Science.gov

Sample records for advanced search interface

  1. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  2. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  3. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  4. Interfaces for Advanced Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the coming generation of supercomputers that will have the power to make elaborate "artificial realities" that facilitate user-computer communication. Illustrates these technological advancements with examples of the use of head-mounted monitors which are connected to position and orientation sensors, and gloves that track finger and…

  5. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  6. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  7. Man-machine interface requirements - advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research issues and areas are identified where increased understanding of the human operator and the interaction between the operator and the avionics could lead to improvements in the performance of current and proposed helicopters. Both current and advanced helicopter systems and avionics are considered. Areas critical to man-machine interface requirements include: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) visual displays; (3) voice technology; (4) cockpit integration; and (5) pilot work loads and performance.

  8. Mirador: A Simple, Fast Search Interface for Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Strub, Richard; Seiler, Edward; Joshi, Talak; MacHarrie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for remote sensing science researchers is searching and acquiring relevant data files for their research projects based on content, space and time constraints. Several structured query (SQ) and hierarchical navigation (HN) search interfaces have been develop ed to satisfy this requirement, yet the dominant search engines in th e general domain are based on free-text search. The Goddard Earth Sci ences Data and Information Services Center has developed a free-text search interface named Mirador that supports space-time queries, inc luding a gazetteer and geophysical event gazetteer. In order to compe nsate for a slightly reduced search precision relative to SQ and HN t echniques, Mirador uses several search optimizations to return result s quickly. The quick response enables a more iterative search strateg y than is available with many SQ and HN techniques.

  9. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  10. Designing Search: Effective Search Interfaces for Academic Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ghaphery, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries customize, support, and provide access to myriad information systems, each with complex graphical user interfaces. The number of possible information entry points on an academic library Web site is both daunting to the end-user and consistently challenging to library Web site designers. Faced with the challenges inherent in…

  11. Natural Language Search Interfaces: Health Data Needs Single-Field Variable Search

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Background Data discovery, particularly the discovery of key variables and their inter-relationships, is key to secondary data analysis, and in-turn, the evolving field of data science. Interface designers have presumed that their users are domain experts, and so they have provided complex interfaces to support these “experts.” Such interfaces hark back to a time when searches needed to be accurate first time as there was a high computational cost associated with each search. Our work is part of a governmental research initiative between the medical and social research funding bodies to improve the use of social data in medical research. Objective The cross-disciplinary nature of data science can make no assumptions regarding the domain expertise of a particular scientist, whose interests may intersect multiple domains. Here we consider the common requirement for scientists to seek archived data for secondary analysis. This has more in common with search needs of the “Google generation” than with their single-domain, single-tool forebears. Our study compares a Google-like interface with traditional ways of searching for noncomplex health data in a data archive. Methods Two user interfaces are evaluated for the same set of tasks in extracting data from surveys stored in the UK Data Archive (UKDA). One interface, Web search, is “Google-like,” enabling users to browse, search for, and view metadata about study variables, whereas the other, traditional search, has standard multioption user interface. Results Using a comprehensive set of tasks with 20 volunteers, we found that the Web search interface met data discovery needs and expectations better than the traditional search. A task × interface repeated measures analysis showed a main effect indicating that answers found through the Web search interface were more likely to be correct (F 1,19=37.3, P<.001), with a main effect of task (F 3,57=6.3, P<.001). Further, participants completed the task

  12. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 3. advanced searching, MeSH and My NCBI.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Although the basic PubMed search is often helpful, the results may sometimes be non-specific. For more control over the search process you can use the Advanced Search Builder interface. This allows a targeted search in specific fields, with the convenience of being able to select the intended search field from a list. It also provides a history of your previous searches. The search history is useful to develop a complex search query by combining several previous searches using Boolean operators. For indexing the articles in MEDLINE, the NLM uses a controlled vocabulary system called MeSH. This standardised vocabulary solves the problem of authors, researchers and librarians who may use different terms for the same concept. To be efficient in a PubMed search, you should start by identifying the most appropriate MeSH terms and use them in your search where possible. My NCBI is a personal workspace facility available through PubMed and makes it possible to customise the PubMed interface. It provides various capabilities that can enhance your search performance.

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2009 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Nearly 80% of all chemical reactions in nature and in human technology take place at boundaries between phases, i.e., at surfaces or interfaces. A detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces and interfaces is therefore necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and life style of our society. One of the challenges of modern surface science is thus to expand its range of investigations to all types of surfaces and interfaces and to develop a thorough understanding of the relationships between molecular-scale surface properties and parameters relevant to potential applications and devices. Beyond these technological drivers, however, is a rich range of novel and fundamental physical and chemical properties at surfaces and interfaces down to the nanoscale whose study represents outstanding intellectual challenges. The current research focuses on atomic- and molecular-level studies of the structure (atomic and electronic), bonding, reactivity, dynamics, restructuring, and magnetism at the surfaces and interfaces of metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers, biological molecules, and liquids. Such investigations are becoming more and more important in view of the increasing emphasis on nanometer-scale structures in almost every technological application, from heterogeneous catalysis to microcircuit fabrication to magnetic data storage. As the scale of devices continues to be reduced, the distinction between bulk and surface properties becomes blurred, and all of the properties of materials tend to become interfacial This Focus Issue includes exciting new developments in the field of surface and interface science ranging, e.g., from the properties of metal-water interfaces to single-atom contacts. Special emphasis was taken to coupling theory with experiments aimed at elucidating fundamental atomic scale phenomena. It combines a broad expert and frontiers survey of research in this field today with an up

  14. The intelligent user interface for NASA's advanced information management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Short, Nicholas, Jr.; Rolofs, Larry H.; Wattawa, Scott L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Intelligent Data Management Project to design and develop advanced information management systems. The project's primary goal is to formulate, design and develop advanced information systems that are capable of supporting the agency's future space research and operational information management needs. The first effort of the project was the development of a prototype Intelligent User Interface to an operational scientific database, using expert systems and natural language processing technologies. An overview of Intelligent User Interface formulation and development is given.

  15. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  17. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  18. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  19. ECLSS evolution: Advanced instrumentation interface requirements. Volume 3: Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An Advanced ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) Technology Interfaces Database was developed primarily to provide ECLSS analysts with a centralized and portable source of ECLSS technologies interface requirements data. The database contains 20 technologies which were previously identified in the MDSSC ECLSS Technologies database. The primary interfaces of interest in this database are fluid, electrical, data/control interfaces, and resupply requirements. Each record contains fields describing the function and operation of the technology. Fields include: an interface diagram, description applicable design points and operating ranges, and an explaination of data, as required. A complete set of data was entered for six of the twenty components including Solid Amine Water Desorbed (SAWD), Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation System (TIMES), Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC), Solid Polymer Electrolysis (SPE), Static Feed Electrolysis (SFE), and BOSCH. Additional data was collected for Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Potable (ROWRP), Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Hygiene (ROWRH), Static Feed Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SFSPE), Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), and Multifiltration Water Reclamation - Hygiene (MFWRH). A summary of the database contents is presented in this report.

  20. Searching for Intermediate Mass Black Holes with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Laleh; Wade, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are conjectured to occupy the mass space between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes, roughly between 100 and 105 solar masses. The coalescence and merger of IMBH binaries with masses of a few hundred solar masses is an intriguing possible source of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. A single detection of an IMBH binary merger would provide the first unambiguous proof of IMBH existence. Searches for these sources have started on data collected by the Advanced LIGO since September 2015. In this talk I will present a search method for these sources in the advanced detector era, based on known signal morphology.

  1. Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

  2. Acceleration of stable interface structure searching using a kriging approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohara, Shin; Oda, Hiromi; Tsuda, Koji; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2016-04-01

    Crystalline interfaces have a tremendous impact on the properties of materials. Determination of the atomic structure of the interface is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of the interface properties. Despite this importance, extensive calculation is necessary to determine even one interface structure. In this study, we apply a technique called kriging, borrowed from geostatistics, to accelerate the determination of the interface structure. The atomic structure of simplified coincidence-site lattice interfaces were determined using the kriging approach. Our approach successfully determined the most stable interface structure with an efficiency almost 2 orders of magnitude better than the traditional “brute force” approach.

  3. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  4. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses. PMID:24872704

  5. Nanoscale biomaterial interface modification for advanced tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Smolik, J.; Rogovska, R.; Donkov, N.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rassokha, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, various stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been found to have considerable potential for application in tissue engineering and future advanced therapies due to their biological capability to differentiate into specific lineages. Modified surface properties, such as composition, nano-roughness and wettability, affect the most important processes at the biomaterial interface. The aim of the present is work is to study the stem cells' (MSCs) adhesive potential, morphology, phenotypical characteristics in in vitro tests, and to distinguish betwen the different factors influencing the cell/biomaterial interaction, such as nano-topography, surface chemistry and surface free energy.

  6. Task 8.6 -- Advanced man machine interface (MMI)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Solar/DOE ATS engine program seeks to improve the utilization of turbomachinery resources through the development of an Advanced Man Machine Interface (MMI). The program goals include timely and succinct feedback to the operations personnel to enhance their decision making process. As part of the Solar ATS Phase 2 technology development program, enabling technologies, including graphics environments, communications technology, and operating systems were explored to determine their viability to support the overall MMI requirements. This report discusses the research and prototyping effort, as well as the conclusions reached.

  7. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  8. Advanced Technology Development: Solid-Liquid Interface Characterization Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification is key to understanding and improving material properties. The goal of this Advanced Technology Development (ATD) has been to develop hardware, which will enable real-time characterization of practical materials, such as aluminum (Al) alloys, to unprecedented levels. Required measurements include furnace and sample temperature gradients, undercooling at the growing interface, interface shape, or morphology, and furnace translation and sample growth rates (related). These and other parameters are correlated with each other and time. A major challenge was to design and develop all of the necessary hardware to measure the characteristics, nearly simultaneously, in a smaller integral furnace compatible with existing X-ray Transmission Microscopes, XTMs. Most of the desired goals have been accomplished through three generations of Seebeck furnace brassboards, several varieties of film thermocouple arrays, heaters, thermal modeling of the furnaces, and data acquisition and control (DAC) software. Presentations and publications have resulted from these activities, and proposals to use this hardware for further materials studies have been submitted as sequels to this last year of the ATD.

  9. Advanced digital photoelastic investigations on the tooth-bone interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand K.; Kishen, Anil

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of the tooth-bone interface on the nature of stress distribution in the tooth and its supporting alveolar bone for various occlusal loads using an advanced digital photoelastic technique. A digital image processing system coupled with a circular polariscope was used for the stress analysis. The phase shift technique and a phase unwrapping algorithm was utilized for fringe processing. This aids in obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the nature of stress distribution within the dento-osseous structures. The experiments revealed bending stresses within dento-osseous structures. However, the compressive stress magnitude was larger than the tensile stress. Zero stress regions were also identified within the dento-osseous structures. The results suggest that the geometry of the dento-osseous structures and the structural gradients at the tooth-bone interface play a significant role in the distribution of stresses without stress concentrations. Further, the application of an advanced image-processing system with the circular polariscope showed notable advantages and could be applied in other biomechanical investigations.

  10. Singingfish: Advancing the Art of Multimedia Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Singingfish provides multimedia search services that enable Internet users to locate audio and video online. Over the last few years, the company has cataloged and indexed over 30 million streams and downloadable MP3s, with 150,000 to 250,000 more being added weekly. This article discusses a deal with Microsoft; the technology; improving the…

  11. Advanced LIGO low-latency searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Advanced LIGO recently made the first detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes. The signal was first identified by a low-latency analysis, which identifies gravitational-wave transients within a few minutes of data collection. More generally, Advanced LIGO transients are sought with a suite of automated tools, which collectively identify events, evaluate statistical significance, estimate source position, and attempt to characterize source properties. This low-latency effort is enabling a broad multi-messenger approach to the science of compact object mergers and other transients. This talk will give an overview of the low-latency methodology and recent results.

  12. Designing Novel Image Search Interfaces by Understanding Unique Characteristics and Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Paul; Cutrell, Edward; Tan, Desney S.; Smith, Greg

    In most major search engines, the interface for image search is the same as traditional Web search: a keyword query followed by a paginated, ranked list of results. Although many image search innovations have appeared in both the literature and on the Web, few have seen widespread use in practice. In this work, we explore the differences between image and general Web search to better support users’ needs. First, we describe some unique characteristics of image search derived through informal interviews with researchers, designers, and managers responsible for building and deploying a major Web search engine. Then, we present results from a large scale analysis of image and Web search logs showing the differences in user behaviour. Grounded in these observations, we present design recommendations for an image search engine supportive of the unique experience of image search. We iterate on a number of designs, and describe a functional prototype that we built.

  13. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  14. Advanced IFSAR for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Duane; Rogers, George W.; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    One of the most promising tools for airborne SAR search and rescue is the use of interferometric techniques such as wavenumber filtering. These techniques make possible extremely accurate information extraction from SAR image pairs. The potential gain in accuracy is significant, since accuracy of measurements can theoretically be determined to within a wavelength (centimeter accuracy) as opposed to a pixel distance (meters). This paper presents the latest interferometric SAR (IFSAR) processing algorithms developed by the authors, along with examples of their use on actual data.

  15. An advanced web query interface for biological databases.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Mario; Karp, Peter D

    2010-07-06

    Although most web-based biological databases (DBs) offer some type of web-based form to allow users to author DB queries, these query forms are quite restricted in the complexity of DB queries that they can formulate. They can typically query only one DB, and can query only a single type of object at a time (e.g. genes) with no possible interaction between the objects--that is, in SQL parlance, no joins are allowed between DB objects. Writing precise queries against biological DBs is usually left to a programmer skillful enough in complex DB query languages like SQL. We present a web interface for building precise queries for biological DBs that can construct much more precise queries than most web-based query forms, yet that is user friendly enough to be used by biologists. It supports queries containing multiple conditions, and connecting multiple object types without using the join concept, which is unintuitive to biologists. This interactive web interface is called the Structured Advanced Query Page (SAQP). Users interactively build up a wide range of query constructs. Interactive documentation within the SAQP describes the schema of the queried DBs. The SAQP is based on BioVelo, a query language based on list comprehension. The SAQP is part of the Pathway Tools software and is available as part of several bioinformatics web sites powered by Pathway Tools, including the BioCyc.org site that contains more than 500 Pathway/Genome DBs.

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  17. Leveraging user search behavior to design personalized browsing interfaces for healthcare Web sites.

    PubMed

    Mahoui, Malika; Jones, Josette; Zollinger, Derek; Andersen, Kanitha; Coates, Heather

    2008-11-06

    Understanding and leveraging user search behavior is increasingly becoming a key component towards improving web sites functionality for the health care consumer and provider. In this study we propose to leverage user search behavior to design user-tailored browsing interfaces to better support locating information in healthcare websites at the point-of-need.

  18. Techniques for searching the CINAHL database using the EBSCO interface.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Janna C

    2007-04-01

    The cumulative index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) is a useful research tool for accessing articles of interest to nurses and health care professionals. More than 2,800 journals are indexed by CINAHL and can be searched easily using assigned subject headings. Detailed instructions about conducting, combining, and saving searches in CINAHL are provided in this article. Establishing an account at EBSCO further allows a nurse to save references and searches and to receive e-mail alerts when new articles on a topic of interest are published.

  19. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  20. Overview of Advanced LIGO searches for unmodeled transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Sources of gravitational wave transients may include some of the most energetic events in the universe, including mergers of neutron stars and/or black holes, the core-collapse of massive stars, and cosmic string cusps. A network of modern gravitational wave detectors, including Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, might soon be capable of observing these sources. Separating these signals from detector noise requires specialized algorithms, which are run both in low-latency and on archived data. In this talk, we describe the all-time, all-sky search for unmodeled transients during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO.

  1. SLIM: an alternative Web interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background With the rapid growth of medical information and the pervasiveness of the Internet, online search and retrieval systems have become indispensable tools in medicine. The progress of Web technologies can provide expert searching capabilities to non-expert information seekers. The objective of the project is to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches using JavaScript slider bars. SLIM, or Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches, was developed with PHP and JavaScript. Interactive slider bars in the search form controlled search parameters such as limits, filters and MeSH terminologies. Connections to PubMed were done using the Entrez Programming Utilities (E-Utilities). Custom scripts were created to mimic the automatic term mapping process of Entrez. Page generation times for both local and remote connections were recorded. Results Alpha testing by developers showed SLIM to be functionally stable. Page generation times to simulate loading times were recorded the first week of alpha and beta testing. Average page generation times for the index page, previews and searches were 2.94 milliseconds, 0.63 seconds and 3.84 seconds, respectively. Eighteen physicians from the US, Australia and the Philippines participated in the beta testing and provided feedback through an online survey. Most users found the search interface user-friendly and easy to use. Information on MeSH terms and the ability to instantly hide and display abstracts were identified as distinctive features. Conclusion SLIM can be an interactive time-saving tool for online medical literature research that improves user control and capability to instantly refine and refocus search strategies. With continued development and by integrating search limits, methodology filters, MeSH terms and levels of evidence, SLIM may be useful in the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:16321145

  2. Advanced Perceptual User Interfaces: Applications for Disabled and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Francisco J. Perales

    The research of new human-computer interfaces has become a growing field in computer science, which aims to attain the development of more natural, intuitive, unobtrusive and efficient interfaces. This objective has come up with the concept of Perceptual User Interfaces (PUIs) that are turning out to be very popular as they seek to make the user interface more natural and compelling by taking advantage of the ways in which people naturally interact with each other and with the world. PUIs can use speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphical animation and visualization, language understanding, touch-based sensing and feedback (haptics), learning, user modeling and dialog management.

  3. Detachment of deposited colloids by advancing and receding air-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2011-08-16

    Moving air-water interfaces can detach colloidal particles from stationary surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of advancing and receding air-water interfaces on colloid detachment as a function of interface velocity. We deposited fluorescent, negatively charged, carboxylate-modified polystyrene colloids (diameter of 1 μm) into a cylindrical glass channel. The colloids were hydrophilic with an advancing air-water contact angle of 60° and a receding contact angle of 40°. After colloid deposition, two air bubbles were sequentially introduced into the glass channel and passed through the channel at different velocities (0.5, 7.7, 72, 982, and 10,800 cm/h). The passage of the bubbles represented a sequence of receding and advancing air-water interfaces. Colloids remaining in the glass channel after each interface passage were visualized with confocal microscopy and quantified by image analysis. The advancing air-water interface was significantly more effective in detaching colloids from the glass surface than the receding interface. Most of the colloids were detached during the first passage of the advancing air-water interface, while the subsequent interface passages did not remove significant amounts of colloids. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborate our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small and that of the channel-air-water contact angle is large.

  4. What a Difference a Tag Cloud Makes: Effects of Tasks and Cognitive Abilities on Search Results Interface Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts Method: Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types…

  5. Evidence for showing gene/protein name suggestions in bioscience literature search interfaces.

    PubMed

    Divoli, Anna; Hearst, Marti A; Wooldridge, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of two questionnaires asking biologists about the incorporation of text-extracted entity information, specifically gene and protein names, into bioscience literature search user interfaces. Among the findings are that study participants want to see gene/protein metadata in combination with organism information; that a significant proportion would like to see gene names grouped by type (synonym, homolog, etc.), and that most participants want to see information that the system is confident about immediately, and see less certain information after taking additional action. These results inform future interface designs.

  6. Recent advances in understanding transfer ions across aqueous interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2008-06-06

    Understanding the composition of aqueous interfaces, and the mechanism for ion transport across them is of fundamental importance for biological, environmental, and industrial processes. Molecular dynamics simulations, using the potential of mean force technique serves as a technique to map out the free energy profile across interfaces. In some cases, where the free energy of ion transfer is known experimentally between two phases, the potential of mean force technique can allow validation of the simulation results against experiment for this property. In addition, the inclusion of polarizability in the interaction potential can be of paramount importance for understanding interfacial properties and the ion transfer mechanism in interfacial environments. This review discusses some of the recent studies of ion transport across aqueous interfaces, and gives insights on the ion transport mechanism and why certain interfacial behavior is observed. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy, in part by the Chemical Sciences program and in part by the Engineering and Geosciences Division. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. OMSSAGUI: An open-source user interface component to configure and run the OMSSA search engine.

    PubMed

    Tharakan, Ravi; Martens, Lennart; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Graham, David R

    2008-06-01

    We here present a user-friendly and extremely lightweight tool that can serve as a stand-alone front-end for the Open MS Search Algorithm (OMSSA) search engine, or that can directly be used as part of an informatics processing pipeline for MS driven proteomics. The OMSSA graphical user interface (OMSSAGUI) tool is written in Java, and is supported on Windows, Linux, and OSX platforms. It is an open source under the Apache 2 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/mass-spec-gui/.

  8. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Karen E; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  9. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Karen E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  10. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  11. Evolving the BCO-DMO search interface - experience with semantic and smart search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cyndy; Fox, Peter; Maffei, Andrew; Alison, M. D.; Groman, Robert; West, Patrick; Zednik, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Progress is being made toward realizing the promise of the Semantic Web for oceanography. A present challenge is to develop ontologies that can be used to semantically enable data system interfaces for improved data discovery and usability as well as the need to map these ontologies to the underlying data structures and markup languages. Evolving expectations for open access to research data combined with the informatics challenge presented by global ecosystem science themes, may result in more frustration than satisfaction if we are unable to develop efficient data discovery tools; ones that perform at least as well as the familiar telephone. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) is funded by the National Science Foundation to work with ocean biogeochemistry researchers to improve access to data resulting from their respective programs. BCO-DMO staff members have begun the process of developing an ontology to represent the metadata associated with several legacy databases managed by the BCO-DMO. We will describe the stage of development to date, including challenges encountered, the technologies selected, and the strategies associated with this use case based approach. http://bco-dmo.org/

  12. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  13. A flight test evaluation of the pilot interface with a digital advanced avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    A flight study was conducted to study pilot workload and the pilot interface with high levels of avionics capability and automation. The study was done in the context of general aviation, single-pilot IFR operations and utilized an experimental, digital, integrated avionics system. Results indicate that such advanced systems can provide improved information to the pilot and increased functional capability. The results also indicate that additional research is needed to increase the knowledge base required to design the pilot interfaces with highly capable systems. A CRT-based moving map display format tested provided excellent navigational situational awareness but was inferior to an HSI for manual path tracking. The complexity of navigation data management, autopilot management, and maintaining awareness of system status contributed to pilot workload and errors. Suggested guidelines for the design of the pilot/avionics interface for advanced avionics systems are given.

  14. Advanced interface heat exchangers for the Space Station main thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1990-01-01

    Future evolution and growth of the Space Station will place increasing demands on the thermal management system by the addition of new payloads and from increased activity in the habitat modules. To meet this need, Creare is developing advanced evaporators, condensors, and single-phase heat exchangers for operation in microgravity. The objective is to achieve a several-fold increase in the heat flux capability of these components, while operating at the same temperature difference as specified for the present interface heat exchangers. Two prototype interface heat exchangers are presently being developed: one to interface the main thermal bus to a payload two-phase ammonia bus, and the other, to interface with the crew module single-phase water loop. The results achieved to date in the development of these heat exchangers are reviewed.

  15. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way about 20 years in several countries throughout the world. During the past decade in France and the United Kingdom, active development programs have been carried out in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the EBR-II facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. Germany and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in all of these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper will focus principally on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  16. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way [approximately] 20 yr in several countries. During the past decade, France and the United Kingdom have developed active programs in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper focuses on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP, and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  17. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  18. Robotics, Stem Cells and Brain Computer Interfaces in Rehabilitation and Recovery from Stroke; Updates and Advances

    PubMed Central

    Boninger, Michael L; Wechsler, Lawrence R.; Stein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the current state and latest advances in robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces in rehabilitation and recovery for stroke. Design The authors of this summary recently reviewed this work as part of a national presentation. The paper represents the information included in each area. Results Each area has seen great advances and challenges as products move to market and experiments are ongoing. Conclusion Robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces all have tremendous potential to reduce disability and lead to better outcomes for patients with stroke. Continued research and investment will be needed as the field moves forward. With this investment, the potential for recovery of function is likely substantial PMID:25313662

  19. Usability evaluation of an experimental text summarization system and three search engines: implications for the reengineering of health care interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Kan, Min-Yem; McKeown, Kathleen; Klavans, Judith; Jordan, Desmond; LaFlamme, Mark; Patel, Vimia L

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative evaluation of an experimental automated text summarization system, Centrifuser and three conventional search engines - Google, Yahoo and About.com. Centrifuser provides information to patients and families relevant to their questions about specific health conditions. It then produces a multidocument summary of articles retrieved by a standard search engine, tailored to the user's question. Subjects, consisting of friends or family of hospitalized patients, were asked to "think aloud" as they interacted with the four systems. The evaluation involved audio- and video recording of subject interactions with the interfaces in situ at a hospital. Results of the evaluation show that subjects found Centrifuser's summarization capability useful and easy to understand. In comparing Centrifuser to the three search engines, subjects' ratings varied; however, specific interface features were deemed useful across interfaces. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for engineering Web-based retrieval systems.

  20. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. (1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. Although very functional, this system is not portable or flexible; the software would have to be substantially rewritten for other applications. (2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. This package is based on a standardized choice of hardware, within which it is capable of building a system to order, automatically constructing graphics, data tables, alarm prioritization rules, and interfaces to peripherals. (3) A software tool, the User Interface Management System (UIMS), is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display. The object-oriented software of the UIMS achieves rapid prototyping of a new interface by standardizing to a class library of software objects instead of hardware objects.

  1. Advanced directives. In search of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Flarey, D L

    1991-11-01

    Patients are seeking self-determination in health-care through the use of advanced directives. The author discusses advanced directives focusing on patient rights in decision making, autonomy, and the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment. Highlighted is the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, including strategies for its implementation in healthcare agencies.

  2. Advanced man-machine interface systems and advanced information management systems programs

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.; Gray, S.; Machiels, A.

    1997-12-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program started in the early 1980`s. This work involves the development and NRC review of the ALWR Utility Requirements Documents, the development and design certification of ALWR designs, the analysis of the Early Site Permit process, and the First-of-a-Kind Engineering for two of the ALWR plant designs. ALWRs will embody modern proven technology. However, technologies expected to be used in these plants are changing very rapidly so that additional capabilities will become available that will be beneficial for future plants. To remain competitive on a life-cycle basis in the future, the ALWR must take advantage of the best and most modem technologies available. 1 ref.

  3. The ``Uberbank'': A search for compact binary coalescences in the first Observing run of Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capano, Collin; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Modeled searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence (CBC) use a ``bank'' of template waveforms to search the wide range of parameters that binaries may have. Recent advances in waveform modeling and template placement techniques have opened up the possibility to efficiently search for systems with non-precessing spin, using waveforms that model the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of coalescing binaries. I discuss how these advances were combined to produce the template bank used to search for CBCs in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This bank covered the full range of plausible masses and non-precessing spins of binary neutron stars, stellar-mass binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole.

  4. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  5. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display.

  6. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  7. Advancing brain-machine interfaces: moving beyond linear state space models

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Adam G.; Schieber, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in recent years have dramatically improved output control by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs). Such devices nevertheless remain robotic and limited in their movements compared to normal human motor performance. Most current BMIs rely on transforming recorded neural activity to a linear state space composed of a set number of fixed degrees of freedom. Here we consider a variety of ways in which BMI design might be advanced further by applying non-linear dynamics observed in normal motor behavior. We consider (i) the dynamic range and precision of natural movements, (ii) differences between cortical activity and actual body movement, (iii) kinematic and muscular synergies, and (iv) the implications of large neuronal populations. We advance the hypothesis that a given population of recorded neurons may transmit more useful information than can be captured by a single, linear model across all movement phases and contexts. We argue that incorporating these various non-linear characteristics will be an important next step in advancing BMIs to more closely match natural motor performance. PMID:26283932

  8. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  9. In Search of the Ideal User Interface for Real-Time and Retrospective Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    NGDC's accumulated experience with regard to connecting users to the data that they need is being applied to building an advanced prototype user support system for the GOES-R space weather data sets. GOES-R is scheduled for launch in 2014 and data from operational GOES instruments will serve as proxy. The prototype will implement a model that supports a variety of user needs. For example, some users require a graphical interface that will guide them through an interactive data selection process, others prefer to select prepared products off-the-shelf, and a growing community of users prefer to have access protocols that allow their software to tap directly into data packets. This prototype will take a similarly diverse tack with regard to data latency, products, formats, visualization and browse capabilities. This poster will present the initial challenges as we see them and solicit input from the space science informatics community regarding techniques that may be well suited to meeting those challenges. The GOES-R series of satellites will provide X-ray sensor data; X-ray images; EUV data; energetic proton, electron, and heavy ion data; and magnetometer data.

  10. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  11. PyTrilinos: Recent Advances in the Python Interface to Trilinos

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2012-01-01

    PyTrilinos is a set of Python interfaces to compiled Trilinos packages. This collection supports serial and parallel dense linear algebra, serial and parallel sparse linear algebra, direct and iterative linear solution techniques, algebraic and multilevel preconditioners, nonlinear solvers and continuation algorithms, eigensolvers and partitioning algorithms. Also included are a variety of related utility functions and classes, including distributed I/O, coloring algorithms and matrix generation. PyTrilinos vector objects are compatible with the popular NumPy Python package. As a Python front end to compiled libraries, PyTrilinos takes advantage of the flexibility and ease of use of Python, and the efficiency of the underlying C++, C and Fortran numerical kernels. This paper covers recent, previously unpublished advances in the PyTrilinos package.

  12. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-02-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.

  13. Recent advances in sheathless interfacing of capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zamfir, Alina D

    2007-08-01

    On line sheathless capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry is developing as a powerful method in bioanalytics as it provides high resolution, sensitivity, relatively short analysis times, and amenability to a wide class of compounds. However, unlike the popular nano liquid chromatography (nano LC) or sheath-flow CE/ESI-MS, the sheathless coupling lacks standardized designs and protocols. For this reason, sheathless CE/ESI is a subject of conceptual and technical upgrading more than any other liquid-based separation method hyphenated to MS. Here, recent innovations in sheathless CE/ESI-MS interfacing are gathered in a survey covering the 2005/2006 period. In the first part of the review, the current concepts and methods for in-laboratory production of sturdy designs based on either conductive emitters or electrodeless interfaces are described. The second part is dedicated to microchip CE platforms with externally connected emitters for sheathless coupling to ESI-MS and advanced microfluidic devices integrating CE and sheathless electrospray in a single chip substrate. The advantages, limitations and feasibility for certain applications of all these systems as well as the perspectives for their performance improvement are concurrently assessed.

  14. Interfacing Mind and Environment: The Central Role of Search in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wai-Tat; Hills, Thomas; Todd, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Search can be found in almost every cognitive activity, ranging across vision, memory retrieval, problem solving, decision making, foraging, and social interaction. Because of its ubiquity, research on search has a tendency to fragment into multiple areas of cognitive science. The proposed topic aims at providing integrative discussion of the central role of search from multiple perspectives. We focus on controlled search processes, which require (a) a goal, (b) uncertainty about the nature, location, or acquisition method of the objects to be searched for, and (c) a method for sampling through the search environment. While this definition of search is general and applicable to different domains, the specific mechanisms in the search process will likely differ. The goal of this issue is to compare and contrast how these search processes are similar and differ in different cognitive activities, with the goal of understanding the general nature of search in terms of the three characteristics stated above. We expect that given its cross-domain nature, the topic on search will be of broad interest to cognitive scientists, including psychologists, behavioral ecologists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, linguists, and sociologists.

  15. Coherent search for gravitational wave transients in the first advanced LIGO run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Sergey; Ligo Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Recently LIGO detectors have been upgraded, targeting detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. Advanced LIGO performed the first observing run in September, 2015 - January, 2016 at almost three times better strain sensitivity than the initial detectors. We describe a baseline search for generic gravitational wave transients conducted during the first observing run. The search pipeline coherently combines data from all detectors and identifies gravitational wave candidates with a few minutes latency. By using the constrained likelihood method, it reconstructs signal waveform and finds a source location in the sky. We present the status of the search, the performance of the search algorithm, and extensive studies of the background due to environmental and instrumental transient events. Supported by NSF.

  16. Introducing a New Interface for the Online MagIC Database by Integrating Data Uploading, Searching, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Constable, C.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is dedicated to supporting the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities through the development and maintenance of an online database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/), data upload and quality control, searches, data downloads, and visualization tools. While MagIC has completed importing some of the IAGA paleomagnetic databases (TRANS, PINT, PSVRL, GPMDB) and continues to import others (ARCHEO, MAGST and SECVR), further individual data uploading from the community contributes a wealth of easily-accessible rich datasets. Previously uploading of data to the MagIC database required the use of an Excel spreadsheet using either a Mac or PC. The new method of uploading data utilizes an HTML 5 web interface where the only computer requirement is a modern browser. This web interface will highlight all errors discovered in the dataset at once instead of the iterative error checking process found in the previous Excel spreadsheet data checker. As a web service, the community will always have easy access to the most up-to-date and bug free version of the data upload software. The filtering search mechanism of the MagIC database has been changed to a more intuitive system where the data from each contribution is displayed in tables similar to how the data is uploaded (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/search/). Searches themselves can be saved as a permanent URL, if desired. The saved search URL could then be used as a citation in a publication. When appropriate, plots (equal area, Zijderveld, ARAI, demagnetization, etc.) are associated with the data to give the user a quicker understanding of the underlying dataset. The MagIC database will continue to evolve to meet the needs of the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities.

  17. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  18. The gold/high temperature superconductor interface: Metallicity of the near surface region and a search for the proximity effect

    SciTech Connect

    Dessau, D.S.; Shen, Z.X.; Wells, B.O.; Spicer, W.E. . Stanford Electronics Labs.); List, R.S.; Arko, A.J.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z.; Cheong, S.W. ); Olson, C.G. ); Mitzi, D.B.; Eom, C.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Geballe, T.H. . Dept. of Applied Physics); Schirber, J.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (U

    1990-01-01

    We have used high resolution photoemission spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of a wide variety of gold/high temperature superconductor interfaces, the majority of which were formed by low-temperature (20K) gold evaporations on cleaved high quality single crystals. For c-axis interfaces formed on the 123 family of superconductors, we find that the gold deposition essentially destroys the metallicity of the superconducting substrate in the near surface region ({approximately}5{angstrom}), while the near surface region of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} remains metallic. We have also used photoemission spectroscopy to search for a proximity-effect superconducting gap in gold overlayers on c-axis single crystals and a-axis thin films, though no such effect was found. 30 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Numerical Evaluation of Fluid Mixing Phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor Using Advanced Interface Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low.

  20. Envisioning Advanced User Interfaces for E-Government Applications: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvary, Gaëlle; Serna, Audrey; Coutaz, Joëlle; Scapin, Dominique; Pontico, Florence; Winckler, Marco

    The increasing use of the Web as a software platform together with the advance of technology has promoted Web applications as a starting point for improving communication between citizens and administration. Currently, several e-government Web portals propose applications for accessing information regarding healthcare, taxation, registration, housing, agriculture, education, and social services, which otherwise may be difficult to obtain. However, the adoption of services provided to citizens depends upon how such applications comply with the users' needs. Unfortunately, building an e-government website doesn't guarantee that all citizens who come to use it can access its contents. These services need to be accessible to all citizens/customers equally to ensure wider reach and subsequent adoption of the e-government services. User disabilities, computer or language illiteracy (e.g., foreign language), flexibility on information access (e.g., user remotely located in rural areas, homeless, mobile users), and ensuring user privacy on sensitive data are some of the barriers that must be taken into account when designing the User Interface (UI) of e-government applications.

  1. On the behaviour of foreign particles at an advancing solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötschke, Jürgen; Rogge, Volker

    1989-03-01

    The present paper describes a theoretical approach to the behaviour at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of foreign particles present in the melt as a separate phase. The temperature field and the influence of a contaminant in the melt were taken into account. The equations which arose were solved numerically. The numerical data can be described with satisfactory accuracy by a function, so that the result can be communicated in the form of a self-contained expression. The use of this equation is found to be in good agreement with recent measurements of latex particles in water: the model gives the critical solidification velocity at which the latex particles of a specific size are only just pushed along by the ice front. An assessment of other measured values given in the literature is not possible since the material values and experimental parameters are not completely known. To consolidate the theory, therefore, further quantitative measurements of systems with known material values, interfacial free energies in particular, are required.

  2. Universal Resource Interface Module (URIM) for the Joint Force Protection Advanced Security System (JFPASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, S. H.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Barngrover, C. M.; Kramer, T. A.; Nans, A. F.

    2009-05-01

    The Joint Force Protection Advanced Security System (JPFASS) is a Department of Defense effort to improve conventional force protection. It is sponsored and managed by Joint Program Manager - Guardian (JPM-G). The main objective of JFPASS is to provide an integrated and layered base defense system, which includes data fusion, Command and Control (C2) nodes, Common Operation Picture (COP) nodes, and full integration of a selected range of robots, sensors, cameras, weapons, tracking systems, and other C2 systems. The URIM is the main integration tool for several sensors, cameras, and weapons in JFPASS. The Universal Resource Interface Module (URIM) is an extremely flexible framework for rapidly integrating new sensors into the JFPASS. Each sensor system has its own proprietary protocol, which makes integration high cost and risk. The URIM communicates directly with each sensor system though a protocol module and maintains a generic data object representation for each sensor. The URIM then performs a translation of the data into a single protocol, in this case Systems Engineering and Integration Working Group (SEIWG) ICD-0100. With this common protocol the data can be provided to a data server for publishing. Also, this allows for network control and management of all sensor systems via any C2 node connected to the data server.

  3. Advanced GIS data assimilation interface for evaluation of flood resilient systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, J.; Giangola-Murzyn, A.; Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2012-04-01

    The runoff in peri-urban catchments results from complex interactions of multi-component, multi-functional systems. These interactions increase the space-time variability of the flow depth and discharge. The Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are well-established tools for the storage, display and interpretation of spatially distributed data required for spatially distributed hydrological modelling. An advanced GIS data assimilation interface is a requisite to obtain a distributed hydrological model that is both transportable from catchment to catchment and is easily adaptable to the data resolution. This should be achieved both for the cartographic data and the linked information data. Spatial distribution of the flow parameters during the storm event under different numerical scenarios is indispensable to evaluate the efficiency of flood resilience technologies, including for providing predictive tools for flood resilient urban system management. In the case of Multi-Hydro-Version2 that has been developed within the EU FP7 SMARTesT project, several types of information are to be distributed on a regular grid. The grid cell size has to be chosen individually for each of the project case studies and each cell has to be filled up with information. The main requested data are topography and land use. The former corresponds to a quantitative information (elevation) to be as precise as possible, whereas the latter correspond to a qualitative description done with the help of a series of discrete classes, e.g.: house, road, gully, water,etc. The refinement of the class number is in fact limited by the grid resolution. Pedology is also very important, but reliable data are much less available, in particular in an electronic format. The model uses also the runoff that occurred before the event, the initial soil moisture and the elevation of the water in water bodies (e.g. puddles). These parameters are not easily accessible for a large studied area, so they

  4. Advances in simulating radiance signatures for dynamic air/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, Adam A.; Brown, Scott D.; Gerace, Aaron

    2015-05-01

    The air-water interface poses a number of problems for both collecting and simulating imagery. At the surface, the magnitude of observed radiance can change by multiple orders of magnitude at high spatiotemporal frequency due to glinting effects. In the volume, similarly high frequency focusing of photons by a dynamic wave surface significantly changes the reflected radiance of in-water objects and the scattered return of the volume itself. These phenomena are often manifest as saturated pixels and artifacts in collected imagery (often enhanced by time delays between neighboring pixels or interpolation between adjacent filters) and as noise and greater required computation times in simulated imagery. This paper describes recent advances made to the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model to address the simulation issues to better facilitate an understanding of a multi/hyper-spectral collection. Glint effects are simulated using a dynamic height field that can be driven by wave frequency models and generates a sea state at arbitrary time scales. The volume scattering problem is handled by coupling the geometry representing the surface (facetization by the height field) with the single scattering contribution at any point in the water. The problem is constrained somewhat by assuming that contributions come from a Snell's window above the scattering point and by assuming a direct source (sun). Diffuse single scattered and multiple scattered energy contributions are handled by Monte Carlo techniques employed previously. The model is compared to existing radiative transfer codes where possible, with the objective of providing a robust movel of time-dependent absolute radiance at many wavelengths.

  5. Planning for End-User Database Searching: Drexel and the Mac: A User-Consistent Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBorie, Tim; Donnelly, Leslie

    Drexel University instituted a microcomputing program in 1984 which required all freshmen to own Apple Macintosh microcomputers. All students were taught database searching on the BRS (Bibliographic Retrieval Services) system as part of the freshman humanities curriculum, and the university library was chosen as the site to house continuing…

  6. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  7. PubMed Assistant: a biologist-friendly interface for enhanced PubMed search.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Hughes, Laron M; Berleant, Daniel; Fulmer, Andy W; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2006-02-01

    MEDLINE is one of the most important bibliographical information sources for biologists and medical workers. Its PubMed interface supports Boolean queries, which are potentially expressive and exact. However, PubMed is also designed to support simplicity of use at the expense of query expressiveness and exactness. Many PubMed users have never tried explicit Boolean queries. We developed a Java program, PubMed Assistant, to make literature access easier in several ways. PubMed Assistant provides an interface that efficiently displays information about the citations and includes useful functions such as keyword highlighting, export to citation managers, clickable links to Google Scholar and others that are lacking in PubMed.

  8. Collaborative development of the Arrowsmith two node search interface designed for laboratory investigators

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Torvik, Vetle I; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Burhans, Lauren B; Gabriel, Michael; Homayouni, Ramin; Kashef, Alireza; Martone, Maryann E; Perkins, Guy A; Price, Diana L; Talk, Andrew C; West, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Arrowsmith is a unique computer-assisted strategy designed to assist investigators in detecting biologically-relevant connections between two disparate sets of articles in Medline. This paper describes how an inter-institutional consortium of neuroscientists used the UIC Arrowsmith web interface in their daily work and guided the development, refinement and expansion of the system into a suite of tools intended for use by the wider scientific community. PMID:16817965

  9. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth's geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics.

  10. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth's geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics. PMID:26601153

  11. Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance: A Cloud Compatible Pipeline and Web Interface for Rapidly Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Directly from Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Will; Baker, Kate S.; Verner-Jeffreys, David; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J.; Maskell, Duncan; Pearce, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance remains a growing and significant concern in human and veterinary medicine. Current laboratory methods for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are limited in their effectiveness and scope. With the rapidly developing field of whole genome sequencing beginning to be utilised in clinical practice, the ability to interrogate sequencing data quickly and easily for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes will become increasingly important and useful for informing clinical decisions. Additionally, use of such tools will provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic samples such as those used in environmental monitoring. Results Here we present the Search Engine for Antimicrobial Resistance (SEAR), a pipeline and web interface for detection of horizontally acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in raw sequencing data. The pipeline provides gene information, abundance estimation and the reconstructed sequence of antimicrobial resistance genes; it also provides web links to additional information on each gene. The pipeline utilises clustering and read mapping to annotate full-length genes relative to a user-defined database. It also uses local alignment of annotated genes to a range of online databases to provide additional information. We demonstrate SEAR’s application in the detection and abundance estimation of antimicrobial resistance genes in two novel environmental metagenomes, 32 human faecal microbiome datasets and 126 clinical isolates of Shigella sonnei. Conclusions We have developed a pipeline that contributes to the improved capacity for antimicrobial resistance detection afforded by next generation sequencing technologies, allowing for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance genes directly from sequencing data. SEAR uses raw sequencing data via an intuitive interface so can be run rapidly without requiring advanced bioinformatic skills or

  12. Advanced EVA system design requirements study: EVAS/space station system interface requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems interface requirements and accomodations for effective integration of a production EVA capability into the space station are contained. A description of the EVA systems for which the space station must provide the various interfaces and accomodations are provided. The discussion and analyses of the various space station areas in which the EVA interfaces are required and/or from which implications for EVA system design requirements are derived, are included. The rationale is provided for all EVAS mechanical, fluid, electrical, communications, and data system interfaces as well as exterior and interior requirements necessary to facilitate EVA operations. Results of the studies supporting these discussions are presented in the appendix.

  13. In search of transient subduction interfaces in the Dent Blanche-Sesia Tectonic System (W. Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiboust, Samuel; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno; Chopin, Christian

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the Alpine metamorphic history of a major tectonic zone which formed during Alpine orogeny, the Dent Blanche Thrust (DBT). This contact, located in the Northern Western Alps, juxtaposes some ophiolitic metasediment-rich remnants of the Liguro-Piemontese ocean (Tsaté Complex) with a composite continental, km-sized complex (Dent Blanche Tectonic System, DBTS) of Adriatic affinity thrusted over the ophiolite. In order to better understand the geodynamic meaning of the DBT region and adjacent units, we have reconstructed the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) history of these two units using modern thermobarometric tools, Rb/Sr geochronology, and field relationships. We show that the Tsaté Complex is formed by a stack of km-thick calcschists-bearing tectonic slices having experienced variable maximum burial temperatures between 360 °C and 490 °C at depths of ca. 25-40 km. Associated deformation ages span a range between 37 Ma and 41 Ma. The Arolla gneissic mylonites at the base of the DBTS experienced high-pressure (12-14 kbar), top-to-NW deformation at ca. 450 °C between 43 and 48 Ma. A first age of ca. 58 Ma has been obtained for high-pressure ductile deformation in the Valpelline shear zone, atop Arolla gneisses. Some of the primary, peak metamorphic fabrics have been reworked and later backfolded during exhumation and collisional overprint (ca. 20 km depth, 37-40 Ma) leading to the regional greenschist-facies retrogression which is particularly prominent within Tsaté metasediments. We interpret the Dent Blanche Thrust, at the base of the Arolla unit, as a fossilized subduction interface active between 43 and 48 Ma. Our geochronological results on the shear zone lining the top of the Arolla unit, together with previous P-T-t estimates on equivalent blueschist-facies shear zones cutting the Sesia unit, indicate an older tectonic activity between 58 and 65 Ma. We demonstrate here that observed younger ages towards lowermost

  14. EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI). Search for optimal electrode positions and frequency components.

    PubMed

    Pfurtscheller, G; Flotzinger, D; Pregenzer, M; Wolpaw, J R; McFarland, D

    Several laboratories around the world have recently started to investigate EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems in order to create a new communication channel for subjects with severe motor impairments. The present paper describes an initial evaluation of 64-channel EEG data recorded while subjects used one EEG channel over the left sensorimotor area to control on-line vertical cursor movement. Targets were given at the top or bottom of a computer screen. Data from 3 subjects in the early stages of training were analyzed by calculating band power time courses and maps for top and bottom targets separately. In addition, the Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantizer (DSLVQ) was applied to single-trial EEG data. It was found that for each subject there exist optimal electrode positions and frequency components for on-line EEG-based cursor control.

  15. The search for signs of life on exoplanets at the interface of chemistry and planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets in the last two decades that are so different from planets in our own solar system challenges many areas of traditional planetary science. However, ideas for how to detect signs of life in this mélange of planetary possibilities have lagged, and only in the last few years has modeling how signs of life might appear on genuinely alien worlds begun in earnest. Recent results have shown that the exciting frontier for biosignature gas ideas is not in the study of biology itself, which is inevitably rooted in Earth’s geochemical and evolutionary specifics, but in the interface of chemistry and planetary physics. PMID:26601153

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  17. Effect of Interface Structure on Mechanical Properties of Advanced Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Yong X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown. PMID:20054466

  18. Effect of interface structure on mechanical properties of advanced composite materials.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yong X

    2009-11-25

    This paper deals with the effect of interface structures on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite materials. First, the background of research, development and applications on hybrid composite materials is introduced. Second, metal/polymer composite bonded structures are discussed. Then, the rationale is given for nanostructuring the interface in composite materials and structures by introducing nanoscale features such as nanopores and nanofibers. The effects of modifying matrices and nano-architecturing interfaces on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials are examined. A nonlinear damage model for characterizing the deformation behavior of polymeric nanocomposites is presented and the application of this model to carbon nanotube-reinforced and reactive graphite nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite materials is shown.

  19. A new (semantic) reflexive brain-computer interface: in search for a suitable classifier.

    PubMed

    Furdea, A; Ruf, C A; Halder, S; De Massari, D; Bogdan, M; Rosenstiel, W; Matuz, T; Birbaumer, N

    2012-01-15

    The goal of the current study is to find a suitable classifier for electroencephalogram (EEG) data derived from a new learning paradigm which aims at communication in paralysis. A reflexive semantic classical (Pavlovian) conditioning paradigm is explored as an alternative to the operant learning paradigms, currently used in most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Comparable with a lie-detection experiment, subjects are presented with true and false statements. The EEG activity following true and false statements was classified with the aim to separate covert 'yes' from covert 'no' responses. Four classification algorithms are compared for classifying off-line data collected from a group of 14 healthy participants: (i) stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SWLDA), (ii) shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (SLDA), (iii) linear support vector machine (LIN-SVM) and (iv) radial basis function kernel support vector machine (RBF-SVM). The results indicate that all classifiers perform at chance level when separating conditioned 'yes' from conditioned 'no' responses. However, single conditioned reactions could be successfully classified on a single-trial basis (single conditioned reaction against a baseline interval). All of the four investigated classification methods achieve comparable performance, however results with RBF-SVM show the highest single-trial classification accuracy of 68.8%. The results suggest that the proposed paradigm may allow affirmative and negative (disapproving negative) communication in a BCI experiment.

  20. Numerical Modelling of Subduction Plate Interface, Technical Advances for Outstanding Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Ruh, J.; Pranger, C. C.; Zheng, L.; van Dinther, Y.; May, D.; Gerya, T.; Burov, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction zone interface is the place of the largest earthquakes on earth. Compared to the size of a subduction zone itself, it constitutes a very thin zone (few kilometers) with effective rheological behaviour that varies as a function of pressure, temperature, loading, nature of the material locally embedded within the interface as well as the amount of water, melts and CO2. Capturing the behaviour of this interface and its evolution in time is crucial, yet modelling it is not an easy task. In the last decade, thermo-mechanical models of subduction zone have flourished in the literature. They mostly focused on the long-term dynamics of the subduction; e.g. flat subduction, slab detachment or exhumation. The models were validated models against PTt path of exhumed material as well as topography. The models that could reproduce the data all included a mechanically weak subduction channel made of extremely weak and non cohesive material. While this subduction channel model is very convenient at large scale and might apply to some real subduction zones, it does not capture the many geological field evidences that point out the exhumation of very large slice of almost pristine oceanic crust along localised shear zone. Moreover, modelling of sismological and geodetic data using short term tectonic modelling approach also point out that large localised patches rupture within the subduction interface, which is in accordance with geological data but not with large-scale long-term tectonic models. I will present how high resolution models permit to produce slicing at the subduction interface and give clues on how the plate coupling and effective location of the plate interface vary over a few millions of year time scale. I will then discuss the implication of these new high-resolution long-term models of subduction zone on earthquake generation, report progress in the development of self-consistent thermomechanical codes which can handle large strain, high resolution

  1. Recent experimental advances on hydrophobic interactions at solid/water and fluid/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongbo; Shi, Chen; Huang, Jun; Li, Lin; Liu, Guangyi; Zhong, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hydrophobic effects play important roles in a wide range of natural phenomena and engineering processes such as coalescence of oil droplets in water, air flotation of mineral particles, and folding and assembly of proteins and biomembranes. In this work, the authors highlight recent experimental attempts to reveal the physical origin of hydrophobic effects by directly quantifying the hydrophobic interaction on both solid/water and fluid/water interfaces using state-of-art nanomechanical techniques such as surface forces apparatus and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For solid hydrophobic surfaces of different hydrophobicity, the range of hydrophobic interaction was reported to vary from ∼10 to >100 nm. With various characterization techniques, the very long-ranged attraction (>100 nm) has been demonstrated to be mainly attributed to nonhydrophobic interaction mechanisms such as pre-existing nanobubbles and molecular rearrangement. By ruling out these factors, intrinsic hydrophobic interaction was measured to follow an exponential law with decay length of 1-2 nm with effective range less than 20 nm. On the other hand, hydrophobic interaction measured at fluid interfaces using AFM droplet/bubble probe technique was found to decay with a much shorter length of ∼0.3 nm. This discrepancy of measured decay lengths is proposed to be attributed to inherent physical distinction between solid and fluid interfaces, which impacts the structure of interface-adjacent water molecules. Direct measurement of hydrophobic interaction on a broader range of interfaces and characterization of interfacial water molecular structure using spectroscopic techniques are anticipated to help unravel the origin of this rigidity-related mismatch of hydrophobic interaction and hold promise to uncover the physical nature of hydrophobic effects. With improved understanding of hydrophobic interaction, intrinsic interaction mechanisms of many biological and chemical pathways can be better

  2. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing.

  3. Lambdastation: a forwarding and admission control service to interface production network facilities with advanced research network paths

    SciTech Connect

    DeMar, Philip; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a great deal of research effort and funding put into the deployment of optical-based, advanced technology wide-area networks. Fermilab and CalTech have initiated a project to enable our production network facilities to exploit these advanced research network facilities. Our objective is to forward designated data transfers across these advanced wide area networks on a per-flow basis, making use our capacious production-use storage systems connected to the local campus network. To accomplish this, we intend to develop a dynamically provisioned forwarding service that would provide alternate path forwarding onto available wide area advanced research networks. The service would dynamically reconfigure forwarding of specific flows within our local production-use network facilities, as well as provide an interface to enable applications to utilize the service. We call this service LambdaStation. If one envisions wide area optical network paths as high bandwidth data railways, then LambdaStation would functionally be the railroad terminal that regulates which flows at the local site get directed onto the high bandwidth data railways. LambdaStation is a DOE-funded SciDac research project in its very early stage of development.

  4. Thermogravimetric and microscopic analysis of SiC/SiC materials with advanced interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Jones, R.H.; Snead, L.L.

    1997-04-01

    The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites with fiber/matrix interfaces consisting of multilayers of SiC/SiC and porous SiC have been evaluated using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Previous evaluations of SiC/SiC composites with carbon interfacial layers demonstrated the layers are not chemically stable at goal use temperatures of 800-1100{degrees}C and O{sub 2} concentrations greater than about 1 ppm. No measureable mass change was observed for multilayer and porous SiC interfaces at 800-1100{degrees}C and O{sub 2} concentrations of 100 ppm to air; however, the total amount of oxidizable carbon is on the order of the sensitivity of the TGA. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the stability of these materials.

  5. New Advanced Materials for High Performance at the Resin-Dentine Interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a tool for the integration of new concepts and biomaterials related with the resin-dentine interface. The principles of dentine demineralisation and remineralisation that shape modern restorative dentistry practices, as well as considerations for the selection of new materials for different restorative approaches, are emphasised. Re-incorporation of mineral into the demineralised dentine matrix is important since the mineral precipitated may work as a constant site for further nucleation, and the remineralised subsurface of the tissue may be more resistant to subsequent acid attack. This deposition of minerals may be due to both spontaneous precipitation induced by local supersaturation of Ca and P in the presence of non-specific tissue alkaline phosphatase or through heterogeneous nucleation sites provided by phosphoproteins within the dentine collagen matrix. Nucleation is a multistep process involving both protein and mineral transition and suggests a temporally synchronised process. Dentine provides both structural and chemical frameworks, acting as a scaffold for mineral deposition at specific sites. The ultimate goal in the design and improvement of new materials for high performance at the resin-dentine interface is to render a stronger and durable adhesion to dental tissues despite the severe conditions in the oral environment. In the present chapter, glass ionomers, calcium-phosphate cements and doped dental adhesives have been selected to represent the cutting edge biomaterials at the interface. PMID:26201275

  6. New Advanced Materials for High Performance at the Resin-Dentine Interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a tool for the integration of new concepts and biomaterials related with the resin-dentine interface. The principles of dentine demineralisation and remineralisation that shape modern restorative dentistry practices, as well as considerations for the selection of new materials for different restorative approaches, are emphasised. Re-incorporation of mineral into the demineralised dentine matrix is important since the mineral precipitated may work as a constant site for further nucleation, and the remineralised subsurface of the tissue may be more resistant to subsequent acid attack. This deposition of minerals may be due to both spontaneous precipitation induced by local supersaturation of Ca and P in the presence of non-specific tissue alkaline phosphatase or through heterogeneous nucleation sites provided by phosphoproteins within the dentine collagen matrix. Nucleation is a multistep process involving both protein and mineral transition and suggests a temporally synchronised process. Dentine provides both structural and chemical frameworks, acting as a scaffold for mineral deposition at specific sites. The ultimate goal in the design and improvement of new materials for high performance at the resin-dentine interface is to render a stronger and durable adhesion to dental tissues despite the severe conditions in the oral environment. In the present chapter, glass ionomers, calcium-phosphate cements and doped dental adhesives have been selected to represent the cutting edge biomaterials at the interface.

  7. Intelligent Systems and Advanced User Interfaces for Design, Operation, and Maintenance of Command Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    Historically Command Management Systems (CMS) have been large, expensive, spacecraft-specific software systems that were costly to build, operate, and maintain. Current and emerging hardware, software, and user interface technologies may offer an opportunity to facilitate the initial formulation and design of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as a to develop a more generic or a set of core components for CMS systems. Current MOC (mission operations center) hardware and software include Unix workstations, the C/C++ and Java programming languages, and X and Java window interfaces representations. This configuration provides the power and flexibility to support sophisticated systems and intelligent user interfaces that exploit state-of-the-art technologies in human-machine systems engineering, decision making, artificial intelligence, and software engineering. One of the goals of this research is to explore the extent to which technologies developed in the research laboratory can be productively applied in a complex system such as spacecraft command management. Initial examination of some of the issues in CMS design and operation suggests that application of technologies such as intelligent planning, case-based reasoning, design and analysis tools from a human-machine systems engineering point of view (e.g., operator and designer models) and human-computer interaction tools, (e.g., graphics, visualization, and animation), may provide significant savings in the design, operation, and maintenance of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as continuity for CMS design and development across spacecraft with varying needs. The savings in this case is in software reuse at all stages of the software engineering process.

  8. Advanced zinc-doped adhesives for high performance at the resin-carious dentin interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of an etch-and-rinse Zn-doped resin applied on caries-affected dentin (CAD). CAD surfaces were subjected to: (i) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) or (ii) 0.5M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). 10wt% ZnO nanoparticles or 2wt% ZnCl2 were added into the adhesive Single Bond (SB), to create the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. Bonded interfaces were submitted to mechanical loading or stored during 24h. Remineralization of the bonded interfaces was studied by AFM nano-indentation (hardness and Young׳s modulus), Raman spectroscopy [mapping with principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)] and Masson׳s trichrome staining technique. Dentin samples treated with PA+SB-ZnO attained the highest values of nano-mechanical properties. Load cycling increased both mineralization and crystallographic maturity at the interface; this effect was specially noticed when using ZnCl2-doped resin in EDTA-treated carious dentin. Crosslinking attained higher frequencies indicating better conformation and organization of collagen in specimens treated with PA+SB-ZnO, after load cycling. Trichrome staining technique depicted a deeper demineralized dentin fringe that became reduced after loading, and it was not observable in EDTA+SB groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed de homogenizing effect of load cycling in the percentage of variances, traces of centroids and distribution of clusters, especially in specimens treated with EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. PMID:27232828

  9. Advanced zinc-doped adhesives for high performance at the resin-carious dentin interface.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of an etch-and-rinse Zn-doped resin applied on caries-affected dentin (CAD). CAD surfaces were subjected to: (i) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) or (ii) 0.5M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). 10wt% ZnO nanoparticles or 2wt% ZnCl2 were added into the adhesive Single Bond (SB), to create the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. Bonded interfaces were submitted to mechanical loading or stored during 24h. Remineralization of the bonded interfaces was studied by AFM nano-indentation (hardness and Young׳s modulus), Raman spectroscopy [mapping with principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)] and Masson׳s trichrome staining technique. Dentin samples treated with PA+SB-ZnO attained the highest values of nano-mechanical properties. Load cycling increased both mineralization and crystallographic maturity at the interface; this effect was specially noticed when using ZnCl2-doped resin in EDTA-treated carious dentin. Crosslinking attained higher frequencies indicating better conformation and organization of collagen in specimens treated with PA+SB-ZnO, after load cycling. Trichrome staining technique depicted a deeper demineralized dentin fringe that became reduced after loading, and it was not observable in EDTA+SB groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed de homogenizing effect of load cycling in the percentage of variances, traces of centroids and distribution of clusters, especially in specimens treated with EDTA+SB-ZnCl2.

  10. Intelligent systems and advanced user interfaces for design, operation, and maintenance of command management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, William J.; Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, command management systems (CMS) have been large and expensive spacecraft-specific software systems that were costly to build, operate, and maintain. Current and emerging hardware, software, and user interface technologies may offer an opportunity to facilitate the initial formulation and design of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as to develop a more generic CMS system. New technologies, in addition to a core CMS common to a range of spacecraft, may facilitate the training and enhance the efficiency of CMS operations. Current mission operations center (MOC) hardware and software include Unix workstations, the C/C++ programming languages, and an X window interface. This configuration provides the power and flexibility to support sophisticated and intelligent user interfaces that exploit state-of-the-art technologies in human-machine interaction, artificial intelligence, and software engineering. One of the goals of this research is to explore the extent to which technologies developed in the research laboratory can be productively applied in a complex system such as spacecraft command management. Initial examination of some of these issues in CMS design and operation suggests that application of technologies such as intelligent planning, case-based reasoning, human-machine systems design and analysis tools (e.g., operator and designer models), and human-computer interaction tools (e.g., graphics, visualization, and animation) may provide significant savings in the design, operation, and maintenance of the CMS for a specific spacecraft as well as continuity for CMS design and development across spacecraft. The first six months of this research saw a broad investigation by Georgia Tech researchers into the function, design, and operation of current and planned command management systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. As the first step, the researchers attempted to understand the current and anticipated horizons of command management systems at Goddard

  11. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  12. Interfacing comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with advanced aeromechanics and vortex wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying

    This dissertation describes three aspects of the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis. First, a physics-based methodology for the modeling of hydraulic devices within multibody-based comprehensive models of rotorcraft systems is developed. This newly proposed approach can predict the fully nonlinear behavior of hydraulic devices, and pressure levels in the hydraulic chambers are coupled with the dynamic response of the system. The proposed hydraulic device models are implemented in a multibody code and calibrated by comparing their predictions with test bench measurements for the UH-60 helicopter lead-lag damper. Predicted peak damping forces were found to be in good agreement with measurements, while the model did not predict the entire time history of damper force to the same level of accuracy. The proposed model evaluates relevant hydraulic quantities such as chamber pressures, orifice flow rates, and pressure relief valve displacements. This model could be used to design lead-lag dampers with desirable force and damping characteristics. The second part of this research is in the area of computational aeroelasticity, in which an interface between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) is established. This interface enables data exchange between CFD and CSD with the goal of achieving accurate airloads predictions. In this work, a loose coupling approach based on the delta-airloads method is developed in a finite-element method based multibody dynamics formulation, DYMORE. To validate this aerodynamic interface, a CFD code, OVERFLOW-2, is loosely coupled with a CSD program, DYMORE, to compute the airloads of different flight conditions for Sikorsky UH-60 aircraft. This loose coupling approach has good convergence characteristics. The predicted airloads are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, although not for all flight conditions. In addition, the tight coupling interface between the CFD program, OVERFLOW

  13. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less

  14. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achieve high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.

  15. PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    measurement. Advances in such technologies are bringing with them new opportunities in surface and buried interface science. In the not too distant future, we will publish a special issue or a book detailing such progress. Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques contents Lateral uniformity in chemical composition along a buried reaction front in polymers using off-specular reflectivity Kristopher A Lavery, Vivek M Prabhu, Sushil Satija and Wen-li Wu Orientation dependence of Pd growth on Au electrode surfaces M Takahasi, K Tamura, J Mizuki, T Kondo and K Uosaki A grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering analysis on capped Ge nanodots in layer structures Hiroshi Okuda, Masayuki Kato, Keiji Kuno, Shojiro Ochiai, Noritaka Usami, Kazuo Nakajima and Osami Sakata High resolution grazing-incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction for measuring the strain of a Si thin layer Kazuhiko Omote X-ray analysis of mesoporous silica thin films templated by Brij58 surfactant S Fall, M Kulij and A Gibaud Review of the applications of x-ray refraction and the x-ray waveguide phenomenon to estimation of film structures Kouichi Hayashi Epitaxial growth of largely mismatched crystals on H-terminated Si(111) surfaces Hidehito Asaoka Novel TiO2/ZnO multilayer mirrors at 'water-window' wavelengths fabricated by atomic layer epitaxy H Kumagai, Y Tanaka, M Murata, Y Masuda and T Shinagawa Depth-selective structural analysis of thin films using total-external-reflection x-ray diffraction Tomoaki Kawamura and Hiroo Omi Structures of Yb nanoparticle thin films grown by deposition in He and N2 gas atmospheres: AFM and x-ray reflectivity studies Martin Jerab and Kenji Sakurai Ga and As composition profiles in InP/GaInAs/InP heterostructures—x-ray CTR scattering and cross-sectional STM measurements Yoshikazu Takeda, Masao Tabuchi and Arao Nakamura Polarized neutron reflectivity study of a thermally treated MnIr/CoFe exchange bias system Naoki

  16. Effect of advanced location methods on search and rescue duration for general aviation aircraft accidents in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization ceasing satellite monitoring for 121.5 MHz ELTs in 2009 was factored into the study. Additionally, the effect of using radar forensic analysis and cellular phone forensic search methods were also assessed. The study's data was derived from an Air Force Rescue Coordination Center database and included 365 historical general aviation search and rescue missions conducted between 2006 and 2011. Highly skewed data was transformed to meet normality requirements for parametric testing. The significance of each ELT model was assessed using a combination of Brown-Forsythe Means Testing or Orthogonal Contrast Testing. ANOVA and Brown-Forsythe Means testing was used to evaluate cellular phone and radar forensic search methods. A Spearman's Rho test was used to determine if the use of multiple search methods produced an additive effect in search efficiency. Aircraft which utilized an Emergency Locator Transmitter resulted in a shorter search duration than those which did not use such devices. Aircraft utilizing GPS-Aided 406 MHz ELTs appeared to require less time to locate than if equipped with other ELT models, however, this assessment requires further study due to limited data. Aircraft equipped with 406 MHz ELTs required slightly less time to locate than aircraft equipped with older 121.5 MHz ELTs. The study found no substantial difference in the search durations for 121.5 MHz ELTs monitored by COSPAS-SARSAT verses those which were not. Significance testing revealed that the use of cellular phone forensic data and radar forensic data both resulted in substantially higher mission search durations. Some possible explanations for this

  17. Recent advances in the study of gynodioecy: the interface of theory and empiricism

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, David E.; Bailey, Maia F.

    2009-01-01

    Background In this review we report on recent literature concerned with studies of gynodioecy, or the co-occurrence of female and hermaphrodite individuals in natural plant populations. Rather than review this literature in its entirety, our focus is on the interplay between theoretical and empirical approaches to the study of gynodioecy. Scope Five areas of active inquiry are considered. These are the cost of restoration, the influence of population structure on spatial sex-ratio variation, the influence of inbreeding on sex expression, the signature of cyto-nuclear coevolution on the mitochondrial genome, and the consequences of mitochondrial paternal leakage. Conclusions Recent advances in the study of gynodioecy have been made by considering both the ecology of female:hermaphrodite fitness differences and the genetics of sex expression. Indeed theory has guided empiricism and empiricism has guided theory. Future advances will require that some of the methods currently available only for model organisms be applied to a wider range of species. PMID:19515690

  18. Librarian-lead tutorial for enhancement of pharmacy students' information-searching skills in advanced experiential rotations.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana

    2009-10-01

    Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.

  19. Advancing the detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials in brain–computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Peer, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Spatial filtering has proved to be a powerful pre-processing step in detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials and boosted typical detection rates both in offline analysis and online SSVEP-based brain–computer interface applications. State-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby share many common foundations as they all build upon the second order statistics of the acquired Electroencephalographic (EEG) data, that is, its spatial autocovariance and cross-covariance with what is assumed to be a pure SSVEP response. The present study aims at highlighting the similarities and differences between these methods. Approach. We consider the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method as a basis for the theoretical and empirical (with real EEG data) analysis of the state-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby. We build upon the findings of this analysis and prior research and propose a new detection method (CVARS) that combines the power of the canonical variates and that of the autoregressive spectral analysis in estimating the signal and noise power levels. Main results. We found that the multivariate synchronization index method and the maximum contrast combination method are variations of the CCA method. All three methods were found to provide relatively unreliable detections in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. CVARS and the minimum energy combination methods were found to provide better estimates for different SNR levels. Significance. Our theoretical and empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CVARS method outperforms other state-of-the-art detection methods when used in an unsupervised fashion. Furthermore, when used in a supervised fashion, a linear classifier learned from a short training session is able to estimate the hidden user intention, including the idle state (when the user is not attending to any stimulus), rapidly, accurately and reliably.

  20. Advancing cognitive engineering methods to support user interface design for electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P.; Dziabiak, Michael P.; Johnson, Raymond; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel Humberto; Acharya, Amit; Yabes, Jonathan; Schleyer, Titus K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite many decades of research on the effective development of clinical systems in medicine, the adoption of health information technology to improve patient care continues to be slow, especially in ambulatory settings. This applies to dentistry as well, a primary care discipline with approximately 137,000 practitioners in the United States. A critical reason for slow adoption is the poor usability of clinical systems, which makes it difficult for providers to navigate through the information and obtain an integrated view of patient data. Objective In this study, we documented the cognitive processes and information management strategies used by dentists during a typical patient examination. The results will inform the design of a novel electronic dental record interface. Methods We conducted a cognitive task analysis (CTA) study to observe ten general dentists (five general dentists and five general dental faculty members, each with more than two years of clinical experience) examining three simulated patient cases using a think-aloud protocol. Results Dentists first reviewed the patient’s demographics, chief complaint, medical history and dental history to determine the general status of the patient. Subsequently, they proceeded to examine the patient’s intraoral status using radiographs, intraoral images, hard tissue and periodontal tissue information. The results also identified dentists’ patterns of navigation through patient’s information and additional information needs during a typical clinician-patient encounter. Conclusion This study reinforced the significance of applying cognitive engineering methods to inform the design of a clinical system. Second, applying CTA to a scenario closely simulating an actual patient encounter helped with capturing participants’ knowledge states and decision-making when diagnosing and treating a patient. The resultant knowledge of dentists’ patterns of information retrieval and review will

  1. Advancing the detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials in brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Peer, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Spatial filtering has proved to be a powerful pre-processing step in detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials and boosted typical detection rates both in offline analysis and online SSVEP-based brain-computer interface applications. State-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby share many common foundations as they all build upon the second order statistics of the acquired Electroencephalographic (EEG) data, that is, its spatial autocovariance and cross-covariance with what is assumed to be a pure SSVEP response. The present study aims at highlighting the similarities and differences between these methods. Approach. We consider the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method as a basis for the theoretical and empirical (with real EEG data) analysis of the state-of-the-art detection methods and the spatial filters used thereby. We build upon the findings of this analysis and prior research and propose a new detection method (CVARS) that combines the power of the canonical variates and that of the autoregressive spectral analysis in estimating the signal and noise power levels. Main results. We found that the multivariate synchronization index method and the maximum contrast combination method are variations of the CCA method. All three methods were found to provide relatively unreliable detections in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. CVARS and the minimum energy combination methods were found to provide better estimates for different SNR levels. Significance. Our theoretical and empirical results demonstrate that the proposed CVARS method outperforms other state-of-the-art detection methods when used in an unsupervised fashion. Furthermore, when used in a supervised fashion, a linear classifier learned from a short training session is able to estimate the hidden user intention, including the idle state (when the user is not attending to any stimulus), rapidly, accurately and reliably.

  2. A dark energy camera search for an optical counterpart to the first advanced LIGO gravitational wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGES

    Soares-Santos, M.

    2016-05-27

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg2 area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4–5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images throughmore » a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg2, corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4–5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i – z) = 1, 0, –1, respectively. Lastly, our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.« less

  3. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Santos, M.; Kessler, R.; Berger, E.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brown, D. A.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Chornock, R.; Crocce, M.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fairhurst, S.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; McMahon, R. G.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Sutton, P. J.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; The DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg2 area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4–5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg2, corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4–5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i ‑ z) = 1, 0, ‑1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  4. AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model. Volume 6: EOS-AFDM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices.

  5. A case of strong metal-support interactions: combining advanced microscopy and model systems to elucidate the atomic structure of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Marc G; Zhang, Wei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schlögl, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A symbiosis of advanced scanning probe and electron microscopy and a well-defined model system may provide a detailed picture of interfaces on nanostructured catalytic systems. This was demonstrated for Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide thin films which undergo encapsulation by supporting oxide as a result of strong metal-support interactions.

  6. Our Sky Now and Then: Searches for Lost Stars and Impossible Effects as Probes of Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Inigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-09-01

    Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ∼10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ < 20 mas yr‑1) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ∼290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

  7. Our Sky Now and Then: Searches for Lost Stars and Impossible Effects as Probes of Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Inigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-09-01

    Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ˜10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ < 20 mas yr-1) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ˜290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

  8. PRL advanced radial-velocity all-sky search (PARAS): an efficient fiber-fed spectrograph for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Richardson, Eric Harvey; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2008-07-01

    We present here the optical design of an efficient Fiber-fed, Prism Cross-dispersed, Echelle Spectrograph (Resolution ~70,000 @seeing limited ~2arcsecs conditions) which will operate in the wavelength region of 3700A to 8100A. It will be used for extra-solar planets searches down to the precision of 3m/s and as well as for follow-up observations for new transit discoveries. The spectrograph design is such that with a beam size of 100mm (4inch) it should suit the existing 1 to 2m class of telescopes available in India. The fiber-fed spectrograph will be installed with a 1.2m telescope, which is situated at Mt. Abu (5800feet), Rajasthan, India. We estimate the spectrograph to be >30% efficient from the slit to the CCD detector, and up to 15% efficient including sky, telescope, fiber-fed optics etc. We expect to reach the S/N ratio of 70 on a 10mag star for an integration time of 40mins. We aim to achieve 5m/s to 3m/s Radial Velocity accuracies on such a star using the simultaneous ThAr referencing method. Since thermal stability is absolutely necessary to achieve <5m/s RV accuracies, the whole spectrograph is planned to be kept inside a vibration free isolated tank under low vacuum (0.001 mbar) in a thermally isolated room at 28C +/- 0.01C. It should see the first light by the summer of 2009. We are guaranteed at least 120 nights per year for the planet search program, more nights are possible.

  9. Internet Power Searching: The Advanced Manual. 2nd Edition. Neal-Schuman NetGuide Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Phil

    This handbook provides information on how Internet search engines and related software and utilities work and how to use them in order to improve search techniques. The book begins with an introduction to the Internet. Part 1 contains the following chapters that cover mining the Internet for information: "An Introduction to Search…

  10. What Top-Down Task Sets Do for Us: An ERP Study on the Benefits of Advance Preparation in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Nicholas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    When target-defining features are specified in advance, attentional target selection in visual search is controlled by preparatory top-down task sets. We used ERP measures to study voluntary target selection in the absence of such feature-specific task sets, and to compare it to selection that is guided by advance knowledge about target features.…

  11. Employing a Structured Interface to Advance Primary Students' Communicative Competence in a Text-Based Computer Mediated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Wu, Chiu-Yi; Hsieh, Sheng-Jieh; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Huang, Chung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether a structured communication interface fosters primary students' communicative competence in a synchronous typewritten computer-mediated collaborative learning environment. The structured interface provided a set of predetermined utterance patterns for elementary students to use or imitate to develop communicative…

  12. Classifying glitches and improving data quality of Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Powell, Jade; Trifiro, Daniele; Heng, Ik Siong; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Noise of non-astrophysical origin contaminates science data taken by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Characterization of instrumental and environmental noise transients has proven critical in identifying false positives in the first aLIGO observing run O1. In this talk, we present three algorithms designed for the automatic classification of non-astrophysical transients in advanced detectors. Principal Component Analysis for Transients (PCAT) and an adaptation of LALInference Burst (LIB) are based on Principal Component Analysis. The third algorithm is a combination of a glitch finder called Wavelet Detection Filter (WDF) and machine learning techniques for classification. PCAT was used in O1 and earlier engineering runs to identify and characterize observed noise transients in aLIGO data. LIB and WDF are expected to join the quest in the upcoming aLIGO-Advanced Virgo observing run O2. NSF PHY-1404139.

  13. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular.

  14. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging and Searching in E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pietro, Orlando; Appratto, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    In this article we explain a semantic analysis model derived from neural networks and pattern classification experiences, based on keyword sets. This model can be used for searching, analyzing, and composing documents in e-learning systems and for permitting inter-platform collaboration and data exchange. In particular, we explain some searching…

  15. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular. PMID:26065982

  16. Analysis of particle size and interface effects on the strength and ductility of advanced high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettehad, Mahmood

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical investigation of mechanical behavior of Dual phase (DP) steels. Such grade of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is favorable to the automotive industry due the unique properties such as high strength and ductility with low finished cost. Many experimental and numerical studies have been done to achieve the optimized behavior of DP steels by controlling their microstructure. Experiments are costly and time consuming so in recent years numerical tools are utilized to help the metallurgist before doing experiments. Most of the numerical studies are based on classical (local) constitutive models where no material length scale parameters are incorporated in the model. Although these models are proved to be very effective in modeling the material behavior in the large scales but they fail to address some critical phenomena which are important for our goals. First, they fail to address the size effect phenomena which materials show at microstructural scale. This means that materials show stronger behavior at small scales compared to large scales. Another issue with classical models is the mesh size dependency in modeling the softening behavior of materials. This means that in the finite element context (FEM) the results will be mesh size dependent and no converged solution exist upon mesh refinement. Thereby by applying the classical (local) models one my loose the accuracy on measuring the strength and ductility of DP steels. Among the non-classical (nonlocal) models, gradient-enhanced plasticity models which consider the effect of neighboring point on the behavior of one specific point are proved to be numerically effective and versatile tools to accomplish the two concerns mentioned above. So in this thesis a gradient-enhanced plasticity model which incorporates both the energetic and dissipative material length scales is derived based on the laws of thermodynamics. This model also has a consistent yield-like function for the

  17. The Interaction Between an Insoluble Particle and an Advancing Solid/Liquid Interface: Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Ssen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with an advancing solid/liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the past four decades. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (e.g., frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that the complex science associated with such an interaction is relevant to many other scientific fields encompassing metal matrix composites (MMCs), high temperature superconductors, inclusion management in steel, growth of monotectics, and preservation of biological cells. During solidification of a liquid containing an insoluble particle, three distinct interaction phenomena have been experimentally observed: instantaneous engulfment of the particle, continuous pushing, and particle pushing followed by engulfment. It was also observed that for given experimental conditions and particle size there is a critical solidification velocity, V(sub cr), above which a particle is engulfed. During solidification of MMCs pushing leads to particle agglomeration at the grain boundaries and this has detrimental effects on mechanical properties of the casting. Consequently, the process must be designed for instantaneous engulfment to occur. This implies the development of accurate theoretical models to predict V(sub cr), and perform benchmark experiments to test the validity of such models. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pushing/engulfment phenomenon (PEP), its quantification in terms of the material and processing parameters remains a focus of research. Since natural convection currents occurring during terrestrial solidification experiments complicate the study of PEP, execution of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has been approved and funded by NASA. Extensive terrestrial (1g) experiments and preliminary micro-gravity (mu g) experiments on two space shuttle missions have been conducted in preparation for future experiments on the ISS. The investigated

  18. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

  19. SIGMA WEB INTERFACE FOR REACTOR DATA APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2010-05-09

    We present Sigma Web interface which provides user-friendly access for online analysis and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The interface includes advanced browsing and search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, nubars, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations for cross section data sets, pre-calculated integral quantities, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  20. The Development of the CONDUIT Advanced Control System Design and Evaluation Interface with a Case Study Application to an Advanced Fly by Wire Helicopter Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbourne, Jason

    1999-01-01

    This report details the development and use of CONDUIT (Control Designer's Unified Interface). CONDUIT is a design tool created at Ames Research Center for the purpose of evaluating and optimizing aircraft control systems against handling qualities. Three detailed design problems addressing the RASCAL UH-60A Black Hawk are included in this report to show the application of CONDUIT to helicopter control system design.

  1. In search of quantum-limited contact resistance: understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the graphene-metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Anindya; Currie, Marc; Boyd, Anthony K.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Sridhara, Karthik; Hernandez, Sandra C.; Wollmershauser, James A.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its two-dimensional structure, graphene is extremely sensitive to surface contamination. Conventional processing techniques inevitably modify graphene’s intrinsic properties by introducing adsorbents and/or defects which limit device performance and understanding the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here we demonstrate femtosecond laser direct patterning of graphene microstructures, without the aid of resists or other chemicals, that enables us to study both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the graphene-metal interface. The pulsed femtosecond laser was configured to ablate epitaxial graphene (EG) on a sub-micrometer scale and form a precisely defined region without damaging the surrounding material or substrate. The ablated area was sufficient to electrically isolate transfer length measurement structures and Hall devices for subsequent transport measurements. Using pristine and systematically contaminated surfaces, we found that Ni does not form bonds to EG synthesized on SiC in contrast to the well-known C-Ni bond formation for graphene synthesized on metals; known as end-contacting. Without end-contacting, the contact resistance (R C) of Ni to pristine and resist-contaminated EG are one and two orders of magnitude larger, respectively, than the intrinsic quantum limited contact resistance. The range of reported R C values is explained using carrier transmission probability, as exemplified by the Landauer-Büttiker model, which is dependent on the presence or absence of end-contacts and dopant/work-function mediated conduction. The model predicts the need for both end-contacts and a clean graphene-metal interface as necessary conditions to approach quantum limited contact resistance.

  2. Implementation and verification of an advancement to the Galileo system search and rescue service signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mo; Wu, Qiongzhi; Liu, Shaobo

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Sino-European cooperation in the Galileo satellite navigation system Search And Rescue(SAR) service, a multi-channel distress beacon signal simulator is presented here. The mathematic model and spectrum analysis of current 406 MHz distress beacons signals is presented which includes Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) for Maritime, Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) for land (road and rail), and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) for aeronautical applications. Based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) and digital IF techniques, the design of a SAR Signal Simulator (SAR-SS) is proposed, which can generate no less than 20 distress signals simultaneously. The Doppler shift and space propagation effect such as ionosphere delay, free space attenuation and etc, are simulated in SAR-SS, which provided a significant test and evaluation capability for SAR/Galileo project. The performance of SAR-SS is more accurate and stabile than the Cospas-Sarsat(C-S) requirement. SAR-SS will be a significant instrument for the Galileo system search and rescue project ground test.

  3. Software Architecture of the Spitzer Archive Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J.; Wu, X.; Roby, W.; Hoac, A.; Goldina, T.; Hartley, B.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) provides a set of user tools to support search and retrieval of Spitzer Archive (SA) data via the Internet. This presentation describes the software architecture and design principles that support the Archive Interface subsystem of the SA (Handley 2007). The Archive Interface is an extension of the core components of the Uplink subsystem and provides a set web services to allow open access to the SA data set. Web services technology provides a basis for searching the archive and retrieving data products. The archive interface provides three modes of access: a rich client, a Web browser, and scripts (via Web services). The rich client allows the user to perform complex queries and submit requests for data that are asynchronously down-loaded to the local workstation. Asynchronous down-load is a critical feature given the large volume of a typical data set (on the order of 40~GB). For basic queries and retrieval of data the Web browser interface is provided. For advanced users, scripting languages with web services capabilities (i.e. Perl) can used to query and down-load data from the SA. The archive interface subsystem is the primary means for searching and retrieving data from the SA and is critical to the success of the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  4. Proteomic strategies in the search for novel pancreatic cancer biomarkers and drug targets: recent advances and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Orla; Henry, Michael; McVey, Gerard; Clynes, Martin; Moriarty, Michael; Meleady, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers; despite a low incidence rate it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Improvement of the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment remains the main focus of pancreatic cancer research. Rapid developments in proteomic technologies has improved our understanding of the pancreatic cancer proteome. Here, the authors summarise the recent proteomic strategies undertaken in the search for: novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, pancreatic cancer-specific proteins which may be used for novel targeted therapies and proteins which may be useful for monitoring disease progression post-therapy. Recent advances and findings discussed here provide great promise of having a significant clinical impact and improving the outcome of patients with this malignancy. PMID:26985644

  5. In-Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/1) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub ct),, for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s/l interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  6. In Situ Observations of Interaction Between Particulate Agglomerates and an Advancing Planar Solid/Liquid Interface: Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Juretzko, F.; Stafanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Results are reported of directional solidification experiments on particulate agglomerate pushing and engulfment by a planar solid/liquid (s/l) interface. These experiments were conducted on the Space Shuttle Columbia during the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) Mission. It was found that the pushing to engulfment transition velocity, V(sub cr) for agglomerates depends not only on their effective size but also their orientation with respect to the s,1 interface. The analytical model for predicting V(sub cr) of a single particle was subsequently enhanced to predict V(sub cr) of the agglomerates by considering their shape factor and orientation.

  7. GW150914: First results from the search for binary black hole coalescence with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bohémier, K.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cokelaer, T.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietz, A.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Rocchi, A.; Rodriguez, A. C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Santamaría, L.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    On September 14, 2015, at 09∶50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed the binary black hole merger GW150914. We report the results of a matched-filter search using relativistic models of compact-object binaries that recovered GW150914 as the most significant event during the coincident observations between the two LIGO detectors from September 12 to October 20, 2015 GW150914 was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ .

  8. Challenges and Benefits of Direct Policy Search in Advancing Multiobjective Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Zatarain-Salazar, Jazmin; Hermann, John; Pianosi, Francesca; Reed, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Optimal management policies for water reservoir operation are generally designed via stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). Yet, the adoption of SDP in complex real-world problems is challenged by the three curses of dimensionality, of modeling, and of multiple objectives. These three curses considerably limit SDP's practical application. Alternatively, in this study, we focus on the use of evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), a simulation-based optimization approach that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi-purpose water reservoirs. Our analysis explores the technical and practical implications of using EMODPS through a careful diagnostic assessment of the EMODPS Pareto approximate solutions attained and the overall reliability of the policy design process. A key choice in the EMODPS approach is the selection of alternative formulations of the operating policies. In this study, we distinguish the relative performance of two widely used nonlinear approximating networks, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions, and we further compare them with SDP. Besides, we comparatively assess state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability. Our diagnostic results show that RBFs solutions are more effective that ANNs in designing Pareto approximate policies for several water reservoir systems. They also highlight that EMODPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg MOEA, are statistically superior for the class of problems considered.

  9. Interactive Graphical Queries for Bibliographic Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; Campbell, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Presents "Islands," an interactive graphical interface for construction, modification, and management of queries during a search session on a bibliographic database. Discusses motivation and bibliographic search semantics and compares the Islands interface to the Dialog interface. (Author/LRW)

  10. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  11. Neuron-Miner: An Advanced Tool for Morphological Search and Retrieval in Neuroscientific Image Databases.

    PubMed

    Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis. PMID:27155864

  12. Neuron-Miner: An Advanced Tool for Morphological Search and Retrieval in Neuroscientific Image Databases.

    PubMed

    Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis.

  13. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-08-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012-13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

  14. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    PubMed Central

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012–13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance. PMID:26234783

  15. Advancing techniques to constrain the geometry of the seismic rupture plane on subduction interfaces a priori: Higher-order functional fits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Wald, D.J.; Keranen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing developments in earthquake source inversions incorporate nonplanar fault geometries as inputs to the inversion process, improving previous approaches that relied solely on planar fault surfaces. This evolution motivates advancing the existing framework for constraining fault geometry, particularly in subduction zones where plate boundary surfaces that host highly hazardous earthquakes are clearly nonplanar. Here, we improve upon the existing framework for the constraint of the seismic rupture plane of subduction interfaces by incorporating active seismic and seafloor sediment thickness data with existing independent data sets and inverting for the most probable nonplanar subduction geometry. Constraining the rupture interface a priori with independent geological and seismological information reduces the uncertainty in the derived earthquake source inversion parameters over models that rely on simpler assumptions, such as the moment tensor inferred fault plane. Examples are shown for a number of wellconstrained global locations. We expand the coverage of previous analyses to a more uniform global data set and show that even in areas of sparse data this approach is able to accurately constrain the approximate subduction geometry, particularly when aided with the addition of data from local active seismic surveys. In addition, we show an example of the integration of many two-dimensional profiles into a threedimensional surface for the Sunda subduction zone and introduce the development of a new global threedimensional subduction interface model: Slab1.0. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Cycling of mercury across the sediment-water interface in seepage lakes: Chapter 13, Advances in Chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurley, James P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Babiarz, C.L.; Andren, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of Hg fluxes across the sediment—water interface were estimated by groundwater, dry bulk sediment, sediment pore water, sediment trap, and water-column analyses in two northern Wisconsin seepage lakes. Little Rock Lake (Treatment Basin) received no groundwater discharge during the study period (1988—1990), and Follette Lake received continuous groundwater discharge. In Little Rock Lake, settling of particulate matter accounted for the major Hg delivery mechanism to the sediment—water interface. Upward diffusion of Hg from sediment pore waters below 2—4-cm sediment depth was apparently a minor source during summer stratification. Time-series comparisons suggested that the observed buildup of Hg in the hypolimnion of Little Rock Lake was attributable to dissolution and diffusion of Hg from recently fallen particulate matter close to the sediment—water interface. Groundwater inflow represented an important source of new Hg, and groundwater outflow accounted for significant removal of Hg from Pallette Lake. Equilibrium speciation calculations revealed that association of Hg with organic matter may control solubility in well-oxygenated waters, whereas in anoxic environments sulfur (polysulfide and bisulfide) complexation governs dissolved total Hg levels.

  17. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  18. Application of the mid-IR radio correlation to the Ĝ sample and the search for advanced extraterrestrial civilisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Wright et al. (2014, ApJ, 792, 26) have embarked on a search for advanced Karadashev Type III civilisations via the compilation of a sample of sources with extreme mid-IR emission and colours. The aim is to furnish a list of candidate galaxies that might harbour an advanced Kardashev Type III civilisation; in this scenario, the mid-IR emission is then primarily associated with waste heat energy by-products. I apply the mid-IR radio correlation to this Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technology (Ĝ) sample, a catalogue of 93 candidate galaxies compiled by Griffith et al. (2015, ApJS, 217, 25). I demonstrate that the mid-IR and radio luminosities are correlated for the sample, determining a k-corrected value of q22 = 1.35 ± 0.42. By comparison, a similar measurement for 124 galaxies drawn from the First Look Survey (FLS) has q22 = 0.87 ± 0.27. The statistically significant difference of the mean value of q22 for these two samples, taken together with their more comparable far-IR properties, suggests that the Ĝ sample shows excessive emission in the mid-IR. The fact that the Ĝ sample largely follows the mid-IR radio correlation strongly suggests that the vast majority of these sources are associated with galaxies in which natural astrophysical processes are dominant. This simple application of the mid-IR radio correlation can substantially reduce the number of false positives in the Ĝ catalogue since galaxies occupied by advanced Kardashev Type III civilisations would be expected to exhibit very high values of q. I identify nine outliers in the sample with q22> 2 of which at least three have properties that are relatively well explained via standard astrophysical interpretations e.g. dust emission associated with nascent star formation and/or nuclear activity from a heavily obscured AGN. The other outliers have not been studied in any great detail, and are deserving of further observation. I also note that the comparison of resolved mid-IR and radio images of galaxies

  19. Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J. E.; Mandel, I.; Vecchio, A.

    2013-08-01

    The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced (or second-generation) configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter-based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has a mass in the range 24M⊙-200M⊙ with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4M⊙-18.5M⊙. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140≤q≤1/10 and we restrict our study to the case of circular binaries with nonspinning components. We investigate the relative contribution to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the three different phases of the coalescence—inspiral, merger and ringdown—using waveforms computed within the effective one-body formalism matched to numerical relativity. We show that merger and ringdown contribute to a substantial fraction of the total SNR over a large portion of the mass parameter space, although in a limited portion the SNR is dominated by the inspiral phase. We further identify three regions in the IMRAC mass space in which (i) inspiral-only searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10%≲L≲27%, (ii) searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27%≲L≲50%, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. In addition we find that using inspiral-only templates as filters can lead to large biases in the estimates of the mass parameters of IMRACs. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. We find that

  20. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.; Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin; Johnstone, C.

    2010-09-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  1. Advanced image collection, information extraction, and change detection in support of NN-20 broad area search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Perry, E.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Slator, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). The work supports the NN-20 Broad Area Search and Analysis, a program initiated by NN-20 to improve the detection and classification of undeclared weapons facilities. Ongoing PNNL research activities are described in three main components: image collection, information processing, and change analysis. The Multispectral Airborne Imaging System, which was developed to collect georeferenced imagery in the visible through infrared regions of the spectrum, and flown on a light aircraft platform, will supply current land use conditions. The image information extraction software (dynamic clustering and end-member extraction) uses imagery, like the multispectral data collected by the PNNL multispectral system, to efficiently generate landcover information. The advanced change detection uses a priori (benchmark) information, current landcover conditions, and user-supplied rules to rank suspect areas by probable risk of undeclared facilities or proliferation activities. These components, both separately and combined, provide important tools for improving the detection of undeclared facilities.

  2. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  3. Recent advances in chemical synthesis methodology of inorganic materials and theoretical computations of metal nanoparticles/carbon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew G.

    With increased public interest in protecting the environment, scientists and engineers aim to improve energy conversion efficiency. Thermoelectrics offer many advantages as thermal management technology. When compared to vapor compression refrigeration, above approximately 200 to 600 watts, cost in dollars per watt as well as COP are not advantageous for thermoelectrics. The goal of this work was to determine if optimized pulse supercooling operation could improve cooling capacity or efficiency of a thermoelectric device. The basis of this research is a thermal-electrical analogy based modeling study using SPICE. Two models were developed. The first model, a standalone thermocouple with no attached mass to be cooled. The second, a system that includes a module attached to a heat generating mass. With the thermocouple study, a new approach of generating response surfaces with characteristic parameters was applied. The current pulse height and pulse on-time was identified for maximizing Net Transient Advantage, a newly defined metric. The corresponding pulse height and pulse on-time was utilized for the system model. Along with the traditional steady state starting current of Imax, Iopt was employed. The pulse shape was an isosceles triangle. For the system model, metrics new to pulse cooling were Qc, power consumption and COP. The effects of optimized current pulses were studied by changing system variables. Further studies explored time spacing between pulses and temperature distribution in the thermoelement. It was found net Q c over an entire pulse event can be improved over Imax steady operation but not over steady I opt operation. Qc can be improved over Iopt operation but only during the early part of the pulse event. COP is reduced in transient pulse operation due to the different time constants of Qc and Pin. In some cases lower performance interface materials allow more Qc and better COP during transient operation than higher performance interface materials

  4. The movement of particles in liquid metals under gravity forces and the interaction of particles with advancing solid-liquid interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of shrinkage and gas porosity are discussed. Gravity forces enhance the removal of gas bubbles from a metal melt and contribute to the feeding of shrinkage porosity in castings. Experiments are reviewed which determine how large a density difference is required for metal particles to float or sink in a metal melt and to what extent do factors not considered in Stokes Law influence particle movement in a real system. As to the interaction of particles with an advancing solid-liquid interface, the results indicate that the metal particles are not rejected in a metal melt, and that concentrations of particles in a metal following solidification are due to other factors.

  5. U.S. Department Of Energy Advanced Small Modular Reactor R&D Program: Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although the recent progress in constructing new plants has spurred design of more fully digital plant-wide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. Additionally, development of advanced reactor concepts, such as Generation IV designs and small modular reactors, introduces different plant conditions (e.g., higher temperatures, different coolants, etc.) and unique plant configurations (e.g., multiunit plants with shared systems, balance of plant architectures with reconfigurable co-generation options) that increase the need for enhanced ICHMI capabilities to fully achieve industry goals related to economic competitiveness, safety and reliability, sustainability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. As a result, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of modern ICHMI technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, several DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements within their respective research portfolios. This paper describes current

  6. Interface and post-processing requirements to insert an acousto-optic range-Doppler processor into an advanced radar digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrett, Rodney A.; Dean, R.; McCarthy, Daniel F.; Viveiros, Edward A.; Caraway, Willie

    1995-06-01

    The interfacing and post-processing requirements for the development and insertion of an acousto-optic (AO), range-Doppler processor will be described. This system has been configured to operate as an integral part of the signal processing chain of an advanced spread- spectrum radar developed by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM). This MICOM radar transmits a continuous repeated, biphase-coded waveform and processes a block of received data to detect and track targets i range and Doppler in the presence of severe ground clutter. Multiple code rates are processed to extend the range window through application of residue number techniques. Range and Doppler processing are achieved in the AO processor using an additive triple-product processor architecture that coherently detects the range-Doppler information on a high-speed, custom 3D CCD detector array developed by the Army Research Laboratory. We present the interfaces to the radar and the post-processing of the data produced by the AO range-Doppler processor into the format required by the MICOM signal processor. The interfaces comprise the extraction of digital in-phase and quadrature data, the condition of this data for the AO range-Doppler processor, and the insertion of the post- processed optical data into the radar signal processor. Timing and latency issues are critical to real-time operation (creating range-Doppler images at approximately 1600 Hz frames rates) within the MICOM radar. The post-processing section cover optical processor architecture/post-processing tradeoffs, focusing on requirements, algorithms, and hardware implementation.

  7. Water at Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding. PMID:27232062

  8. Advanced control room design review guidelines: Integration of the NUREG-0700 guidelines and development of new human-system interface guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report documents the work conducted in four tasks of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) project entitled Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation. The purpose of the first task was to integrate the applicable sections of NUREG-0700 into the advanced control room design review (ACRDR) guidelines to ensure that all applicable guidelines are together in one document and conveniently accessible to users. The primary objective of the second task was to formulate a strategy for the development of new ACRDR guidelines that have not otherwise been identified. The main focus of the third task was to modify the individual ACRDR guidelines generated to date to ensure that they are suitable for the intended nuclear power plant (NPP) control station system application. The goal of the fourth task was to develop human factors guidelines for two human-system interface categories that are missing from the current ACRDR guidelines document. During the first task those areas in NUREG-0700 that are not addressed by the ACRDR guidelines document were identified, the areas were subsequently reviewed against six recent industry human factors engineering review guidelines, and the NUREG-0700 guidelines were updated as necessary. In the second task 13 general categories of human-system interface guidelines that are either missing from or not adequately addressed by the ACRDR document were discovered. An approach was derived for the development of new ACRDR guidelines, a preliminary assessment of the available sources that may be useful in the creation of new guidelines and their applicability to the identified human-system interface categories was performed, and an estimate was made of the amount of time and level of effort required to complete the development of needed new ACRDR guidelines. During the third task those NPP control station systems to which the NUREG-0700 and ACRDR guidelines apply were identified, matrices of such

  9. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  10. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  11. Towards Direct Numerical Simulation of mass and energy fluxes at the soil-atmospheric interface with advanced Lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Krafczyk, Manfred; Geier, Martin; Schönherr, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The quantification of soil evaporation and of soil water content dynamics near the soil surface are critical in the physics of land-surface processes on many scales and are dominated by multi-component and multi-phase mass and energy fluxes between the ground and the atmosphere. Although it is widely recognized that both liquid and gaseous water movement are fundamental factors in the quantification of soil heat flux and surface evaporation, their computation has only started to be taken into account using simplified macroscopic models. As the flow field over the soil can be safely considered as turbulent, it would be natural to study the detailed transient flow dynamics by means of Large Eddy Simulation (LES [1]) where the three-dimensional flow field is resolved down to the laminar sub-layer. Yet this requires very fine resolved meshes allowing a grid resolution of at least one order of magnitude below the typical grain diameter of the soil under consideration. In order to gain reliable turbulence statistics, up to several hundred eddy turnover times have to be simulated which adds up to several seconds of real time. Yet, the time scale of the receding saturated water front dynamics in the soil is on the order of hours. Thus we are faced with the task of solving a transient turbulent flow problem including the advection-diffusion of water vapour over the soil-atmospheric interface represented by a realistic tomographic reconstruction of a real porous medium taken from laboratory probes. Our flow solver is based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) [2] which has been extended by a Cumulant approach similar to the one described in [3,4] to minimize the spurious coupling between the degrees of freedom in previous LBM approaches and can be used as an implicit LES turbulence model due to its low numerical dissipation and increased stability at high Reynolds numbers. The kernel has been integrated into the research code Virtualfluids [5] and delivers up to 30% of the

  12. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    . As an initial step in accomplishing this effort, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies was held March 20–21, 2009, in Columbus, Ohio, to enable industry stakeholders and researchers in identification of the nuclear industry’s needs in the areas of future I&C technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. Approaches for collaboration to bridge or fill the technology gaps were presented and R&D activities and priorities recommended. This report documents the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for the plan under development to achieve the goals of the I&C research pathway.

  13. Arctic Data Explorer: A Rich Solr Powered Metadata Search Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Truslove, I.; Yarmey, L.; Lopez, L.; Reed, S. A.; Brandt, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) manages data and is the gateway for all relevant Arctic physical, life, and social science data for the Arctic Sciences (ARC) research community. Arctic Data Explorer (ADE), developed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) under the ACADIS umbrella, is a data portal that provides users the ability to search across multiple Arctic data catalogs rapidly and precisely. In order to help the users quickly find the data they are interested in, we provided a simple search interface -- a search box with spatial and temporal options. The core of the interface is a ';google-like' single search box with logic to handle complex queries behind the scenes. ACADIS collects all metadata through the GI-Cat metadata broker service and indexes it in Solr. The single search box is implemented as a text based search utilizing the powerful tools provided by Solr. In this poster, we briefly explain Solr's indexing and searching capabilities. Several examples are presented to illustrate the rich search functionality the simple search box supports. Then we dive into the implementation details such as how phrase query, wildcard query, range query, fuzzy query and special query search term handling was integrated into ADE search. To provide our users the most relevant answers to their queries as quickly as possible, we worked with the Advisory Committee and the expanding Arctic User Community (scientists and data experts) to collect feedback to improve the search results and adjust the relevance/ranking logic to return more precise search results. The poster has specific examples on how we tuned the relevance ranking to achieve higher quality search results. A feature in the plan is to provide data sets recommendations based on user's current search history. Both collaborative filtering and content-based approaches were considered and researched. A feasible solution is proposed based on the content-based approach.

  14. Searching ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to inform systematic reviews: what are the optimal search approaches?*

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, Julie M.; Duffy, Steven; McCool, Rachael; Varley, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since 2005, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) member journals have required that clinical trials be registered in publicly available trials registers before they are considered for publication. Objectives: The research explores whether it is adequate, when searching to inform systematic reviews, to search for relevant clinical trials using only public trials registers and to identify the optimal search approaches in trials registers. Methods: A search was conducted in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for research studies that had been included in eight systematic reviews. Four search approaches (highly sensitive, sensitive, precise, and highly precise) were performed using the basic and advanced interfaces in both resources. Results: On average, 84% of studies were not listed in either resource. The largest number of included studies was retrieved in ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP when a sensitive search approach was used in the basic interface. The use of the advanced interface maintained or improved sensitivity in 16 of 19 strategies for Clinicaltrials.gov and 8 of 18 for ICTRP. No single search approach was sensitive enough to identify all studies included in the 6 reviews. Conclusions: Trials registers cannot yet be relied upon as the sole means to locate trials for systematic reviews. Trials registers lag behind the major bibliographic databases in terms of their search interfaces. Implications: For systematic reviews, trials registers and major bibliographic databases should be searched. Trials registers should be searched using sensitive approaches, and both the registers consulted in this study should be searched. PMID:25031558

  15. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hickok, D.D.; Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  16. CERES Search and Subset Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-24

    article title:  CERES Search and Subset Tool View larger image The ASDC CERES Search and Subset Web Application provides a single, easy to use web interface ... of the archived granules or netCDF. Access at CERES Search and Subset Tool   The ASDC CERES Search and ...

  17. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercialmore » databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.« less

  19. Search for time-reversal symmetry breaking order at the (1 1 0) interface of YBa2Cu3O using βNMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadaoui, H.; Morris, G. D.; Chow, K. H.; Hossain, M. D.; Levy, C. D. P.; Parolin, T. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Salman, Z.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.; Hentges, P. J.; Greene, L. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; MacFarlane, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we report initial βNMR measurements seeking the spontaneous magnetic fields associated with a time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) order at the (1 1 0) interface of the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O (YBCO). A 2 keV beam of highly spin-polarized Li+8 was implanted into a thin overlayer of silver sputtered onto an oriented YBCO film. The NMR of Li8 in the Ag layer showed additional broadening with an onset below the superconducting transition temperature Tc. This is evidence of spontaneous disordered magnetism which could be associated with TRSB order.

  20. Advances in the Kepler Transit Search Engine and Automated Approaches to Identifying Likely Planet Candidates in Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-08-01

    Twenty years ago, no planets were known outside our own solar system. Since then, the discoveries of ~1500 exoplanets have radically altered our views of planets and planetary systems. This revolution is due in no small part to the Kepler Mission, which has discovered >1000 of these planets and >4000 planet candidates. While Kepler has shown that small rocky planets and planetary systems are quite common, the quest to find Earth’s closest cousins and characterize their atmospheres presses forward with missions such as NASA Explorer Program’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) slated for launch in 2017 and ESA’s PLATO mission scheduled for launch in 2024.These future missions pose daunting data processing challenges in terms of the number of stars, the amount of data, and the difficulties in detecting weak signatures of transiting small planets against a roaring background. These complications include instrument noise and systematic effects as well as the intrinsic stellar variability of the subjects under scrutiny. In this paper we review recent developments in the Kepler transit search pipeline improving both the yield and reliability of detected transit signatures.Many of the phenomena in light curves that represent noise can also trigger transit detection algorithms. The Kepler Mission has expended great effort in suppressing false positives from its planetary candidate catalogs. While over 18,000 transit-like signatures can be identified for a search across 4 years of data, most of these signatures are artifacts, not planets. Vetting all such signatures historically takes several months’ effort by many individuals. We describe the application of machine learning approaches for the automated vetting and production of planet candidate catalogs. These algorithms can improve the efficiency of the human vetting effort as well as quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is truly a planet. This information is crucial for obtaining valid planet

  1. Environmental remote sensing using the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the acquisition, processing, and applications of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) used on polar satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the Department of Commerce. AVHRR provides global visible and infrared imagery. The cited reports contain information on calibration, registration, and image processing of AVHRR data. Included are reports on AHVRR use in the study of aerosols, atmospheric circulation, agriculture, forest fires, deforestation, sun glint, sedimentation, cloud classification, sea ice, snowmelts, ocean productivity, sea surface temperatures, and vegetation. (Contains a minimum of 120 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  3. A Shared Infrastructure for Federated Search Across Distributed Scientific Metadata Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Grauch, A.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.; Lopez, L.; Liu, M.; Brandt, M.

    2013-12-01

    The vast amount of science metadata can be overwhelming and highly complex. Comprehensive analysis and sharing of metadata is difficult since institutions often publish to their own repositories. There are many disjoint standards used for publishing scientific data, making it difficult to discover and share information from different sources. Services that publish metadata catalogs often have different protocols, formats, and semantics. The research community is limited by the exclusivity of separate metadata catalogs and thus it is desirable to have federated search interfaces capable of unified search queries across multiple sources. Aggregation of metadata catalogs also enables users to critique metadata more rigorously. With these motivations in mind, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) implemented two search interfaces for the community. Both the NSIDC Search and ACADIS Arctic Data Explorer (ADE) use a common infrastructure which keeps maintenance costs low. The search clients are designed to make OpenSearch requests against Solr, an Open Source search platform. Solr applies indexes to specific fields of the metadata which in this instance optimizes queries containing keywords, spatial bounds and temporal ranges. NSIDC metadata is reused by both search interfaces but the ADE also brokers additional sources. Users can quickly find relevant metadata with minimal effort and ultimately lowers costs for research. This presentation will highlight the reuse of data and code between NSIDC and ACADIS, discuss challenges and milestones for each project, and will identify creation and use of Open Source libraries.

  4. Adding a Visualization Feature to Web Search Engines: It’s Time

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.

    2008-11-11

    Since the first world wide web (WWW) search engine quietly entered our lives in 1994, the “information need” behind web searching has rapidly grown into a multi-billion dollar business that dominates the internet landscape, drives e-commerce traffic, propels global economy, and affects the lives of the whole human race. Today’s search engines are faster, smarter, and more powerful than those released just a few years ago. With the vast investment pouring into research and development by leading web technology providers and the intense emotion behind corporate slogans such as “win the web” or “take back the web,” I can’t help but ask why are we still using the very same “text-only” interface that was used 13 years ago to browse our search engine results pages (SERPs)? Why has the SERP interface technology lagged so far behind in the web evolution when the corresponding search technology has advanced so rapidly? In this article I explore some current SERP interface issues, suggest a simple but practical visual-based interface design approach, and argue why a visual approach can be a strong candidate for tomorrow’s SERP interface.

  5. Neural interfaces at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical neural interfaces provide a means of recording the activity from the nervous system and delivering therapeutic stimulation to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Although neural interfaces have reached clinical utility, reducing the size of the bioelectrical interface to minimize damage to neural tissue and maximize selectivity has proven problematic. Nanotechnology may offer a means of interfacing with the nervous system with unprecedented specificity. Emergent applications of nanotechnology to neuroscience include molecular imaging, drug delivery across the BBB, scaffolds for neural regeneration and bioelectrical interfaces. In particular, carbon nanotubes offer the promises of material stability and low electrical impedance at physical dimensions that could have a significant impact on the future on neural interfaces. The purpose of this review is to present recent advances in carbon nanotube-based bioelectrical interfaces for the nervous system and discuss research challenges and opportunities. PMID:19025456

  6. Evaluation of a Novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface for Consumer Health Information: A Crowdsourced Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Licong; Carter, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous consumer health information websites have been developed to provide consumers access to health information. However, lookup search is insufficient for consumers to take full advantage of these rich public information resources. Exploratory search is considered a promising complementary mechanism, but its efficacy has never before been rigorously evaluated for consumer health information retrieval interfaces. Objective This study aims to (1) introduce a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (CENI) for supporting effective consumer health information retrieval and navigation, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of CENI through a search-interface comparative evaluation using crowdsourcing with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Methods We collected over 60,000 consumer health questions from NetWellness, one of the first consumer health websites to provide high-quality health information. We designed and developed a novel conjunctive exploratory navigation interface to explore NetWellness health questions with health topics as dynamic and searchable menus. To investigate the effectiveness of CENI, we developed a second interface with keyword-based search only. A crowdsourcing comparative study was carefully designed to compare three search modes of interest: (A) the topic-navigation-based CENI, (B) the keyword-based lookup interface, and (C) either the most commonly available lookup search interface with Google, or the resident advanced search offered by NetWellness. To compare the effectiveness of the three search modes, 9 search tasks were designed with relevant health questions from NetWellness. Each task included a rating of difficulty level and questions for validating the quality of answers. Ninety anonymous and unique AMT workers were recruited as participants. Results Repeated-measures ANOVA analysis of the data showed the search modes A, B, and C had statistically significant differences among their levels of difficulty (P<.001

  7. Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

  8. (Meta)Search like Google

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochkind, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The ability to search and receive results in more than one database through a single interface--or metasearch--is something many users want. Google Scholar--the search engine of specifically scholarly content--and library metasearch products like Ex Libris's MetaLib, Serials Solution's Central Search, WebFeat, and products based on MuseGlobal used…

  9. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-06-24

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  10. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B. Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-12-15

    We present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma)

  11. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  12. A Solr Powered Architecture for Scientific Metadata Search Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. A.; Billingsley, B. W.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.; Brandt, M.

    2014-12-01

    Discovering and obtaining resources for scientific research is increasingly difficult but Open Source tools have been implemented to provide inexpensive solutions for scientific metadata search applications. Common practices used in modern web applications can improve the quality of scientific data as well as increase availability to a wider audience while reducing costs of maintenance. Motivated to improve discovery and access of scientific metadata hosted at NSIDC and the need to aggregate many areas of arctic research, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) contributed to a shared codebase used by the NSIDC Search and Arctic Data Explorer (ADE) portals. We implemented the NSIDC Search and ADE to improve search and discovery of scientific metadata in many areas of cryospheric research. All parts of the applications are available free and open for reuse in other applications and portals. We have applied common techniques that are widely used by search applications around the web and with the goal of providing quick and easy access to scientific metadata. We adopted keyword search auto-suggest which provides a dynamic list of terms and phrases that closely match characters as the user types. Facet queries are another technique we have implemented to filter results based on aspects of the data like the instrument used or temporal duration of the data set. Service APIs provide a layer between the interface and the database and are shared between the NSIDC Search and ACADIS ADE interfaces. We also implemented a shared data store between both portals using Apache Solr (an Open Source search engine platform that stores and indexes XML documents) and leverage many powerful features including geospatial search and faceting. This presentation will discuss the application architecture as well as tools and techniques used to enhance search and discovery of scientific metadata.

  13. Advanced binary search pattern for impedance spectra classification for determining the state of charge of a lithium iron phosphate cell using a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Patrick; Vollnhals, Michael; Renner, Daniel; Vergossen, David; John, Werner; Götze, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Further improvements on the novel method for state of charge (SOC) determination of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells based on the impedance spectra classification are presented. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is applied to impedance spectra of a LFP cell, with each impedance spectrum representing a distinct SOC for a predefined temperature. As a SVM is a binary classifier, only the distinction between two SOC can be computed in one iteration of the algorithm. Therefore a search pattern is necessary. A balanced tree search was implemented with good results. In order to further improvements of the SVM method, this paper discusses two new search pattern, namely a linear search and an imbalanced tree search, the later one based on an initial educated guess. All three search pattern were compared under various aspects like accuracy, efficiency, tolerance of disturbances and temperature dependancy. The imbalanced search tree shows to be the most efficient search pattern if the initial guess is within less than ±5 % SOC of the original SOC in both directions and exhibits the best tolerance for high disturbances. Linear search improves the rate of exact classifications for almost every temperature. It also improves the robustness against high disturbances and can even detect a certain number of false classifications which makes this search pattern unique. The downside is a much lower efficiency as all impedance spectra have to be evaluated while the tree search pattern only evaluate those on the tree path.

  14. Web OPAC Interfaces: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, B. Ramesh; O'Brien, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a review of six Web OPAC interfaces in use in academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Presents a checklist and guidelines of important features and functions that are currently available, including search strategies, access points, display, links, and layout. (Author/LRW)

  15. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  16. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  17. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  18. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

  19. The outcomes and correlates of job search objectives: searching to leave or searching for leverage?

    PubMed

    Boswell, Wendy R; Boudreau, John W; Dunford, Benjamin B

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigate a previously overlooked yet important objective for employee job search--seeking leverage against the current employer. They explore the outcomes and correlates of leverage-seeking search and how it may differ from the more traditional objective for engaging in job search--to change jobs. Results show that leverage-seeking and separation-seeking search objectives associate with different outcomes. The authors also find that characteristics of the work situation and individual differences associate with leverage-seeking search and relate differently with the 2 job search objectives. Implications for practice and the advancement of job search research are discussed. PMID:15584843

  20. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  1. The Perfectly Organized Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Sandra Sinsel; Spencer, Mary Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Describes the evolution and operation of the successful Database Search Service (DSS) at the John C. Hodges Library, University of Tennessee, with detailed information about equipment, policies, software, training, and physical layout. Success is attributed to careful administration, standardization of search equipment and interfaces, staff…

  2. Missing Links: The Quest for Better Search Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Vickie

    2002-01-01

    Examines a selection of innovative search tools that attempt to solve specific problems in searching. Topics include search difficulties, including controlled vocabularies and keyword searching; retrieval issues, including relevancy ranking; document discrimination problems; creating search tools for specific audiences; and interface design,…

  3. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  4. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  5. Searching the Web: The Public and Their Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Wolfram, Dietmar; Jansen, Major B. J.; Saracevic, Tefko

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a study of searching behavior by over 200,000 users of the Excite search engine. Analysis of over one million queries revealed most people use few search terms, few modified queries, view few Web pages, and rarely use advanced search features. Concludes that Web searching by the public differs significantly from searching of…

  6. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Newman, Jonathan A; Walter, Jonathan A; Korniss, G; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader's lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover's growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  7. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  8. Multilingual Federated Searching Across Heterogeneous Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, James; Fox, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a scalable system for searching heterogeneous multilingual collections on the World Wide Web. Details Searchable Database Markup Language (SearchDB-ML) for describing the characteristics of a search engine and its interface, and a protocol for requesting word translations between languages. (Author)

  9. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  10. Cognitive Style and On-Line Database Search Experience as Predictors of Web Search Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Ruth A.; Kim, Kyung-Sun

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effects of cognitive style (field dependent and field independent) and online database search experience (novice and experienced) on undergraduate World Wide Web search performance. Considers user factors to predict search efficiency and discusses implications for Web interface design and user training…

  11. Versatile user interface using UMLS Metathesaurus.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Yan, J. S.; Strasberg, H. R.; Melmon, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the obstacles for a successful search in the biomedical field is that different vocabularies are used by different databases but more than one database is usually needed to respond adequately to a healthcare professional's query. A typical searcher usually is unfamiliar with these vocabularies and the sophisticated measures to narrow or broaden a search. As a result, a failed search is often due to using "inappropriate" search terms. We have developed a highly interactive and versatile user interface, SHINE Refined Search (SHINE RS). It uses medical concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus as the building block to help searchers find "appropriate" search terms for their queries. The results of our preliminary usability assessment are promising and demonstrate the potential to improve retrieval results. PMID:11080012

  12. Expert Systems and the Future of Interactive Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Bruce A.

    After surveying the history and current status of online database searching, this report offers a timeline describing four stages of possible developments for online systems. In the first stage, an expert interface assists CD-ROM-based searching by offering advice about search strategies. Advantages are that search logic can be refined with the…

  13. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  14. Search systems and computer-implemented search methods

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Deborah A.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Hampton, Shawn D.; Gillen, David S.; Henry, Michael J.

    2015-12-22

    Search systems and computer-implemented search methods are described. In one aspect, a search system includes a communications interface configured to access a plurality of data items of a collection, wherein the data items include a plurality of image objects individually comprising image data utilized to generate an image of the respective data item. The search system may include processing circuitry coupled with the communications interface and configured to process the image data of the data items of the collection to identify a plurality of image content facets which are indicative of image content contained within the images and to associate the image objects with the image content facets and a display coupled with the processing circuitry and configured to depict the image objects associated with the image content facets.

  15. Interfacial Molecular Searching Using Forager Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserud, Jon H.; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2016-03-01

    Many biological and technological systems employ efficient non-Brownian intermittent search strategies where localized searches alternate with long flights. Coincidentally, molecular species exhibit intermittent behavior at the solid-liquid interface, where periods of slow motion are punctuated by fast flights through the liquid phase. Single-molecule tracking was used here to observe the interfacial search process of DNA for complementary DNA. Measured search times were qualitatively consistent with an intermittent-flight model, and ˜10 times faster than equivalent Brownian searches, suggesting that molecular searches for reactive sites benefit from similar efficiencies as biological organisms.

  16. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  17. Ceramic Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yet-Ming Chiang

    2004-10-28

    During the period of this grant, we significantly advanced the understanding of stable surface amorphous films (SAFs), the existence of which was first postulated and then demonstrated under this program. SAFs are nanometer-thick amorphous films which are characterized by a self-selecting thickness, and a composition and structure distinct from the bulk phases with which they coexist. Importantly, they are present as an equilibrium, disordered phase below bulk solidus temperatures where all other phases in the system are crystalline. They are true surface phases which coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium with the bulk phases. We have shown that SAFs form in a number of binary oxide systems, and that they play an important role in the processing of materials (e.g., solid-state activated sintering in ZnO-Bi2O3) and in forming surface-active layers in supported catalyst systems. These experimental results as well as a theoretical model for the stability of SAFs have now been published. We believe that SAFs can be controlled and manipulated in a wide range of systems, with potential applications in nanotechnology, MEMS, microelectronics, adhesion, and colloidal crystals.

  18. A dark energy camera search for missing supergiants in the LMC after the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGES

    Annis, J.

    2016-05-27

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We constructmore » a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. Lastly, we discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.« less

  19. A Dark Energy Camera Search for Missing Supergiants in the LMC after the Advanced LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Chen, H.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravic, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; The DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.

  20. Aboveground test of an advanced Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometer to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekker, T. B.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Degoda, V. Ya.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Moroz, I. M.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Poda, D. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Velazquez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large lithium molybdate (Li2MoO4) crystal boules were produced by using the low thermal gradient Czochralski growth technique from deeply purified molybdenum. A small sample from one of the boules was preliminary characterized in terms of X-ray-induced and thermally-excited luminescence. A large cylindrical crystalline element (with a size of ⊘40 × 40 mm) was used to fabricate a scintillating bolometer, which was operated aboveground at ˜15 mK by using a pulse-tube cryostat housing a high-power dilution refrigerator. The excellent detector performance in terms of energy resolution and α background suppression along with preliminary positive indications on the radiopurity of this material show the potentiality of Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometers for low-counting experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo.

  1. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  2. A User Interface for Multiple Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teskey, Niall; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews current systems designed to help end-users search online databases without the assistance of an intermediary and describes a prototype system which emulates the Deco (the text storage and retrieval system used by Unilever) interface on Dialog and Data-Star. Initial trials of the prototype system are reported. (15 references) (MES)

  3. OASIS: Prototyping Graphical Interfaces to Networked Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the latest modifications being made to OASIS, a front-end enhancement to the University of California's MELVYL online union catalog. Highlights include the X Windows interface; multiple database searching to act as an information network; Lisp implementation for flexible data representation; and OASIS commands and features to help…

  4. Supporting operator problem solving through ecological interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, K.J.; Christoffersen, K.; Pereklita, A.

    1995-04-01

    Two experiments are described evaluating ecological interface design (EID), a novel theoretical framework for the design of interfaces for complex human-machine systems. The findings of experiment one are consistent with the claim that an interface based on an abstraction hierarchy representation can provide more support for problem solving than an interface based on physical variable alone, thereby providing some initial support for the EID framework. The findings of experiment two indicate that subjects that exhibited effective diagnosis performance using the P + F interface tended to start their search at a high level of abstraction and gradually work their way down to more detailed levels, as predicted. 28 refs.

  5. Refining spectral library searching.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Spectral library searching has many advantages over sequence database searching, yet it has not been widely adopted. One possible reason for this is that users are unsure exactly how to interpret the similarity scores (e.g., "dot products" are not probability-based scores). Methods to create decoys have been proposed, but, as developers caution, may produce proxies that are not equivalent to reversed sequences. In this issue, Shao et al. (Proteomics 2013, 13, 3273-3283) report advances in spectral library searching where the focus is not on improving the performance of their search engine, SpectraST, but is instead on improving the statistical meaningfulness of its discriminant score and removing the need for decoys. The results in their paper indicate that by "standardizing" the input and library spectra, sensitivity is not lost but is, surprisingly, gained. Their tests also show that false discovery rate (FDR) estimates, derived from their new score, track better with "ground truth" than decoy searching. It is possible that their work strikes a good balance between the theory of library searching and its application. And as such, they hope to have removed a major entrance barrier for some researchers previously unwilling to try library searching.

  6. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  7. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  8. PDBj Mine: design and implementation of relational database interface for Protein Data Bank Japan.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Akira R; Yamashita, Reiko; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    This article is a tutorial for PDBj Mine, a new database and its interface for Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj). In PDBj Mine, data are loaded from files in the PDBMLplus format (an extension of PDBML, PDB's canonical XML format, enriched with annotations), which are then served for the user of PDBj via the worldwide web (WWW). We describe the basic design of the relational database (RDB) and web interfaces of PDBj Mine. The contents of PDBMLplus files are first broken into XPath entities, and these paths and data are indexed in the way that reflects the hierarchical structure of the XML files. The data for each XPath type are saved into the corresponding relational table that is named as the XPath itself. The generation of table definitions from the PDBMLplus XML schema is fully automated. For efficient search, frequently queried terms are compiled into a brief summary table. Casual users can perform simple keyword search, and 'Advanced Search' which can specify various conditions on the entries. More experienced users can query the database using SQL statements which can be constructed in a uniform manner. Thus, PDBj Mine achieves a combination of the flexibility of XML documents and the robustness of the RDB. Database URL: http://www.pdbj.org/ PMID:20798081

  9. Advances in utilization of renewable substrates for biosurfactant production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties which partition preferentially at the interfaces such as liquid/liquid, gas/liquid or solid/liquid interfaces. Such characteristics enable emulsifying, foaming, detergency and dispersing properties. Their low toxicity and environmental friendly nature and the wide range of potential industrial applications in bioremediation, health care, oil and food processing industries makes them a highly sought after group of chemical compounds. Interest in them has also been encouraged because of the potential advantages they offer over their synthetic counterparts in many fields spanning environmental, food, biomedical, petrochemical and other industrial applications. Their large scale production and application however are currently restricted by the high cost of production and by the limited understanding of their interactions with cells and with the abiotic environment. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and latest advances in the search for cost effective renewable agro industrial alternative substrates for their production. PMID:21906330

  10. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  11. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  12. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  13. Persuading consumers to form precise search engine queries.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Gondy

    2009-11-14

    Today's search engines provide a single textbox for searching. This input method has not changed in decades and, as a result, consumer search behaviour has not changed either: few and imprecise keywords are used. Especially with health information, where incorrect information may lead to unwise decisions, it would be beneficial if consumers could search more precisely. We evaluated a new user interface that supports more precise searching by using query diagrams. In a controlled user study, using paper-based prototypes, we compared searching with a Google interface with drawing new or modifying template diagrams. We evaluated consumer willingness and ability to use diagrams and the impact on query formulation. Users had no trouble understanding the new search method. Moreover, they used more keywords and relationships between keywords with search diagrams. In comparison to drawing their own diagrams, modifying existing templates led to more searches being conducted and higher creativity in searching.

  14. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  15. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-01-01

    Explored here is the user interface problems encountered with the Operations Missions Planner (OMP) project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). OMP uses a unique iterative approach to planning that places additional requirements on the user interface, particularly to support system development and maintenance. These requirements are necessary to support the concepts of heuristically controlled search, in-progress assessment, and iterative refinement of the schedule. The techniques used to address the OMP interface needs are given.

  16. Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the publication includes papers entitled: (1) Coupled growth in hypermonotectics; (2) Directional solidification of refined Al-4 wt.% Cu alloys; (3) Effects of convection on interface curvature during growth of concentrated ternary compounds; (4) Directional solidification of Al-1.5 wt.% Ni alloys; (5) Interactive response of advancing phase boundaries to particles; (6) INTeractive Response of Advancing Phase boundaries to Particles-INTRAPP; and (7) Particle engulfment and pushing by solidifying interfaces.

  17. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  18. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  19. A Prototype Mouse-Based Interface to Drug Related Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, R. G.; Edwards, Mary-Ellen

    1985-01-01

    The Drug-Interface, prototype system built to facilitate retrieval of drug related information, automatically connects to DIALOG Information Retrieval Service via available networks, aids user in formulating and/or revising search strategy, sends query to DIALOG, displays results of search, and downloads relevant pieces into Macintosh data file.…

  20. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  1. Immersed interface methods for moving interface problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhilin

    1997-05-01

    A second order difference method is developed for the nonlinear moving interface problem of the form u_t + λ uu_x = ( {β u_x } )_x - f( {x,t} ),x in [ {0,α } ) \\cup ( {α ,1} ]} }. {d}{α}/{dt} = w( {t,α ;u,u_x } ), , where α (t) is the moving interface. The coefficient β(x,t) and the source term f(x,t) can be discontinuous across α (t) and moreover, f(x,t) may have a delta or/and delta-prime function singularity there. As a result, although the equation is parabolic, the solution u and its derivatives may be discontinuous across α (t). Two typical interface conditions are considered. One condition occurs in Stefan-like problems in which the solution is known on the interface. A new stable interpolation strategy is proposed. The other type occurs in a one-dimensional model of Peskin's immersed boundary method in which only jump conditions are given across the interface. The Crank-Nicolson difference scheme with modifications near the interface is used to solve for the solution u(x,t) and the interface α (t) simultaneously. Several numerical examples, including models of ice-melting and glaciation, are presented. Second order accuracy on uniform grids is confirmed both for the solution and the position of the interface.

  2. Fiber-matrix interfaces in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, E.R.; Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are governed by the relationships between the matrix, the interface material, and the fibers. In non-oxide matrix systems compliant pyrolytic carbon and BN have been demonstrated to be effective interface materials, allowing for absorption of mismatch stresses between fiber and matrix and offering a poorly bonded interface for crack deflection. The resulting materials have demonstrated remarkable strain/damage tolerance together with high strength. Carbon or BN, however, suffer from oxidative loss in many service environments, and thus there is a major search for oxidation resistant alternatives. This paper reviews the issues related to developing a stable and effective interface material for non-oxide matrix CMCs.

  3. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David; Murphy, Catherine; Martin, Lane

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  4. Electronic control/display interface technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  5. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  6. Adaptive interface for personalizing information seeking.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, S; Koppaka, Lavanya; Edala, Narasimha; Loritz, Don; Daley, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    An adaptive interface autonomously adjusts its display and available actions to current goals and abilities of the user by assessing user status, system task, and the context. Knowledge content adaptability is needed for knowledge acquisition and refinement tasks. In the case of knowledge content adaptability, the requirements of interface design focus on the elicitation of information from the user and the refinement of information based on patterns of interaction. In such cases, the emphasis on adaptability is on facilitating information search and knowledge discovery. In this article, we present research on adaptive interfaces that facilitates personalized information seeking from a large data warehouse. The resulting proof-of-concept system, called source recommendation system (SRS), assists users in locating and navigating data sources in the repository. Based on the initial user query and an analysis of the content of the search results, the SRS system generates a profile of the user tailored to the individual's context during information seeking. The user profiles are refined successively and are used in progressively guiding the user to the appropriate set of sources within the knowledge base. The SRS system is implemented as an Internet browser plug-in to provide a seamless and unobtrusive, personalized experience to the users during the information search process. The rationale behind our approach, system design, empirical evaluation, and implications for research on adaptive interfaces are described in this paper.

  7. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  8. Intelligent user interface concept for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Edward; Donaldson, Cameron; Bailey, Elizabeth; Gilroy, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    The space station computing system must interface with a wide variety of users, from highly skilled operations personnel to payload specialists from all over the world. The interface must accommodate a wide variety of operations from the space platform, ground control centers and from remote sites. As a result, there is a need for a robust, highly configurable and portable user interface that can accommodate the various space station missions. The concept of an intelligent user interface executive, written in Ada, that would support a number of advanced human interaction techniques, such as windowing, icons, color graphics, animation, and natural language processing is presented. The user interface would provide intelligent interaction by understanding the various user roles, the operations and mission, the current state of the environment and the current working context of the users. In addition, the intelligent user interface executive must be supported by a set of tools that would allow the executive to be easily configured and to allow rapid prototyping of proposed user dialogs. This capability would allow human engineering specialists acting in the role of dialog authors to define and validate various user scenarios. The set of tools required to support development of this intelligent human interface capability is discussed and the prototyping and validation efforts required for development of the Space Station's user interface are outlined.

  9. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  10. An operator interface design for a telerobotic inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tso, Kam S.; Hayati, Samad

    1993-01-01

    The operator interface has recently emerged as an important element for efficient and safe interactions between human operators and telerobotics. Advances in graphical user interface and graphics technologies enable us to produce very efficient operator interface designs. This paper describes an efficient graphical operator interface design newly developed for remote surface inspection at NASA-JPL. The interface, designed so that remote surface inspection can be performed by a single operator with an integrated robot control and image inspection capability, supports three inspection strategies of teleoperated human visual inspection, human visual inspection with automated scanning, and machine-vision-based automated inspection.

  11. Segregation behavior in a stationary vertical zone with converging interfaces - Pressure-induced segregation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. M.; Witt, A. F.; Gatos, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Crystal growth and segregation were investigated in a confined vertical melt zone in which the upper solid-melt interface advanced under destabilizing and the lower interface under stabilizing thermal gradients. A technique reported by Kim et al. (1972) was used in the study. The experimental results are discussed, giving attention to interface morphology and growth rate and questions of dopant segregation. Dopant inhomogeneities formed simultaneously in both advancing interfaces can be explained on the basis of pressure induced segregation effects.

  12. An Exploratory Survey of Student Perspectives Regarding Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled; Miller, Don; Wenger, James

    2005-01-01

    This study explored college students' perceptions regarding their use of search engines. The main objective was to determine how frequently students used various search engines, whether advanced search features were used, and how many search engines were used. Various factors that might influence student responses were examined. Results showed…

  13. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  14. Expert searching in public health

    PubMed Central

    Alpi, Kristine M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The article explores the characteristics of public health information needs and the resources available to address those needs that distinguish it as an area of searching requiring particular expertise. Methods: Public health searching activities from reference questions and literature search requests at a large, urban health department library were reviewed to identify the challenges in finding relevant public health information. Results: The terminology of the information request frequently differed from the vocabularies available in the databases. Searches required the use of multiple databases and/or Web resources with diverse interfaces. Issues of the scope and features of the databases relevant to the search questions were considered. Conclusion: Expert searching in public health differs from other types of expert searching in the subject breadth and technical demands of the databases to be searched, the fluidity and lack of standardization of the vocabulary, and the relative scarcity of high-quality investigations at the appropriate level of geographic specificity. Health sciences librarians require a broad exposure to databases, gray literature, and public health terminology to perform as expert searchers in public health. PMID:15685281

  15. The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Drake, Frank

    2011-02-13

    Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287

  16. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  17. Visual search.

    PubMed

    Chan, Louis K H; Hayward, William G

    2013-07-01

    Visual search is the act of looking for a predefined target among other objects. This task has been widely used as an experimental paradigm to study visual attention, and because of its influence has also become a subject of research itself. When used as a paradigm, visual search studies address questions including the nature, function, and limits of preattentive processing and focused attention. As a subject of research, visual search studies address the role of memory in search, the procedures involved in search, and factors that affect search performance. In this article, we review major theories of visual search, the ways in which preattentive information is used to guide attentional allocation, the role of memory, and the processes and decisions involved in its successful completion. We conclude by summarizing the current state of knowledge about visual search and highlight some unresolved issues. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:415-429. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1235 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Micro bubbles at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Gholamreza; Wang, Anna; Barber, Tracie; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2014-03-01

    The behaviour of a small micron sized bubbles close to an interface is vital to various interface interaction applications in several industries. Previous studies have focused on understanding the behaviour of large millimetric bubbles reaching an interface. Some of these millimetric bubbles are shown to bounce back, while others penetrate and burst on the interface resulting in possible small micron sized bubbles. However, small micron sized bubble may act different. It has been observed that small microbubbles can act as if they are stabilized at the interface without merging to the fluid over the interface. The dynamics of the microbubble adsorption close to an interface has yet to be well understood.In this study we used digital holography microscopy to explore detailed information on the behaviour of the air microbubble at the interface. This study investigates the position and shape of a microbubble with respect to the interface. The dynamic behavior close to the interface along with where the small microbubble is positioned near an interface will help us in understanding the probability of penetration and merging back to the fluid on top.

  19. Structural Transitions at Ionic Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-12-17

    Recent advances in experimental and computational techniques have allowed for an accurate description of the adsorption of ionic liquids on metallic electrodes. It is now well-established that they adopt a multilayered structure and that the composition of the layers changes with the potential of the electrode. In some cases, potential-driven ordering transitions in the first adsorbed layer have been observed in experiments probing the interface on the molecular scale or by molecular simulations. This perspective gives an overview of the current understanding of such transitions and of their potential impact on the physical and (electro)chemical processes at the interface. In particular, peaks in the differential capacitance, slow dynamics at the interface, and changes in the reactivity have been reported in electrochemical studies. Interfaces between ionic liquids and metallic electrodes are also highly relevant for their friction properties, the voltage-dependence of which opens the way to exciting applications. PMID:26722704

  20. Navigation interface for recommending home medical products.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Based on users' health issues, an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system can automatically recommend home medical products (HMPs) and display them in a sequential order. However, the sequential output interface does not categorize search results and is not easy for users to quickly navigate to their desired HMPs. To address this problem, we developed a navigation interface for retrieved HMPs. Our idea is to use medical knowledge and nursing knowledge to construct a navigation hierarchy based on product categories. This hierarchy is added to the left side of each search result Web page to help users move through retrieved HMPs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases.

  1. Evidence-based Medicine Search: a customizable federated search engine

    PubMed Central

    Bracke, Paul J.; Howse, David K.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the development of a tool by the Arizona Health Sciences Library (AHSL) for searching clinical evidence that can be customized for different user groups. Brief Description: The AHSL provides services to the University of Arizona's (UA's) health sciences programs and to the University Medical Center. Librarians at AHSL collaborated with UA College of Medicine faculty to create an innovative search engine, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) Search, that provides users with a simple search interface to EBM resources and presents results organized according to an evidence pyramid. EBM Search was developed with a web-based configuration component that allows the tool to be customized for different specialties. Outcomes/Conclusion: Informal and anecdotal feedback from physicians indicates that EBM Search is a useful tool with potential in teaching evidence-based decision making. While formal evaluation is still being planned, a tool such as EBM Search, which can be configured for specific user populations, may help lower barriers to information resources in an academic health sciences center. PMID:18379665

  2. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  3. Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System

    1992-05-11

    The Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (Chernolit TM) provides bibliographic data in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the former Ukrainian Republic of the USSR in 1986. Chernolit TM is a portable and easy to use product. The bibliographic data is provided under the control of a graphical user interface so that the user may quickly and easily retrieve pertinent information from the large database. The usermore » may search the database for occurrences of words, names, or phrases; view bibliographic references on screen; and obtain reports of selected references. Reports may be viewed on the screen, printed, or accumulated in a folder that is written to a disk file when the user exits the software. Chernolit TM provides a cost-effective alternative to multiple, independent literature searches. Forty-five hundred references concerning the accident, including abstracts, are distributed with Chernolit TM. The data contained in the database were obtained from electronic literature searches and from requested donations from individuals and organizations. These literature searches interrogated the Energy Science and Technology database (formerly DOE ENERGY) of the DIALOG Information Retrieval Service. Energy Science and Technology, provided by the U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C., is a multi-disciplinary database containing references to the world''s scientific and technical literature on energy. All unclassified information processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) of the U.S. DOE is included in the database. In addition, information on many documents has been manually added to Chernolit TM. Most of this information was obtained in response to requests for data sent to people and/or organizations throughout the world.« less

  4. The evolving state of online search for consumer health information.

    PubMed

    Hunscher, Dale A

    2008-11-06

    Online search for consumer health information is a public health concern. General-purpose search engines have historically returned health-related query results of dubious relevance and quality. Meanwhile, consumers have become increasingly reliant on and trusting of these engines. General-purpose search engines have attempted to make their interfaces more consumer-friendly with respect to consumer health queries and their results more relevant and trustworthy. We illustrate the characteristics of the evolving health search landscape using network visualization.

  5. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  6. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  7. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  8. Interface Management for a NASA Flight Project Using Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vipavetz, Kevin; Shull, Thomas A.; Infeld, Samatha; Price, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The goal of interface management is to identify, define, control, and verify interfaces; ensure compatibility; provide an efficient system development; be on time and within budget; while meeting stakeholder requirements. This paper will present a successful seven-step approach to interface management used in several NASA flight projects. The seven-step approach using Model Based Systems Engineering will be illustrated by interface examples from the Materials International Space Station Experiment-X (MISSE-X) project. The MISSE-X was being developed as an International Space Station (ISS) external platform for space environmental studies, designed to advance the technology readiness of materials and devices critical for future space exploration. Emphasis will be given to best practices covering key areas such as interface definition, writing good interface requirements, utilizing interface working groups, developing and controlling interface documents, handling interface agreements, the use of shadow documents, the importance of interface requirement ownership, interface verification, and product transition.

  9. Electrodeposited polypyrrole/carbon nanotubes composite films electrodes for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Li, Tao; Zhao, Xueqing; Li, Mei; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Duan, Yanwen Y

    2010-07-01

    The search for new electrode materials including new electrode modification methods is crucial for improving long-term performance of neuroprosthetic devices. In this study, an investigation of electrochemically co-deposited polypyrrole/single-walled carbon nanotube (PPy/SWCNT) films for improving the electrode-neural interface was reported. The PPy/SWCNT microelectrodes exhibited a particularly high safe charge injection (Q(inj)) limit of approximately 7.5 mC/cm(2) and low electrode impedance at 1 kHz, as well as good stability. Cell attachment and neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells on the PPy/SWCNT deposited substrates were clearly observed by Calcein-AM staining and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Furthermore, tissue response was studied by a 6-week implantation in the cortex of rats. A significantly lower (p<0.05) glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and higher (p<0.05) neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunostaining were found on comparison of the test group (n=11) with the control group (n=8), in the zone within the distance of 100 microm to the implant interface. All of these characteristics are desirable for chronically implantable neural probes with high density microelectrodes. Importantly, this technique can easily incorporate other modification methods to build a more advanced electrode-neural interface.

  10. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  11. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  12. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  13. The User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  14. Communication Interface for SAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffman, M.; Hartley, F.

    1995-01-01

    An interface is described that supplies communications between the flight instruments and the analog input of an existing conventional recording unit for the Shuttle Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), a data acquisition unit. The architecture and current implementation of an STD bus/LonTalk communication interface are described.

  15. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  16. A web based Radiation Oncology Dose Manager with a rich User Interface developed using AJAX, ruby, dynamic XHTML and the new Yahoo/EXT User Interface Library.

    PubMed

    Vali, Faisal; Hong, Robert

    2007-01-01

    With the evolution of AJAX, ruby on rails, advanced dynamic XHTML technologies and the advent of powerful user interface libraries for javascript (EXT, Yahoo User Interface Library), developers now have the ability to provide truly rich interfaces within web browsers, with reasonable effort and without third-party plugins. We designed and developed an example of such a solution. The User Interface allows radiation oncology practices to intuitively manage different dose fractionation schemes by helping estimate total dose to irradiated organs. PMID:18694240

  17. A web based Radiation Oncology Dose Manager with a rich User Interface developed using AJAX, ruby, dynamic XHTML and the new Yahoo/EXT User Interface Library.

    PubMed

    Vali, Faisal; Hong, Robert

    2007-01-01

    With the evolution of AJAX, ruby on rails, advanced dynamic XHTML technologies and the advent of powerful user interface libraries for javascript (EXT, Yahoo User Interface Library), developers now have the ability to provide truly rich interfaces within web browsers, with reasonable effort and without third-party plugins. We designed and developed an example of such a solution. The User Interface allows radiation oncology practices to intuitively manage different dose fractionation schemes by helping estimate total dose to irradiated organs.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy of water at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J L; Pieniazek, P A; Gruenbaum, S M

    2012-01-17

    Understanding liquid water's behavior at the molecular level is essential to progress in fields as disparate as biology and atmospheric sciences. Moreover, the properties of water in bulk and water at interfaces can be very different, making the study of the hydrogen-bonding networks therein very important. With recent experimental advances in vibrational spectroscopy, such as ultrafast pulses and heterodyne detection, it is now possible to probe the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial water in unprecedented detail. We consider here three aqueous interfaces: the water liquid-vapor interface, the interface between water and the surfactant headgroups of reverse micelles, and the interface between water and the lipid headgroups of aligned multi-bilayers. In the first case, sum-frequency spectroscopy is used to probe the interface. In the second and third cases, the confined water pools are sufficiently small that techniques of bulk spectroscopy (such as FTIR, pump-probe, two-dimensional IR, and the like) can be used to probe the interfacial water. In this Account, we discuss our attempts to model these three systems and interpret the existing experiments. For the water liquid-vapor interface, we find that three-body interactions are essential for reproducing the experimental sum-frequency spectrum, and presumably for the structure of the interface as well. The observed spectrum is interpreted as arising from overlapping and canceling positive and negative contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bonding environments. For the reverse micelles, our theoretical models confirm that the experimentally observed blue shift of the water OD stretch (for dilute HOD in H(2)O) arises from weaker hydrogen bonding to sulfonate oxygens. We interpret the observed slow-down in water rotational dynamics as arising from curvature-induced frustration. For the water confined between lipid bilayers, our theoretical models confirm that the experimentally observed red

  19. PREFACE: Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-03-01

    Liquid-solid interfaces play an important role in a number of phenomena encountered in biological, chemical and physical processes. Surface-induced changes of the material properties are not only important for the solid support but also for the liquid itself. In particular, it is now well established that water at the interface is substantially different from bulk water, even in the proximity of apparently inert surfaces such as a simple metal. The complex chemistry at liquid-solid interfaces is typically fundamental to heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemistry, and has become especially topical in connection with the search for new materials for energy production. A quite remarkable example is the development of cheap yet efficient solar cells, whose basic components are dye molecules grafted to the surface of an oxide material and in contact with an electrolytic solution. In life science, the most important liquid-solid interfaces are the water-cell-membrane interfaces. Phenomena occurring at the surface of phospholipid bilayers control the docking of proteins, the transmission of signals as well as transport of molecules in and out of the cell. Recently the development of bio-compatible materials has lead to research on the interface between bio-compatible material and lipid/proteins in aqueous solution. Gaining a microscopic insight into the processes occurring at liquid-solid interfaces is therefore fundamental to a wide range of disciplines. This special section collects some contributions to the CECAM Workshop 'Liquid/Solid interfaces: Structure and Dynamics from Spectroscopy and Simulations' which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland in June 2011. Our main aim was to bring together knowledge and expertise from different communities in order to advance our microscopic understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids at interfaces. In particular, one of our ambitions was to foster discussion between the experimental and theoretical

  20. "Involving interface": an extended mind theoretical approach to roboethics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Miranda; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Tamami

    2010-11-01

    In 2008 the authors held "Involving Interface," a lively interdisciplinary event focusing on issues of biological, sociocultural, and technological interfacing (see Acknowledgments). Inspired by discussions at this event, in this article, we further discuss the value of input from neuroscience for developing robots and machine interfaces, and the value of philosophy, the humanities, and the arts for identifying persistent links between human interfacing and broader ethical concerns. The importance of ongoing interdisciplinary debate and public communication on scientific and technical advances is also highlighted. Throughout, the authors explore the implications of the extended mind hypothesis for notions of moral accountability and robotics.

  1. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  2. Search without Boundaries Using Simple APIs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources. Information is scattered throughout different software applications (i.e., library catalog, federated search engine, link resolver, and vendor websites), and each specializes in one thing. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library's intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine's built-in application programming interfaces (APIs). In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

  3. Human-Vehicle Interface for Semi-Autonomous Operation of Uninhabited Aero Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry L.; Frew, Eric W.; Woodley, Bruce R.; Rock, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    The robustness of autonomous robotic systems to unanticipated circumstances is typically insufficient for use in the field. The many skills of human user often fill this gap in robotic capability. To incorporate the human into the system, a useful interaction between man and machine must exist. This interaction should enable useful communication to be exchanged in a natural way between human and robot on a variety of levels. This report describes the current human-robot interaction for the Stanford HUMMINGBIRD autonomous helicopter. In particular, the report discusses the elements of the system that enable multiple levels of communication. An intelligent system agent manages the different inputs given to the helicopter. An advanced user interface gives the user and helicopter a method for exchanging useful information. Using this human-robot interaction, the HUMMINGBIRD has carried out various autonomous search, tracking, and retrieval missions.

  4. SRS browser: a visual interface to the sequence retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, Ketan K.; Börner, Katy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the visual exploration and navigation of complex association networks of biological data sets, e.g., published papers, gene or protein information. The generic approach was implemented in the SRS Browser as an alternative visual interface to the highly used Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) [1]. SRS supports keyword-based search of about 400 biomedical databases. While the SRS presents search results as rank-ordered lists of matching entities, the SRS Browser displays entities and their relations for interactive exploration. A formal usability study was conducted to examine the SRS Browser interface's capabilities to support knowledge discovery and management.

  5. Finding and Exploring Health Information with a Slider-Based User Interface.

    PubMed

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon; Chang, Shanton

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that search engines are the primary channel to access online health information, there are better ways to find and explore health information on the web. Search engines are prone to problems when they are used to find health information. For instance, users have difficulties in expressing health scenarios with appropriate search keywords, search results are not optimised for medical queries, and the search process does not account for users' literacy levels and reading preferences. In this paper, we describe our approach to addressing these problems by introducing a novel design using a slider-based user interface for discovering health information without the need for precise search keywords. The user evaluation suggests that the interface is easy to use and able to assist users in the process of discovering new information. This study demonstrates the potential value of adopting slider controls in the user interface of health websites for navigation and information discovery.

  6. Performance and Reliability of Interface Materials for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Paret, P.

    2013-07-01

    Thermal management and reliability are important because excessive temperature can degrade the performance, life, and reliability of power electronics and electric motors. Advanced thermal management technologies enable keeping temperature within limits; higher power densities; and lower cost materials, configurations and systems. Thermal interface materials, bonded interface materials and the reliability of bonded interfaces are discussed in this presentation.

  7. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  8. SPUR coprocessor interface description

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.M.; Kong, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the SPUR coprocessor interface. The interface provides enhanced performance potential by allowing parallel operations between the SPUR processor and SPUR coprocessors. A decoupled control and execution architecture allow data transfers to proceed while coprocessor functions are performed. Implicit and explicit synchronization mechanisms provide the programmer with complete control and flexibility. On-chip coprocessor register files and a wide data path between the memory and coprocessor minimize data transfer overhead. An intelligent interface control unit provides parallel decoding of instructions for maximum performance.

  9. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  10. Superintendent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Michael R.

    This guide is intended to be a tool to help those involved in the superintendent selection process. Section titles reflect the guide's contents. "The Decision to Seek a Superintendent"; "The Case for Using a Search Consultant"; "Setting a Timeline"; "Involvement of Parents, Citizens, Students and Staff"; "Describing the Person Sought and the…

  11. A Human-Centered Design and Evaluation Framework for Information Search

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    Information search in a distributed environment is an interactive process between the user and the artifact. How the information is distributed across the user and the artifact determines the efficacy of information search. Using a human-centered method, UFuRT, we developed an information search model and a taxonomy of search tasks. Further, we developed prototypes to investigate the relationship between search tasks and interface types. Preliminary results of analysis reveal the requirement of distributed information for search tasks and help understand the complexity of the tasks in different types of interfaces. PMID:16779046

  12. Resolving the CaP-bone interface

    PubMed Central

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Palmquist, Anders; Engqvist, Håkan; Thomsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that the interfacial relationship between synthetic materials and tissue is influential in the success of implant materials. Instability at the implant interface has been shown, in some cases, to lead to complete implant failure. Bioceramics, and in particular calcium phosphates, form a large fraction of the implantable devices on the market today due to the biocompatibility they exhibit in contact with bone and tooth-like tissues. The characterization of such bioceramic-tissue interfaces has played a crucial role in understanding the behavior of bioceramics in vivo. In this review, we shed light on the preparation methods, technological approaches and key advances in resolving the interface between calcium phosphate bioceramics and bone, and share a future outlook on this field. PMID:23507782

  13. Legal interfaces in telemedicine technology.

    PubMed

    Lott, C M

    1996-05-01

    Telemedicine, an emerging technology which seeks to use advanced telecommunications equipment to enhance medical care, is progressing rapidly in the Department of Defense health care delivery system. This paper recommends that a cautious, preventive law approach be simultaneously initiated to ensure that the technology does not abridge patients' rights to confidentiality or security of medical records, and that agreement on practice parameters be developed. Seven interfaces, in the areas of informed consent, physician liability, non-physician liability, costs, practice parameters, physician-patient relationships, and ergonomics, are discussed in the context of telemedicine. The author recommends that telemedicine pioneers include the legal community's early input in the application of telemedicine technology to help avoid needless litigation.

  14. Brain computer interfaces, a review.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  15. Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbleston, John

    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) can rapidly produce 3D parts using a range of polymeric materials. A DLP-based form of additive manufacturing, CLIP proceeds via projecting a sequence of UV images through an oxygen-permeable, UV-transparent window below a liquid resin bath. A thin uncured liquid layer, or dead zone, is created above the window and maintains a liquid interface below the advancing part. Above the dead zone, the curing part is drawn out of the resin bath creating suction forces that renew reactive liquid resin. The dead zone is created due to oxygen inhibition of photopolymerization, a process that is traditionally a nuisance in other photopolymerization applications. However, for CLIP oxygen inhibition and creation of the dead zone allows for a continuous mode of printing where UV exposure, resin renewal, and part elevation are conducted simultaneously. This continual process is fundamentally different from traditional bottom-up stereolithography printers where these steps must be conducted in separate and discrete steps. Furthermore, the relatively gentle nature of CLIP due to the established dead zone enables the use of unique materials with a wide range of mechanical properties. This presentation will showcase the CLIP technology and provide a detailed picture of interactions between different resin and process parameters. New applications for 3D printing that span the micro- to macro-scale enabled by CLIP's combination of unique materials and part production speed will also be presented.

  16. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  17. TSF Interface Package

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  18. Crewstation display interface standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    Military sensors and crewstation displays are all moving to digital-based technologies, an epochal shift from the previous world of analog interfaces throughout the video chain. It is no longer possible to specify a sensor and display to the same interface specification such as the venerable RS-170 and RS- 343 standards without paying an unacceptable resolution penalty. Consequently a new standard is required to allow sensor and display manufacturers to easily design system interfaces without relying on cumbersome, costly and unique interface control documents. This paper presents one possible hardware and protocol standard based on FibreChannel technology, and solicits inputs into the standards setting process which is now in progress.

  19. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Software interface verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderstrom, Tomas J.; Krall, Laura A.; Hope, Sharon A.; Zupke, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    A Telos study of 40 recent subsystem deliveries into the DSN at JPL found software interface testing to be the single most expensive and error-prone activity, and the study team suggested creating an automated software interface test tool. The resulting Software Interface Verifier (SIV), which was funded by NASA/JPL and created by Telos, employed 92 percent software reuse to quickly create an initial version which incorporated early user feedback. SIV is now successfully used by developers for interface prototyping and unit testing, by test engineers for formal testing, and by end users for non-intrusive data flow tests in the operational environment. Metrics, including cost, are included. Lessons learned include the need for early user training. SIV is ported to many platforms and can be successfully used or tailored by other NASA groups.

  1. Testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S.; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development prototype satellite servicer. The device was designed to transfer consumables from one spacecraft to another. An engineering model was built and underwent development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center. While the current AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit.

  2. Performance Application Programming Interface

    2005-10-31

    PAPI is a programming interface designed to provide the tool designer and application engineer with a consistent interface and methodology for use of the performance counter hardware found in most major microprocessors. PAPI enables software engineers to see, in near real time, the relation between software performance and processor events. This release covers the hardware dependent implementation of PAPI version 3 for the IBM BlueGene/L (BG/L) system.

  3. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  4. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  5. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  6. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  7. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A. Engineering Report: Electromagnetic Interface (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), for the METSAT/METOP AMSU-A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Susceptibility, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test for the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) and the Meteorological Operation Platform (METOP) projects. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/5D. This document describes the EMI/EMC test performed by Aerojet and it is presented in the following manner: Section-1 contains introductory material and a brief summary of the test results. Section 2 contains more detailed descriptions of the test plan, test procedure, and test results for each type of EMI/EMC test conducted. Section 3 contains supplementary information that includes test data sheets, plots, and calculations collected during the qualification testing.

  9. Higgs Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Krisztian

    2009-11-01

    We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.

  10. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  11. A Cognitive View of Three Selected Online Search Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses impact of three selected command language facilities (positional or free text operations, crossfile searching, term frequency analysis--ZOOM) on the man-system interface in relation to operational online information retrieval (IR). A cognitive IR model, searchers' knowledge structures, and searching with different types of command…

  12. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  13. [Searching articles and their management].

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2010-05-01

    The development of digitalizing technology and the Internet has enabled medical doctors and researchers in medicine to search and read the latest articles at their desk without visiting a library. As a result of the time and effort spent for searching articles can be extremely reduced by learning how to use effective tools in combination, the time for the research activity will certainly be greatly saved. It is promising that the advancement of science database, online journals, evaluating system of the journal impact will be great help for researchers. PMID:20446610

  14. A Distributed Information Analysis for Information Search Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yang; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    Information search in a distributed environment is an interactive process that involves both retrieval and the processing of information across users and artifacts. How the information is distributed across internal representations and external representations affects the efficacy of information search. Using a human-centered method called UFuRT, we developed an information search model and a taxonomy of search tasks. We further developed several prototypes of information search interfaces with different patterns of distributed information and investigated the relations between search tasks and interface types. The results from the analyses show that UFuRT is a useful process that not only provides design guidelines but also generates estimates of representational efficiencies, task complexities and user behavioral outcomes. PMID:16779252

  15. The Correlates of Taiwan Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs concerning Internet Environments, Online Search Strategies, and Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlates among teachers' epistemological beliefs concerning Internet environments, their web search strategies and search outcomes. The sample of this study included 105 teachers from 63 grades 1 to 9 schools in Taiwan. The results show that the teachers with more advanced epistemological beliefs concerning…

  16. Nanostructured Interfaces for Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Marconnet, A. M.; Panzer, M. A.; Leblanc, S.; Dogbe, S.; Ezzahri, Y.; Shakouri, A.; Goodson, K. E.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature drops at the interfaces between thermoelectric materials and the heat source and sink reduce the overall efficiency of thermoelectric systems. Nanostructured interfaces based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) promise the combination of mechanical compliance and high thermal conductance required for thermoelectric modules, which are subjected to severe thermomechanical stresses. This work discusses the property require- ments for thermoelectric interface materials, reviews relevant data available in the literature for CNT films, and characterizes the thermal properties of vertically aligned multiwalled CNTs grown on a candidate thermoelectric material. Nanosecond thermoreflectance thermometry provides thermal property data for 1.5- μm-thick CNT films on SiGe. The thermal interface resistances between the CNT film and surrounding materials are the dominant barriers to thermal transport, ranging from 1.4 m2 K MW-1 to 4.3 m2 K MW-1. The volumetric heat capacity of the CNT film is estimated to be 87 kJ m-3 K-1, which corresponds to a volumetric fill fraction of 9%. The effect of 100 thermal cycles from 30°C to 200°C is also studied. These data provide the groundwork for future studies of thermoelectric materials in contact with CNT films serving as both a thermal and electrical interface.

  17. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  18. Strategic Help in User Interfaces for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajnik, Giorgio; Mizzaro, Stefano; Tasso, Carlo; Venuti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of search strategy in information retrieval by end users focuses on the role played by strategic reasoning and design principles for user interfaces. Highlights include strategic help based on collaborative coaching; a conceptual model for strategic help; and a prototype knowledge-based system named FIRE. (Author/LRW)

  19. Draw and Tell: Children as Designers of Web Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilal, Dania

    2003-01-01

    Using a participatory approach, 11 middle school children created paper prototypes for Web search engines. The prototypes were analyzed in relation to content-related spaces, specific spaces, general spaces, instruction spaces, and other spaces. Children's comments about the purposes of the interfaces were analyzed in terms of functionality and…

  20. Advances in Multi-disciplinary Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Huerta, J.; Rubio-Iglesias, J. M.; Serrano, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The challenge for addressing issues such as climate change, food security or ecosystem sustainability is that they require multi-disciplinary collaboration and the ability to integrate information across scientific domains. Multidisciplinary collaborations are difficult because each discipline has its own "language", protocols and formats for communicating within its community and handling data and information. EuroGEOSS demonstrates the added value to the scientific community and to society of making existing systems and applications interoperable and useful within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks. In 2010, the project built an initial operating capacity of a multi-disciplinary Information System addressing three areas: drought, forestry and biodiversity. It is now furthering this development into an advanced operating capacity (http://www.eurogeoss.eu). The key to this capability is the creation of a broker that supports access to multiple resources through a common user interface and the automation of data search and access using state of the art information technology. EuroGEOSS hosted a conference on information systems and multi-disciplinary applications of science and technology. "EuroGEOSS: advancing the vision of GEOSS" provided a forum for developers, users and decision-makers working with advanced multi-disciplinary information systems to improve science and decisions for complex societal issues. In particular, the Conference addressed: Information systems for supporting multi-disciplinary research; Information systems and modeling for biodiversity, drought, forestry and related societal benefit areas; and Case studies of multi-disciplinary applications and outcomes. This paper will discuss the major finding of the conference and the directions for future development.

  1. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes. PMID:23149160

  2. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes.

  3. Slowed Search in the Context of Unimpaired Grouping in Autism: Evidence from Multiple Conjunction Search.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    In multiple conjunction search, the target is not known in advance but is defined only with respect to the distractors in a given search array, thus reducing the contributions of bottom-up and top-down attentional and perceptual processes during search. This study investigated whether the superior visual search skills typically demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would be evident in multiple conjunction search. Thirty-two children with ASD and 32 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were administered a multiple conjunction search task. Contrary to findings from the large majority of studies on visual search in ASD, response times of individuals with ASD were significantly slower than those of their TD peers. Evidence of slowed performance in ASD suggests that the mechanisms responsible for superior ASD performance in other visual search paradigms are not available in multiple conjunction search. Although the ASD group failed to exhibit superior performance, they showed efficient search and intertrial priming levels similar to the TD group. Efficient search indicates that ASD participants were able to group distractors into distinct subsets. In summary, while demonstrating grouping and priming effects comparable to those exhibited by their TD peers, children with ASD were slowed in their performance on a multiple conjunction search task, suggesting that their usual superior performance in visual search tasks is specifically dependent on top-down and/or bottom-up attentional and perceptual processes.

  4. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  5. Advances in percutaneous electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Mooney, V; Roth, A M

    1976-01-01

    In the past eight years, developing a percutaneous electrode system has advanced to a successful, yet simple, method to transmit electrical signals, overcoming the serious problems of excessive mechanical irritation at the skin interface. Experience with over 50-74% in the clinical applications of 1) chronic pain relief; 2) contracture correction; and 3) sensory feedback.

  6. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  7. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  8. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  9. Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.

  10. Three-dimensional user interfaces for scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDam, Andries (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for scientific visualization applications using both desktop and virtual reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final report summarizes the research completed over the past three years, and subsumes all prior reports.

  11. Development and testing of the Automated Fluid Interface System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Martha E.; Tyler, Tony R.

    1993-05-01

    The Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) is an advanced development program aimed at becoming the standard interface for satellite servicing for years to come. The AFIS will be capable of transferring propellants, fluids, gasses, power, and cryogens from a tanker to an orbiting satellite. The AFIS program currently under consideration is a joint venture between the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center and Moog, Inc. An engineering model has been built and is undergoing development testing to investigate the mechanism's abilities.

  12. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  13. Profile Interface Generator

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  14. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  15. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  16. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  17. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  18. SIRW: A web server for the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System that combines sequence motif searches with keyword searches.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Chenna

    2003-07-01

    SIRW (http://sirw.embl.de/) is a World Wide Web interface to the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System (SIR) that is capable of parsing and indexing various flat file databases. In addition it provides a framework for doing sequence analysis (e.g. motif pattern searches) for selected biological sequences through keyword search. SIRW is an ideal tool for the bioinformatics community for searching as well as analyzing biological sequences of interest.

  19. Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

  20. Structure and mechanics of interfaces in biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelat, Francois; Yin, Zhen; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-04-01

    Hard biological materials — for example, seashells, bone or wood — fulfil critical structural functions and display unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, owing to their intricate architectures, which are organized over several length scales. The size, shape and arrangement of the ‘building blocks’ of which these materials are made are essential for defining their properties and their exceptional performance, but there is growing evidence that their deformation and toughness are also largely governed by the interfaces that join these building blocks. These interfaces channel nonlinear deformations and deflect cracks into configurations in which propagation is more difficult. In this Review, we discuss comparatively the composition, structure and mechanics of a set of representative biological interfaces in nacre, bone and wood, and show that these interfaces possess unusual mechanical characteristics, which can encourage the development of advanced bioinspired composites. Finally, we highlight recent examples of synthetic materials inspired from the mechanics and architecture of natural interfaces.

  1. Electroanalytical Ventures at Nanoscale Interfaces Between Immiscible Liquids.

    PubMed

    Arrigan, Damien W M; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-12

    Ion transfer at the interface between immiscible electrolyte solutions offers many benefits to analytical chemistry, including the ability to detect nonredox active ionized analytes, to detect ions whose redox electrochemistry is accompanied by complications, and to separate ions based on electrocontrolled partition. Nanoscale miniaturization of such interfaces brings the benefits of enhanced mass transport, which in turn leads to improved analytical performance in areas such as sensitivity and limits of detection. This review discusses the development of such nanoscale interfaces between immiscible liquids and examines the analytical advances that have been made to date, including prospects for trace detection of ion concentrations.

  2. A Graphical User-Interface for Propulsion System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.; Ryall, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    NASA LeRC uses a series of computer codes to calculate installed propulsion system performance and weight. The need to evaluate more advanced engine concepts with a greater degree of accuracy has resulted in an increase in complexity of this analysis system. Therefore, a graphical user interface was developed to allow the analyst to more quickly and easily apply these codes. The development of this interface and the rationale for the approach taken are described. The interface consists of a method of pictorially representing and editing the propulsion system configuration, forms for entering numerical data, on-line help and documentation, post processing of data, and a menu system to control execution.

  3. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  4. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  5. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  6. the EXFOR interface

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  7. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  8. Probing interfaces involving liquids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A L

    1987-04-10

    Last month in Washington, D.C., the National Academy of Sciences held the first of what it hopes will be a series of seminars in forefront fields of science, technology, and medicine. The idea is to bring the academy closer to the frontlines of research and to help spread the word to federal science policy-makers. The subject of the 23 and 24 March seminar was interfaces and thin films, and the talks, though tutorial in nature, contained a pleasantly large number of still unpublished results. Interfaces, such as the surface of a solid exposed to a liquid or gas, and thin films, whose properties are heavily influenced by interfaces, have long been of considerable technological importance and have always been so in biological processes, but researchers are now getting access to the experimental and theoretical tools needed to explore these complex physical systems that are neither ideally two-dimensional nor fully three-dimensional. The briefings that follow give a peek at three ways to probe interfaces involving liquids.

  9. Architecture, implementation and parallelization of the software to search for periodic gravitational wave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, G.; Matta, S.; Streit, A.; Bejger, M.; Królak, A.

    2015-03-01

    The parallelization, design and scalability of the PolGrawAllSky code to search for periodic gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars is discussed. The code is based on an efficient implementation of the F-statistic using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. To perform an analysis of data from the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors' network, which will start operating in 2015, hundreds of millions of CPU hours will be required-the code utilizing the potential of massively parallel supercomputers is therefore mandatory. We have parallelized the code using the Message Passing Interface standard, implemented a mechanism for combining the searches at different sky-positions and frequency bands into one extremely scalable program. The parallel I/O interface is used to escape bottlenecks, when writing the generated data into file system. This allowed to develop a highly scalable computation code, which would enable the data analysis at large scales on acceptable time scales. Benchmarking of the code on a Cray XE6 system was performed to show efficiency of our parallelization concept and to demonstrate scaling up to 50 thousand cores in parallel.

  10. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOEpatents

    Cruz, G.E.; Edwards, W.F.

    1987-06-18

    A vacuum-to-air interface is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve, from which extends a vacuum-tight duct, that terminates in an aperture. Means are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip across the aperture at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band urges foil strip, when stationary, against and into the aperture. Gas pressure means periodically lift off and separate foil strip from aperture, so that it may be readily advanced. 5 figs.

  11. Electronic Biomedical Literature Search for Budding Researcher

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre S, Sushama S.; Thakre, Amol D.

    2013-01-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research. PMID:24179937

  12. Electronic biomedical literature search for budding researcher.

    PubMed

    Thakre, Subhash B; Thakre S, Sushama S; Thakre, Amol D

    2013-09-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research.

  13. Searching Databases without Query-Building Aids: Implications for Dyslexic Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies document the information searching behaviour of users with cognitive impairments. This paper therefore addresses the effect of dyslexia on information searching in a database with no tolerance for spelling errors and no query-building aids. The purpose was to identify effective search interface design guidelines that…

  14. Give the People What They Want: Adding Search to Your Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappoport, Avi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the search option on Web sites and explains how to develop a search engine. Highlights include search options, including Boolean operators, graphical interface, and language; platform and server compatibility; indexing; metadata; XML; customization options; installation and configuration; evaluation; usability; and cost. (LRW)

  15. Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A.; Hearst, Marti A.

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine [1], a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  16. Neural interfaces for upper-limb prosthesis control: opportunities to improve long-term reliability.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jack W

    2012-03-01

    Building on a long history of innovation in neural-recording interfaces, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched a program to address the key challenges related to transitioning advanced neuroprosthesis technology to clinical use for amputated service members. The goal of the Reliable Neural Technology (RE-NET) Program is to develop new technology to extract information from the nervous system at a scale and rate needed to reliably control modern robotic prostheses over the lifetime of the amputee. The RE-NET program currently encompasses three separate efforts: histology for interface stability over time (HIST), reliable peripheral interfaces (RPIs), and reliable central nervous system (CNS) interfaces (RCIs).

  17. Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnell, Dawn A.

    2015-02-23

    Final Report to the Department of Energy for period 6/1/2000 to 11/30/2014 for Grant # DE-FG02-00ER45813-A000 to the University of Pennsylvania Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces PI: Dawn Bonnell The behavior of grain boundaries and interfaces has been a focus of fundamental research for decades because variations of structure and composition at interfaces dictate mechanical, electrical, optical and dielectric properties in solids. Similarly, the consequence of atomic and electronic structures of surfaces to chemical and physical interactions are critical due to their implications to catalysis and device fabrication. Increasing fundamental understanding of surfaces and interfaces has materially advanced technologies that directly bear on energy considerations. Currently, exciting developments in materials processing are enabling creative new electrical, optical and chemical device configurations. Controlled synthesis of nanoparticles, semiconducting nanowires and nanorods, optical quantum dots, etc. along with a range of strategies for assembling and patterning nanostructures portend the viability of new devices that have the potential to significantly impact the energy landscape. As devices become smaller the impact of interfaces and surfaces grows geometrically. As with other nanoscale phenomena, small interfaces do not exhibit the same properties as do large interfaces. The size dependence of interface properties had not been explored and understanding at the most fundamental level is necessary to the advancement of nanostructured devices. An equally important factor in the behavior of interfaces in devices is the ability to examine the interfaces under realistic conditions. For example, interfaces and boundaries dictate the behavior of oxide fuel cells which operate at extremely high temperatures in dynamic high pressure chemical environments. These conditions preclude the characterization of local properties during fuel cell

  18. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  19. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  20. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum reoriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  1. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  2. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  3. Culture Moderates Biases in Search Decisions.

    PubMed

    Pattaratanakun, Jake A; Mak, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies suggest that people often search insufficiently in sequential-search tasks compared with the predictions of benchmark optimal strategies that maximize expected payoff. However, those studies were mostly conducted in individualist Western cultures; Easterners from collectivist cultures, with their higher susceptibility to escalation of commitment induced by sunk search costs, could exhibit a reversal of this undersearch bias by searching more than optimally, but only when search costs are high. We tested our theory in four experiments. In our pilot experiment, participants generally undersearched when search cost was low, but only Eastern participants oversearched when search cost was high. In Experiments 1 and 2, we obtained evidence for our hypothesized effects via a cultural-priming manipulation on bicultural participants in which we manipulated the language used in the program interface. We obtained further process evidence for our theory in Experiment 3, in which we made sunk costs nonsalient in the search task-as expected, cross-cultural effects were largely mitigated. PMID:26113063

  4. Culture Moderates Biases in Search Decisions.

    PubMed

    Pattaratanakun, Jake A; Mak, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Prior studies suggest that people often search insufficiently in sequential-search tasks compared with the predictions of benchmark optimal strategies that maximize expected payoff. However, those studies were mostly conducted in individualist Western cultures; Easterners from collectivist cultures, with their higher susceptibility to escalation of commitment induced by sunk search costs, could exhibit a reversal of this undersearch bias by searching more than optimally, but only when search costs are high. We tested our theory in four experiments. In our pilot experiment, participants generally undersearched when search cost was low, but only Eastern participants oversearched when search cost was high. In Experiments 1 and 2, we obtained evidence for our hypothesized effects via a cultural-priming manipulation on bicultural participants in which we manipulated the language used in the program interface. We obtained further process evidence for our theory in Experiment 3, in which we made sunk costs nonsalient in the search task-as expected, cross-cultural effects were largely mitigated.

  5. The Milstar Advanced Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjia, Khiem-Hian; Heely, Stephen D.; Morphet, John P.; Wirick, Kevin S.

    The Milstar Advanced Processor (MAP) is a 'drop-in' replacement for its predecessor which preserves existing interfaces with other Milstar satellite processors and minimizes the impact of such upgrading to already-developed application software. In addition to flight software development, and hardware development that involves the application of VHSIC technology to the electrical design, the MAP project is developing two sophisticated and similar test environments. High density RAM and ROM are employed by the MAP memory array. Attention is given to the fine-pitch VHSIC design techniques and lead designs used, as well as the tole of TQM and concurrent engineering in the development of the MAP manufacturing process.

  6. Content-based Music Search and Recommendation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, Kazuki; Hijikata, Yoshinori; Nishida, Shogo

    Recently, the turn volume of music data on the Internet has increased rapidly. This has increased the user's cost to find music data suiting their preference from such a large data set. We propose a content-based music search and recommendation system. This system has an interface for searching and finding music data and an interface for editing a user profile which is necessary for music recommendation. By exploiting the visualization of the feature space of music and the visualization of the user profile, the user can search music data and edit the user profile. Furthermore, by exploiting the infomation which can be acquired from each visualized object in a mutually complementary manner, we make it easier for the user to search music data and edit the user profile. Concretely, the system gives to the user an information obtained from the user profile when searching music data and an information obtained from the feature space of music when editing the user profile.

  7. 41. DISCOVERY, SEARCH, AND COMMUNICATION OF TEXTUAL KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS a. Discovering and Utilizing Knowledge Sources for Metasearch Knowledge Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, Antonio

    2008-03-18

    Advanced Natural Language Processing Tools for Web Information Retrieval, Content Analysis, and Synthesis. The goal of this SBIR was to implement and evaluate several advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and techniques to enhance the precision and relevance of search results by analyzing and augmenting search queries and by helping to organize the search output obtained from heterogeneous databases and web pages containing textual information of interest to DOE and the scientific-technical user communities in general. The SBIR investigated 1) the incorporation of spelling checkers in search applications, 2) identification of significant phrases and concepts using a combination of linguistic and statistical techniques, and 3) enhancement of the query interface and search retrieval results through the use of semantic resources, such as thesauri. A search program with a flexible query interface was developed to search reference databases with the objective of enhancing search results from web queries or queries of specialized search systems such as DOE's Information Bridge. The DOE ETDE/INIS Joint Thesaurus was processed to create a searchable database. Term frequencies and term co-occurrences were used to enhance the web information retrieval by providing algorithmically-derived objective criteria to organize relevant documents into clusters containing significant terms. A thesaurus provides an authoritative overview and classification of a field of knowledge. By organizing the results of a search using the thesaurus terminology, the output is more meaningful than when the results are just organized based on the terms that co-occur in the retrieved documents, some of which may not be significant. An attempt was made to take advantage of the hierarchy provided by broader and narrower terms, as well as other field-specific information in the thesauri. The search program uses linguistic morphological routines to find relevant entries regardless of whether

  8. Searching and Indexing Genomic Databases via Kernelization

    PubMed Central

    Gagie, Travis; Puglisi, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advance of DNA sequencing technologies has yielded databases of thousands of genomes. To search and index these databases effectively, it is important that we take advantage of the similarity between those genomes. Several authors have recently suggested searching or indexing only one reference genome and the parts of the other genomes where they differ. In this paper, we survey the 20-year history of this idea and discuss its relation to kernelization in parameterized complexity. PMID:25710001

  9. Interface localization near criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-05-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent ν is larger than or equal to 1. Interaction with a boundary or defect line involves an additional scale and a dependence of the localization strength on the distance from criticality. The implications are particularly rich in the boundary case, where delocalization proceeds through different renormalization patterns sharing the feature that the boundary field becomes irrelevant in the delocalized regime. The boundary delocalization (wetting) transition is shown to be continuous, with surface specific heat and layer thickness exponents which can take values that we determine.

  10. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  11. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  12. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  13. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  14. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  15. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  16. Novel Shapes of Miscible Interfaces Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Rashidnia, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of miscible displacements in a cylindrical tube are being investigated experimentally and numerically, with a view to understand the complex processes that occur, for example, in enhanced oil recovery, hydrology, and filtration. We have observed complex shapes of the interface between two liquids that mix with each other when the less viscous liquid is displaced by the more viscous one in a tube. A less viscous fluid that displaces a more viscous fluid is known to propagate in the form of a "finger," and a flight experiment proposed by Maxworthy et al. to investigate the miscible-interface dynamics is currently being developed by NASA. From the current theory of miscible displacements, which was developed for a porous medium satisfying Darcy's law, it can be shown that in the absence of gravity the interface between the fluids is destabilized and thus susceptible to fingering only when a more viscous fluid is displaced by a less viscous one. Therefore, if the interface is initially flat and the more viscous fluid displaces the less viscous fluid, the interface ought to be stable and remain flat. However, numerical simulations by Chen and Meiburg for such displacement in a cylindrical tube show that the interface is unstable and a finger of the more viscous fluid is indeed formed. Preliminary experiments performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center show that not only can fingering occur when the more viscous fluid displaces a less viscous one in a cylindrical tube, but also that under certain conditions the advancing finger achieves a sinuous or snakelike shape. These experiments were performed using silicone oils in a vertical pipette of small diameter. In the initial configuration, the more viscous fluid rested on top of the less viscous one, and the interface was nominally flat. A dye was added to the upper liquid for ease of observation of the interface between the fluids. The flow was initiated by draining the lower fluid from the bottom of the

  17. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  18. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  19. Querying Event Sequences by Exact Match or Similarity Search: Design and Empirical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wongsuphasawat, Krist; Plaisant, Catherine; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Shneiderman, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Specifying event sequence queries is challenging even for skilled computer professionals familiar with SQL. Most graphical user interfaces for database search use an exact match approach, which is often effective, but near misses may also be of interest. We describe a new similarity search interface, in which users specify a query by simply placing events on a blank timeline and retrieve a similarity-ranked list of results. Behind this user interface is a new similarity measure for event sequences which the users can customize by four decision criteria, enabling them to adjust the impact of missing, extra, or swapped events or the impact of time shifts. We describe a use case with Electronic Health Records based on our ongoing collaboration with hospital physicians. A controlled experiment with 18 participants compared exact match and similarity search interfaces. We report on the advantages and disadvantages of each interface and suggest a hybrid interface combining the best of both. PMID:22379286

  20. Knowledge-based control of an adaptive interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachman, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The analysis, development strategy, and preliminary design for an intelligent, adaptive interface is reported. The design philosophy couples knowledge-based system technology with standard human factors approaches to interface development for computer workstations. An expert system has been designed to drive the interface for application software. The intelligent interface will be linked to application packages, one at a time, that are planned for multiple-application workstations aboard Space Station Freedom. Current requirements call for most Space Station activities to be conducted at the workstation consoles. One set of activities will consist of standard data management services (DMS). DMS software includes text processing, spreadsheets, data base management, etc. Text processing was selected for the first intelligent interface prototype because text-processing software can be developed initially as fully functional but limited with a small set of commands. The program's complexity then can be increased incrementally. The intelligent interface includes the operator's behavior and three types of instructions to the underlying application software are included in the rule base. A conventional expert-system inference engine searches the data base for antecedents to rules and sends the consequents of fired rules as commands to the underlying software. Plans for putting the expert system on top of a second application, a database management system, will be carried out following behavioral research on the first application. The intelligent interface design is suitable for use with ground-based workstations now common in government, industrial, and educational organizations.

  1. Virtual Observatory Interfaces to the Chandra Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, M.; Harbo, P.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

    2014-05-01

    The Chandra Data Archive (CDA) plays a central role in the operation of the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) by providing access to Chandra data. Proprietary interfaces have been the backbone of the CDA throughout the Chandra mission. While these interfaces continue to provide the depth and breadth of mission specific access Chandra users expect, the CXC has been adding Virtual Observatory (VO) interfaces to the Chandra proposal catalog and observation catalog. VO interfaces provide standards-based access to Chandra data through simple positional queries or more complex queries using the Astronomical Data Query Language. Recent development at the CDA has generalized our existing VO services to create a suite of services that can be configured to provide VO interfaces to any dataset. This approach uses a thin web service layer for the individual VO interfaces, a middle-tier query component which is shared among the VO interfaces for parsing, scheduling, and executing queries, and existing web services for file and data access. The CXC VO services provide Simple Cone Search (SCS), Simple Image Access (SIA), and Table Access Protocol (TAP) implementations for both the Chandra proposal and observation catalogs within the existing archive architecture. Our work with the Chandra proposal and observation catalogs, as well as additional datasets beyond the CDA, illustrates how we can provide configurable VO services to extend core archive functionality.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on the neural interface Focus on the neural interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Dominique M.

    2009-10-01

    The possibility of an effective connection between neural tissue and computers has inspired scientists and engineers to develop new ways of controlling and obtaining information from the nervous system. These applications range from `brain hacking' to neural control of artificial limbs with brain signals. Notwithstanding the significant advances in neural prosthetics in the last few decades and the success of some stimulation devices such as cochlear prosthesis, neurotechnology remains below its potential for restoring neural function in patients with nervous system disorders. One of the reasons for this limited impact can be found at the neural interface and close attention to the integration between electrodes and tissue should improve the possibility of successful outcomes. The neural interfaces research community consists of investigators working in areas such as deep brain stimulation, functional neuromuscular/electrical stimulation, auditory prostheses, cortical prostheses, neuromodulation, microelectrode array technology, brain-computer/machine interfaces. Following the success of previous neuroprostheses and neural interfaces workshops, funding (from NIH) was obtained to establish a biennial conference in the area of neural interfaces. The first Neural Interfaces Conference took place in Cleveland, OH in 2008 and several topics from this conference have been selected for publication in this special section of the Journal of Neural Engineering. Three `perspectives' review the areas of neural regeneration (Corredor and Goldberg), cochlear implants (O'Leary et al) and neural prostheses (Anderson). Seven articles focus on various aspects of neural interfacing. One of the most popular of these areas is the field of brain-computer interfaces. Fraser et al, report on a method to generate robust control with simple signal processing algorithms of signals obtained with electrodes implanted in the brain. One problem with implanted electrode arrays, however, is that

  3. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  4. Improving PHENIX search with Solr, Nutch and Drupal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Dave; Sourikova, Irina

    2012-12-01

    During its 20 years of R&D, construction and operation the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has accumulated large amounts of proprietary collaboration data that is hosted on many servers around the world and is not open for commercial search engines for indexing and searching. The legacy search infrastructure did not scale well with the fast growing PHENIX document base and produced results inadequate in both precision and recall. After considering the possible alternatives that would provide an aggregated, fast, full text search of a variety of data sources and file formats we decided to use Nutch [1] as a web crawler and Solr [2] as a search engine. To present XML-based Solr search results in a user-friendly format we use Drupal [3] as a web interface to Solr. We describe the experience of building a federated search for a heterogeneous collection of 10 million PHENIX documents with Nutch, Solr and Drupal.

  5. Summary Report for the SINBAD Search Tool Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha Da Silva, Alice

    2012-06-01

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) Search Tool has been developed to serve as an interface with the SINBAD database to facilitate a simple and quick means of searching for information related to experimental benchmark problems. The Search Tool is written in Java and provides a better and efficient way to retrieve information from the SINBAD database. Searches can be performed quickly and easily. With regard to improvements, users are no longer required to know the name of the benchmarks to search the database. Instead, a search can be performed by specifying the experimental facility, constituents of the experimental benchmark, etc. In summary, a new powerful database search tool has been developed for SINBAD.

  6. Hybrid EEG and eye movement interface to multi-directional target selection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minho; Chae, Yongwook; Jo, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the development of a low-cost hybrid interface with eye tracking and brain signals. Eye movement detection is used for search task and EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) for selection task. Multi-directional target selection experiments with the hybrid interface device were conducted with five subjects to evaluate the proposed hybrid interface scheme. The task asked each user to move a cursor onto a circular target among twelve possible positions and select it. Using the Fitts' law, the interface performance was compared with the computer mouse. With two BCI selection confirmation schemes, the hybrid interface attained 2-2.7 bit/s overall. Based on the results, the potential of the proposed hybrid interface was discussed. PMID:24109799

  7. Hybrid EEG and eye movement interface to multi-directional target selection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minho; Chae, Yongwook; Jo, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the development of a low-cost hybrid interface with eye tracking and brain signals. Eye movement detection is used for search task and EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) for selection task. Multi-directional target selection experiments with the hybrid interface device were conducted with five subjects to evaluate the proposed hybrid interface scheme. The task asked each user to move a cursor onto a circular target among twelve possible positions and select it. Using the Fitts' law, the interface performance was compared with the computer mouse. With two BCI selection confirmation schemes, the hybrid interface attained 2-2.7 bit/s overall. Based on the results, the potential of the proposed hybrid interface was discussed.

  8. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  9. 'Net Search Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Suzanne S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides strategies for effective Internet searches. Categorizes queries into four types and describes tools: subject lists; indexes/directories; keyword search engines; Usenet newsgroups; and special purpose search tools. Discusses the importance of deciphering information and adjusting to changes. (AEF)

  10. Programable Interface Handles Many Peripherals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, M.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based interface simplifies interconnection of peripheral device with common memory of network of minicomputers. Interface consists of microprocessor, bidirectional port that connects to common memory, bidirectional port that connects to user-selected peripheral, and asynchronous serial communications port. Programable interface is based around 6800 microprocessor. It is assembled from 90 integrated circuits.

  11. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  12. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  13. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  14. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  15. Schottky barriers and interface structure at silicide-silicon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthai, C. C.; Rees, N. V.; Shen, T. H.

    Schottky barriers at metal-semiconductor interfaces have attracted much interest in recent years. One of the principal interests has centred on the mechanism for Fermi level pinning. The sililcide-silicon interface has been proposed as a system which is described by the metal induced gap states model. We have performed calculations on the NiSi 2/Si(111) type A and type B interfaces as well as the NiSi 2/Si(100) interface. In addition we have also studied the CoSi 2/Si interface. For the NiSi 2/Si(111) interface, we have further investigated the influence of point defects and hydrostatic pressure on the Schottky barrier height. Based on the results of our calculations we conclude that these interfaces do indeed subscribe to the MIGS model. We also present the results of some total energy calculations and discuss these with experimental observations.

  16. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence - The ultimate exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D.; Tarter, J.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Conners, M.; Clark, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    A survey highlighting the central issues of the SETI program (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), including its rationale, scope, search problems, and goals is presented. Electromagnetic radiation is suggested as the most likely means via which knowledge of extraterrestrial intelligence will be obtained, and the variables governing these signals are discussed, including: signal frequency and polarization, state, possible coordinates, and signal duration. The modern history of SETI and NASA's involvement is briefly reviewed, and the search strategies used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ames Research Center are discussed and compared. Some of the potential scientific and cultural impacts of the SETI program are mentioned, noting advancements in technological, biological, and chemical research.

  17. Brain-Computer Interfaces in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. PMID:22325364

  18. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  19. Metal induced gap states at tetratetracontane/Cu interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Yoshikawa, G.; Saiki, K.; Arita, R.; Aoki, H.

    2006-03-01

    In order to search for states specific to organic-insulator/metal interfaces, we have studied atomically well-defined tetratetracontane(TTC)/Cu interface with the element-selective near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). An extra peak is observed below the bulk edge onset for thin TTC films on Cu. We regard the pre-peak as an evidence for the metal-induced gap states (MIGS) formed by the proximity to a metal. An ab initio electronic structure calculation supports the existence of the MIGS.

  20. TSAFE Interface Control Document v 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    This document specifies the data interface for TSAFE, the Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment. TSAFE is a research prototype of a software application program for alerting air traffic controllers to imminent conflicts in enroute airspace. It is intended for Air Route Traffic Control Centers ("Centers") in the U.S. National Airspace System. It predicts trajectories for approximately 3 minutes into the future, searches for conflicts, and sends data about predicted conflicts to the client, which uses the data to alert an air traffic controller of conflicts. TSAFE itself does not provide a graphical user interface.

  1. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  2. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  3. Ships/Trains/Planes/Automobiles: A Renaissance of their Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Stanley N.

    1974-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the major multi-modal interface problems created by technological advances, socio-political individualism and the flexibility of choices we expect from our transportation modes. The emphasis is on the need for a comprehensive national network of multi-modal priorities to enhance the movement of people and goods within the changing physical shape of our cities.

  4. A Review of Organic and Inorganic Biomaterials for Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Pouria; Yang, Guang; Kim, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have generated wide interest in applying nanomaterials for neural prostheses. An ideal neural interface should create seamless integration into the nervous system and performs reliably for long periods of time. As a result, many nanoscale materials not originally developed for neural interfaces become attractive candidates to detect neural signals and stimulate neurons. In this comprehensive review, an overview of state-of-the-art microelectrode technologies provided first, with focus on the material properties of these microdevices. The advancements in electro active nanomaterials are then reviewed, including conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, silicon nanowires, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials, for neural recording, stimulation, and growth. Finally, technical and scientific challenges are discussed regarding biocompatibility, mechanical mismatch, and electrical properties faced by these nanomaterials for the development of long-lasting functional neural interfaces. PMID:24677434

  5. A review of organic and inorganic biomaterials for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Pouria; Yang, Guang; Kim, Gloria; Abidian, Mohammad Reza

    2014-03-26

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have generated wide interest in applying nanomaterials for neural prostheses. An ideal neural interface should create seamless integration into the nervous system and performs reliably for long periods of time. As a result, many nanoscale materials not originally developed for neural interfaces become attractive candidates to detect neural signals and stimulate neurons. In this comprehensive review, an overview of state-of-the-art microelectrode technologies provided fi rst, with focus on the material properties of these microdevices. The advancements in electro active nanomaterials are then reviewed, including conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, silicon nanowires, and hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials, for neural recording, stimulation, and growth. Finally, technical and scientific challenges are discussed regarding biocompatibility, mechanical mismatch, and electrical properties faced by these nanomaterials for the development of long-lasting functional neural interfaces.

  6. The APS intranet as a man-machine interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.; Gerig, R.; McDowell, W.

    1997-12-02

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has implemented a number of methods for people to interact with the accelerator systems. The accelerator operators use Sun workstations running MEDM and WCL to interface interactively with the accelerator, however, many people need to view information rather than interact with the machine. One of the most common interfaces for viewing information at the Advanced Photon Source is the World Wide Web. Information such as operations logbook entries, machine status updates, and displays of archived and current data are easily available to APS personnel. This interface between people and the accelerator has proven to be quite useful. Because the Intranet is operating-system independent and inherently unidirectional, ensuring the prevention of unauthorized or accidental control of the accelerators is straightforward.

  7. Computational prediction of protein interfaces: A review of data driven methods.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li C; Dobbs, Drena; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Honavar, Vasant

    2015-11-30

    Reliably pinpointing which specific amino acid residues form the interface(s) between a protein and its binding partner(s) is critical for understanding the structural and physicochemical determinants of protein recognition and binding affinity, and has wide applications in modeling and validating protein interactions predicted by high-throughput methods, in engineering proteins, and in prioritizing drug targets. Here, we review the basic concepts, principles and recent advances in computational approaches to the analysis and prediction of protein-protein interfaces. We point out caveats for objectively evaluating interface predictors, and discuss various applications of data-driven interface predictors for improving energy model-driven protein-protein docking. Finally, we stress the importance of exploiting binding partner information in reliably predicting interfaces and highlight recent advances in this emerging direction.

  8. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  9. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  10. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  11. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  12. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  13. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  14. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  15. User's manual for interfacing a leading edge, vortex rollup program with two linear panel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desilva, B. M. E.; Medan, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    Sufficient instructions are provided for interfacing the Mangler-Smith, leading edge vortex rollup program with a vortex lattice (POTFAN) method and an advanced higher order, singularity linear analysis for computing the vortex effects for simple canard wing combinations.

  16. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  17. Advanced human-machine interface for collaborative building control

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianjun S.; Song, Zhen; Chen, Yanzi; Zhang, Shaopeng; Lu, Yan

    2015-08-11

    A system for collaborative energy management and control in a building, including an energy management controller, one or more occupant HMIs that supports two-way communication between building occupants and a facility manager, and between building occupants and the energy management controller, and a facility manager HMI that supports two-way communication between the facility manager and the building occupants, and between the facility manager and the energy management controller, in which the occupant HMI allows building occupants to provide temperature preferences to the facility manager and the energy management controller, and the facility manager HMI allows the facility manager to configure an energy policy for the building as a set of rules and to view occupants' aggregated temperature preferences, and the energy management controller determines an optimum temperature range that resolves conflicting occupant temperature preferences and occupant temperature preferences that conflict with the facility manager's energy policy for the building.

  18. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  19. Advanced high-power transfer through rotary interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, P.

    1984-01-01

    A roll-ring design that is uniquely suited for rotary signal/power transfer in space applications is described. Two high-power configurations of the roll ring were developed. Present lab-proven hardware is available with power transfer capability of 2 kW at 200 amps and higher power units with 100-kW capability are in the design stage. Theoretical analysis indicated that power levels of kW are possible.

  20. Developments in Molecular Recognition and Sensing at Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P.; Endo, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems, molecular recognition events occur mostly within interfacial environments such as at membrane surfaces, enzyme reaction sites, or at the interior of the DNA double helix. Investigation of molecular recognition at model interfaces provides great insights into biological phenomena. Molecular recognition at interfaces not only has relevance to biological systems but is also important for modern applications such as high sensitivity sensors. Selective binding of guest molecules in solution to host molecules located at solid surfaces is crucial for electronic or photonic detection of analyte substances. In response to these demands, molecular recognition at interfaces has been investigated extensively during the past two decades using Langmuir monolayers, self-assembled monolayers, and lipid assemblies as recognition media. In this review, advances of molecular recognition at interfaces are briefly summarized.

  1. Measuring the Thermodynamics of the Alloy/Scale Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed for the direct measurement of the thermodynamic properties of the alloy and oxide compound at the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamic properties of the alloy/scale interface define the driving force for solid-state transport in the alloy and oxide compound. Accurate knowledge of thermodynamic properties of the interface will advance our understanding of oxidation behavior. The method is based on the concept of local equilibrium and assumes that an alloy+scale equilibrium very closely approximates the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamics activities of this alloy+scale equilibrium are measured directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometer (KEMS) using the vapor pressure technique. The theory and some practical considerations of this method are discussed in terms of beta-NiAl oxidation.

  2. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  3. Chemical structure of interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interfacial structure of silicon/dielectric and silicon/metal systems is particularly amenable to analysis using a combination of surface spectroscopies together with a variety of chemical structures of Si/SiO2, Si/SiO2Si3N4, Si/Si2N2O, Si/SiO2/Al, and Si/Native Oxide interfaces using high resolution (0.350 eV FWHM) X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The general structure of these dielectric interfaces entails a monolayer chemical transition layer at the Si/dielectric boundary. Amorphous Si substrates show a wide variety of hydrogenated Si and Si(OH) sub x states that are not observed in thermal oxidation of single crystal material. Extended SiO2 layers greater than 8 A in thickness are shown to be stoichiometric SiO2, but to exhibit a wide variety of local network structures. In the nitrogen containing systems, an approach to stoichiometric oxynitride compounds with interesting impurity and electron trapping properties are seen. In native oxides, substantial topographical nonuniformity in oxide thickness and composition are found. Analysis of metal/oxide interfacial layers is accomplished by analytical removal of the Si substrate by UHV XeF2 dry etching methods.

  4. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  5. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  6. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  7. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  8. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D.; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  9. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  10. Online Search Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Michael; Worley, Penny

    This course syllabus describes methods for optimizing online searching, using as an example searching on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) online system. Four major activities considered are the online interview, query analysis and search planning, online interaction, and post-search analysis. Within the context of these activities, concepts…

  11. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  12. Multimedia Web Searching Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares multimedia Web searching by Excite and FAST search engine users in 2001. Highlights include audio and video queries; time spent on searches; terms per query; ranking of the most frequently used terms; and differences in Web search behaviors of U.S. and European Web users. (Author/LRW)

  13. Final Report: Thermal Conductance of Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahil, David, G.; Braun, Paul, V.

    2006-05-31

    Research supported by this grant has significantly advanced fundamental understanding of the thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces, and the thermal conductivity of nanofluids and nanoscale composite materials. • The thermal conductance of interfaces between carbon nanotubes and a surrounding matrix of organic molecules is exceptionally small and this small value of the interface conductance limits the enhancement in thermal conductivity that can be achieved by loading a fluid or a polymer with nanotubes. • The thermal conductance of interfaces between metal nanoparticles coated with hydrophilic surfactants and water is relatively high and surprisingly independent of the details of the chemical structure of the surfactant. • We extended our experimental methods to enable studies of planar interfaces between surfactant-coated metals and water where the chemical functionalization can be varied between strongly hydrophobic and strongly hydrophilic. The thermal conductance of hydrophobic interfaces establishes an upper-limit of 0.25 nm on the thickness of the vapor-layer that is often proposed to exist at hydrophobic interfaces. • Our high-precision measurements of fluid suspensions show that the thermal conductivity of fluids is not significantly enhanced by loading with a small volume fraction of spherical nanoparticles. These experimental results directly contradict some of the anomalous results in the recent literature and also rule-out proposed mechanisms for the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids that are based on modification of the fluid thermal conductivity by the coupling of fluid motion and the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles.

  14. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  15. Status and Future of Deep Searches for Compact Binary Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitz, Alexander` Harvey; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Deep offline searches for gravitational waves from binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star- black hole mergers were conducted during the first Advanced LIGO observing run, and recently Advanced LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We discuss the recent results, the methodology of the high latency searches, along with improvements for the upcoming observing runs.

  16. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  17. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  18. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  19. Advanced Structures: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies for extremely lightweight, multi-function structures with modular interfaces - the building-block technology for advanced spacecraft. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  20. Searching social networks for subgraph patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaard, Kirk; Kase, Sue; Roy, Heather; Nagi, Rakesh; Sambhoos, Kedar; Sudit, Moises

    2013-06-01

    Software tools for Social Network Analysis (SNA) are being developed which support various types of analysis of social networks extracted from social media websites (e.g., Twitter). Once extracted and stored in a database such social networks are amenable to analysis by SNA software. This data analysis often involves searching for occurrences of various subgraph patterns (i.e., graphical representations of entities and relationships). The authors have developed the Graph Matching Toolkit (GMT) which provides an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for a heuristic graph matching algorithm called the Truncated Search Tree (TruST) algorithm. GMT is a visual interface for graph matching algorithms processing large social networks. GMT enables an analyst to draw a subgraph pattern by using a mouse to select categories and labels for nodes and links from drop-down menus. GMT then executes the TruST algorithm to find the top five occurrences of the subgraph pattern within the social network stored in the database. GMT was tested using a simulated counter-insurgency dataset consisting of cellular phone communications within a populated area of operations in Iraq. The results indicated GMT (when executing the TruST graph matching algorithm) is a time-efficient approach to searching large social networks. GMT's visual interface to a graph matching algorithm enables intelligence analysts to quickly analyze and summarize the large amounts of data necessary to produce actionable intelligence.

  1. Bioinformatics: searching the Net.

    PubMed

    Kastin, S; Wexler, J

    1998-04-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and

  2. On the Use of Librarians Selection Routines in Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsinakos, Avgoustos A.; Margaritis, Kostantinos G.

    Information retrieval on the World Wide Web has a major obstacle: although data is abundant, it is unlabeled and randomly indexed. This paper discusses the implementation of a consultative Web search engine that minimizes the expertise level that is required from a user to accomplish an advanced search session. The system takes advantage of the…

  3. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  4. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  5. Computer interface system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An interface logic circuit permitting the transfer of information between two computers having asynchronous clocks is disclosed. The information transfer involves utilization of control signals (including request, return-response, ready) to generate properly timed data strobe signals. Noise problems are avoided because each control signal, upon receipt, is verified by at least two clock pulses at the receiving computer. If control signals are verified, a data strobe pulse is generated to accomplish a data transfer. Once initiated, the data strobe signal is properly completed independently of signal disturbances in the control signal initiating the data strobe signal. Completion of the data strobe signal is announced by automatic turn-off of a return-response control signal.

  6. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  7. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  8. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  9. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  10. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  11. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  12. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  13. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  14. The Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Dayo O; Serruya, Mijail D; Harris, James P; Burrell, Justin C; Petrov, Dmitriy; Chen, H Isaac; Wolf, John A; Cullen, D Kacy

    2016-01-01

    The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research. Finally, we outline emerging research trends in an effort to explore the potential next generation of neuroprosthetic interfaces. PMID:27652455

  15. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  16. The Influence of Gender Difference on the Information-Seeking Behaviors for the Graphical Interface of Children's Digital Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Tsia-ying; Wu, Ko-chiu

    2015-01-01

    Children conducting searches using the interfaces of library websites often encounter obstacles due to typographical errors, digital divides, or a failure to grasp keywords. Satisfaction with a given interface may also vary according to the gender of the user, making it a variable in information seeking behavior. Children benefit more from…

  17. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  18. The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Parsons, Mark; Yarmey, Lynn; Truslove, Ian; Pearlman, Jay; Boldrini, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) is a joint effort by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), UNIDATA, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Its purpose is to provide data support, preservation and access services for all projects funded by NSF's Arctic Science Program (ARC). ACADIS is also being eyed for its potential to support the multi-agency SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) effort. The challenge for ACADIS is the large number of projects (over 400) and diverse, multidisciplinary datasets (currently numbering over 900) that it must provide services for. ACADIS is evolving from three separate data management systems having Arctic data which includes field data, model output, global weather observations, remote sensing and social science data. These systems evolved independently and were originally designed for different purposes. Furthermore, the communities accessing these data have different needs and follow different standards and protocols. To meet the challenge of providing a common discovery mechanism for all these data a metadata brokering solution was implemented. This presentation will describe the installation and customization of GI-Cat, a brokering service developed at the Italian National Research Council. The integration of the CISL, EOL and NSIDC catalogs, as well as the THREDDS server provided by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (NMI), was accomplished using GI-Cat. Search results are accessed via the OpenSearch interface of GI-Cat and presented with rankings based on keyword matches. This creation of this system was accomplished on a timescale of months instead of the years of developer time that would have been required if it had been built from scratch.

  19. Metadata Creation, Management and Search System for your Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury Search Systems is a set of tools for creating, searching, and retrieving of biogeochemical metadata. Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for any metadata format, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, multi-facetted type search, search suggestions, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. Mercury's metadata editor provides a easy way for creating metadata and Mercury's search interface provides a single portal to search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use any metadata format including FGDC, ISO-19115, Dublin-Core, Darwin-Core, DIF, ECHO, and EML. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury is being used more than 14 different projects across 4 federal agencies. It was originally developed for NASA, with continuing development funded by NASA, USGS, and DOE for a consortium of projects. Mercury search won the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Software Reuse Award in 2008. References: R. Devarakonda, G. Palanisamy, B.E. Wilson, and J.M. Green, "Mercury: reusable metadata management data discovery and access system", Earth Science Informatics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 87-94, May 2010. R. Devarakonda, G. Palanisamy, J.M. Green, B.E. Wilson, "Data sharing and retrieval using OAI-PMH", Earth Science Informatics DOI: 10.1007/s12145-010-0073-0, (2010);

  20. Visual exploratory search of relationship graphs on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jianquan; Zheng, Hao; Kong, Fanbin; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework for Visual Exploratory Search of Relationship Graphs on Smartphones (VESRGS) that is composed of three major components: inference and representation of semantic relationship graphs on the Web via meta-search, visual exploratory search of relationship graphs through both querying and browsing strategies, and human-computer interactions via the multi-touch interface and mobile Internet on smartphones. In comparison with traditional lookup search methodologies, the proposed VESRGS system is characterized with the following perceived advantages. 1) It infers rich semantic relationships between the querying keywords and other related concepts from large-scale meta-search results from Google, Yahoo! and Bing search engines, and represents semantic relationships via graphs; 2) the exploratory search approach empowers users to naturally and effectively explore, adventure and discover knowledge in a rich information world of interlinked relationship graphs in a personalized fashion; 3) it effectively takes the advantages of smartphones' user-friendly interfaces and ubiquitous Internet connection and portability. Our extensive experimental results have demonstrated that the VESRGS framework can significantly improve the users' capability of seeking the most relevant relationship information to their own specific needs. We envision that the VESRGS framework can be a starting point for future exploration of novel, effective search strategies in the mobile Internet era.

  1. Thermal contact resistance across a copper-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Chojnowski, D.; Assoufid, L.; Worek, W.M.

    1997-10-01

    The issue of thermal contact resistance across metallic interfaces has been investigated for many situations over the past several decades. The application in the present case is contact cooling of high heat load optical substrates. High heat load x-ray mirrors and other optical components used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are either internally cooled or contact cooled. In the internally cooled mirrors, a coolant flows through passages configured in the optical substrate. In the contact-cooled case, cooling is provided by placing cooling plates in contact with the mirror to extract the heat. Here, an experimental setup to measure the thermal contact conductance across a silicon-copper (Si-Cu) interface is described, and the results obtained are presented. The resulting thermal contact resistance data are used in estimating the thermo-mechanical and optical performance of optical substrates cooled by interfaced copper cooling blocks. Several factors influence the heat transfer across solid interfaces. These include the material properties, interface pressure, flatness and roughness of the contacting surfaces, temperature, and interstitial material, if any. Results presented show the variation of thermal contact conductance as a function of applied interface pressure for a Cu-Si interface. Various interstitial materials investigated include indium foil, silver foil and a liquid eutectic (Ga-In-Sn). As expected, thermal contact resistance decreases as interface pressure increases, except in the case of the eutectic, in which it was nearly constant. The softer the interstitial material, the lower the thermal contact resistance. Liquid metal provides the lowest thermal contact resistance across the Cu-Si interface, followed by the indium foil, and then the silver foil.

  2. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim

    2000-07-01

    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  3. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  4. Search for neutral leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

  5. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  6. HTTP-based Search and Ordering Using ECHO's REST-based and OpenSearch APIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baynes, K.; Newman, D. J.; Pilone, D.

    2012-12-01

    Metadata is an important entity in the process of cataloging, discovering, and describing Earth science data. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse (ECHO) acts as the core metadata repository for EOSDIS data centers, providing a centralized mechanism for metadata and data discovery and retrieval. By supporting both the ESIP's Federated Search API and its own search and ordering interfaces, ECHO provides multiple capabilities that facilitate ease of discovery and access to its ever-increasing holdings. Users are able to search and export metadata in a variety of formats including ISO 19115, json, and ECHO10. This presentation aims to inform technically savvy clients interested in automating search and ordering of ECHO's metadata catalog. The audience will be introduced to practical and applicable examples of end-to-end workflows that demonstrate finding, sub-setting and ordering data that is bound by keyword, temporal and spatial constraints. Interaction with the ESIP OpenSearch Interface will be highlighted, as will ECHO's own REST-based API.

  7. Interface effects on nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Brad Richard

    2009-12-01

    Nanoelectronics consist of devices with active electronic components on the nanometer length scale. At such dimensions most, if not all, atoms or molecules composing the active device region must be on or near a surface. Also, materials effectively confined to two dimensions, or when subject to abrupt boundary conditions, generally do not behave the same as materials inside three dimensional, continuous structures. This dissertation is a quantitative determination of how surfaces and interfaces in organic nanoelectronic devices affect properties such as charge transport, electronic structure, and material fluctuations. Si/SiO2 is a model gate/gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors, therefore proper characterization and measurement of the effects of the SiO2/organic interface on device structures is extremely important. I fabricated pentacene thin film transistors on Si/SiO2 and varied the conduction channel thickness from effectively bulk (˜40nm) to 2 continuous conducting layers to examine the effect of substrate on noise generation. The electronic spectral noise was measured and the generator of the noise was determined to be due to the random spatial dependence of grain boundaries, independent of proximity to the gate oxide. This result led me to investigate the mechanisms of pentacene grain formation, including the role of small quantities of impurities, on silicon dioxide substrates. Through a series of nucleation, growth and morphology studies, I determined that impurities assist in nucleation on SiO2, decreasing the stable nucleus size by a third and increasing the overall number of grains. The pentacene growth and morphology studies prompted further exploration of pentacene crystal growth on SiO2. I developed a method of making atomically clean ultra-thin oxide films, with surface chemistry and growth properties similar to the standard thick oxides. These ultra-thin oxides were measured to be as smooth as cleaned silicon and then used as

  8. Three-Dimensional User Interfaces for Immersive Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. Our primary test application was a scientific visualization application for viewing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) datasets. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final report summarizes the research completed over the past year, and extends last year's final report of the first three years of the grant.

  9. Video interfacing to flat panel displays for dynamic graphics portrayal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, J. J.

    This paper describes the basic process required to convert standard raster video signals to dot addressable matrix displays. The concepts developed were applied to a Litton Systems Advanced Development Model (ADM-1) multimode matrix light emitting diode (LED) display. The ADM-1 display head (320 x 256 pixel format) requires a unique digital interface that is not compatible with other forms of matrix displays. Although this paper describes the details of interfacing to this particular display, the concepts developed apply to all matrix display systems.

  10. Intelligent Support for Interface Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teskey, F. N.

    This paper describes how a language for building information systems that is being developed by the Office for Research at OCLC can be linked to an artificial intelligence environment, Poplog. The demonstration system--ISIS (Intelligent Support for Interface systems)--shows how Poplog could provide some intelligent support for a D interface,…

  11. XTOD - XES Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J

    2005-09-07

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS XTOD System (WBS No.1.5) and the LCLS XES (WBS No.1.6). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Subsystems that connect at or cross the boundary are identified.

  12. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-07-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  13. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  14. Global trends in infectious diseases at the wildlife–livestock interface

    PubMed Central

    Wiethoelter, Anke K.; Beltrán-Alcrudo, Daniel; Kock, Richard; Mor, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    The role and significance of wildlife–livestock interfaces in disease ecology has largely been neglected, despite recent interest in animals as origins of emerging diseases in humans. Scoping review methods were applied to objectively assess the relative interest by the scientific community in infectious diseases at interfaces between wildlife and livestock, to characterize animal species and regions involved, as well as to identify trends over time. An extensive literature search combining wildlife, livestock, disease, and geographical search terms yielded 78,861 publications, of which 15,998 were included in the analysis. Publications dated from 1912 to 2013 and showed a continuous increasing trend, including a shift from parasitic to viral diseases over time. In particular there was a significant increase in publications on the artiodactyls–cattle and bird–poultry interface after 2002 and 2003, respectively. These trends could be traced to key disease events that stimulated public interest and research funding. Among the top 10 diseases identified by this review, the majority were zoonoses. Prominent wildlife–livestock interfaces resulted largely from interaction between phylogenetically closely related and/or sympatric species. The bird–poultry interface was the most frequently cited wildlife–livestock interface worldwide with other interfaces reflecting regional circumstances. This review provides the most comprehensive overview of research on infectious diseases at the wildlife–livestock interface to date. PMID:26195733

  15. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  16. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gips, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  17. Global trends in infectious diseases at the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Wiethoelter, Anke K; Beltrán-Alcrudo, Daniel; Kock, Richard; Mor, Siobhan M

    2015-08-01

    The role and significance of wildlife-livestock interfaces in disease ecology has largely been neglected, despite recent interest in animals as origins of emerging diseases in humans. Scoping review methods were applied to objectively assess the relative interest by the scientific community in infectious diseases at interfaces between wildlife and livestock, to characterize animal species and regions involved, as well as to identify trends over time. An extensive literature search combining wildlife, livestock, disease, and geographical search terms yielded 78,861 publications, of which 15,998 were included in the analysis. Publications dated from 1912 to 2013 and showed a continuous increasing trend, including a shift from parasitic to viral diseases over time. In particular there was a significant increase in publications on the artiodactyls-cattle and bird-poultry interface after 2002 and 2003, respectively. These trends could be traced to key disease events that stimulated public interest and research funding. Among the top 10 diseases identified by this review, the majority were zoonoses. Prominent wildlife-livestock interfaces resulted largely from interaction between phylogenetically closely related and/or sympatric species. The bird-poultry interface was the most frequently cited wildlife-livestock interface worldwide with other interfaces reflecting regional circumstances. This review provides the most comprehensive overview of research on infectious diseases at the wildlife-livestock interface to date.

  18. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    PubMed

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself.

  19. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-03-16

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target.

  20. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  1. Developing A Web-based User Interface for Semantic Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Keller, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    While there are now a number of languages and frameworks that enable computer-based systems to search stored data semantically, the optimal design for effective user interfaces for such systems is still uncle ar. Such interfaces should mask unnecessary query detail from users, yet still allow them to build queries of arbitrary complexity without significant restrictions. We developed a user interface supporting s emantic query generation for Semanticorganizer, a tool used by scient ists and engineers at NASA to construct networks of knowledge and dat a. Through this interface users can select node types, node attribute s and node links to build ad-hoc semantic queries for searching the S emanticOrganizer network.

  2. DOE/JPL advanced thermionic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in different tasks of the advanced thermionic technology program is described. The tasks include surface and plasma investigations (surface characterization, spectroscopic plasma experiments, and converter theory); low temperature converter development (tungsten emitter, tungsten oxide collector and tungsten emitter, nickel collector); component hardware development (hot shell development); flame-fired silicon carbide converters; high temperature and advanced converter studies; postoperational diagnostics; and correlation of design interfaces.

  3. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  4. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  5. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  6. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  7. Contact Interface Verification for DYNA3D Scenario 1: Basic Contact

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, L D

    2006-05-10

    A suite of test problems has been developed to examine contact behavior within the nonlinear, three-dimensional, explicit finite element analysis (FEA) code DYNA3D (Lin, 2005). The test problems address the basic functionality of the contact algorithms, including the behavior of various kinematic, penalty, and Lagrangian enforcement formulations. The results from the DYNA3D analyses are compared to closed form solutions to verify the contact behavior. This work was performed as part of the Verification and Validation efforts of LLNL W Program within the NNSA's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. DYNA3D models the transient dynamic response of solids and structures including the interactions between disjoint bodies (parts). A wide variety of contact surfaces are available to represent the diverse interactions possible during an analysis, including relative motion (sliding), separation and gap closure (voids), and fixed relative position (tied). The problem geometry may be defined using a combination of element formulations, including one-dimensional beam and truss elements, two-dimensional shell elements, and three-dimensional solid elements. Consequently, it is necessary to consider various element interactions for each contact algorithm being verified. Most of the contact algorithms currently available in DYNA3D are examined; the exceptions are the Type 4--Single Surface Contact and Type 11--SAND algorithms. It is likely that these algorithms will be removed since their functionality is embodied in other, more robust, contact algorithms. The automatic contact algorithm is evaluated using the Type 12 interface. Two other variations of automatic contact, Type 13 and Type 14, offer additional means to adapt the interface domain, but share the same search and restoration algorithms as Type 12. The contact algorithms are summarized in Table 1. This report and associated test problems examine the scenario where one contact surface exists between two

  8. Searching NCBI databases using Entrez.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Gretchen; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2011-06-01

    One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two basic protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An alternate protocol builds upon the first basic protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The support protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.

  9. Searching NCBI databases using Entrez.

    PubMed

    Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2008-12-01

    One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two Basic Protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An Alternate Protocol builds upon the first Basic Protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The Support Protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.

  10. Predicting consumer behavior with Web search

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sharad; Hofman, Jake M.; Lahaie, Sébastien; Pennock, David M.; Watts, Duncan J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that Web search volume can “predict the present,” meaning that it can be used to accurately track outcomes such as unemployment levels, auto and home sales, and disease prevalence in near real time. Here we show that what consumers are searching for online can also predict their collective future behavior days or even weeks in advance. Specifically we use search query volume to forecast the opening weekend box-office revenue for feature films, first-month sales of video games, and the rank of songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, finding in all cases that search counts are highly predictive of future outcomes. We also find that search counts generally boost the performance of baseline models fit on other publicly available data, where the boost varies from modest to dramatic, depending on the application in question. Finally, we reexamine previous work on tracking flu trends and show that, perhaps surprisingly, the utility of search data relative to a simple autoregressive model is modest. We conclude that in the absence of other data sources, or where small improvements in predictive performance are material, search queries provide a useful guide to the near future. PMID:20876140

  11. Predicting consumer behavior with Web search.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sharad; Hofman, Jake M; Lahaie, Sébastien; Pennock, David M; Watts, Duncan J

    2010-10-12

    Recent work has demonstrated that Web search volume can "predict the present," meaning that it can be used to accurately track outcomes such as unemployment levels, auto and home sales, and disease prevalence in near real time. Here we show that what consumers are searching for online can also predict their collective future behavior days or even weeks in advance. Specifically we use search query volume to forecast the opening weekend box-office revenue for feature films, first-month sales of video games, and the rank of songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, finding in all cases that search counts are highly predictive of future outcomes. We also find that search counts generally boost the performance of baseline models fit on other publicly available data, where the boost varies from modest to dramatic, depending on the application in question. Finally, we reexamine previous work on tracking flu trends and show that, perhaps surprisingly, the utility of search data relative to a simple autoregressive model is modest. We conclude that in the absence of other data sources, or where small improvements in predictive performance are material, search queries provide a useful guide to the near future. PMID:20876140

  12. Interaction of Porosity with a Planar Solid/Liquid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Sen, Subhayu; Kaukler, William K.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the interaction between gas porosity and a planar solid/liquid (SL) interface is reported. A two-dimensional numerical model able to accurately track sharp SL interfaces during solidification of pure metals and alloys is proposed. The finite difference method and a rectangular undeformed grid are used for computation. The SL interface is described through the points of intersection with the grid lines. Its motion is determined by the thermal and solute gradients at each particular point. Changes of the interface temperature because of capillarity or solute redistribution as well as any perturbation of the thermal and solute field produced by the presence of non-metallic inclusions can be computed. To validate the model, the dynamics of the interaction between a gas pore and a solidification front in metal alloys was observed using a state of the art X-ray Transmission Microscope. The experiments included observation of the distortion of the SL interface near a pore, real-time measurements of the growth rate and the change in shape of the porosity during interaction with an advancing SL interface in pure Al and Al-0.25 wt% Au alloy. In addition, porosity induced solute segregation patterns surrounding a pore were also quantified.

  13. USMC UGS technology advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.; Barr, Michael E.; Hirz, Philip M.; Kipp, Jason; Fishburn, Thomas A.; Waller, Ezra S.; Marks, Brian A.

    2008-04-01

    Technology advancements for the USMC UGS system are described. Integration of the ARL Blue Radio/CSR into the System Controller and Radio Repeater permit the TRSS system to operate seamlessly within the Family of UGS concept. In addition to the Blue Radio/CSR, the TRSS system provides VHF and SATCOM radio links. The TRSS system is compatible with a wide range of imagers, including those with both analog and digital interfaces. The TRSS System Controller permits simultaneous monitoring of 2 camera inputs. To complement enhanced compatibility and improved processing, the mechanical housing of the TRSS System Controller has been updated. The SDR-II, a system monitoring device, also incorporates four Blue Radio/CSRs along with other communication capabilities, making it an ideal choice for a monitoring station within the Family of UGS. Field testing of L-3 Nova's UGS system at YPG has shown flawless performance, capturing all 126 targets.

  14. Advances in Antibody Design.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Kathryn E; Tessier, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics requires optimizing several of their key attributes. These include binding affinity and specificity, folding stability, solubility, pharmacokinetics, effector functions, and compatibility with the attachment of additional antibody domains (bispecific antibodies) and cytotoxic drugs (antibody-drug conjugates). Addressing these and other challenges requires the use of systematic design methods that complement powerful immunization and in vitro screening methods. We review advances in designing the binding loops, scaffolds, domain interfaces, constant regions, post-translational and chemical modifications, and bispecific architectures of antibodies and fragments thereof to improve their bioactivity. We also highlight unmet challenges in antibody design that must be overcome to generate potent antibody therapeutics. PMID:26274600

  15. TOOLKIT FOR ADVANCED OPTIMIZATION

    2000-10-13

    The TAO project focuses on the development of software for large scale optimization problems. TAO uses an object-oriented design to create a flexible toolkit with strong emphasis on the reuse of external tools where appropriate. Our design enables bi-directional connection to lower level linear algebra support (for example, parallel sparse matrix data structures) as well as higher level application frameworks. The Toolkist for Advanced Optimization (TAO) is aimed at teh solution of large-scale optimization problemsmore » on high-performance architectures. Our main goals are portability, performance, scalable parallelism, and an interface independent of the architecture. TAO is suitable for both single-processor and massively-parallel architectures. The current version of TAO has algorithms for unconstrained and bound-constrained optimization.« less

  16. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  17. PREFACE: Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-03-01

    Liquid-solid interfaces play an important role in a number of phenomena encountered in biological, chemical and physical processes. Surface-induced changes of the material properties are not only important for the solid support but also for the liquid itself. In particular, it is now well established that water at the interface is substantially different from bulk water, even in the proximity of apparently inert surfaces such as a simple metal. The complex chemistry at liquid-solid interfaces is typically fundamental to heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemistry, and has become especially topical in connection with the search for new materials for energy production. A quite remarkable example is the development of cheap yet efficient solar cells, whose basic components are dye molecules grafted to the surface of an oxide material and in contact with an electrolytic solution. In life science, the most important liquid-solid interfaces are the water-cell-membrane interfaces. Phenomena occurring at the surface of phospholipid bilayers control the docking of proteins, the transmission of signals as well as transport of molecules in and out of the cell. Recently the development of bio-compatible materials has lead to research on the interface between bio-compatible material and lipid/proteins in aqueous solution. Gaining a microscopic insight into the processes occurring at liquid-solid interfaces is therefore fundamental to a wide range of disciplines. This special section collects some contributions to the CECAM Workshop 'Liquid/Solid interfaces: Structure and Dynamics from Spectroscopy and Simulations' which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland in June 2011. Our main aim was to bring together knowledge and expertise from different communities in order to advance our microscopic understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids at interfaces. In particular, one of our ambitions was to foster discussion between the experimental and theoretical

  18. Alloy Interface Interdiffusion Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Garces, Jorge E.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    With renewed interest in developing nuclear-powered deep space probes, attention will return to improving the metallurgical processing of potential nuclear fuels so that they remain dimensionally stable over the years required for a successful mission. Previous work on fuel alloys at the NASA Glenn Research Center was primarily empirical, with virtually no continuing research. Even when empirical studies are exacting, they often fail to provide enough insight to guide future research efforts. In addition, from a fundamental theoretical standpoint, the actinide metals (which include materials used for nuclear fuels) pose a severe challenge to modern electronic-structure theory. Recent advances in quantum approximate atomistic modeling, coupled with first-principles derivation of needed input parameters, can help researchers develop new alloys for nuclear propulsion.

  19. Product definition data interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  20. The Shortcut Search. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Faced with a late-season superintendent search, many districts defer the formal search-and-hire process and entice a senior administrator or former superintendent to serve a one- or two-year stint. One appealing alternative is an abbreviated search. Boards should advertise immediately and efficiently, develop their own criteria, recruit…