, Jelena; Krapf, Lisa; Wolter, Christopher; Schmidtke, Christian; Merkl, Jan-Philip; Jochum, Tobias; Kornowski, Andreas; Schüth, Anna; Gebert, Andreas; Hüttmann, Gereon; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst

    2014-08-01

    CdSe/CdS-Quantum-dots-quantum-rods (QDQRs) with an aspect ratio of ~6 are prepared via the seeded growth method, encapsulated within a shell of crosslinked poly(isoprene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PI-b-PEG) diblock copolymer, and transferred from the organic phase into aqueous media. Their photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 78% is not compromised by the phase transfer. Within a period of two months the PLQY of QDQRs in aqueous solution at neutral pH decreases only slightly (to ~65%). The two-photon (TP) action cross sections of QDQRs (~105 GM) are two orders of magnitude higher than those of CdSe/CdS/ZnS-core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs, ~103 GM) with comparable diameter (~5 nm). After applying PI-b-PEG encapsulated QDQRs onto the small intestinal mucosa of mice in vivo, their strong red fluorescence can easily be observed by two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and clearly distinguished from autofluorescent background. Our results demonstrate that PI-b-PEG encapsulated CdSe/CdS-QDQRs are excellent probes for studying the uptake and fate of nanoparticles by two-photon imaging techniques in vivo.CdSe/CdS-Quantum-dots-quantum-rods (QDQRs) with an aspect ratio of ~6 are prepared via the seeded growth method, encapsulated within a shell of crosslinked poly(isoprene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PI-b-PEG) diblock copolymer, and transferred from the organic phase into aqueous media. Their photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 78% is not compromised by the phase transfer. Within a period of two months the PLQY of QDQRs in aqueous solution at neutral pH decreases only slightly (to ~65%). The two-photon (TP) action cross sections of QDQRs (~105 GM) are two orders of magnitude higher than those of CdSe/CdS/ZnS-core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs, ~103 GM) with comparable diameter (~5 nm). After applying PI-b-PEG encapsulated QDQRs onto the small intestinal mucosa of mice in vivo, their strong red fluorescence can easily be observed by two-photon laser

  5. Studies of the structure and functions of blood cells in senile patients with pneumonia on the biological model of hypoxia by scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Proshchaev, K I; Zabinyakov, N A; Azarov, K S; Dovgii, P G

    2014-12-01

    Biological model of hypoxia can be used for the diagnosis of functional changes in human erythrocytes under the effect of the hypoxic factor. The use of this model together with modern methods of scanning probe microscopy for evaluation of the severity of pulmonological disease in senile patients will help to predict treatment efficiency and outcome.

  6. In-situ probing of metallic glass formation and crystallization upon heating and cooling via fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogatscher, S.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.

    2014-06-01

    The crystallization of small-scale Au-based metallic glass samples was investigated by fast differential scanning calorimetry. Rapid cooling and heating makes possible in-situ probing of glass formation from the supercooled liquid state or direct transition from the glassy state to the equilibrium liquid and, thereby, the determination of a critical cooling (Φc ˜ 600 Ks-1) and heating rate (Φh ˜ 6 × 103 Ks-1) for crystallization. Crystallization kinetics was studied in the whole supercooled liquid region by linear heating and isothermal calorimetry. We show that the temperature dependence of crystal growth is reflected in a "Kissinger plot" for Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 and compares well with a model for crystal growth in a glassy system. Linear heating and isothermal measurements after heating the glass show that its crystallization is always growth-controlled up to its temperature of melting. In contrast, for a low degree of direct undercooling from the equilibrium liquid isothermal crystallization is nucleation-controlled, whereas it is again growth-controlled at large undercooling. The overall crystallization behavior of the metallic glass is presented in a complete time-temperature-transformation map on cooling and, so far not accessible, on heating after various cooling procedures.

  7. Ordering in bio-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials probed by in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Tunuguntla, Ramya; ...

    2015-04-15

    Here, phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural variations that could critically impact the performance of the 1D phospholipid-Si NW composites. Inmore » this manuscript, we use scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe bond orientation and bilayer thickness as a function of position with a spatial resolution of ~30 nm for Δ9-cis 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine layers prepared Si NWs. When coupled with small angle X-ray scattering measurements, the STXM data reveal structural motifs of the Si NWs that give rise to multi-bilayer formation and enable assignment of the orientation of specific bonds known to affect the order and rigidity of phospholipid bilayers.« less

  8. Planar current anisotropy and field dependence of J c in coated conductors assessed by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, M.; Hecher, J.; Sieger, M.; Pahlke, P.; Bauer, M.; Hühne, R.; Eisterer, M.

    2017-02-01

    The local distribution of the critical current density, J c, of coated conductors and YBa2Cu3O{}7-δ (YBCO) films on single crystalline substrate was investigated by scanning Hall probe microscopy. The high spatial resolution of the measurements enabled an assessment of dependence of the local J c on the local magnetic induction, B, and electric field, E. The derived J c(B)-dependence agreed well with the global J c obtained from magnetization loops and provided values of J c at very low fields, which are inaccessible to magnetization and transport measurements. The anisotropic current flow within the film plane was investigated in YBCO films on miscut SrTiO3 substrates and a GdBa2Cu3O{}7-δ film on an MgO buffer layer prepared by inclined substrate deposition on a Hastelloy substrate. The c-axis currents calculated from the Hall maps were significantly larger than previously reported data obtained from direct transport measurements. The planar current anisotropy at 77 K was found to be highly influenced by the microstructure which can either deteriorate the current flowing across the ab-planes or cause enhanced pinning and increase the critical current flowing parallel to the ab-planes.

  9. Quantitative measurement of adhesion of ink on plastic films with a Nano Indenter and a Scanning Probe Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weidian

    2005-03-01

    Plastic film packaging is widely used these days, especially in the convenience food industry due to its flexibility, boilability, and microwavability. Almost every package is printed with ink. The adhesion of ink on plastic films merits increasing attention to ensure quality packaging. However, inks and plastic films are polymeric materials with complicated molecular structures. The thickness of the jelly-like ink is only 500nm or less, and the thickness of the soft and flexible film is no more than 50μm, which make the quantitative measurement of their adhesion very challenging. Up to now, no scientific quantitative measurement method for the adhesion of ink on plastic films has been documented. We have tried a technique, in which a Nano-Indenter and a Scanning Probe Microscope were used to evaluate the adhesion strength of ink deposited on plastic films, quantitatively, as well as examine the configurations of adhesion failure. It was helpful in better understanding the adhesion mechanism, thus giving direction as to how to improve the adhesion.

  10. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) complexes probed by complementary differential scanning fluorimetry and ion mobility–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Dominic P.; Vonderach, Matthias; Ferries, Samantha; Brownridge, Philip J.; Eyers, Claire E.; Eyers, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an archetypal biological signaling module and a model for understanding the regulation of protein kinases. In the present study, we combine biochemistry with differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ion mobility–mass spectrometry (IM–MS) to evaluate effects of phosphorylation and structure on the ligand binding, dynamics and stability of components of heteromeric PKA protein complexes in vitro. We uncover dynamic, conformationally distinct populations of the PKA catalytic subunit with distinct structural stability and susceptibility to the physiological protein inhibitor PKI. Native MS of reconstituted PKA R2C2 holoenzymes reveals variable subunit stoichiometry and holoenzyme ablation by PKI binding. Finally, we find that although a ‘kinase-dead’ PKA catalytic domain cannot bind to ATP in solution, it interacts with several prominent chemical kinase inhibitors. These data demonstrate the combined power of IM–MS and DSF to probe PKA dynamics and regulation, techniques that can be employed to evaluate other protein-ligand complexes, with broad implications for cellular signaling. PMID:27444646

  11. Contact resistance asymmetry of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Fei, Wu; Yun-Feng, Chen; Hai, Lu; Xiao-Ming, Huang; Fang-Fang, Ren; Dun-Jun, Chen; Rong, Zhang; You-Dou, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a method based on scanning Kelvin probe microscopy is proposed to separately extract source/drain (S/D) series resistance in operating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. The asymmetry behavior of S/D contact resistance is deduced and the underlying physics is discussed. The present results suggest that the asymmetry of S/D contact resistance is caused by the difference in bias conditions of the Schottky-like junction at the contact interface induced by the parasitic reaction between contact metal and a-IGZO. The overall contact resistance should be determined by both the bulk channel resistance of the contact region and the interface properties of the metal-semiconductor junction. Project supported by the Key Industrial R&D Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2015155), the Priority Academic Program Development of Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 021014380033).

  12. Cryogen free scanning probe microscope: the solution for atomic scale surface science below 10 Kelvin without liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung; Venegas, Miguel; RHK Team

    We present a cryogen free low temperature scanning probe microscope (LT-SPM) working at 9K on both tip and sample. The performance of the microscope was validated in various conditions such as noisy environment and modulated temperature as well as the long time elapsed measurements. Building on the stability and consistency of the closed cycle refrigerator, time extended measurements are available with this state-of-the-art LT-SPM. Studies can now be performed without interrupting the critical moment of the tip on the surface while refilling the conventional liquid cryogen tank. We will present the time evolution of the dopant induced topographic and spectroscopic properties of some topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. The compact and rigid design of the microscope also allows this instrument to work as a practical variable temperature microscope without the hassle of liquid cryogen consumption. We will present temperature dependent STM/STS results on a TiSe2 surface at the temperature between 10K and 350K. Finally, we will discuss how the cryogen free LT-SPM will make the study of the atomic scale phenomenon at low temperature both economical and easy, opening promising new capabilities to surface scientists and researchers in nanotechnology.

  13. Magnetic domain structure study of a ferromagnetic semiconductor using a home-made low temperature scanning Hall probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweon, Seongsoo; de Lozanne, Alex; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-03-01

    GaMnAs is a ferromagnetic semiconductor actively studied for basic research and for the possibility of application to spintronic devices. To study the local magnetic properties of this material the magnetic force microscope (MFM) is too invasive (by affecting the domains in the sample) or not sensitive enough (due to the weak magnetization of the GaMnAs). We have therefore built a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) to complement our MFM studies. We use a lock-in amplifier to supply a bias current of 1-10μA and to measure the Hall voltage. We calibrated this home-made SHPM with a computer hard disk sample. Comparing images of this sample obtained with MFM and SHPM we show that our home-made SHPM is operating well. We observed the domain structure of 30-nm thick Ga0.94Mn0.06As epilayer grown on a 700nm-thick In0.13Ga0.87As buffer covering a GaAs substrate. We will study the magnetic domain structure as a function of temperature with varying external magnetic fields.

  14. Three dimensional analysis of the composition in solid alloys by variable probe in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rotunno, E; Albrecht, M; Markurt, T; Remmele, T; Grillo, V

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on a novel approach to quantitatively reconstruct the column by column composition and the 3D distribution of guest atoms inside a host matrix by scanning transmission electron microscopy high angle annular dark field technique. We propose a new mathematical framework that allows to jointly analyze the information from a set of experiments with variable beam convergence and/or defocus. Our scheme allows to reconstruct the atomic distribution along the imaged columns from the measured intensity, for any dependence of the probe intensity on the depth. It is therefore well suited to incorporate channeling effects that are usually neglected in other approaches. As a case study, we focus here on the systematic variation of the beam convergence that permits to set the maximum of the channeling oscillations at different depths. We aim here to define the reliability and the limitation of this technique by the application of the method to accurate dynamic simulations in the case of the InGaN alloy.

  15. Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy — Report of Dedicated Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Christoph; Graeff, Christian; Riboldi, Marco; Nill, Simeon; Baroni, Guido; Knopf, Antje-Christin

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

  16. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Reimann, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and analyzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  17. Visualising reacting single atoms under controlled conditions: Advances in atomic resolution in situ Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Edward D.; Gai, Pratibha L.

    2014-02-01

    Advances in atomic resolution Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM) for probing gas-solid catalyst reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions of gas environment and temperature are described. The recent development of the ESTEM extends the capability of the ETEM by providing the direct visualisation of single atoms and the atomic structure of selected solid state heterogeneous catalysts in their working states in real-time. Atomic resolution E(S)TEM provides a deeper understanding of the dynamic atomic processes at the surface of solids and their mechanisms of operation. The benefits of atomic resolution-E(S)TEM to science and technology include new knowledge leading to improved technological processes with substantial economic benefits, improved healthcare, reductions in energy needs and the management of environmental waste generation. xml:lang="fr"

  18. Global Climate Monitoring with the EOS PM-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning 2 Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called Aqua) in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-II satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM/I and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-II AMSR). The ADEOS-II AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team 3 activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The US Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  19. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  20. Influence of the atmospheric humidity on the behaviour of silicon AFM probes in photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfedda, M.; Lahimer, S.; Bonnafe, J.

    1998-11-01

    The photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) allows to characterize the surface topography with high resolution. This microscopy exploits the exponential decay of the evanescent field achieved by the total internal reflection under the surface sample. When the distance between the sensor and the surface becomes small (sim 100 nm), the non propagating photons of the evanescent field can be converted into guided propagating mode of polaritons. A bulk Silicon probe is used in the AFM experiment as a sensor of van der Waals forces. The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of the atmospheric humidity on the PSTM measurements. We have showed that the theoretical predictions of the dielectrical capture model (DCM) are very different from the experimental results when the humidity level is higher than a threshold value (30%). We present the results obtained with TE polarization, but the same behaviour is found with TM polarization. Although, in this paper we do not propose a theoretical model explaining the deviations between DCM values and experimental, however we found a validity threshold for our experimental results and we have emited the assumption that under high humidity level the pollution film presents on the sample surface slide during the displacement of the probe. La microscopie optique à effet tunnel (PSTM) est un outil de caractérisation de surface à haute résolution. Ce microscope exploite la décroissance du champ évanescent créé sur la surface de l'échantillon. Quand la distance entre le capteur et la surface est de quelques dizaines de nanomètres, les ondes évanescentes créées sur la surface sont converties en ondes propagatives et détectées en champ lointain. Le capteur est une sonde en silicium utilisée en microscopie à force atomique. Cet article montre l'influence des conditions atmosphériques sur les mesures PSTM. Il montre qu'au-delà d'un certain taux d'humidité (30%), les mesures ne sont plus valables et ne suivent

  1. Simultaneous hydrogen and heavier element isotopic ratio images with a scanning submicron ion probe and mass resolved polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Slodzian, Georges; Wu, Ting-Di; Bardin, Noémie; Duprat, Jean; Engrand, Cécile; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    In situ microanalysis of solid samples is often performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with a submicron ion probe. The destructive nature of the method makes it mandatory to prevent information loss by using instruments combining efficient collection of secondary ions and a mass spectrometer with parallel detection capabilities. The NanoSIMS meets those requirements with a magnetic spectrometer but its mass selectivity has to be improved for accessing opportunities expected from polyatomic secondary ions. We show here that it is possible to perform D/H ratio measurement images using 12CD-/12CH-, 16OD-/16OH-, or 12C2D-/12C2H- ratios. These polyatomic species allow simultaneous recording of D/H ratios and isotopic compositions of heavier elements like 15N/14N (via 12C15N-/12C14N-) and they provide a powerful tool to select the phase of interest (e.g., mineral versus organics). We present high mass resolution spectra and an example of isotopic imaging where D/H ratios were obtained via the 12C2D-/12C2H- ratio with 12C2D- free from neighboring mass interferences. Using an advanced mass resolution protocol, a "conventional" mass resolving power of 25,000 can be achieved. Those results open many perspectives for isotopic imaging at a fine scale in biology, material science, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry.

  2. Characterization of structural and electronic properties of nanoscale semiconductor device structures using cross-sectional scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Paul Arthur

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers numerous advantages over metrology tools traditionally used for semiconductor materials and device characterization including high lateral spatial resolution, and relative ease of use. Cross-sectional SPM allows material and device measurements including layer thickness metrology and p-n junction delineation on actual nanoscale device structures. Site-specific SPM allows measurements to be performed on modern devices with real, non-arbitrary geometries including deep-submicron Si device structures. In Chapter II we present theoretical analysis and experimental results of capacitive force microscopy studies of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor structures. The contrast obtained yields clear delineation of individual device layers based on doping, and enables a precise determination of the difference in basewidth between the two HBT samples examined. We experimentally determine a charged surface state density on the GaAs {110} surface that is consistent with published values. In Chapter III we present cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) of nanoscale group IV Si device structures. Sample preparation techniques are discussed in context with recent experimental results from the literature. We then presented a theoretical calculation of the flat-band and threshold voltage of Si-MOSFETs as a function of doping including error analysis due to oxide thickness variations. Application to nanoscale FIB implanted Si is presented. The SCM contrast evolves as a function of applied bias as expected based on theoretical modeling of the tip-sample system as an MOS-capacitor. In Chapter IV we apply cross-sectional SCM to directly measure the electronic properties of a 120 nm gate length p-MOSFET including super-halo implants. Bias-dependent SCM images allow us to delineate the individual device regions and image the n+ super-halo implants. We have demonstrated the specific SCM bias conditions necessary for

  3. Ordering in bio-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials probed by in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Tunuguntla, Ramya; Kim, Kyunghoon; Bangar, Mangesh; Willey, Trevor M.; Tran, Ich C.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Noy, Aleksandr; van Buuren, Tony

    2015-05-01

    Phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural variations that could critically impact the performance of the 1D phospholipid-Si NW composites. In this manuscript, we use scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe bond orientation and bilayer thickness as a function of position with a spatial resolution of ~30 nm for Δ9-cis 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine layers prepared Si NWs. When coupled with small angle X-ray scattering measurements, the STXM data reveal structural motifs of the Si NWs that give rise to multi-bilayer formation and enable assignment of the orientation of specific bonds known to affect the order and rigidity of phospholipid bilayers.Phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural

  4. Non-destructive evaluation of longitudinal uniformity for twisted Bi2223 tapes using scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, R.; Makihara, T.; Araki, Y.; Baba, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Oota, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Li, C. S.; Zhang, P. X.

    2010-11-01

    In general, shorter filament twisting should be required for substantial AC loss reduction of Bi2223 tapes under an AC external field. However, the longitudinal uniformity of both transport property and wire structure of a tightly twisted tape could be easily deteriorated. To qualify the uniformity of twisted tape, simple and non-destructive evaluation techniques should be urgently required. In this study, we non-destructively measured the remanent magnetic field distributions for twisted Bi2223 tapes using scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHM) with an active area of 50 μm × 50 μm. Twist pitch lengths of the tapes used for the measurements were 10 mm and 6 mm. After the tape was fixed on the sample holder at 77 K and zero fields, the magnetic field in perpendicular to the broader face of the tape was applied by a rectangular permanent magnet moving along a tape length. After removing the field, the distributions of remanent field Brz in perpendicular to tape surface were measured by SHM at a fixed distance of 0.5 mm away from a tape surface. For tightly twisted tape with twist pitch length of 6 mm, the longitudinal uniformity of Brz and transport critical current Ic were degraded remarkably and the local positions at which Brz greatly drops were well corresponding to low Ic region. It was also confirmed that the defects in filaments caused by tight twisting strongly affect on the intensity and shape of Brz profiles. The results suggest that SHM has the potential for simple and non-destructive characterization to qualify the longitudinal uniformity of twisted tapes.

  5. Surface potential measurements on GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koley, G.; Spencer, M. G.

    2001-07-01

    Surface potentials on GaN epilayers and Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}N/GaN heterostructures have been studied by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) in conjunction with noncontact atomic force microscopy. The dependence of the surface potential on doping in GaN films, as well as the variation of surface potential with Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}N barrier layer thickness has been investigated. The bare surface barrier height (BSBH), as measured by SKPM, is observed to decrease from {similar_to}1. 40{+-}0.1 eV to {similar_to}0.60{+-}0.1 eV with increasing doping in the GaN epilayers. Schottky barrier height calculated from the measurements of BSBH on n-GaN agrees very well with results from previous studies. We have also estimated the surface state density for GaN based on the measured values of BSBH. The semiconductor {open_quotes}work function{close_quotes} at the Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}N surface (in heterostructure samples) is observed to decrease by {similar_to}0.60 eV with increase in barrier layer thickness from {similar_to}50 to {similar_to}440 Aa. A simple model considering the presence of a uniform density of charged acceptors in the Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}N layer is proposed to explain the observed decreasing trend in work function. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Predicting Inner Heliospheric Solar Wind Conditions in Advance of Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Cohen, O.; Salem, C. S.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Maruca, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    In advance of the upcoming inner heliospheric missions (Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus) it is vital to have an accurate prediction of the range of solar wind conditions that occur between 9.5Rs and 0.7AU. These conditions will place constraints on instrument design and the operational modes that are used. In this paper, we discuss and compare different methods of predicting the solar wind bulk plasma parameters. One method uses observed 1AU conditions observed with the Wind spacecraft combined with scaling laws derived from Helios observations. We extend this simple model by using a more realistic solar wind velocity profile in addition to the Wind and Helios observations. Another method uses 3D MHD simulations from which solar wind conditions along a spacecraft trajectory can be extracted. We discuss some implications of these models in the design of the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons investigation, a suite of solar wind instruments being designed to fly on Solar Probe Plus.

  7. Controlled attenuation parameter using the FibroScan® XL probe for quantification of hepatic steatosis for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Background The FibroScan® XL probe reduces failure of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and unreliable results in obese patients. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained using the XL probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Adult NAFLD patients with a liver biopsy within six months were included and were examined with the FibroScan® M and XL probes. Histopathological findings were reported according to the Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Participants who did not have fatty liver on ultrasonography were recruited as controls. Results A total of 57 NAFLD patients and 22 controls were included. The mean age of the NAFLD patients and controls was 50.1 ± 10.4 years and 20.2 ± 1.3 years, respectively (p = 0.000). The mean body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.0 kg per m2 and 20.5 ± 2.4 kg per m2, respectively (p = 0.000). The distribution of steatosis grades were: S0, 29%; S1, 17%; S2, 35%; S3, 19%. The AUROC for estimation of steatosis grade ≥ S1, S2 and S3 was 0.94, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively, using the M probe, and 0.97, 0.81 and 0.67, respectively, using the XL probe. Conclusion CAP obtained using the XL probe had similar accuracy as the M probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD patients.

  8. Global Climate Monitoring with the Eos Pm-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called "Aqua") in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-11 satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM[l and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-11 AMSR). The ADEOS-11 AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The U.S. Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Further information about AMSR-E can be obtained at http://www.jzhcc.msfc.nasa.Vov/AMSR.

  9. Biases in Total Precipitable Water Vapor Climatologies from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2006-01-01

    We examine differences in total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) experiments sharing the Aqua spacecraft platform. Both systems provide estimates of PWV over water surfaces. We compare AIRS and AMSR-E PWV to constrain AIRS retrieval uncertainties as functions of AIRS retrieved infrared cloud fraction. PWV differences between the two instruments vary only weakly with infrared cloud fraction up to about 70%. Maps of AIRS-AMSR-E PWV differences vary with location and season. Observational biases, when both instruments observe identical scenes, are generally less than 5%. Exceptions are in cold air outbreaks where AIRS is biased moist by 10-20% or 10-60% (depending on retrieval processing) and at high latitudes in winter where AIRS is dry by 5-10%. Sampling biases, from different sampling characteristics of AIRS and AMSR-E, vary in sign and magnitude. AIRS sampling is dry by up to 30% in most high-latitude regions but moist by 5-15% in subtropical stratus cloud belts. Over the northwest Pacific, AIRS samples conditions more moist than AMSR-E by a much as 60%. We hypothesize that both wet and dry sampling biases are due to the effects of clouds on the AIRS retrieval methodology. The sign and magnitude of these biases depend upon the types of cloud present and on the relationship between clouds and PWV. These results for PWV imply that climatologies of height-resolved water vapor from AIRS must take into consideration local meteorological processes affecting AIRS sampling.

  10. Advanced compact laser scanning system enhancements for gear and thread measurements. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    McKeethan, W.M.; Maxey, L.C.; Bernacki, B.E.; Castore, G.

    1997-04-04

    The measurement, or metrology, of physical objects is a fundamental requirement for industrial progress. Dimensional measurement capability lies at the heart of ones ability to produce objects within the required technical specifications. Dimensional metrology systems are presently dominated by touch-probe technologies, which are mature and reliable. Due to the intricate geometries required in certain fields of manufacturing, these contract probes cannot be physically brought in proximity to the measurement surface, or lack sufficient lateral resolution to satisfactorily determine the surface profile, which can occur in the measurement of gears, splines and thread. Optical probes are viable candidates to supplement the contact probes, since light can be focused to less than one micron (40 microinches), no contact occurs that can mar highly finished surfaces, and no probes must be replaced due to wear. However, optical probes typically excel only on one type of surface: mirror-like or diffuse, and the optical stylus itself is oftentimes not as compact as its contact probe counterpart. Apeiron, Inc. has pioneered the use of optical non-contact sensors to measure machined parts, especially threads, gears and splines. The Oak Ridge Metrology Center at Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are world-class experts in dimensional metrology. The goal of this CRADA is to tap the expertise in Oak Ridge to evaluate Apeiron`s platform, and to suggest new or novel methods of optical surface sensing, if appropriate.

  11. The Integration of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning Probe Microscopy, and Luminescence Spectroscopy in one Platform: New Opportunities and Applications in Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    We have recently integrated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) onto the mechanical stage of a scanning electron microscope compatible with operation under high vacuum and the use of cryogenics. This instrument is unique in the sense that is not just the assembly of different microscopes but an integrated platform in which both the electron beam and the ultrasharp tip of the AFM/STM/NSOM can be controlled simultaneously and independently as excitation or sensing elements, providing innovative modes of operation and access to optoelectronic properties in the micro and nanoscale not accessible before. Furthermore, this instrument is equipped with focused laser illumination of the tip and detection of luminescence and can be used to measure cathodoluminescence, scanning tunneling luminescence, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence, all with high resolution. In this contribution, we review the application of these techniques to the development of second- and third-generation photovoltaics (PV) beyond those commercially available today. Among these applications, we present the luminescence and electron transport across single grain boundaries in chalcopyrite and kesterite compounds, the detection of single molecule species using plasmonics, the nanoscale imaging of the exciton transport in organic semiconductors, and the insitu manipulation and measurement of nanowires.

  12. Nonlinear optical processes at quadrupole polariton resonance in Cu2O as probed by a Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, S.; Jang, J. I.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2010-09-01

    Employing a modified Z-scan technique at 2 K, we monitor not only the fundamental (ω) but also the frequency-doubled (2ω) and tripled (3ω) Z-scan responses in Cu2O when the input laser frequency ω is tuned to the two-photon quadrupole polariton resonance. The Z-scan response at ω allows us to accurately estimate the absolute number of polaritons generated via two-photon absorption. A striking dip is observed near the 2ω Z-scan focus which basically arises from Auger-type recombination of polaritons. Under high excitation levels, the 3ω Z-scan shows strong third harmonic generation. Based on the nonlinear optical parameters determined, we estimate the experimental polariton density achievable and propose a direction for polariton-based Bose-Einstein condensation in Cu2O .

  13. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  14. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  15. Advances in development of fluorescent probes for detecting amyloid-β aggregates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Ming; Ren, Wen-Ming; Tang, Xi-Can; Hu, You-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2016-06-01

    With accumulating evidence suggesting that amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is a good diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the discovery of active Aβ probes has become an active area of research. Among the existing imaging methods, optical imaging targeting Aβ aggregates (fibrils or oligomers), especially using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, is increasingly recognized as a promising approach for the early diagnosis of AD due to its real time detection, low cost, lack of radioactive exposure and high-resolution. In the past decade, a variety of fluorescent probes have been developed and tested for efficiency in vitro, and several probes have shown efficacy in AD transgenic mice. This review classifies these representative probes based on their chemical structures and functional modes (dominant solvent-dependent mode and a novel solvent-independent mode). Moreover, the pharmaceutical characteristics of these representative probes are summarized and discussed. This review provides important perspectives for the future development of novel NIR Aβ diagnostic probes.

  16. A 1 kHz A-scan rate pump-probe laser-ultrasound system for robust inspection of composites.

    PubMed

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Shtokolov, Alex; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We recently built a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aircraft composites and demonstrated its greatly improved sensitivity and stability compared with current noncontact systems. It is also very attractive in terms of cost, stability to environmental noise and surface roughness, simplicity in adjustment, footprint, and flexibility. A new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is a key component of this all-optical LU pump-probe system. Very high A-scan rates can be achieved because no reference arm or stabilization feedback are needed. Here, we demonstrate LU system performance at 1000 A-scans/s combined with a fast 2-D translator operating at a scanning speed of 100 mm/s with a peak acceleration of 10 m/s(2) in both lateral directions to produce parallel B-scans at high rates. The fast scanning strategy is described in detail. The sensitivity of this system, in terms of noise equivalent pressure, was further improved to be only 8.3 dB above the Nyquist thermal noise limit. To our knowledge, this is the best reported sensitivity for a noncontact ultrasonic detector of this dimension used to inspect aircraft composites.

  17. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    PubMed

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  18. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Andrew J. Page, Michael R.; Young, Justin R.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris; Jacob, Jan; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  19. Mapping of heavy metal ion sorption to cell-extracellular polymeric substance-mineral aggregates by using metal-selective fluorescent probes and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Likai; Li, Jianli; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Biofilms, organic matter, iron/aluminum oxides, and clay minerals bind toxic heavy metal ions and control their fate and bioavailability in the environment. The spatial relationship of metal ions to biomacromolecules such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms with microbial cells and biogenic minerals is complex and occurs at the micro- and submicrometer scale. Here, we review the application of highly selective and sensitive metal fluorescent probes for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) that were originally developed for use in life sciences and propose their suitability as a powerful tool for mapping heavy metals in environmental biofilms and cell-EPS-mineral aggregates (CEMAs). The benefit of using metal fluorescent dyes in combination with CLSM imaging over other techniques such as electron microscopy is that environmental samples can be analyzed in their natural hydrated state, avoiding artifacts such as aggregation from drying that is necessary for analytical electron microscopy. In this minireview, we present data for a group of sensitive fluorescent probes highly specific for Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+), illustrating the potential of their application in environmental science. We evaluate their application in combination with other fluorescent probes that label constituents of CEMAs such as DNA or polysaccharides and provide selection guidelines for potential combinations of fluorescent probes. Correlation analysis of spatially resolved heavy metal distributions with EPS and biogenic minerals in their natural, hydrated state will further our understanding of the behavior of metals in environmental systems since it allows for identifying bonding sites in complex, heterogeneous systems.

  20. Visualization of the Local Carrier Dynamics in an InGaN Quantum Well Using Dual-Probe Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Akio; Hashimoto, Tsuneaki; Nishimura, Katsuhito; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2010-10-01

    We have developed dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to visualize detailed carrier diffusion/recombination processes and applied it to the assessment of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN single quantum well. It is clearly demonstrated that the carrier motion is strongly affected by the potential distribution within InGaN; potential ridges prevent carriers from diffusing outside them, whereas potential peaks cause carriers to travel a roundabout route around them. As a consequence, carriers anisotropically diffuse for several hundred nanometers along a specific direction toward a strong-photoluminescence domain. Thus, the dual-probe SNOM technique is a powerful nanoscopic tool, and may be versatile for characterizing photonic materials.

  1. Imaging subcellular features of a sectioned rat brain using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Francis, J. T.; Taylor, A. R.; Walzak, M. J.; Chang, W. H.; MacFabe, D. F.; Lau, W. M.

    2008-12-01

    Coronal sections of unfixed rat brain samples were prepared on a flat substrate in order to reveal hippocampal formation (CA1-4 pyramidal neurons) and adjacent neocortical white matter. We demonstrate the feasibility of using surface sensitive techniques such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to probe lipid distribution, as well as the subcellular features of neurons. In the same anatomical areas, the phase shift image in SPM is especially useful in revealing the cross-section of subcellular structures. We show that the phase shift images reveal distinctive subcellular features and ion images of CN - and PO 2- fragments from ToF-SIMS appear to define some of the subcellular features.

  2. The effect of probe inaccuracies on the quantitative model-based analysis of high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; De Backer, A; Rosenauer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative structural and chemical information can be obtained from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images when using statistical parameter estimation theory. In this approach, we assume an empirical parameterized imaging model for which the total scattered intensities of the atomic columns are estimated. These intensities can be related to the material structure or composition. Since the experimental probe profile is assumed to be known in the description of the imaging model, we will explore how the uncertainties in the probe profile affect the estimation of the total scattered intensities. Using multislice image simulations, we analyze this effect for Cs corrected and non-Cs corrected microscopes as a function of inaccuracies in cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as defocus and spherical aberration of third and fifth order, and non-cylindrically symmetric aberrations, such as 2-fold and 3-fold astigmatism and coma.

  3. Combining low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy techniques for surface science: Development of a novel sample-holder

    SciTech Connect

    Cheynis, F.; Leroy, F.; Ranguis, A.; Detailleur, B.; Bindzi, P.; Veit, C.; Bon, W.; Müller, P.

    2014-04-15

    We introduce an experimental facility dedicated to surface science that combines Low-Energy Electron Microscopy/Photo-Electron Emission Microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) and variable-temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques. A technical challenge has been to design a sample-holder that allows to exploit the complementary specifications of both microscopes and to preserve their optimal functionality. Experimental demonstration is reported by characterizing under ultrahigh vacuum with both techniques: Au(111) surface reconstruction and a two-layer thick graphene on 6H-SiC(0001). A set of macros to analyze LEEM/PEEM data extends the capabilities of the setup.

  4. Combining low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy techniques for surface science: development of a novel sample-holder.

    PubMed

    Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Ranguis, A; Detailleur, B; Bindzi, P; Veit, C; Bon, W; Müller, P

    2014-04-01

    We introduce an experimental facility dedicated to surface science that combines Low-Energy Electron Microscopy/Photo-Electron Emission Microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) and variable-temperature Scanning Probe Microscopy techniques. A technical challenge has been to design a sample-holder that allows to exploit the complementary specifications of both microscopes and to preserve their optimal functionality. Experimental demonstration is reported by characterizing under ultrahigh vacuum with both techniques: Au(111) surface reconstruction and a two-layer thick graphene on 6H-SiC(0001). A set of macros to analyze LEEM/PEEM data extends the capabilities of the setup.

  5. Visualization of cancer-related chemical components in mouse pancreas tissue by tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yoichi; Satoh, Shuya; Naito, Junpei; Kyogaku, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is an informative approach for the comprehensive analysis of multiple components inside biological specimens. We used novel tapping-mode scanning probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method to visualize cancer-related chemical components in the mouse pancreas tissue section at a sampling pitch of 100 µm. Positive ion mode measurements from m/z 100 to 1500 resulted in the visualization of multiple components that are tentatively assigned as polyamines, lipids and proteins. Their signal intensities inside the cancerous and the non-cancerous regions were found to be significantly different by the two-sample t-test.

  6. INFLUENCE OF FILM STRUCTURE AND LIGHT ON CHARGE TRAPPING AND DISSIPATION DYNAMICS IN SPUN-CAST ORGANIC THIN-FILM TRANSISTORS MEASURED BY SCANNING KELVIN PROBE MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Moth, M.; Anthony, J.

    2012-05-03

    Herein, time-dependent scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of solution processed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) reveals a correlation between film microstructure and OTFT device performance with the location of trapped charge within the device channel. The accumulation of the observed trapped charge is concurrent with the decrease in I{sub SD} during operation (V{sub G}=-40 V, V{sub SD}= -10 V). We discuss the charge trapping and dissipation dynamics as they relate to the film structure and show that application of light quickly dissipates the observed trapped charge.

  7. Spatially resolved characterization of catalyst-coated membranes by distance-controlled scanning mass spectrometry utilizing catalytic methanol oxidation as gas-solid probe reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Assmann, Jens; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The spatially resolved catalytic activity of a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM), which is the essential part of PEM fuel cells, was visualized rapidly without any damage by a distance-controlled scanning mass spectrometer with an improved resolution of 250 microm. Methanol oxidation was identified as a suitable gas-solid probe reaction for the characterization of local catalytic activity. In addition, defects were manually generated in the CCM to simulate inhomogeneous coating and pinholes. The measurements successfully demonstrated that catalytically active and less active regions can be clearly distinguished. Simultaneously, the local topography was recorded, providing additional information on the location of the scratches and pinholes. The catalytic results were highly reproducible due to the constant-distance feedback loop rendering scanning mass spectrometry a promising tool for the quantitative quality control of CCMs.

  8. Nitroxide amide-BODIPY probe behavior in fibroblasts analyzed by advanced fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liras, M; Simoncelli, S; Rivas-Aravena, A; García, O; Scaiano, J C; Alarcon, E I; Aspée, A

    2016-04-26

    A novel synthesized nitroxide amide-BODIPY prefluorescent probe was used to study cellular redox balance that modulates nitroxide/hydroxylamine ratio in cultured human fibroblasts. FLIM quantitatively differentiated between nitroxide states of the cytoplasm-localized probe imaged by TIRF, monitoring nitroxide depletion by hydrogen peroxide; eluding incorrect interpretation if only fluorescence intensity is considered.

  9. Advances in Scanning Reflectarray Antennas Based on Ferroelectric Thin Film Phase Shifters for Deep Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Though there are a few examples of scanning phased array antennas that have flown successfully in space, the quest for low-cost, high-efficiency, large aperture microwave phased arrays continues. Fixed and mobile applications that may be part of a heterogeneous exploration communication architecture will benefit from the agile (rapid) beam steering and graceful degradation afforded by phased array antennas. The reflectarray promises greater efficiency and economy compared to directly-radiating varieties. Implementing a practical scanning version has proven elusive. The ferroelectric reflectarray, under development and described herein, involves phase shifters based on coupled microstrip patterned on Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films, that were laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates. These devices outperform their semiconductor counterparts from X- through and K-band frequencies. There are special issues associated with the implementation of a scanning reflectarray antenna, especially one realized with thin film ferroelectric phase shifters. This paper will discuss these issues which include: relevance of phase shifter loss; modulo 2(pi) effects and phase shifter transient effects on bit error rate; scattering from the ground plane; presentation of a novel hybrid ferroelectric-semiconductor phase shifter; and the effect of mild radiation exposure on phase shifter performance.

  10. A preliminary study of spatial resolution enhancement of confocal and triangulation displacement meters using contact mode scanning probes.

    PubMed

    Gaitas, Angelo

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a method for the spatial resolution enhancement of confocal and triangulation meters using cantilever probes. Integration of a cantilever with existing commercially available meters is substantially eased by the absence of feedback control of the cantilever position. Confocal and triangulation meters are used for a number of applications in research and industrial settings including thickness measurements, topography measurements, step height measurements, flatness measurements, and profile measurements. These instruments provide a vertical (out-of-plane) resolution of a few nanometers. However, they are limited in their spatial resolution to the laser beam diameter, which is typically larger than 2 microm and often about 20 microm. Using a cantilever probe to make contact with the sample, the lateral resolution of standard commercial instruments can be improved to less than 1 microm.

  11. Ex-vivo endoscopic laryngeal cancer imaging using two forward-looking fiber optic scanning endoscope probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernat, R.; Tatla, T.; Pang, J.-Y.; Tadrous, P. J.; Gelikonov, G.; Gelikonov, V.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Bradu, A.; Li, X. D.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    Larynx cancer is one of the most common primary head and neck cancers. For early-stage laryngeal cancer, both surgery and radiotherapy are effective treatment modalities, offering a high rate of local control and cure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established non-invasive optical biopsy method, capable of imaging ranges of 2- 3 mm into tissue. By using the principles of low coherence light interferometry, OCT can be used to distinguish normal from unhealthy laryngeal mucosa in patients. Two forward-looking endoscope OCT probes of different sizes in a sweeping frequency OCT (SS-OCT) configuration were compared in terms of their performances for ex-vivo laryngeal cancer imaging. The setup configuration of the first OCT probe unit was designed and constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia (diameter of 1.9 mm and the rigid part at the distal end is 13 mm long). The second OCT endoscope probe was constructed at the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, USA, using a tubular piezoelectric actuator with quartered electrodes in combination with a resonant fiber cantilever (diameter of 2.4 mm, and rigid part of 45 mm). Cross-sectional images of laryngeal lesions using the two OCT configurations were aquired and compared with OCT images obtained in a 1310 nm SS-OCT classical non-endoscopic system. The work presented here is an intermediate step in our research towards in-vivo endoscopic laryngeal cancer imaging.

  12. Advances in development of fluorescent probes for detecting amyloid-β aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-ming; Ren, Wen-ming; Tang, Xi-can; Hu, You-hong; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    With accumulating evidence suggesting that amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is a good diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the discovery of active Aβ probes has become an active area of research. Among the existing imaging methods, optical imaging targeting Aβ aggregates (fibrils or oligomers), especially using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, is increasingly recognized as a promising approach for the early diagnosis of AD due to its real time detection, low cost, lack of radioactive exposure and high-resolution. In the past decade, a variety of fluorescent probes have been developed and tested for efficiency in vitro, and several probes have shown efficacy in AD transgenic mice. This review classifies these representative probes based on their chemical structures and functional modes (dominant solvent-dependent mode and a novel solvent-independent mode). Moreover, the pharmaceutical characteristics of these representative probes are summarized and discussed. This review provides important perspectives for the future development of novel NIR Aβ diagnostic probes. PMID:26997567

  13. MEMS-based handheld scanning probe with pre-shaped input signals for distortion-free images in Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Andrea; Canavesi, Cristina; Hayes, Adam; Tankam, Patrice; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Santhanam, Anand; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-06-13

    High-speed scanning in optical coherence tomography (OCT) often comes with either compromises in image quality, the requirement for post-processing of the acquired images, or both. We report on distortion-free OCT volumetric imaging with a dual-axis micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based handheld imaging probe. In the context of an imaging probe with optics located between the 2D MEMS and the sample, we report in this paper on how pre-shaped open-loop input signals with tailored non-linear parts were implemented in a custom control board and, unlike the sinusoidal signals typically used for MEMS, achieved real-time distortion-free imaging without post-processing. The MEMS mirror was integrated into a compact, lightweight handheld probe. The MEMS scanner achieved a 12-fold reduction in volume and 17-fold reduction in weight over a previous dual-mirror galvanometer-based scanner. Distortion-free imaging with no post-processing with a Gabor-domain optical coherence microscope (GD-OCM) with 2 μm axial and lateral resolutions over a field of view of 1 × 1 mm2 is demonstrated experimentally through volumetric images of a regular microscopic structure, an excised human cornea, and in vivo human skin.

  14. The Effect of Electrode Coupling on Single Molecule Device Characteristics: An X-Ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Arunabh

    This thesis studies electronic properties of molecular devices in the limiting cases of strong and weak electrode-molecule coupling. In these two limits, we use the complementary techniques of X-Ray spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to understand the mechanisms for electrode-molecule bond formation, the energy level realignment due to metal-molecule bonds, the effect of coupling strength on single-molecule conductance in low-bias measurements, and the effect of coupling on transport under high-bias. We also introduce molecular designs with inherent asymmetries, and develop an analytical method to determine the effect of these features on high-bias conductance. This understanding of the role of electrode-molecule coupling in high-bias regimes enables us to develop a series of functional electronic devices whose properties can be predictably tuned through chemical design. First, we explore the weak electrode-molecule coupling regime by studing the interaction of two types of paracyclophane derivates that are coupled 'through-space' to underlying gold substrates. The two paracyclophane derivatives differ in the strength of their intramolecular through-space coupling. X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorbance Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy allows us to determine the orientation of both molecules; Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy (RPES) then allows us to measure charge transfer time from molecule to metal for both molecules. This study provides a quantititative measure of charge transfer time as a function of through-space coupling strength. Next we use this understanding in STM based single-molecule current-voltage measurements of a series of molecules that couple through-space to one electrode, and through-bond to the other. We find that in the high-bias regime, these molecules respond differently depending on the direction of the applied field. This asymmetric response to electric field direction results in

  15. Band Alignment in MoS2/WS2 Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures Probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather M; Rigosi, Albert F; Rim, Kwang Taeg; Flynn, George W; Heinz, Tony F

    2016-08-10

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we examine the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures (TMDCHs) composed of monolayers of MoS2 and WS2. STS data are obtained for heterostructures of varying stacking configuration as well as the individual monolayers. Analysis of the tunneling spectra includes the influence of finite sample temperature, yield information about the quasi-particle bandgaps, and the band alignment of MoS2 and WS2. We report the band gaps of MoS2 (2.16 ± 0.04 eV) and WS2 (2.38 ± 0.06 eV) in the materials as measured on the heterostructure regions and the general type II band alignment for the heterostructure, which shows an interfacial band gap of 1.45 ± 0.06 eV.

  16. Further development of soft X-ray scanning microscopy with anelliptical undulator at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Ade, Harald; Fakra, Sirine; Gilles, Mary; Hitchcock, Adam; Kilcoyne, David; Shuh, David; Tyliszczak, Tolek

    2003-04-02

    Soft x-ray scanning microscopy (1) is under continuing development at the Advanced Light Source. Significant progress has been made implementing new scan control systems in both operational microscopes (2) and they now operate at beam lines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 with interferometer servo scanning and stabilization. The interferometer servo loop registers the images on a universal x/y coordinate system and locks the x-ray spot on selected features for spectro-microscopic studies. At the present time zone plates are in use with 35nm outer zone width and the imaging spatial resolution is at the diffraction limit of these lenses. Current research programs are underway in areas of polymer chemistry, environmental chemistry and materials science. A dedicated polymer STXM is in operation on a bend magnet beam line (4) and is the subject of a separate article (3) in this issue. Here we focus on the capabilities of STXM at a new beam line that employs an elliptical undulator (5) to give control of the polarization of the x-ray beam. This facility is in the process of commissioning and some results are available, other capabilities will be developed during the first half of 2003.

  17. In vivo proton-electron double-resonance imaging of extracellular tumor pH using an advanced nitroxide probe.

    PubMed

    Samouilov, Alexandre; Efimova, Olga V; Bobko, Andrey A; Sun, Ziqi; Petryakov, Sergey; Eubank, Timothy D; Trofimov, Dmitrii G; Kirilyuk, Igor A; Grigor'ev, Igor A; Takahashi, Wataru; Zweier, Jay L; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2014-01-21

    A variable radio frequency proton-electron double-resonance imaging (VRF PEDRI) approach for pH mapping of aqueous samples has been recently developed (Efimova et al. J. Magn. Reson. 2011, 209, 227-232). A pH map is extracted from two PEDRI acquisitions performed at electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies of protonated and unprotonated forms of a pH-sensitive probe. To translate VRF PEDRI to an in vivo setting, an advanced pH probe was synthesized. Probe deuteration resulted in a narrow spectral line of 1.2 G compared to a nondeuterated analogue line width of 2.1 G allowing for an increase of Overhauser enhancements and reduction in rf power deposition. Binding of the probe to the cell-impermeable tripeptide, glutathione (GSH), allows for targeting to extracellular tissue space for monitoring extracellular tumor acidosis, a prognostic factor in tumor pathophysiology. The probe demonstrated pH sensitivity in the 5.8-7.8 range, optimum for measurement of acidic extracellular tumor pH (pH(e)). In vivo VRF PEDRI was performed on Met-1 tumor-bearing mice. Compared to normal mammary glands with a neutral mean pH(e) (7.1 ± 0.1), we observed broader pH distribution with acidic mean pH(e) (6.8 ± 0.1) in tumor tissue. In summary, VRF PEDRI in combination with a newly developed pH probe provides an analytical approach for spatially resolved noninvasive pHe monitoring, in vivo.

  18. Mapping of Heavy Metal Ion Sorption to Cell-Extracellular Polymeric Substance-Mineral Aggregates by Using Metal-Selective Fluorescent Probes and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianli; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms, organic matter, iron/aluminum oxides, and clay minerals bind toxic heavy metal ions and control their fate and bioavailability in the environment. The spatial relationship of metal ions to biomacromolecules such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms with microbial cells and biogenic minerals is complex and occurs at the micro- and submicrometer scale. Here, we review the application of highly selective and sensitive metal fluorescent probes for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) that were originally developed for use in life sciences and propose their suitability as a powerful tool for mapping heavy metals in environmental biofilms and cell-EPS-mineral aggregates (CEMAs). The benefit of using metal fluorescent dyes in combination with CLSM imaging over other techniques such as electron microscopy is that environmental samples can be analyzed in their natural hydrated state, avoiding artifacts such as aggregation from drying that is necessary for analytical electron microscopy. In this minireview, we present data for a group of sensitive fluorescent probes highly specific for Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, illustrating the potential of their application in environmental science. We evaluate their application in combination with other fluorescent probes that label constituents of CEMAs such as DNA or polysaccharides and provide selection guidelines for potential combinations of fluorescent probes. Correlation analysis of spatially resolved heavy metal distributions with EPS and biogenic minerals in their natural, hydrated state will further our understanding of the behavior of metals in environmental systems since it allows for identifying bonding sites in complex, heterogeneous systems. PMID:23974141

  19. Soft tissue response to mandibular advancement using 3D CBCT scanning.

    PubMed

    Almeida, R C; Cevidanes, L H S; Carvalho, F A R; Motta, A T; Almeida, M A O; Styner, M; Turvey, T; Proffit, W R; Phillips, C

    2011-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study assessed the 3D soft tissue changes following mandibular advancement surgery. Cranial base registration was performed for superimposition of virtual models built from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumes. Displacements at the soft and hard tissue chin (n = 20), lower incisors and lower lip (n = 21) were computed for presurgery to splint removal (4-6-week surgical outcome), presurgery to 1 year postsurgery (1-year surgical outcome), and splint removal to 1 year postsurgery (postsurgical adaptation). Qualitative evaluations of color maps illustrated the surgical changes and postsurgical adaptations, but only the lower lip showed statistically significant postsurgical adaptations. Soft and hard tissue chin changes were significantly correlated for each of the intervals evaluated: presurgery to splint removal (r = 0.92), presurgery to 1 year postsurgery (r = 0.86), and splint removal to 1 year postsurgery (r = 0.77). A statistically significant correlation between lower incisor and lower lip was found only between presurgery and 1 year postsurgery (r = 0.55). At 1 year after surgery, 31% of the lower lip changes were explained by changes in the lower incisor position while 73% of the soft tissue chin changes were explained by the hard chin. This study suggests that 3D soft tissue response to mandibular advancement surgery is markedly variable.

  20. Advances in using MRI probes and sensors for in vivo cell tracking as applied to regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Kadayakkara, Deepak K.; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Gilad, Assaf A.; McMahon, Michael T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of molecular and cellular imaging allows molecules and cells to be visualized in vivo non-invasively. It has uses not only as a research tool but in clinical settings as well, for example in monitoring cell-based regenerative therapies, in which cells are transplanted to replace degenerating or damaged tissues, or to restore a physiological function. The success of such cell-based therapies depends on several critical issues, including the route and accuracy of cell transplantation, the fate of cells after transplantation, and the interaction of engrafted cells with the host microenvironment. To assess these issues, it is necessary to monitor transplanted cells non-invasively in real-time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool uniquely suited to this task, given its ability to image deep inside tissue with high temporal resolution and sensitivity. Extraordinary efforts have recently been made to improve cellular MRI as applied to regenerative medicine, by developing more advanced contrast agents for use as probes and sensors. These advances enable the non-invasive monitoring of cell fate and, more recently, that of the different cellular functions of living cells, such as their enzymatic activity and gene expression, as well as their time point of cell death. We present here a review of recent advancements in the development of these probes and sensors, and of their functioning, applications and limitations. PMID:26035841

  1. Advances in Imaging Techniques and Genetically Encoded Probes for Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Lin, Riqiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jingqin; Wang, Zhiyong; Song, Liang; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging biomedical imaging modality that is capable of visualizing cellular and molecular functions with high detection sensitivity and spatial resolution in deep tissue. Great efforts and progress have been made on the development of various PA imaging technologies with improved resolution and sensitivity over the past two decades. Various PA probes with high contrast have also been extensively developed, with many important biomedical applications. In comparison with chemical dyes and nanoparticles, genetically encoded probes offer easier labeling of defined cells within tissues or proteins of interest within a cell, have higher stability in vivo, and eliminate the need for delivery of exogenous substances. Genetically encoded probes have thus attracted increasing attention from researchers in engineering and biomedicine. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the existing PA imaging technologies and genetically encoded PA probes, and describe further improvements in PA imaging techniques and the near-infrared photochromic protein BphP1, the most sensitive genetically encoded probe thus far, as well as the potential biomedical applications of BphP1-based PA imaging in vivo. PMID:27877244

  2. Recent advances and potential applications of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) in drug development.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Löbmann, Korbinian; Elder, David P; Rades, Thomas; Holm, René

    2016-05-25

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is frequently the thermal analysis technique of choice within preformulation and formulation sciences because of its ability to provide detailed information about both the physical and energetic properties of a substance and/or formulation. However, conventional DSC has shortcomings with respect to weak transitions and overlapping events, which could be solved by the use of the more sophisticated modulated DSC (mDSC). mDSC has multiple potential applications within the pharmaceutical field and the present review provides an up-to-date overview of these applications. It is aimed to serve as a broad introduction to newcomers, and also as a valuable reference for those already practising in the field. Complex mDSC was introduced more than two decades ago and has been an important tool for the quantification of amorphous materials and development of freeze-dried formulations. However, as discussed in the present review, a number of other potential applications could also be relevant for the pharmaceutical scientist.

  3. Advanced characterization of carrier profiles in germanium using micro-machined contact probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarysse, T.; Konttinen, M.; Parmentier, B.; Moussa, A.; Vandervorst, W.; Impellizzeri, G.; Napolitani, E.; Privitera, V.; Nielsen, P. F.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, O.

    2012-11-01

    The accurate determination of the sheet resistance and carrier depth profile, i.e. active dopant profile, of shallow junction isolated structures involving new high mobility materials, such as germanium, is a crucial topic for future CMOS development. In this work, we discuss the capabilities of new concepts based on micro machined, closely spaced contact probes (10 μm pitch). When using four probes to perform sheet resistance measurements, a quantitative carrier profile extraction based on the evolution of the sheet resistance versus depth along a beveled surface is obtained. Considering the use of only two probes, a spreading resistance like setup is obtained with small spacing and drastically reduced electrical contact radii (˜10 nm) leading to a substantial reduction of the correction factors which are normally required for converting spreading resistance profiles. We demonstrate the properties of both approaches on Al+ implants in germanium with different anneal treatments.

  4. Plasma Impedance Spectrum Analyzer (PISA): an advanced impedance probe for measuring plasma density and other parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Uribe, P.; Burchill, J.

    2006-12-01

    High-accuracy, high-cadence measurements of ionospheric electron density between 100 and a few x 106 / cc and electron temperature from 200 K to a few thousand K are of critical importance for understanding conductivity, Joule heating rates, and instability growth rates. We present results from the development of an impedance probe at NASA GSFC and show its strengths relative to other measurement techniques. Complementary measurement techniques such as Langmuir Probes, while providing extremely high measurement cadence, suffer from uncertainties in calibration, surface contamination effects, and wake/sheath effects. Impedance Probes function by measuring the phase shift between the voltage on a long antenna and the current flowing from the antenna into the plasma as a function of frequency. At frequencies for which the phase shift is zero, a plasma resonance is assumed to exist. These resonances depend on a variety of plasma parameters, including the electron density, electron temperature, and magnetic field strength, as well as the antenna geometry, angle between the antenna and the magnetic field, and sheath / Debye length effects, but do not depend on the surface properties of the antenna. Previous impedance probe designs which "lock" onto the upper hybrid resonance are susceptible to losing lock in low-density environments. Information about other resonances, including the series resonance (which strongly depends on temperature) and other resonances which may occur near the upper hybrid, confounding its identification, are typically not transmitted. The novel features of the GSFC Impedance Probe (PISA) include: 1) A white noise generator that stimulates a wide range of frequencies simultaneously, allowing the instrument to send down the entire impedance frequency spectrum every few milliseconds. This allows identification of all resonance frequencies, including the series resonance which depends on temperature. 2) DC bias voltage stepping to bring the antenna

  5. Proximity induced superconductivity in the 3D topological insulator HgTe probed with scanning SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochnikov, Ilya; Kirtley, John R.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Maier, Luis; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.

    2014-03-01

    Inducing superconductivity on the surface of a 3D topological insulator is important for novel broken symmetry phases. However, it is difficult to assess the existence of the surface superconductivity with a single experimental technique. We have used a scanning SQUID microscope to characterize the magnetic properties of hybrid structures made of the 3D topological insulator HgTe and superconducting Nb. The magnetic response of superconducting rings with exotic Josephson junctions reveals the current-phase relation, while measurements of bilayer HgTe/Nb disks reveal the total superfluid density of the hybrid structure. We analyze the degree of skew in the current-phase relation to determine the relative contribution of surface states, and discuss other contributions to the current-phase relation. This work sets an agenda for discussion of the prospects for detection of new broken symmetry phases in 3D topological insulators.

  6. Probing Dirac fermion dynamics in topological insulator Bi2Se3 films with a scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed

    Song, Can-Li; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2015-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have been used to investigate the femtosecond dynamics of Dirac fermions in the topological insulator Bi2Se3 ultrathin films. At the two-dimensional limit, bulk electrons become quantized and the quantization can be controlled by the film thickness at a single quintuple layer level. By studying the spatial decay of standing waves (quasiparticle interference patterns) off steps, we measure directly the energy and film thickness dependence of the phase relaxation length lϕ and inelastic scattering lifetime τ of topological surface-state electrons. We find that τ exhibits a remarkable (E - EF)(-2) energy dependence and increases with film thickness. We show that the features revealed are typical for electron-electron scattering between surface and bulk states.

  7. Measuring the Thickness and Potential Profiles of the Space-Charge Layer at Organic/Organic Interfaces under Illumination and in the Dark by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Geoffrey A; Wu, Yanfei; Haugstad, Greg; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-03-09

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy was used to measure band-bending at the model donor/acceptor heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/fullerene (C60). Specifically, we measured the variation in the surface potential of C60 films with increasing thicknesses grown on P3HT to produce a surface potential profile normal to the substrate both in the dark and under illumination. The results confirm a space-charge carrier region with a thickness of 10 nm, consistent with previous observations. We discuss the possibility that the domain size in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, which is comparable to the space-charge layer thickness, is actually partly responsible for less than expected electron/hole recombination rates.

  8. Non-amplified Quantitative Detection of Nucleic Acid Sequences Using a Gold Nanoparticle Probe Set and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyonchol Kim,; Atsushi Kira,; Kenji Yasuda,

    2010-06-01

    For the precise detection of the number of expressed biomarkers at the single-cell level, we have developed a method of quantifying and specifying target DNA fragments by using a set of gold nanoparticles as labels and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to measure the number and sizes of gold nanoparticles attached to target samples. One or more target DNAs on a substrate were labeled with a set of different-sized gold nanoparticle probes having complementary sequences to different target candidates. The type and number of the target DNAs having a specific sequence were identified by counting the attached nanoparticles of a specific size in FE-SEM images. The results evaluated using a DNA microarray showed high specificity and sensitivity, and a linear correlation between the number of attached particles and the target DNA concentration, indicating the feasibility of quantitative detection in the femtomolar to nanomolar concentration range.

  9. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa2Cu3O7 thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B.; Zhou, HU; Fife, A. A.; Cragg, A. R.; Grant, P. D.

    1995-01-01

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B(sub z) (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa2Cu3O7 thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B(sub z) distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B(sub x,y)) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B(sub x,y)/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  10. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B.; Zhou, H.

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  11. Atomic arrangement at ZnTe/CdSe interfaces determined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bonef, Bastien; Rouvière, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Gérard, Lionel; Mariette, Henri; André, Régis; Bougerol, Catherine; Grenier, Adeline

    2015-02-02

    High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface between two binary compounds with no common atom, namely, ZnTe and CdSe for samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy under standard conditions. This thin transition layer, of the order of 1 to 3 atomic planes, contains typically one monolayer of ZnSe. Even if it occurs at each interface, the direct interface, i.e., ZnTe on CdSe, is sharper than the reverse one, where the ZnSe layer is likely surrounded by alloyed layers. On the other hand, a CdTe-like interface was never observed. This interface knowledge is crucial to properly design superlattices for optoelectronic applications and to master band-gap engineering.

  12. Microscopic studies of the fate of charges in organic semiconductors: Scanning Kelvin probe measurements of charge trapping, transport, and electric fields in p- and n-type devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smieska, Louisa Marion

    Organic semiconductors could have wide-ranging applications in lightweight, efficient electronic circuits. However, several fundamental questions regarding organic electronic device behavior have not yet been fully addressed, including the nature of chemical charge traps, and robust models for injection and transport. Many studies focus on engineering devices through bulk transport measurements, but it is not always possible to infer the microscopic behavior leading to the observed measurements. In this thesis, we present scanning-probe microscope studies of organic semiconductor devices in an effort to connect local properties with local device behavior. First, we study the chemistry of charge trapping in pentacene transistors. Working devices are doped with known pentacene impurities and the extent of charge trap formation is mapped across the transistor channel. Trap-clearing spectroscopy is employed to measure an excitation of the pentacene charge trap species, enabling identification of the degradationrelated chemical trap in pentacene. Second, we examine transport and trapping in peryelene diimide (PDI) transistors. Local mobilities are extracted from surface potential profiles across a transistor channel, and charge injection kinetics are found to be highly sensitive to electrode cleanliness. Trap-clearing spectra generally resemble PDI absorption spectra, but one derivative yields evidence indicating variation in trap-clearing mechanisms for different surface chemistries. Trap formation rates are measured and found to be independent of surface chemistry, contradicting a proposed silanol trapping mechanism. Finally, we develop a variation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy that enables measurement of electric fields through a position modulation. This method avoids taking a numeric derivative of potential, which can introduce high-frequency noise into the electric field signal. Preliminary data is presented, and the theoretical basis for electric field

  13. Two photon fluorescence imaging of lipid membrane domains and potentials using advanced fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilin, Vasyl; Darwich, Zeinab; Richert, Ludovic; Didier, Pascal; Klymchenko, Andrey; Mély, Yves

    2013-02-01

    Biomembranes are ordered and dynamic nanoscale structures critical for cell functions. The biological functions of the membranes strongly depend on their physicochemical properties, such as electrostatics, phase state, viscosity, polarity and hydration. These properties are essential for the membrane structure and the proper folding and function of membrane proteins. To monitor these properties, fluorescence techniques and notably, two-photon microscopy appear highly suited due to their exquisite sensitivity and their capability to operate in complex biological systems, such as living cells and tissues. In this context, we have developed multiparametric environment-sensitive fluorescent probes tailored for precise location in the membrane bilayer. We notably developed probes of the 3-hydroxychromone family, characterized by an excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction, which generates two tautomeric emissive species with well-separated emission bands. As a consequence, the response of these probes to changes in their environment could be monitored through changes in the ratios of the two bands, as well as through changes in the fluorescence lifetimes. Using two-photon ratiometric imaging and FLIM, these probes were used to monitor the surface membrane potential, and were applied to detect apoptotic cells and image membrane domains.

  14. The Value of Restaging With Chest and Abdominal CT/MRI Scan After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Chen; Zhang, Xu; Xie, E; An, Xin; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Zhu, Ying; Tang, Jing-Hua; Kong, Ling-Heng; Lin, Jun-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Little was known with regard to the value of preoperative systemic restaging for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This study was designed to evaluate the role of chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on preoperative restaging in LARC after neoadjuvant CRT and to assess the impact on treatment strategy.Between January 2007 and April 2013, 386 newly diagnosed consecutive patients with LARC who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and received restaging with chest and abdominal CT/MRI scan were included. Imaging results before and after CRT were analyzed.Twelve patients (3.1%) (6 liver lesions, 2 peritoneal lesions, 2 distant lymph node lesions, 1 lung lesions, 1 liver and lung lesions) were diagnosed as suspicious metastases on the restaging scan after radiotherapy. Seven patients (1.8%) were confirmed as metastases by pathology or long-term follow-up. The treatment strategy was changed in 5 of the 12 patients as a result of restaging CT/MRI findings. Another 10 patients (2.6%) who present with normal restaging imaging findings were diagnosed as metastases intra-operatively. The sensitivity, specificity accuracy, negative predictive value, and positive predictive values of restaging CT/MRI was 41.4%, 98.6%, 58.3%, and 97.3%, respectively.The low incidence of metastases and minimal consequences for the treatment plan question the clinical value of routine restaging of chest and abdomen after neoadjuvant CRT. Based on this study, a routine restaging CT/MRI of chest and abdomen in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant CRT is not advocated, carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) -guided CT/MRI restaging might be an alternative.

  15. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-15

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  16. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program "SARINA," which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  17. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program "SARINA," which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  18. Direct atomic-scale imaging of hydrogen and oxygen interstitials in pure niobium using atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Tao, Runzhe; Klie, Robert F; Seidman, David N

    2013-01-22

    Imaging the three-dimensional atomic-scale structure of complex interfaces has been the goal of many recent studies, due to its importance to technologically relevant areas. Combining atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we present an atomic-scale study of ultrathin (~5 nm) native oxide layers on niobium (Nb) and the formation of ordered niobium hydride phases near the oxide/Nb interface. Nb, an elemental type-II superconductor with the highest critical temperature (T(c) = 9.2 K), is the preferred material for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in next-generation particle accelerators. Nb exhibits high solubilities for oxygen and hydrogen, especially within the RF-field penetration depth, which is believed to result in SRF quality factor losses. STEM imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy followed by ultraviolet laser-assisted local-electrode atom-probe tomography on the same needle-like sample reveals the NbO(2), Nb(2)O(5), NbO, Nb stacking sequence; annular bright-field imaging is used to visualize directly hydrogen atoms in bulk β-NbH.

  19. Using scanning electrochemical microscopy to probe chemistry at the solid-liquid interface in chemically amplified immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSuer, Robert J.; Fan, Fu-Ren F.; Bard, Allen J.; Taylor, J. Christopher; Tsiartas, Pavlos; Willson, Grant; Conley, Willard E.; Feit, Gene; Kunz, Roderick R.

    2004-05-01

    Three modes of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) - voltammetry, pH, and conductivity - have been used to better understand the chemistry at, and diffusion through, the solid/liquid interface formed between a resist film and water in 193 nm immersion lithography. Emphasis has been placed on investigating the photoacid generator (PAG), triphenylsulfonium perfluorobutanesulfonate, and the corresponding photoacid. The reduction of triphenylsulfonium at a hemispherical Hg microelectrode was monitored using square wave voltammetry to detect trace amounts of the PAG leaching from the surface. pH measurements at a 100 μm diameter Sb microelectrode show the formation of acid in the water layer above a resist upon exposure with UV irradiation. Bipolar conductance measurements at a 100 μm Pt tip positioned 100 μm from the surface indicate that the conductivity of the solution during illumination is dependent upon the percentage of PAG in the film. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of water samples in contact with resist films has been used to quantify the amounts (< 10 ng/cm2) of PAG leaching from the film in the dark which occurs within the first 30 seconds of contact time. Washing the film removes approximately 80% of the total leachable PAG.

  20. Single-Tube Mutation Scanning of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Using Multiplex LATE-PCR and Lights-On/Lights-Off Probes

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Shana M.; Rice, John E.; Wangh, Lawrence J.; Sanchez, J. Aquiles

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous mutations in exons 18-21 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene determine the response of many patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This paper describes a single closed-tube assay for simultaneous mutational scanning of EGFR exons 18-21. Methods The assay first co-amplifies all four exons as separate single-stranded DNA products using Linear-After-The-Exponential (LATE)-PCR. The amplicons are then interrogated at endpoint along their length using sets of Lights-On/Lights-Off probes of a different color for each exon. The four resulting fluorescent signatures are unique for each underlying DNA sequence. Every mutation in a target potentially alters its unique fluorescent signature thereby revealing the presence of the mutation. Results The assay readily detects mutations which cause sensitivity or resistance to TKIs and can distinguish these clinically important genetic changes from silent mutations which have no impact on protein function. The assay identifies as little as 5% mutant sequences in mixtures of normal DNA and mutant DNA prepared from cancer cell lines. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate mutation identification in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NSCLC biopsies. Conclusion The LATE-PCR EGFR assay described here represents a new type of highly informative, single-tube diagnostic test for mutational scanning of multiple gene coding regions and/or multiple gene targets for personalized cancer therapies. PMID:25411647