Science.gov

Sample records for advanced search options

  1. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  2. Online Options for Math-Advanced Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessling, Suki

    2012-01-01

    Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…

  3. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  4. Current Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; B. W. Dixon; A. Goldmann; R. N. Hill; J. J. Jacobson; G. E. Matthern; J. D. Smith; A. M. Yacout

    2006-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes mining, enrichment, nuclear power plants, recycling (if done), and residual waste disposition. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has four program objectives to guide research on how best to glue these pieces together, as follows: waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety. We have developed a comprehensive set of metrics to evaluate fuel cycle options against the four program objectives. The current list of metrics is long-term heat, long-term dose, radiotoxicity and weapons usable material. This paper describes the current metrics and initial results from comparisons made using these metrics. The data presented were developed using a combination of “static” calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This work aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. The results from a series of dynamic simulations evaluating these options are included in this report. The model interface includes a few “control knobs” for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future. The results from the simulations show that the future is dark (uncertain) and that the system is sluggish with slow time response times to changes (i.e., what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants). Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our

  5. Medical abortion options may advance in 1998.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The US debut of mifepristone (RU-486) was delayed in 1997 by legal and manufacturer problems. However, the Population Council is searching worldwide for companies to produce mifepristone for the US market. In the meantime, women in a number of US cities can obtain mifepristone through clinical trials coordinated by the New York City-based Abortion Rights Mobilization. The trials are evaluating the effectiveness of a 200 mg dosage of the drug and will continue until there is a commercial product. New developments in medical abortion will be announced in 1998. Currently, 29 Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) affiliates are recruiting women for its study of methotrexate and misoprostol. By midsummer 1998, the organization expects to have data from what is the largest multicenter trial to date of a methotrexate and misoprostol medical abortion regimen. PMID:12348221

  6. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  7. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  8. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  9. Evaluation of Federated Searching Options for the School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    Three hosted federated search tools, Follett One Search, Gale PowerSearch Plus, and WebFeat Express, were configured and implemented in a school library. Databases from five vendors and the OPAC were systematically searched. Federated search results were compared with each other and to the results of the same searches in the database's native…

  10. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  11. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  12. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  13. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  14. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  15. 24 CFR 982.629 - Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homeownership option: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. 982.629 Section 982.629 Housing and Urban Development...: Additional PHA requirements for family search and purchase. (a) The PHA may establish the maximum time for...

  16. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  17. Survey of Advanced Booster Options for Potential Shuttle Derivative Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Ryan, Richard; Threet, Ed; Kennedy, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A never-ending major goal for the Space Shuttle program is to continually improve flight safety, as long as this launch system remains in operational service. One of the options to improve system safety and to enhance vehicle performance as well, that has been seriously studied over the past several decades, is to replace the existing strap-on four segment solid rocket boosters (SRB's) with more capable units. A number of booster upgrade options have been studied in some detail, ranging from five segment solids through hybrids and a wide variety of liquid strap-ons (both pressure and pump fed with various propellants); all the way to a completely reusable liquid fly back booster (complete with air breathing engines for controlled landing and return). All of these possibilities appear to offer improvements in varying degrees; and each has their strengths and weaknesses from both programmatic and technical points of view. The most beneficial booster upgrade/design, if the shuttle program were to continue long enough to justify the required investment, would be an approach that greatly increased both vehicle and crew safety. This would be accomplished by increasing the minimum range/minimum altitude envelope that would readily allow abort to orbit (ATO), possibly even to zero/zero, and possibly reduce or eliminate the Return to Launch Site (RTLS) and even the Trans Atlantic Landing (TAL) abort mode requirements. This paper will briefly survey and discuss all of the various booster'upgrade options studied previously, and compare their relative attributes. The survey will explicitly discuss, in summary comparative form, options that include: five segment solids; several hybrid possibilities; pressure and/or pump-fed liquids using either LO2/kerosene, H2O/kerosene and LO2/J2, any of which could be either fully expendable, partly or fully reusable; and finally a fully reusable liquid fly back booster system, with a number of propellant and propulsion system options

  18. Searching for Intermediate Mass Black Holes with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Laleh; Wade, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are conjectured to occupy the mass space between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes, roughly between 100 and 105 solar masses. The coalescence and merger of IMBH binaries with masses of a few hundred solar masses is an intriguing possible source of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. A single detection of an IMBH binary merger would provide the first unambiguous proof of IMBH existence. Searches for these sources have started on data collected by the Advanced LIGO since September 2015. In this talk I will present a search method for these sources in the advanced detector era, based on known signal morphology.

  19. Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

  20. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  1. Singingfish: Advancing the Art of Multimedia Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Singingfish provides multimedia search services that enable Internet users to locate audio and video online. Over the last few years, the company has cataloged and indexed over 30 million streams and downloadable MP3s, with 150,000 to 250,000 more being added weekly. This article discusses a deal with Microsoft; the technology; improving the…

  2. Advanced-to-Revolutionary Space Technology Options - The Responsibly Imaginable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Paper summarizes a spectrum of low TRL, high risk technologies and systems approaches which could massively change the cost and safety of space exploration/exploitation/industrialization. These technologies and approaches could be studied in a triage fashion, the method of evaluation wherein several prospective solutions are investigated in parallel to address the innate risk of each, with resources concentrated on the more successful as more is learned. Technology areas addressed include Fabrication, Materials, Energetics, Communications, Propulsion, Radiation Protection, ISRU and LEO access. Overall and conceptually it should be possible with serious research to enable human space exploration beyond LEO both safe and affordable with a design process having sizable positive margins. Revolutionary goals require, generally, revolutionary technologies. By far, Revolutionary Energetics is the most important, has the most leverage, of any advanced technology for space exploration applications.

  3. Advanced LIGO low-latency searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Advanced LIGO recently made the first detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes. The signal was first identified by a low-latency analysis, which identifies gravitational-wave transients within a few minutes of data collection. More generally, Advanced LIGO transients are sought with a suite of automated tools, which collectively identify events, evaluate statistical significance, estimate source position, and attempt to characterize source properties. This low-latency effort is enabling a broad multi-messenger approach to the science of compact object mergers and other transients. This talk will give an overview of the low-latency methodology and recent results.

  4. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  5. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  6. Advanced IFSAR for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Duane; Rogers, George W.; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    One of the most promising tools for airborne SAR search and rescue is the use of interferometric techniques such as wavenumber filtering. These techniques make possible extremely accurate information extraction from SAR image pairs. The potential gain in accuracy is significant, since accuracy of measurements can theoretically be determined to within a wavelength (centimeter accuracy) as opposed to a pixel distance (meters). This paper presents the latest interferometric SAR (IFSAR) processing algorithms developed by the authors, along with examples of their use on actual data.

  7. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  8. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation. PMID:11676438

  9. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  10. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  11. 77 FR 59998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Relating to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Relating to the Margining of Segregated Futures Customer Accounts on a Gross Basis September 25, 2012. Pursuant to Section... change would allow OCC to become compliant with Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') Rule...

  12. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  13. Overview of Advanced LIGO searches for unmodeled transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanner, Jonah; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Sources of gravitational wave transients may include some of the most energetic events in the universe, including mergers of neutron stars and/or black holes, the core-collapse of massive stars, and cosmic string cusps. A network of modern gravitational wave detectors, including Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, might soon be capable of observing these sources. Separating these signals from detector noise requires specialized algorithms, which are run both in low-latency and on archived data. In this talk, we describe the all-time, all-sky search for unmodeled transients during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO.

  14. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  15. Integrating first-line treatment options into clinical practice: what's new in advanced melanoma?

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ascierto, Paolo A; Larkin, James; Lebbé, Celeste; Hauschild, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma remains a serious form of skin cancer in Europe and worldwide. Localized, early-stage melanomas can usually be treated with surgical excision. However, the prognosis is poorer for patients with advanced disease. Before 2011, treatment for advanced melanoma included palliative surgery and/or radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy, such as interleukin-2. As none of these treatments had shown survival benefits in patients with advanced melanoma, European guidelines had recommended that patients be entered into clinical trials. The lack of approved first-line options and varying access to clinical trials meant that European clinicians relied on experimental regimens and chemotherapy-based treatments when no other options were available. Since 2011, ipilimumab, an immuno-oncology therapy, and vemurafenib and dabrafenib, targeted agents that inhibit mutant BRAF, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of advanced melanoma. More recently, the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, received European marketing authorization for use in patients with BRAF mutation-positive advanced melanoma. In 2014, the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab was approved as a first-line therapy in Japan. Whereas nivolumab and another anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, were approved as second-line therapies in the USA, their recent approval in Europe are for first-line use based on new clinical trial data in this setting. Together these agents are changing clinical practice and making therapeutic decisions more complex. Here, we discuss current and emerging therapeutic options for the first-line treatment of advanced melanoma, and how these therapies can be optimized to provide the best possible outcomes for patients. PMID:26426764

  16. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  17. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  19. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  20. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  1. [Therapy options in the case of advanced therapy resistant Morbus Parkinson].

    PubMed

    Hakimi, R

    2010-12-01

    In Germany about 300,000 to 400,000 people are suffering from Morbus Parkinson at present. It is one of the most common neurological diseases both in Germany and in Europe as a whole. With the rising number of elderly people in our population, the number of Parkinson patients will strongly increase as well in future. About 20% of these patients are already in an advanced stage. This stage leaves its marks with motor and non-motor sequelae. With the minority of these patients oral medication is ineffective. For these relatively rare cases an indication for an L-dopa-infusion therapy (duodopa pump), an apomorphine pump therapy or a deep brain stimulation may exist. The indication for one of these 3 therapy forms is given by the neurological clinic in agreement with the patient and is only given in case of failure of oral medication. All 3 therapy options are very expensive. In case of the deep brain stimulation, close cooperation between the neurologist and the neurosurgeon as well as with the patient is necessary. Experts warn about a transplantation of stem cells because there are no clinical studies and only partial clinical improvement with severe side effects are known. The transplantation of stem cells for advanced Morbus Parkinson is not a medically necessary treatment at present.

  2. Working Options: How To Plan Your Job Search, Your Work Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes a self-directed job-search plan that works for older adults. First, the publication contrasts a self-directed job search with a typical job search. Then the brochure outlines the basic steps the job seeker needs to take: (1) assessing oneself with regard to interests, skills, work environment, and potential employment…

  3. Radio Searches for Signatures of Advanced Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Andrew

    Over the last several decades, observational astronomy has produced a flood of discoveries that suggest that the building blocks and circumstances that gave rise to life on Earth may be the rule rather than the exception. It has now been conclusively shown that planets are common and that some 5-15% of FGKM stars host planets existing in their host star's habitable zone. Further, terrestrial biology has demonstrated that life on our own planet can thrive in extraordinarily extreme environments, dramatically extending our notion of what constitutes habitability. The deeper question, yet unanswered, is whether or not life in any form has ever existed in an environment outside of the Earth. As humans, we are drawn to an even more profound question, that of whether or not extraterrestrial life may have evolved a curiosity about the universe similar to our own and the technology with which to explore it. Radio astronomy has long played a prominent role in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), beginning with the first suggestions by Cocconi and Morrison (1959) that narrow-band radio signals near 1420 MHz might be effective tracers of advanced technology and early experiments along these lines by Frank Drake in 1961, continuing through to more recent investigations searching for several types of coherent radio signals indicative of technology at a wider range of frequencies. The motivations for radio searches for extraterrestrial intelligence have been throughly discussed in the literature, but the salient arguments are the following: 1. coherent radio emission is commonly produced by advanced technology (judging by Earth’s technological development), 2. electromagnetic radiation can convey information at the maximum velocity currently known to be possible, 3. radio photons are energetically cheap to produce, 4. certain types of coherent radio emissions are easily distinguished from astrophysical background sources, especially within the so

  4. Combining controlled-vocabulary and free-text search options in order to enhance the retrieval of metadata for access to environmental data

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, R.L.; Northcutt, R.T.

    1997-08-01

    NASA`s Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) is an online service which assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to environmental data. The GCMD consists of a relational database with over 3600 descriptions of data from over 650 data centers worldwide. Over 35% of the data descriptions are related to marine and coastal environments, representing both remotely-sensed and in-situ data. In addition to oceanography, the GCMD features data descriptions in meteorology, ecology, hydrology and geology, thereby facilitating interdisciplinary searches for data. Two search interfaces allow users to retrieve the descriptions: one uses controlled vocabulary, the other permits the input of free-text. The offering of search options presents the opportunity to test user preferences and search successes. For one month in which user accesses were analyzed, users retrieved information more often using the free-text search option than with the controlled search option.

  5. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 3. advanced searching, MeSH and My NCBI.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Although the basic PubMed search is often helpful, the results may sometimes be non-specific. For more control over the search process you can use the Advanced Search Builder interface. This allows a targeted search in specific fields, with the convenience of being able to select the intended search field from a list. It also provides a history of your previous searches. The search history is useful to develop a complex search query by combining several previous searches using Boolean operators. For indexing the articles in MEDLINE, the NLM uses a controlled vocabulary system called MeSH. This standardised vocabulary solves the problem of authors, researchers and librarians who may use different terms for the same concept. To be efficient in a PubMed search, you should start by identifying the most appropriate MeSH terms and use them in your search where possible. My NCBI is a personal workspace facility available through PubMed and makes it possible to customise the PubMed interface. It provides various capabilities that can enhance your search performance.

  6. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. PMID:25847169

  7. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested.

  8. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way about 20 years in several countries throughout the world. During the past decade in France and the United Kingdom, active development programs have been carried out in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the EBR-II facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. Germany and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in all of these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper will focus principally on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  9. The search for advanced remote technology in fast reactor reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Herndon, J.N.; Stradley, J.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Research and development in fast reactor reprocessing has been under way [approximately] 20 yr in several countries. During the past decade, France and the United Kingdom have developed active programs in breeder reprocessing. Actual fuels from their demonstration reactors have been reprocessed in small-scale facilities. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels. A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and Japan have also carried out development programs in breeder reprocessing, and Japan appears committed to major demonstration of breeder reactors and their fuel cycles. While much of the effort in these programs addressed process chemistry and process hardware, a significant element of many of these programs, particularly the CFRP, has been on advancements in facility concepts and remote maintenance features. This paper focuses on the search for improved facility concepts and better maintenance systems in the CFRP, and, in turn, on how developments at ORNL have influenced the technology elsewhere.

  10. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  11. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  12. Analysis of fuel options for the breakeven core configuration of the Advanced Recycling Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stauff, N.E.; Klim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Fiorina, C.; Franceschini, F.

    2013-07-01

    A trade-off study is performed to determine the impacts of various fuel forms on the core design and core physics characteristics of the sodium-cooled Toshiba- Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). The fuel forms include oxide, nitride, and metallic forms of U and Th. The ARR core configuration is redesigned with driver and blanket regions in order to achieve breakeven fissile breeding performance with the various fuel types. State-of-the-art core physics tools are used for the analyses. In addition, a quasi-static reactivity balance approach is used for a preliminary comparison of the inherent safety performances of the various fuel options. Thorium-fueled cores exhibit lower breeding ratios and require larger blankets compared to the U-fueled cores, which is detrimental to core compactness and increases reprocessing and manufacturing requirements. The Th cores also exhibit higher reactivity swings through each cycle, which penalizes reactivity control and increases the number of control rods required. On the other hand, using Th leads to drastic reductions in void and coolant expansion coefficients of reactivity, with the potential for enhancing inherent core safety. Among the U-fueled ARR cores, metallic and nitride fuels result in higher breeding ratios due to their higher heavy metal densities. On the other hand, oxide fuels provide a softer spectrum, which increases the Doppler effect and reduces the positive sodium void worth. A lower fuel temperature is obtained with the metallic and nitride fuels due to their higher thermal conductivities and compatibility with sodium bonds. This is especially beneficial from an inherent safety point of view since it facilitates the reactor cool-down during loss of power removal transients. The advantages in terms of inherent safety of nitride and metallic fuels are maintained when using Th fuel. However, there is a lower relative increase in heavy metal density and in breeding ratio going from oxide to metallic

  13. 78 FR 41161 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Options. \\7\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 68434 (Dec. 14, 2012), 77 FR 75243 (Dec. 19, 2012) (SR-OCC-2012... modeling of all longer-tenor options under STANS, thereby enhancing OCC's ability to set margin... management practices are adequate for current clearing activity, OCC proposes to implement risk...

  14. Observational program options and system requirements for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence /SETI/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Wolfe, J. H.; Edelson, R. E.; Gulkis, S.; Sadin, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility that intelligent life may be widespread in the universe is now being investigated. A formula for estimating the number of coexisting communicative civilizations has been developed by Drake. A good way of conducting a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is to examine the microwave window of the electromagnetic spectrum for narrow-band signals which such civilizations may be transmitting. Two specific search strategies are described. Both employ existing antennas equipped with sophisticated multichannel spectrum analyzers and pattern recognition devices. The Ames Research Center proposal is a high sensitivity, high-resolution search of nearby promising stars and selected sky areas in the 'water hole' (1400-1727 MHz). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory proposal is for a survey of most of the sky over a significant portion of the free-space microwave window at lower sensitivities and resolutions. The approaches are complementary and both are being pursued. The consummation of these programs could achieve one of the most profound discoveries in the history of human civilization, or at least will show the way to future efforts.

  15. Advanced directives. In search of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Flarey, D L

    1991-11-01

    Patients are seeking self-determination in health-care through the use of advanced directives. The author discusses advanced directives focusing on patient rights in decision making, autonomy, and the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment. Highlighted is the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, including strategies for its implementation in healthcare agencies.

  16. The ``Uberbank'': A search for compact binary coalescences in the first Observing run of Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capano, Collin; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Modeled searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence (CBC) use a ``bank'' of template waveforms to search the wide range of parameters that binaries may have. Recent advances in waveform modeling and template placement techniques have opened up the possibility to efficiently search for systems with non-precessing spin, using waveforms that model the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of coalescing binaries. I discuss how these advances were combined to produce the template bank used to search for CBCs in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. This bank covered the full range of plausible masses and non-precessing spins of binary neutron stars, stellar-mass binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole.

  17. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  18. 77 FR 59431 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... OTC options. \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-66090 (January 3, 2012), 77 FR 1107 (January 9... Trade Submission Mechanics MarkitSERV provides an interface to OCC that allows OCC to receive messages... No. 34-39829 (April 13, 1998), 63 FR 17943 (April 13, 1998). The...

  19. 78 FR 77181 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Advance Notice Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... corporate governance of OCC and recommend improvements to OCC's Board. The GC Charter describes the role the... Governance Committee Charter December 16, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act... Terms of Substance of the Advance Notice This advance notice concerns the charter of the...

  20. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, Leslie A; Sharfman, William H

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA)-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. PMID:26604681

  1. An evaluation of disposal and utilization options for advanced coal utilization wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    If the US is to continue to effectively use its substantial coal reserves, new clean coal technologies must be developed to improve power production efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants. In order to gain information about wastes produced by advanced coal utilization processes, a research project is being conducted to characterize the geotechnical and geochemical properties of advanced coal process wastes. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) analyzed 34 of these wastes for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and for the disposal-related physical properties listed in a table. This paper discusses potentially useful waste management practices for eight bulk waste samples obtained from four different clean coal processes: gas reburning with sorbent injection (GRSI); pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC); SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX (SNRB); and coal reburning (CR). All four processes have been demonstrated at either full-scale or pilot-scale facilities in the US. Since the properties of advanced process wastes are different from conventional coal combustion wastes, an analysis was performed to identify any potential problems that could occur when standard, off-the-shelf waste management technologies are used for handling and disposal of advanced process wastes. When potential problems were identified, possible alternative technologies were evaluated.

  2. Coherent search for gravitational wave transients in the first advanced LIGO run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, Sergey; Ligo Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Recently LIGO detectors have been upgraded, targeting detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. Advanced LIGO performed the first observing run in September, 2015 - January, 2016 at almost three times better strain sensitivity than the initial detectors. We describe a baseline search for generic gravitational wave transients conducted during the first observing run. The search pipeline coherently combines data from all detectors and identifies gravitational wave candidates with a few minutes latency. By using the constrained likelihood method, it reconstructs signal waveform and finds a source location in the sky. We present the status of the search, the performance of the search algorithm, and extensive studies of the background due to environmental and instrumental transient events. Supported by NSF.

  3. Advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and treatment options: critical appraisal of trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Desar, Ingrid M E; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jones, Robin L; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2016-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare solid tumors of mesenchymal origin. This paper reviews the current status of systemic treatment in advanced and metastatic soft tissue sarcomas, with an emphasis on trabectedin. Trabectedin is a unique type of chemotherapeutic agent with multiple potential mechanisms of action. We discuss the putative mechanisms, as well as the toxicity and administration schedules of trabectedin, followed by its efficacy in first-line systemic therapy and beyond first-line systemic therapy. PMID:27574465

  4. Immunological Treatment Options for Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Cunha, Nicholas D’; Tijani, Lukman; Nguyen, Diane; Cordero, Joehassin; Jenkins, Marjorie R.; Cobos, Everardo; Kast, W. Martin; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are usually treated by a multimodal approach with surgery and/or radiochemotherapy as the mainstay of local–regional treatment in cases with advanced disease. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of causing severe side effects, while the clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with HNSCC has remained essentially unchanged over the last decade. The potential of immunotherapy is still largely unexplored. Here the authors review the current status of the art and discuss the future challenges in HNSCC treatment and prevention. PMID:22251006

  5. Regenerative medicine and hair loss: how hair follicle culture has advanced our understanding of treatment options for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Claire A; Christiano, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Many of the current drug therapies for androgenetic alopecia were discovered serendipitously, with hair growth observed as an off-target effect when drugs were used to treat a different disorder. Subsequently, several studies using cultured cells have enabled identification of hair growth modulators with similar properties to the currently available drugs, which may also provide clinical benefit. In situations where the current therapeutics do not work, follicular unit transplantation is an alternative surgical option. More recently, the concept of follicular cell implantation, or hair follicle neogenesis, has been attempted, exploiting the inherent properties of cultured hair follicle cells to induce de novo hair growth in balding scalp. In this review, we discuss both the advances in cell culture techniques that have led to a wider range of potential therapeutics to promote hair growth, in addition to detailing current knowledge on follicular cell implantation, and the challenges in making this approach a reality.

  6. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  7. Refined Exploration of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the turbofan engine design space for an advanced technology single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) was conducted previously by the authors and is documented in a prior report. Through the course of that study and in a subsequent evaluation of the approach and results, a number of enhancements to the engine design ground rules and assumptions were identified. A follow-on effort was initiated to investigate the impacts of these changes on the original study results. The fundamental conclusions of the prior study were found to still be valid with the revised engine designs. The most significant impact of the design changes was a reduction in the aircraft weight and block fuel penalties incurred with low fan pressure ratio, ultra-high bypass ratio designs. This enables lower noise levels to be pursued (through lower fan pressure ratio) with minor negative impacts on aircraft weight and fuel efficiency. Regardless of the engine design selected, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  8. Advances in the understanding of plaque composition and treatment options: year in review.

    PubMed

    Tomey, Matthew I; Narula, Jagat; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-04-29

    Atherosclerosis research has classically followed 2 intertwining lines of investigation concerning atherosclerosis as a local process (the "high-risk plaque") and as a systemic disease (the "high-risk patient"). Over time, the weight of attention has swung, like a pendulum, between these 2 related foci. With optimal medical therapy and attention to risk factors firmly established as fundamental aspects of management, in the past year, we have nevertheless perceived a shift in the pendulum toward renewed focus on the local plaque. We contend that this shift results from a convergence of major advances in understanding the biology of plaque progression, novel sophisticated invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities for the in vivo characterization of plaque composition and inflammation, and emerging data and technologies that have renewed interest in locally targeted interventions. Here, we review the dynamic and exciting progress that has occurred over the last 12 months in this arena, while acknowledging future work that remains to be done to refine and validate new imaging modalities and therapies.

  9. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  10. Default options in advance directives: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gabler, Nicole B; Cooney, Elizabeth; Small, Dylan S; Troxel, Andrea B; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B; Angus, Derek C; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin G; Bryce, Cindy L; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although most seriously ill Americans wish to avoid burdensome and aggressive care at the end of life, such care is often provided unless patients or family members specifically request otherwise. Advance directives (ADs) were created to provide opportunities to set limits on aggressive care near life's end. This study tests the hypothesis that redesigning ADs such that comfort-oriented care is provided as the default, rather than requiring patients to actively choose it, will promote better patient-centred outcomes. Methods and analysis This multicentre trial randomises seriously ill adults to receive 1 of 3 different ADs: (1) a traditional AD that requires patients to actively choose their goals of care or preferences for specific interventions (eg, feeding tube insertion) or otherwise have their care guided by their surrogates and the prevailing societal default toward aggressive care; (2) an AD that defaults to life-extending care and receipt of life-sustaining interventions, enabling patients to opt out from such care; or (3) an AD that defaults to comfort care, enabling patients to opt into life-extending care. We seek to enrol 270 patients who return complete, legally valid ADs so as to generate sufficient power to detect differences in the primary outcome of hospital-free days (days alive and not in an acute care facility). Secondary outcomes include hospital and intensive care unit admissions, costs of care, hospice usage, decision conflict and satisfaction, quality of life, concordance of preferences with care received and bereavement outcomes for surrogates of patients who die. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Boards at all trial centres, and is guided by a data safety and monitoring board and an ethics advisory board. Study results will be disseminated using methods that describe the results in ways that key stakeholders can best understand and implement. Trial registration number NCT02017548

  11. Trastuzumab: a novel standard option for patients with HER-2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, David

    2012-01-01

    The human epidermal receptor-2 (HER-2) is amplified in up to 25% of patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. Although the presence of this amplification does not appear to confer a poor prognosis, it provides a valuable novel therapeutic target for this group of patients. Trastuzumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed at HER-2 which binds the external domain of the receptor and exerts its action via a combination of antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, reduced shedding of the extracellular domain, inhibition of dimerization and possibly receptor downregulation. The ToGA trial was an international multicentre randomized phase III study which evaluated the addition of trastuzumab to a cisplatin plus fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy doublet in 594 patients with HER-2-positive advanced gastric or oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. The combination of the antibody with chemotherapy significantly improved response rate, median progression-free survival and median overall survival without additional toxicity or adversely affecting quality of life. Accordingly, trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is now a standard first-line treatment option for patients with advanced HER-2-positive gastroesophageal cancer. Unfortunately, many patients with HER-2-positive cancer exhibit primary resistance to trastuzumab and the remainder will acquire resistance to the antibody; therefore, urgent investigation into novel agents which may circumvent resistance mechanisms is warranted. Small molecule inhibitors of HER-2, which commonly also target other members of the HER family of receptors, such as EGFR and HER-3, are currently undergoing evaluation in gastroesophageal cancer as first-line alternatives to trastuzumab and second-line salvage treatments for trastuzumab-resistant disease. Extrapolating the successful use of trastuzumab in the advanced disease setting, clinical trials are underway to assess the role of this antibody in the perioperative and adjuvant settings

  12. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  13. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  14. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Option 3: 110 1Bf Ir-Re Rocket, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  15. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  16. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  17. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  18. 78 FR 30944 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of an Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... service bureaus and learned that a significant majority of those surveyed are currently ready to move to... the prohibition against exercising an American-style option contract on the business day prior to...

  19. Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEOs): A European Seventh Framework Project to Develop Advanced Permanent Magnets Without, or with Reduced Use of, Critical Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcguiness, P.; Akdogan, O.; Asali, A.; Bance, S.; Bittner, F.; Coey, J. M. D.; Dempsey, N. M.; Fidler, J.; Givord, D.; Gutfleisch, O.; Katter, M.; Le Roy, D.; Sanvito, S.; Schrefl, T.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbl, C.; Soderžnik, M.; Šturm, S.; Tozman, P.; Üstüner, K.; Venkatesan, M.; Woodcock, T. G.; Žagar, K.; Kobe, S.

    2015-06-01

    The rare-earth crisis, which peaked in the summer of 2011 with the prices of both light and heavy rare earths soaring to unprecedented levels, brought about the widespread realization that the long-term availability and price stability of rare earths could not be guaranteed. This triggered a rapid response from manufacturers involved in rare earths, as well as governments and national and international funding agencies. In the case of rare-earth-containing permanent magnets, three possibilities were given quick and serious consideration: (I) increased recycling of devices containing rare earths; (II) the search for new, mineable, rare-earth resources beyond those in China; and (III) the development of high-energy-product permanent magnets with little or no rare-earth content used in their manufacture. The Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEO) project addresses the latter challenge using a two-pronged approach. With its basis on work packages that include materials modeling and advanced characterization, the ROMEO project is an attempt to develop a new class of novel permanent magnets that are free of rare earths. Furthermore, the project aims to minimize rare-earth content, particularly heavy-rare-earth (HRE) content, as much as possible in Nd-Fe-B-type magnets. Success has been achieved on both fronts. In terms of new, rare-earth-free magnets, a Heusler alloy database of 236,945 compounds has been narrowed down to approximately 20 new compounds. Of these compounds, Co2MnTi is expected to be a ferromagnet with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetic moment. Regarding the reduction in the amount of rare earths, and more specifically HREs, major progress is seen in electrophoretic deposition as a method for accurately positioning the HRE on the surface prior to its diffusion into the microstructure. This locally increases the coercivity of the rather small Nd-Fe-B-type magnet, thereby substantially reducing the dependence on the HREs Dy and

  20. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing.

  1. Genetic Counselors' and Genetic Counseling Students' Attitudes Around the Clinical Doctorate and Other Advanced Educational Options for Genetic Counselors: A Report from the Genetic Counseling Advanced Degree Task Force.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Rebecca; Peay, Holly; Hicks, Melissa; Kloos, Jacqueline; Westman, Rachel; Conway, Laura; Finucane, Brenda; Fitzpatrick, Jennifer; Gordon, Erynn; Ramos, Erica; Sekhon-Warren, Jaspreet; Silver, Josh; Walton, Carol; Reiser, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Since its establishment over 40 years ago, the genetic counseling profession has grown to an estimated ~4,000 professionals in North America. While the profession has maintained the Master's degree as the entry-level and terminal degree, many other allied health professions have added advanced training pathways, such as the clinical doctorate (ClinD) either as an optional post-professional degree or required entry-level degree. Discussions regarding advanced degrees have also occurred within the genetic counseling profession, dating back to as early as the 1980s. In 2011, the Genetic Counseling Advanced Degree Task Force (GCADTF) was convened to explore the issue again, with the goal of "[engaging] all of the professional leadership organizations in the field of genetic counseling in a decision-making process about whether the profession should move to a Clinical Doctorate". As part of their work, the GCADTF surveyed practicing genetic counselors (n = 4,321) and genetic counseling students (n = 522) in the US and Canada regarding their interest in moving to the ClinD as the entry-level degree. This survey also included questions about other options for advanced training to generate data to inform future discussions around this very important professional issue. Herein, we describe the results of the survey, with particular attention to genetic counselor preferences for additional advanced education/certification opportunities and recommendations for future discussion. PMID:25352337

  2. PANMIN: sequential and parallel global optimization procedures with a variety of options for the local search strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theos, F. V.; Lagaris, I. E.; Papageorgiou, D. G.

    2004-05-01

    We present two sequential and one parallel global optimization codes, that belong to the stochastic class, and an interface routine that enables the use of the Merlin/MCL environment as a non-interactive local optimizer. This interface proved extremely important, since it provides flexibility, effectiveness and robustness to the local search task that is in turn employed by the global procedures. We demonstrate the use of the parallel code to a molecular conformation problem. Program summaryTitle of program: PANMIN Catalogue identifier: ADSU Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSU Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: PANMIN is designed for UNIX machines. The parallel code runs on either shared memory architectures or on a distributed system. The code has been tested on a SUN Microsystems ENTERPRISE 450 with four CPUs, and on a 48-node cluster under Linux, with both the GNU g77 and the Portland group compilers. The parallel implementation is based on MPI and has been tested with LAM MPI and MPICH Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece Programming language used: Fortran-77 Memory required to execute with typical data: Approximately O( n2) words, where n is the number of variables No. of bits in a word: 64 No. of processors used: 1 or many Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Parallelized using MPI No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147163 No. of lines in distributed program, including the test data, etc.: 14366 Distribution format: gzipped tar file Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be

  3. Effect of advanced location methods on search and rescue duration for general aviation aircraft accidents in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization ceasing satellite monitoring for 121.5 MHz ELTs in 2009 was factored into the study. Additionally, the effect of using radar forensic analysis and cellular phone forensic search methods were also assessed. The study's data was derived from an Air Force Rescue Coordination Center database and included 365 historical general aviation search and rescue missions conducted between 2006 and 2011. Highly skewed data was transformed to meet normality requirements for parametric testing. The significance of each ELT model was assessed using a combination of Brown-Forsythe Means Testing or Orthogonal Contrast Testing. ANOVA and Brown-Forsythe Means testing was used to evaluate cellular phone and radar forensic search methods. A Spearman's Rho test was used to determine if the use of multiple search methods produced an additive effect in search efficiency. Aircraft which utilized an Emergency Locator Transmitter resulted in a shorter search duration than those which did not use such devices. Aircraft utilizing GPS-Aided 406 MHz ELTs appeared to require less time to locate than if equipped with other ELT models, however, this assessment requires further study due to limited data. Aircraft equipped with 406 MHz ELTs required slightly less time to locate than aircraft equipped with older 121.5 MHz ELTs. The study found no substantial difference in the search durations for 121.5 MHz ELTs monitored by COSPAS-SARSAT verses those which were not. Significance testing revealed that the use of cellular phone forensic data and radar forensic data both resulted in substantially higher mission search durations. Some possible explanations for this

  4. Librarian-lead tutorial for enhancement of pharmacy students' information-searching skills in advanced experiential rotations.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana

    2009-10-01

    Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.

  5. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  6. A dark energy camera search for an optical counterpart to the first advanced LIGO gravitational wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGES

    Soares-Santos, M.

    2016-05-27

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg2 area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4–5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images throughmore » a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg2, corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4–5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i – z) = 1, 0, –1, respectively. Lastly, our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.« less

  7. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Santos, M.; Kessler, R.; Berger, E.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brown, D. A.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Chornock, R.; Crocce, M.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fairhurst, S.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Kuehn, K.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; McMahon, R. G.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Sutton, P. J.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; The DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg2 area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4–5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg2, corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4–5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i ‑ z) = 1, 0, ‑1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  8. Evaluation of dynamic target options for dual axis radiography hydrotest facility II (DARHT II) and advanced hydrotest facility (AHF) programs

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M; Neurath, R; Sampayan, S; Sanders, D

    1999-03-01

    Initial results indicate that electron beams hitting targets used to generate x-rays during multipulse operation in advanced radiography facilities will generate plasma plumes which will disturb the electron beam during subsequent pulses. This, in turn, degrades the x-ray spot quality generated by the subsequent pulses. If this concern is substantiated, new facilities such as the Dual Axia Radiography Hydrotest Facility (DARHT II) and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) will need a provision for mitigating this effect. one such provision involves moving the target with sufficient velocity that any plasmas formed are carried adequately far from the electron beam that they do not disturb it. They report the various approaches which have been considered and present data showing the maximum target rates which can be achieved with each approach.

  9. Role of regorafenib as second-line therapy and landscape of investigational treatment options in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jörg; Waidmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is still the only systemic drug approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, several investigational agents mainly targeting angiogenesis failed in late-phase clinical development due to either toxicity or lack of benefit. Recently, data of the RESORCE trial, a placebo-controlled Phase III study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC and documented disease progression after systemic first-line treatment with sorafenib, were presented at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, 2016. Regorafenib treatment resulted in a 2.8-month survival benefit compared to placebo (10.6 months vs 7.8 months). Side effects were consistent with the known profile of regorafenib. The approval of regorafenib for this indication is expected in 2017. Further candidate agents in Phase III evaluation for second-line treatment of patients with HCC are the MET inhibitors tivantinib and cabozantinib, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody ramucirumab, and the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blocking antibody pembrolizumab. Furthermore, results from two first-line trials with either the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lenvatinib or the PD-1 antibody nivolumabin in comparison to sorafenib are awaited in the near future and might further change the treatment sequence of advanced HCC. PMID:27703962

  10. Our Sky Now and Then: Searches for Lost Stars and Impossible Effects as Probes of Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Inigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-09-01

    Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ∼10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ < 20 mas yr‑1) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ∼290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

  11. Our Sky Now and Then: Searches for Lost Stars and Impossible Effects as Probes of Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Imaz, Inigo; Bergstedt, Josefine

    2016-09-01

    Searches for extraterrestrial intelligence using large survey data often look for possible signatures of astroengineering. We propose searching for physically impossible effects caused by highly advanced technology by carrying out a search for disappearing galaxies and Milky Way stars. We select ˜10 million objects from USNO-B1.0 with low proper motions (μ < 20 mas yr-1) imaged on the sky in two epochs. We search for objects not found at the expected positions in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by visually examining images of ˜290,000 USNO-B1.0 objects with no counterpart in the SDSS. We identify some spurious targets in the USNO-B1.0. We find one candidate of interest for follow-up photometry, although it is very uncertain. If the candidate eventually is found, it defines the probability of observing a disappearing-object event in the last decade to less than one in one million in the given samples. Nevertheless, because the complete USNO-B1.0 data set is 100 times larger than any of our samples, we propose an easily accessible citizen science project in search of USNO-B1.0 objects that have disappeared from the SDSS.

  12. PRL advanced radial-velocity all-sky search (PARAS): an efficient fiber-fed spectrograph for planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Richardson, Eric Harvey; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2008-07-01

    We present here the optical design of an efficient Fiber-fed, Prism Cross-dispersed, Echelle Spectrograph (Resolution ~70,000 @seeing limited ~2arcsecs conditions) which will operate in the wavelength region of 3700A to 8100A. It will be used for extra-solar planets searches down to the precision of 3m/s and as well as for follow-up observations for new transit discoveries. The spectrograph design is such that with a beam size of 100mm (4inch) it should suit the existing 1 to 2m class of telescopes available in India. The fiber-fed spectrograph will be installed with a 1.2m telescope, which is situated at Mt. Abu (5800feet), Rajasthan, India. We estimate the spectrograph to be >30% efficient from the slit to the CCD detector, and up to 15% efficient including sky, telescope, fiber-fed optics etc. We expect to reach the S/N ratio of 70 on a 10mag star for an integration time of 40mins. We aim to achieve 5m/s to 3m/s Radial Velocity accuracies on such a star using the simultaneous ThAr referencing method. Since thermal stability is absolutely necessary to achieve <5m/s RV accuracies, the whole spectrograph is planned to be kept inside a vibration free isolated tank under low vacuum (0.001 mbar) in a thermally isolated room at 28C +/- 0.01C. It should see the first light by the summer of 2009. We are guaranteed at least 120 nights per year for the planet search program, more nights are possible.

  13. Internet Power Searching: The Advanced Manual. 2nd Edition. Neal-Schuman NetGuide Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Phil

    This handbook provides information on how Internet search engines and related software and utilities work and how to use them in order to improve search techniques. The book begins with an introduction to the Internet. Part 1 contains the following chapters that cover mining the Internet for information: "An Introduction to Search…

  14. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  15. Microfocusing options for the inelastic X-ray scattering beamline at sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Alsmadi, A M; Alatas, A; Zhao, J Y; Hu, M Y; Yan, L; Alp, E E

    2014-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation from third-generation high-brilliance storage rings is an ideal source for X-ray microbeams. The aim of this paper is to describe a microfocusing scheme that combines both a toroidal mirror and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors for upgrading the existing optical system for inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source. SHADOW ray-tracing simulations without considering slope errors of both the toroidal mirror and KB mirrors show that this combination can provide a beam size of 4.5 µm (H) × 0.6 µm (V) (FWHM) at the end of the existing D-station (66 m from the source) with use of full beam transmission of up to 59%, and a beam size of 3.7 µm (H) × 0.46 µm (V) (FWHM) at the front-end of the proposed E-station (68 m from the source) with a transmission of up to 52%. A beam size of about 5 µm (H) × 1 µm (V) can be obtained, which is close to the ideal case, by using high-quality mirrors (with slope errors of less than 0.5 µrad r.m.s.). Considering the slope errors of the existing toroidal and KB mirrors (5 and 2.9 µrad r.m.s., respectively), the beam size grows to about 13.5 µm (H) × 6.3 µm (V) at the end of the D-station and to 12.0 µm (H) × 6.0 µm (V) at the front-end of the proposed E-station. The simulations presented here are compared with the experimental measurements that are significantly larger than the theoretical values even when slope error is included in the simulations. This is because of the experimental set-up that could not yet be optimized.

  16. What Top-Down Task Sets Do for Us: An ERP Study on the Benefits of Advance Preparation in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Nicholas, Susan

    2011-01-01

    When target-defining features are specified in advance, attentional target selection in visual search is controlled by preparatory top-down task sets. We used ERP measures to study voluntary target selection in the absence of such feature-specific task sets, and to compare it to selection that is guided by advance knowledge about target features.…

  17. Classifying glitches and improving data quality of Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Powell, Jade; Trifiro, Daniele; Heng, Ik Siong; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Noise of non-astrophysical origin contaminates science data taken by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Characterization of instrumental and environmental noise transients has proven critical in identifying false positives in the first aLIGO observing run O1. In this talk, we present three algorithms designed for the automatic classification of non-astrophysical transients in advanced detectors. Principal Component Analysis for Transients (PCAT) and an adaptation of LALInference Burst (LIB) are based on Principal Component Analysis. The third algorithm is a combination of a glitch finder called Wavelet Detection Filter (WDF) and machine learning techniques for classification. PCAT was used in O1 and earlier engineering runs to identify and characterize observed noise transients in aLIGO data. LIB and WDF are expected to join the quest in the upcoming aLIGO-Advanced Virgo observing run O2. NSF PHY-1404139.

  18. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular.

  19. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing, Exchanging and Searching in E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pietro, Orlando; Appratto, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    In this article we explain a semantic analysis model derived from neural networks and pattern classification experiences, based on keyword sets. This model can be used for searching, analyzing, and composing documents in e-learning systems and for permitting inter-platform collaboration and data exchange. In particular, we explain some searching…

  20. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular. PMID:26065982

  1. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Job Search Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Joan S.

    This module is one of a series developed by Project TEAM (Technical Education Advancement Modules), a cooperative demonstration program for high technology training for unemployed, underemployed, and existing industrial employees needing upgrading. This module is a 3-hour overview course intended to develop competencies in the following job search…

  2. Options Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1974-01-01

    Urges the practice of providing optional assignments within the framework of any given course in order to sustain student interest in foreign language learning. Specific lesson plans are provided. (LG)

  3. Implementation and verification of an advancement to the Galileo system search and rescue service signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mo; Wu, Qiongzhi; Liu, Shaobo

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Sino-European cooperation in the Galileo satellite navigation system Search And Rescue(SAR) service, a multi-channel distress beacon signal simulator is presented here. The mathematic model and spectrum analysis of current 406 MHz distress beacons signals is presented which includes Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) for Maritime, Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) for land (road and rail), and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) for aeronautical applications. Based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) and digital IF techniques, the design of a SAR Signal Simulator (SAR-SS) is proposed, which can generate no less than 20 distress signals simultaneously. The Doppler shift and space propagation effect such as ionosphere delay, free space attenuation and etc, are simulated in SAR-SS, which provided a significant test and evaluation capability for SAR/Galileo project. The performance of SAR-SS is more accurate and stabile than the Cospas-Sarsat(C-S) requirement. SAR-SS will be a significant instrument for the Galileo system search and rescue project ground test.

  4. Proteomic strategies in the search for novel pancreatic cancer biomarkers and drug targets: recent advances and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Orla; Henry, Michael; McVey, Gerard; Clynes, Martin; Moriarty, Michael; Meleady, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers; despite a low incidence rate it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Improvement of the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment remains the main focus of pancreatic cancer research. Rapid developments in proteomic technologies has improved our understanding of the pancreatic cancer proteome. Here, the authors summarise the recent proteomic strategies undertaken in the search for: novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, pancreatic cancer-specific proteins which may be used for novel targeted therapies and proteins which may be useful for monitoring disease progression post-therapy. Recent advances and findings discussed here provide great promise of having a significant clinical impact and improving the outcome of patients with this malignancy. PMID:26985644

  5. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  6. GW150914: First results from the search for binary black hole coalescence with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bohémier, K.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cokelaer, T.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietz, A.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Rocchi, A.; Rodriguez, A. C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Santamaría, L.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    On September 14, 2015, at 09∶50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed the binary black hole merger GW150914. We report the results of a matched-filter search using relativistic models of compact-object binaries that recovered GW150914 as the most significant event during the coincident observations between the two LIGO detectors from September 12 to October 20, 2015 GW150914 was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ .

  7. Challenges and Benefits of Direct Policy Search in Advancing Multiobjective Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, Andrea; Giuliani, Matteo; Zatarain-Salazar, Jazmin; Hermann, John; Pianosi, Francesca; Reed, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Optimal management policies for water reservoir operation are generally designed via stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). Yet, the adoption of SDP in complex real-world problems is challenged by the three curses of dimensionality, of modeling, and of multiple objectives. These three curses considerably limit SDP's practical application. Alternatively, in this study, we focus on the use of evolutionary multi-objective direct policy search (EMODPS), a simulation-based optimization approach that combines direct policy search, nonlinear approximating networks and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to design Pareto approximate operating policies for multi-purpose water reservoirs. Our analysis explores the technical and practical implications of using EMODPS through a careful diagnostic assessment of the EMODPS Pareto approximate solutions attained and the overall reliability of the policy design process. A key choice in the EMODPS approach is the selection of alternative formulations of the operating policies. In this study, we distinguish the relative performance of two widely used nonlinear approximating networks, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Functions, and we further compare them with SDP. Besides, we comparatively assess state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability. Our diagnostic results show that RBFs solutions are more effective that ANNs in designing Pareto approximate policies for several water reservoir systems. They also highlight that EMODPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg MOEA, are statistically superior for the class of problems considered.

  8. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  9. Neuron-Miner: An Advanced Tool for Morphological Search and Retrieval in Neuroscientific Image Databases.

    PubMed

    Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis. PMID:27155864

  10. Neuron-Miner: An Advanced Tool for Morphological Search and Retrieval in Neuroscientific Image Databases.

    PubMed

    Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis.

  11. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-08-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012-13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

  12. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    PubMed Central

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012–13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance. PMID:26234783

  13. The G-HAT Search for Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations: The Reddest Extended WISE Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.; Wright, Jason; Griffith, Roger; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Mullan, Brendan L.

    2015-01-01

    Freeman Dyson (1960) theorized how to identify possible signatures of advanced extra-terrestrial civilizations by their waste heat, an inevitable byproduct of a civilization using a significant fraction of the luminosity from their host star. If a civilizations could tap the starlight throughout their host galaxy their waste heat would be easily detectable by recent infrared surveys. The Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies (G-HAT) pilot project aims to place limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations at pan-galactic scales. We present results from the G-HAT cleaned catalog of 563 extremely red, extended high Galactic latitude (|b| ≥ 10) sources from the WISE All-Sky Catalog. Our catalog includes sources new to the scientific literature along with well-studied objects (e.g. starburst galaxies, AGN, and planetary nebulae) that exemplify extreme WISE colors. Objects of particular interest include a supergiant Be star (48 Librae) surrounded by a resolved, mid-infrared nebula, possibly indicating dust in the stellar wind ejecta, and a curious cluster of seven extremely red WISE sources (associated with IRAS 04287+6444) that have no optical counterparts.

  14. Search Alternatives and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Internet search has become a routine computing activity, with regular visits to a search engine--usually Google--the norm for most people. The vast majority of searchers, as recent studies of Internet search behavior reveal, search only in the most basic of ways and fail to avail themselves of options that could easily and effortlessly improve…

  15. Application of the mid-IR radio correlation to the Ĝ sample and the search for advanced extraterrestrial civilisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Wright et al. (2014, ApJ, 792, 26) have embarked on a search for advanced Karadashev Type III civilisations via the compilation of a sample of sources with extreme mid-IR emission and colours. The aim is to furnish a list of candidate galaxies that might harbour an advanced Kardashev Type III civilisation; in this scenario, the mid-IR emission is then primarily associated with waste heat energy by-products. I apply the mid-IR radio correlation to this Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technology (Ĝ) sample, a catalogue of 93 candidate galaxies compiled by Griffith et al. (2015, ApJS, 217, 25). I demonstrate that the mid-IR and radio luminosities are correlated for the sample, determining a k-corrected value of q22 = 1.35 ± 0.42. By comparison, a similar measurement for 124 galaxies drawn from the First Look Survey (FLS) has q22 = 0.87 ± 0.27. The statistically significant difference of the mean value of q22 for these two samples, taken together with their more comparable far-IR properties, suggests that the Ĝ sample shows excessive emission in the mid-IR. The fact that the Ĝ sample largely follows the mid-IR radio correlation strongly suggests that the vast majority of these sources are associated with galaxies in which natural astrophysical processes are dominant. This simple application of the mid-IR radio correlation can substantially reduce the number of false positives in the Ĝ catalogue since galaxies occupied by advanced Kardashev Type III civilisations would be expected to exhibit very high values of q. I identify nine outliers in the sample with q22> 2 of which at least three have properties that are relatively well explained via standard astrophysical interpretations e.g. dust emission associated with nascent star formation and/or nuclear activity from a heavily obscured AGN. The other outliers have not been studied in any great detail, and are deserving of further observation. I also note that the comparison of resolved mid-IR and radio images of galaxies

  16. Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J. E.; Mandel, I.; Vecchio, A.

    2013-08-01

    The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced (or second-generation) configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter-based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has a mass in the range 24M⊙-200M⊙ with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4M⊙-18.5M⊙. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140≤q≤1/10 and we restrict our study to the case of circular binaries with nonspinning components. We investigate the relative contribution to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the three different phases of the coalescence—inspiral, merger and ringdown—using waveforms computed within the effective one-body formalism matched to numerical relativity. We show that merger and ringdown contribute to a substantial fraction of the total SNR over a large portion of the mass parameter space, although in a limited portion the SNR is dominated by the inspiral phase. We further identify three regions in the IMRAC mass space in which (i) inspiral-only searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10%≲L≲27%, (ii) searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27%≲L≲50%, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. In addition we find that using inspiral-only templates as filters can lead to large biases in the estimates of the mass parameters of IMRACs. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. We find that

  17. Advanced image collection, information extraction, and change detection in support of NN-20 broad area search and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Perry, E.M.; Kirkham, R.R.; Slator, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). The work supports the NN-20 Broad Area Search and Analysis, a program initiated by NN-20 to improve the detection and classification of undeclared weapons facilities. Ongoing PNNL research activities are described in three main components: image collection, information processing, and change analysis. The Multispectral Airborne Imaging System, which was developed to collect georeferenced imagery in the visible through infrared regions of the spectrum, and flown on a light aircraft platform, will supply current land use conditions. The image information extraction software (dynamic clustering and end-member extraction) uses imagery, like the multispectral data collected by the PNNL multispectral system, to efficiently generate landcover information. The advanced change detection uses a priori (benchmark) information, current landcover conditions, and user-supplied rules to rank suspect areas by probable risk of undeclared facilities or proliferation activities. These components, both separately and combined, provide important tools for improving the detection of undeclared facilities.

  18. Web Search Engines: Search Syntax and Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Marydee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a chart that explains the search syntax, features, and commands used by the 12 most widely used general Web search engines. Discusses Web standardization, expanded types of content searched, size of databases, and search engines that include both simple and advanced versions. (LRW)

  19. Reverb Search Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-05

    Description:  Search and order ASDC and Earth science data from various NASA and affiliated centers. Search and order options: project, parameter, data set, geographic region and ... Reverb will soon be retired. Please query the Earthdata Search Tool for your desired products. Details:  ...

  20. Web Search Engines: (More) Features and Commands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Randolph

    2000-01-01

    Provides a summary look at the features provided by nine major World Wide Web search engines. Examines size, Boolean operators, phrase searching capabilities, media searching, format options, and special features. (LRW)

  1. Values and options in cancer care (VOICE): study design and rationale for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for physicians, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication about prognosis and treatment choices is essential for informed decision making in advanced cancer. This article describes an investigation designed to facilitate communication and decision making among oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and their caregivers. Methods/design The Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) Study is a National Cancer Institute sponsored randomized controlled trial conducted in the Rochester/Buffalo, NY and Sacramento, CA regions. A total of 40 oncologists, approximately 400 patients with advanced cancer, and their family/friend caregivers (one per patient, when available) are expected to enroll in the study. Drawing upon ecological theory, the intervention uses a two-pronged approach: oncologists complete a multifaceted tailored educational intervention involving standardized patient instructors (SPIs), and patients and caregivers complete a coaching intervention to facilitate prioritizing and discussing questions and concerns. Follow-up data will be collected approximately quarterly for up to three years. Discussion The intervention is hypothesized to enhance patient-centered communication, quality of care, and patient outcomes. Analyses will examine the effects of the intervention on key elements of physician-patient-caregiver communication (primary outcomes), the physician-patient relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, patient well-being, and health service utilization (secondary outcomes). Trial registration Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT01485627 PMID:23570278

  2. A Real-Options Approach for NASA Strategic Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, R.; Ebbeler, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the use of real options valuation in the context of prioritizing advanced technologies for NASA funding. Further, we offer a set of computational procedures that quantifies the option value of each technology.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  4. Necessity of re-evaluation of estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) as a treatment option for first-line monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T

    2001-02-01

    Estramustine phosphate sodium (EMP) was first introduced in the early 1970s for the treatment of prostate cancer, when EMP was supposed to have the dual effect of estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity. For the following decades, it was used mainly in hormone-refractory cases, with a conventional dosage of 4-9 capsules/day, which showed a 30-35% objective response rate. However, a very limited number of cases have been reported that used EMP as a first-line monotherapy in the conventional dosage. One study showed a response rate of 82%, which is at least as effective as conventional estrogen (diethylstilbestrol; DES) monotherapy. Nevertheless, EMP was almost abandoned for the treatment of prostate cancer because of severe adverse side-effects, especially in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Recently, two facts have become evident. First, EMP interferes with cellular microtubule dynamics but does not show alkylating effects. Second, EMP is able to produce a complex with calcium when dairy products are taken concomitantly with EMP, resulting in a decrease in the absorption rate of EMP from the gut. Many clinical trials have been undertaken without warning against concomitant dairy product intake since the introduction of EMP. This fact will jeopardize almost all the clinical trials performed before 1990. It is considered that response rates have been underestimated and better results could have been obtained because side-effects decrease dose-dependently. Low-dose EMP monotherapy (2 capsules/day) has been performed infrequently in previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. The only large trial by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer in 1984 was biased in selecting patients. Nevertheless, the response rate of EMP is comparable to that of DES. In this study, the adverse side-effects of EMP were less than that of DES. Recently, a study was conducted at the University of Tokyo of 11 patients with advanced prostate cancer on

  5. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  6. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS), are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in whom medical therapy fails, and in those with acute coronary syndromes, PCI is indicated. Asymptomatic

  7. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  8. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    PubMed

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N W; Casewell, Nicholas R; Undheim, Eivind A B; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A; King, Glenn F; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  9. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    PubMed

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N W; Casewell, Nicholas R; Undheim, Eivind A B; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A; King, Glenn F; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation. PMID:24312363

  10. Molecular Evolution of Vertebrate Neurotrophins: Co-Option of the Highly Conserved Nerve Growth Factor Gene into the Advanced Snake Venom Arsenalf

    PubMed Central

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A.; King, Glenn F.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation. PMID:24312363

  11. job.search@internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia.

    1995-01-01

    Presents job-hunting options and career opportunities available by searching the Internet, as well as tips for consulting others in a field of interest through a listserv or usenet news group. A collection of Internet addresses providing access to information on job search strategies or job availability is provided. (JPS)

  12. Arctic Data Explorer: A Rich Solr Powered Metadata Search Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Truslove, I.; Yarmey, L.; Lopez, L.; Reed, S. A.; Brandt, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) manages data and is the gateway for all relevant Arctic physical, life, and social science data for the Arctic Sciences (ARC) research community. Arctic Data Explorer (ADE), developed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) under the ACADIS umbrella, is a data portal that provides users the ability to search across multiple Arctic data catalogs rapidly and precisely. In order to help the users quickly find the data they are interested in, we provided a simple search interface -- a search box with spatial and temporal options. The core of the interface is a ';google-like' single search box with logic to handle complex queries behind the scenes. ACADIS collects all metadata through the GI-Cat metadata broker service and indexes it in Solr. The single search box is implemented as a text based search utilizing the powerful tools provided by Solr. In this poster, we briefly explain Solr's indexing and searching capabilities. Several examples are presented to illustrate the rich search functionality the simple search box supports. Then we dive into the implementation details such as how phrase query, wildcard query, range query, fuzzy query and special query search term handling was integrated into ADE search. To provide our users the most relevant answers to their queries as quickly as possible, we worked with the Advisory Committee and the expanding Arctic User Community (scientists and data experts) to collect feedback to improve the search results and adjust the relevance/ranking logic to return more precise search results. The poster has specific examples on how we tuned the relevance ranking to achieve higher quality search results. A feature in the plan is to provide data sets recommendations based on user's current search history. Both collaborative filtering and content-based approaches were considered and researched. A feasible solution is proposed based on the content-based approach.

  13. Examining Search Functions of EAD Finding Aids Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaomu

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the search functions for all individual EAD Web sites listed on the Library of Congress Web site in 2003. In particular, the type of search engine, search modes, options for searching, search results display, search feedback, and other features of the search systems were studied. The data analysis suggests that there have…

  14. World Ships: The Solar-Photon Sail Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    The World Ship, a spacecraft large enough to simulate a small-scale terrestrial internal environment, may be the best feasible option to transfer members of a technological civilization between neighboring stars. Because of the projected size of these spacecraft, journey durations of ~1,000 years seem likely. One of the propulsion options for World Ships is the hyper-thin, likely space-manufactured solar-photon sail, unfurled as close to the migrating civilization's home star as possible. Because the sail and associated structure can be wound around the habitat while not in use, it represents the only known ultimately feasible interstellar propulsion system that can be applied for en route galactic-cosmic ray shielding as well as acceleration/ deceleration. This paper reviews the three suggested sail configurations that can be applied to world ship propulsion: parachute, hollow-body and hoop sails. Possible existing and advanced sail and structure materials and the predicted effects on the sail of the near-Sun space environment are reviewed. Consideration of solar-photon-sail World Ships also affects SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). Can we detect such craft in flight? When in a star's lifetime is migration using such craft likely? What classes of stars are good candidates for solar-sail World-Ship searches?

  15. Advances in the Kepler Transit Search Engine and Automated Approaches to Identifying Likely Planet Candidates in Transit Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-08-01

    Twenty years ago, no planets were known outside our own solar system. Since then, the discoveries of ~1500 exoplanets have radically altered our views of planets and planetary systems. This revolution is due in no small part to the Kepler Mission, which has discovered >1000 of these planets and >4000 planet candidates. While Kepler has shown that small rocky planets and planetary systems are quite common, the quest to find Earth’s closest cousins and characterize their atmospheres presses forward with missions such as NASA Explorer Program’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) slated for launch in 2017 and ESA’s PLATO mission scheduled for launch in 2024.These future missions pose daunting data processing challenges in terms of the number of stars, the amount of data, and the difficulties in detecting weak signatures of transiting small planets against a roaring background. These complications include instrument noise and systematic effects as well as the intrinsic stellar variability of the subjects under scrutiny. In this paper we review recent developments in the Kepler transit search pipeline improving both the yield and reliability of detected transit signatures.Many of the phenomena in light curves that represent noise can also trigger transit detection algorithms. The Kepler Mission has expended great effort in suppressing false positives from its planetary candidate catalogs. While over 18,000 transit-like signatures can be identified for a search across 4 years of data, most of these signatures are artifacts, not planets. Vetting all such signatures historically takes several months’ effort by many individuals. We describe the application of machine learning approaches for the automated vetting and production of planet candidate catalogs. These algorithms can improve the efficiency of the human vetting effort as well as quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is truly a planet. This information is crucial for obtaining valid planet

  16. Environmental remote sensing using the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the acquisition, processing, and applications of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) used on polar satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the Department of Commerce. AVHRR provides global visible and infrared imagery. The cited reports contain information on calibration, registration, and image processing of AVHRR data. Included are reports on AHVRR use in the study of aerosols, atmospheric circulation, agriculture, forest fires, deforestation, sun glint, sedimentation, cloud classification, sea ice, snowmelts, ocean productivity, sea surface temperatures, and vegetation. (Contains a minimum of 120 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  18. Study of Default Options in Advance Directives

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-29

    COPD; Severe or Very Severe Airflow Obstruction and/or Receiving or Eligible to Receive Long-term Oxygen Therapy; Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Other Interstitial Lung Disease Without Curative Therapy; Congestive Heart Failure; NYHA Class IV or NYHA Class III Plus 1 Hospitalization in the Past Year; Malignancy; Any Stage 3B or 4 Solid Tumor

  19. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  20. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  1. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated. PMID:27155860

  2. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  3. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  4. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  5. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  6. Strategy as a portfolio of real options.

    PubMed

    Luehrman, T A

    1998-01-01

    In financial terms, a business strategy is much more like a series of options than like a single projected cash flow. Executing a strategy almost always involves making a sequence of major decisions. Some actions are taken immediately while others are deliberately deferred so that managers can optimize their choices as circumstances evolve. While executives readily grasp the analogy between strategy and real options, until recently the mechanics of option pricing was so complex that few companies found it practical to use when formulating strategy. But advances in both computing power and our understanding of option pricing over the last 20 years now make it feasible to apply real-options thinking to strategic decision making. To analyze a strategy as a portfolio of related real options, this article exploits a framework presented by the author in "Investment Opportunities as Real Options: Getting Started on the Numbers" (HBR July-August 1998). That article explained how to get from discounted-cash-flow value to option value for a typical project; in other words, it was about reaching a number. This article extends that framework, exploring how, once you've worked out the numbers, you can use option pricing to improve decision making about the sequence and timing of a portfolio of strategic investments. Timothy Luehrman shows executives how to plot their strategies in two-dimensional "option space," giving them a way to "draw" a strategy in terms that are neither wholly strategic nor wholly financial, but some of both. Such pictures inject financial discipline and new insight into how a company's future opportunities can be actively cultivated and harvested.

  7. [Therapeutic options for pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Damert, H-G; Meyer, F; Altmann, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this overview is based on remarks on the pathogenesis of and therapy for pressure ulcers and selected but representative cases to demonstrate current options of plastic coverage. As a consequence of the demographic developments, in particular, with regard to the increasing proportion of older patients as well as the advances in modern medicine, the number of multimorbid, geriatric and bedridden patients and of those with prolonged sickbed periods has been steadily growing. Therefore, partly severe manifestations of pressure ulcers at various exposed body regions can be observed in spite of the best preventive intention of care. While in the early stages rather conservative treatment is adequate, surgical intervention might become important and indispensable for a sufficient treatment in advanced stages. To facilitate basic care and to appropriately treat the infectious focus, the methods and procedures of plastic surgery can become relevant. Although there are several options and approaches existing to sanitise and cover defects of pressure ulcers, which are described within the article based on representative cases, preventive measures can still be considered the best approach.

  8. Advanced binary search pattern for impedance spectra classification for determining the state of charge of a lithium iron phosphate cell using a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Patrick; Vollnhals, Michael; Renner, Daniel; Vergossen, David; John, Werner; Götze, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Further improvements on the novel method for state of charge (SOC) determination of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells based on the impedance spectra classification are presented. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is applied to impedance spectra of a LFP cell, with each impedance spectrum representing a distinct SOC for a predefined temperature. As a SVM is a binary classifier, only the distinction between two SOC can be computed in one iteration of the algorithm. Therefore a search pattern is necessary. A balanced tree search was implemented with good results. In order to further improvements of the SVM method, this paper discusses two new search pattern, namely a linear search and an imbalanced tree search, the later one based on an initial educated guess. All three search pattern were compared under various aspects like accuracy, efficiency, tolerance of disturbances and temperature dependancy. The imbalanced search tree shows to be the most efficient search pattern if the initial guess is within less than ±5 % SOC of the original SOC in both directions and exhibits the best tolerance for high disturbances. Linear search improves the rate of exact classifications for almost every temperature. It also improves the robustness against high disturbances and can even detect a certain number of false classifications which makes this search pattern unique. The downside is a much lower efficiency as all impedance spectra have to be evaluated while the tree search pattern only evaluate those on the tree path.

  9. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

  10. SEATSAT programs option analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckl, L.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the costs of SEASAT follow-on options is presented. All the options assume the existence of SEASAT-A as currently defined in the SEASAT Economic Assessment. It is assumed that each option will continue through the year 2000 and approach operational system status in the 1983-1986 period, depending upon the sensor package selected. The launch vehicle assumed through 1983 is the Atlas Agena. After 1983, it is assumed SEASAT-A will switch to the use of the Space Shuttle. All cost estimates are 1976 dollars for fiscal year cost accounting, with no inflation rate included.

  11. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

  12. Option generation in decision making: ideation beyond memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Del Missier, Fabio; Visentini, Mimì; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    According to prescriptive decision theories, the generation of options for choice is a central aspect of decision making. A too narrow representation of the problem may indeed limit the opportunity to evaluate promising options. However, despite the theoretical and applied significance of this topic, the cognitive processes underlying option generation are still unclear. In particular, while a cued recall account of option generation emphasizes the role of memory and executive control, other theoretical proposals stress the importance of ideation processes based on various search and thinking processes. Unfortunately, relevant behavioral evidence on the cognitive processes underlying option generation is scattered and inconclusive. In order to reach a better understanding, we carried out an individual-differences study employing a wide array of cognitive predictors, including measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, cognitive control, and ideation fluency. The criterion tasks consisted of three different poorly-structured decision-making scenarios, and the participants were asked to generate options to solve these problems. The main criterion variable of the study was the number of valid options generated, but also the diversity and the quality of generated options were examined. The results showed that option generation fluency and diversity in the context of ill-structured decision making are supported by ideation ability even after taking into account the effects of individual differences in several other aspects of cognitive functioning. Thus, ideation processes, possibly supported by search and thinking processes, seem to contribute to option generation beyond basic associative memory retrieval. The findings of the study also indicate that generating more options may have multifaceted consequences for choice, increasing the quality of the best option generated but decreasing the mean quality of the options in the generated set. PMID:25657628

  13. 7 CFR 1781.14 - Planning, options, and appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Planning, options, and appraisals. 1781.14 Section 1781.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.14 Planning, options, and appraisals. (a) WS and RCD area plans are...

  14. Exploring Options: Developing a Comprehensive Array of High School Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Describes different options available for gifted high school students, including seminar classes, independent studies, special programs, mentorships and internships, service projects, advanced electives, and extracurricular activities. Options for adjusting the pace of the high school experience are discussed, along with the importance of…

  15. Give the People What They Want: Adding Search to Your Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappoport, Avi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the search option on Web sites and explains how to develop a search engine. Highlights include search options, including Boolean operators, graphical interface, and language; platform and server compatibility; indexing; metadata; XML; customization options; installation and configuration; evaluation; usability; and cost. (LRW)

  16. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  17. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  18. The outcomes and correlates of job search objectives: searching to leave or searching for leverage?

    PubMed

    Boswell, Wendy R; Boudreau, John W; Dunford, Benjamin B

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigate a previously overlooked yet important objective for employee job search--seeking leverage against the current employer. They explore the outcomes and correlates of leverage-seeking search and how it may differ from the more traditional objective for engaging in job search--to change jobs. Results show that leverage-seeking and separation-seeking search objectives associate with different outcomes. The authors also find that characteristics of the work situation and individual differences associate with leverage-seeking search and relate differently with the 2 job search objectives. Implications for practice and the advancement of job search research are discussed. PMID:15584843

  19. NASA's EOSDIS: options for data providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalsa, Siri J.; Ujhazy, John E.

    1995-12-01

    EOSDIS, the data and information system being developed by NASA to support interdisciplinary earth science research into the 21st century, will do more than manage and distribute data from EOS-era satellites. It will also promote the exchange of data, tools, and research results across disciplinary, agency, and national boundaries. This paper describes the options that data providers will have for interacting with the EOSDIS Core System (ECS), the infrastructure of EOSDIS. The options include: using the ECS advertising service to announce the availability of data at the provider's site; submitting a candidate data set to one of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs); establishing a data server that will make the data accessible via ECS and establishing Local Information Manager (LIM) which would make the data available for multi-site searches. One additional option is through custom gateway interfaces which would provide access to existing data archives. The gateway, data server, and LIM options require the implementation of ECS code at the provider site to insure proper protocols. The advertisement and ingest options require no part of ECS design to reside at the provider site.

  20. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  1. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  2. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  3. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  4. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  5. Advanced space system concepts and their orbital support needs (1980 - 2000). Volume 3: Detailed data. Part 1: Catalog of initiatives, functional options, and future environments and goals. [for the U.S. space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I.; Mayer, H. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    The following areas were discussed in relation to a study of the commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs: (1) index of initiatives (civilian observation, communication, support), brief illustrated description of each initiative, time periods (from 1980 to 2000+) for implementation of these initiatives; (2) data bank of functional system options, presented in the form of data sheets, one for each of the major functions, with the system option for near-term, midterm, and far-term space projects applicable to each subcategory of functions to be fulfilled; (3) table relating initiatives and desired goals (public service and humanistic, materialistic, scientific and intellectual); and (4) data on size, weight and cost estimations.

  6. High-Power Options for LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The LANSCE linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of successful beam operations at 800 kW. We have recently studied options for restoration of high-power operations including approaches for increasing the performance to multi-MW levels. In this paper we will discuss the results of this study including the present limitations of the existing accelerating structures at LANSCE, and the high-voltage and RF systems that drive them. Several options will be discussed and a preferred option will be presented that will enable the first in a new generation of scientific facilities for the materials community. The emphasis of this new facility is 'Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes' (MaRIE) which will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges.

  7. Treatment Options in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis Types of Medications What’s ... and in the development of medications to treat Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis . As a result, people living ...

  8. Spasmodic Torticollis: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join NSTA Today! NSTA Support Groups NSTA Message Forum Spasmodic Torticollis What is Spasmodic Torticollis Signs and ... Patient Support Photo Galleries Contact NSTA NSTA Message Forum Search Internet and Help NSTA Support the NSTA ...

  9. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  10. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  11. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  12. Career Options in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  13. Searching the Web: The Public and Their Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Wolfram, Dietmar; Jansen, Major B. J.; Saracevic, Tefko

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a study of searching behavior by over 200,000 users of the Excite search engine. Analysis of over one million queries revealed most people use few search terms, few modified queries, view few Web pages, and rarely use advanced search features. Concludes that Web searching by the public differs significantly from searching of…

  14. Coronary Sinus Reducer system™: A new therapeutic option in refractory angina patients unsuitable for revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Grigis, Giulietta; Tespili, Maurizio

    2016-04-15

    A challenge of modern cardiovascular medicine is to find new, effective treatments for patients with refractory angina pectoris (RAP), a clinical condition characterized by severe angina despite optimal medical therapy and "no option" for a surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Although the relevant advance of both pharmaceutical and interventional treatments for patients affected by symptomatic coronary artery disease has greatly contributed to prolong survival, the increasing number of patients experimenting persistent and invalidating angina symptoms, highlights that quality of life of these patients has not been equally improved. Clinical limitations of the efficiency of conventional and relatively new approaches justify the search for new therapeutic options. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of RAP, and we will provide a brief update on the different options actually available to these patients with particular interest to an innovative device that narrow the coronary sinus: the Reducer system (Neovasc Inc., Richmond B.C., Canada). The efforts of present and future clinical studies will ultimately answer the question of whether this intriguing therapy is a suitable strategy for treatment of patients with RAP. PMID:26889595

  15. The Pricing of Information--A Search-Based Approach to Pricing an Online Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Harry F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes innovative pricing structure consisting of low connect time fee, print fees, and search fees, offered by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) ONLINE--an online searching system used to locate chemical substances. Pricing options considered by CAS, the search-based pricing approach, and users' reactions to pricing structures are noted. (EJS)

  16. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives.

  17. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  18. Doc'CISMEF: a search tool based on "encapsulated" MeSH thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, S J; Thirion, B; Leroy, J P; Douyère, M; Lacoste, B; Godard, C; Rigolle, I; Brisou, M; Videau, S; Goupy, E; Piot, J; Quéré, M; Ouazir, S; Abdulrab, H

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, the Internet became a major source of health information for the health professional and the Netizen. The objective of Doc'CISMeF (D'C) was to create a powerful generic search tool based on an structured information model which â encapsulates' the MeSH thesaurus to index and retrieve quality health resources on the Internet. To index resources, D'C uses four sections in its information model: 'meta-term', keyword, subheading, and resource type. Two search options are available: simple and advanced. The simple search requires the end-user to input a single term or expression. If this term belongs to the D'C information structure model, it will be exploded. If not, a full-text search is performed. In the advanced search, complex searches are possible combining Boolean operators with meta-terms, keywords, subheadings and resource types. D'C uses two standard tools for organising information: the MeSH thesaurus and the Dublin Core metadata format. Resources included in D'C are described according to the following elements: title, author or creator, subject and keywords, description, publisher, date, resource type, format, identifier, and language.

  19. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  20. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  1. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  2. Antiviral options for biodefense.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Hruby, Dennis E

    2013-10-01

    A key to biodefense strategies is an assessment of current therapies available as well as the expedited development of new antiviral therapeutic options. Viruses make up the majority of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, agents that are considered to pose the greatest risk to public health and national security, and yet there are currently no approved treatments for most of these viral biodefense threats. A review of the Category A viral biothreat agents and strategies for the development of new therapeutics are presented here. PMID:23773331

  3. Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

    2011-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and

  4. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  5. L1C signal design options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betz, J.W.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Jones, A.J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.

  6. Novel preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral health can be best supported through novel preventive systems. Further research is also required involving double-blind randomized controlled trials in order to bring further benefits of more effective caries control to patients. Implementation in practice should follow promptly as new techniques are shown to be clinically valuable for individual patients.

  7. Traditional preventive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or professionally applied), dietary assessment and advice (modification), other measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue and other measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge. There is a considerable body of strong evidence supporting the use of specific techniques for primary prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions with ICDAS codes 1-4 (and also the severer lesions coded 5 or 6) are involved--and in relation to adults. This lack of evidence reflects a shortage of high-quality trials in the area, as opposed to a series of good studies showing no effect. Since there is also limited longitudinal evidence supporting conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment options.

  8. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  9. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS FOR THE COMPOSITE WOOD INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information gathered on emissions from the composite wood industry (also called the Plywood and particleboard industry) and potential pollution prevention options. Information was gathered during a literature search that included trade association publicatio...

  12. A dark energy camera search for missing supergiants in the LMC after the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGES

    Annis, J.

    2016-05-27

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We constructmore » a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. Lastly, we discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.« less

  13. A Dark Energy Camera Search for Missing Supergiants in the LMC after the Advanced LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Chen, H.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravic, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; The DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.

  14. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  15. [Treatment options for brachymetatarsia].

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, C; Arbab, D; Abbara-Czardybon, M

    2013-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia can be congenital, idiopathic or secondary and describes an abnormal shortening of a metatarsal bone. The indications for treatment are not only due to cosmesis. The shortening of a ray changes the biomechanics of the foot and can lead to metatarsalgia. A frequent clinical feature is dorsal dislocation of a toe causing painful shoe conflict and disturbed proprioception. There are three main options for operative correction: lengthening osteotomy, interposition of a tricortical bone and gradual lengthening by callus distraction. While one stage lengthening procedures such as osteotomy and interposition are more appropriate for correction of moderate length deficiencies, the callus distraction method is more suitable for larger elongation. Common to all procedures is a long-term treatment with a high risk of different complications whereby patient compliance can be problematical. PMID:23238881

  16. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  17. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  18. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  19. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... information review. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information...

  20. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... survey. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information to ensure...

  1. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  2. Surgical options for complex craniofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mayur; Shaw, Andrew; Deogaonkar, Milind

    2014-10-01

    Complex craniofacial pain can be a challenging condition to manage both medically and surgically, but there is a resurgence of interest in the role of neurostimulation therapy. Surgical options for complex craniofacial pain syndromes include peripheral nerve/field stimulation, ganglion stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, dorsal nerve root entry zone lesioning, motor cortex stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Peripheral nerve/field stimulation is rapidly being explored and is preferred by both patients and surgeons. Technological advances and improved understanding of the interactions of pain pathways with its affective component will widen the scope of neurostimulation therapy for craniofacial pain syndromes. PMID:25240663

  3. Aboveground test of an advanced Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometer to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekker, T. B.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Degoda, V. Ya.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Moroz, I. M.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Poda, D. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Velazquez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large lithium molybdate (Li2MoO4) crystal boules were produced by using the low thermal gradient Czochralski growth technique from deeply purified molybdenum. A small sample from one of the boules was preliminary characterized in terms of X-ray-induced and thermally-excited luminescence. A large cylindrical crystalline element (with a size of ⊘40 × 40 mm) was used to fabricate a scintillating bolometer, which was operated aboveground at ˜15 mK by using a pulse-tube cryostat housing a high-power dilution refrigerator. The excellent detector performance in terms of energy resolution and α background suppression along with preliminary positive indications on the radiopurity of this material show the potentiality of Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometers for low-counting experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo.

  4. Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each…

  5. Traditional operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Operative intervention should be avoided, whenever possible, by adopting a preventive approach. Timely management of early caries can lead to arrest and possibly remineralization of the lesion rendering operative intervention unnecessary. The dentist must judge when the tooth tissue has become sufficiently demineralized to allow bacterial ingress leading to irreversible changes in the tissue. Once a decision has been made to restore a tooth, the clinician must decide, from a series of traditional operative treatment options, what materials should be used in the restoration and what preparation will achieve good retention and best preservation of tooth structure. With the development of new adhesive materials and a more conservative approach, a new era of minimally invasive dentistry has dawned. Improvements in the properties of composite materials have made them the choice for coronal aesthetic restorations: for posterior restorations involving load-bearing occlusal surfaces, amalgam is still the most commonly used material in UK dental practice; glass ionomer materials also have a place in minimally invasive dentistry--patterns of use differing in different counties. The numbers of studies investigating minimal caries removal are relatively limited; there are still scope and need for research in this field.

  6. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  7. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  8. A search tool based on 'encapsulated' MeSH thesaurus to retrieve quality health resources on the internet.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, S J; Thirion, B; Leroyt, J P; Douyère, M; Lacoste, B; Godard, C; Rigolle, I; Brisou, M; Videau, S; Goupyt, E; Piott, J; Quéré, M; Ouazir, S; Abdulrab, H

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2001, the Internet has become a major source of health information for the health professional and the Netizen. The objective of Doc' CISMeF (D'C) was to create a powerful generic search tool based on a structured information model which 'encapsulates' the MeSH thesaurus to index and retrieve quality health resources on the Internet. To index resources, D'C uses four sections in its information model: 'meta-term', keyword, subheading, and resource type. Two search options are available: simple and advanced. The simple search requires the end-user to input a single term or expression. If this term belongs to the D'C information structure model, it will be exploded. If not, a full-text search is performed. In the advanced search, complex searches are possible combining Boolean operators with meta-terms, keywords, subheadings and resource types. D'C uses two standard tools for organising information: the MeSH thesaurus and the Dublin Core metadata format. Resources included in D'C are described according to the following elements: title, author or creator, subject and keywords, description, publishers, date, resource type, format, identifier, and language.

  9. Mars surface transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jeffrey M.; Alred, John W.

    1986-01-01

    As the number of scientific experiments for the surface of Mars grows, the need for effective surface transportation becomes critical. Because of the diversity of the experiments proposed, as well as the desire to explore Mars from the equator to the poles, the optimum surface vehicle configuration is not obvious. Five candidate vehicles are described, with an estimate of their size and performance. In order to maximize the success of a manned Mars mission, it appears that two vehicles should be designed for surface transportation: an advanced long-range rover, and a remotely-piloted airplane.

  10. Chemical Microthruster Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGroot, Wim; Oleson, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Chemical propulsion systems with potential application to microsatellites are classified by propellant phase, i.e. gas, liquid, or solid. Four promising concepts are selected based on performance, weight, size, cost, and reliability. The selected concepts, in varying stages of development, are advanced monopropellants, tridyne(TM), electrolysis, and solid gas generator propulsion. Tridyne(TM) and electrolysis propulsion are compared vs. existing cold gas and monopropellant systems for selected microsatellite missions. Electrolysis is shown to provide a significant weight advantage over monopropellant propulsion for an orbit transfer and plane change mission. Tridyne(TM) is shown to provide a significant advantage over cold gas thrusters for orbit trimming and spacecraft separation.

  11. Refining spectral library searching.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Spectral library searching has many advantages over sequence database searching, yet it has not been widely adopted. One possible reason for this is that users are unsure exactly how to interpret the similarity scores (e.g., "dot products" are not probability-based scores). Methods to create decoys have been proposed, but, as developers caution, may produce proxies that are not equivalent to reversed sequences. In this issue, Shao et al. (Proteomics 2013, 13, 3273-3283) report advances in spectral library searching where the focus is not on improving the performance of their search engine, SpectraST, but is instead on improving the statistical meaningfulness of its discriminant score and removing the need for decoys. The results in their paper indicate that by "standardizing" the input and library spectra, sensitivity is not lost but is, surprisingly, gained. Their tests also show that false discovery rate (FDR) estimates, derived from their new score, track better with "ground truth" than decoy searching. It is possible that their work strikes a good balance between the theory of library searching and its application. And as such, they hope to have removed a major entrance barrier for some researchers previously unwilling to try library searching.

  12. Confidential Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Linda Chion

    2003-01-01

    Will the stealth superintendent hunt in Cincinnati become tomorrow's standard approach? Search consultants and superintendents offer their views on how far confidentiality should go. Also includes a search firm's process for shielding identities and a confidentiality pledge. (MLF)

  13. Savvy Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains desktop metasearch engines, which search the databases of several search engines simultaneously. Reviews two particular versions, the Copernic 2001 Pro and the BullsEye Pro 3, comparing costs, subject categories, display capabilities, and layout for presenting results. (LRW)

  14. World Wide Web Search Engines: Open Text, Harvest, 2ASK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the corporate origins, development, and unique features of three World Wide Web search tools. Open Text released LiveLink Search 64 in April 1996. Harvest indexes fewer sites than many competitors but offers powerful searching options. 2ASK is a service that provides links to over 100 Internet indexing tools and rates Web sites and…

  15. Identity Options in Russian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

  16. A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

  17. Partition search

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a new form of game search called partition search that incorporates dependency analysis, allowing substantial reductions in the portion of the tree that needs to be expanded. Both theoretical results and experimental data are presented. For the game of bridge, partition search provides approximately as much of an improvement over existing methods as {alpha}-{beta} pruning provides over minimax.

  18. Dewey Searches!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for young children that helps them conduct subject searches using an automated system that allows customization of access to a library's collection. Explains a timed game that makes use of subject searching and word searching on the topic of dinosaurs. (LRW)

  19. Suspicionless Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In a federal case involving a vice-principal's pat-down search of middle-school students in a cafeteria (for a missing pizza knife), the court upheld the search, saying it was relatively unintrusive and met "TLO's" reasonable-suspicion standards. Principals need reasonable justification for searching a group. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  20. Cyclodiphosphazanes: options are endless.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Maravanji S

    2016-08-01

    Cyclodiphosphazanes, also known as diazadiphosphetidines, are saturated inorganic ring systems containing alternating trivalent phosphorus and nitrogen atoms. With a rigid planar structure and moderately stable P-N bonds, cyclodiphosphazanes have shown versatility not only in coordination chemistry as both neutral and anionic ligands but also as useful scaffolds in supramolecular chemistry, resulting in a plethora of molecules with interesting structural features. Recent reports on their utility in generating several 3D-coordination polymers including those with sodalite structures, cyclodiphosphazane based N-heterocyclic carbenes and stable biradicaloids highlight the versatility of these novel phosphorus-nitrogen cyclic compounds. This review describes mainly the coordination chemistry of cyclodiphosphazanes as neutral ligands and their applications besides recent advances in cyclodiphosph(iii)azane chemistry. The key points on the empirical model proposed to highlight the coordinating ability of cyclodiphosphazanes to build soft-soft MOFs and an analysis of pertinent structural features are also presented. PMID:27430043

  1. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  2. Current treatment options for recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2010-01-01

    Loco-regional control rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has improved significantly in the past decade. However, local recurrence still represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in advanced stages, and management of local failure remains a challenging issue in NPC. The best salvage treatment for local recurrent NPC remains to be determined. The options include brachytherapy, external radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and nasopharyngectomy, either alone or in different combinations. In this article we will discuss the different options for salvage of locally recurrent NPC. Retreatment of locally recurrent NPC using radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, as well as surgery, can result in long-term local control and survival in a substantial proportion of patients. For small-volume recurrent tumors (T1–T2) treated with external radiotherapy, brachytherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, comparable results to those obtained with surgery have been reported. In contrast, treatment results of advanced-stage locally recurrent NPC are generally more satisfactory with surgery (with or without postoperative radiotherapy) than with reirradiation. PMID:20865269

  3. The IBM PC as an Online Search Machine. Part 5: Searching through Crosstalk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolner, Stuart J.

    1985-01-01

    This last of a five-part series on using the IBM personal computer for online searching highlights a brief review, search process, making the connection, switching between screens and modes, online transaction, capture buffer controls, coping with options, function keys, script files, processing downloaded information, note to TELEX users, and…

  4. Foraging search: Prototypical intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobus, George

    2000-05-01

    We think because we eat. Or as Descartes might have said, on a little more reflection, "I need to eat, therefore I think." Animals that forage for a living repeatedly face the problem of searching for a sparsely distributed resource in a vast space. Furthermore, the resource may occur sporadically and episodically under conditions of true uncertainty (nonstationary, complex and non-linear dynamics). I assert that this problem is the canonical problem solved by intelligence. It's solution is the basis for the evolution of more advanced intelligence in which the space of search includes that of concepts (objects and relations) encoded in cortical structures. In humans the conscious experience of searching through concept space we call thinking. The foraging search model is based upon a higher-order autopoeitic system (the forager) employing anticipatory processing to enhance its success at finding food while avoiding becoming food or having accidents in a hostile world. I present a semi-formal description of the general foraging search problem and an approach to its solution. The latter is a brain-like structure employing dynamically adaptive neurons. A physical robot, MAVRIC, embodies some principles of foraging. It learns cues that lead to improvements in finding targets in a dynamic and nonstationary environment. This capability is based on a unique learning mechanism that encodes causal relations in the neural-like processing element. An argument is advanced that searching for resources in the physical world, as per the foraging model, is a prototype for generalized search for conceptual resources as when we think. A problem represents a conceptual disturbance in a homeostatic sense. The finding of a solution restores the homeostatic balance. The establishment of links between conceptual cues and solutions (resources) and the later use of those cues to think through to solutions of quasi-isomorphic problems is, essentially, foraging for ideas. It is a quite

  5. End-of-life issues in advanced dementia

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the issues with setting goals of care for patients with advanced dementia, describe the respective roles of the physician and the patient’s family in the decision-making process, and suggest ways to support families who need more information about the care options. Sources of information Ovid MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles that were published before March 7, 2014. There were no level I studies identified; most articles provided level III evidence. Main message For patients with advanced dementia, their families have an important role in medical decision making. Families should receive timely information about the course of dementia and the care options. They need to understand that a palliative approach to care might be appropriate and does not mean abandonment of the patient. They might also want clarification about their role in the decision-making process, especially if withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging measures are considered. Conclusion Physicians should consider advanced dementia as a terminal disease for which there is a continuum of care that goes from palliative care with life-extending measures to symptomatic interventions only. Clarification of goals of care and family education are of paramount importance to avoid unwanted and burdensome interventions. PMID:25873700

  6. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C

    2011-06-01

    Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions. PMID:21577188

  7. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C

    2011-06-01

    Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions.

  8. Advanced Thermal Control Technologies for "CEV" (New Name: ORION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric; Westheimer, David; Ewert, Michael; Hasan, Mojib; Anderson, Molly; Tuan, George; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating several technology options for advanced human spaceflight. This presentation covers some recent developments that relate to NASA's Orion spacecraft and future Lunar missions.

  9. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  10. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  11. Fluidized bed combustion offers replacement option for old boilers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    As emission standards begin to tighten and existing boilers grow older, electric utilities are searching for cost-effective and environmentally sound replacements for aging boilers. In the past few years, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has emerged as a viable replacement option for old, conventional boilers. The results of three case studies involving conversion of existing boilers to FBC are discussed in this paper. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  12. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  13. An Exploratory Survey of Student Perspectives Regarding Search Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled; Miller, Don; Wenger, James

    2005-01-01

    This study explored college students' perceptions regarding their use of search engines. The main objective was to determine how frequently students used various search engines, whether advanced search features were used, and how many search engines were used. Various factors that might influence student responses were examined. Results showed…

  14. Impact of force withdrawal on options for conventional defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    Soviet withdrawal from the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) could open new defensive options. This report gives some background on those options from post-war nuclear and conventional strategies and the quantitative Soviet threat tot he role of firepower, close air support, and battlefield attrition. Withdrawal under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty could provide a buffer between opposing armies that aggressor armies drop the bridges and disrupt the roads and rails that would have to be used. If forces were brought into battle piecemeal, they would be annihilated. That would permit effective use of advanced and prepositioned weapons, which would favor the defense. 9 refs.

  15. The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Drake, Frank

    2011-02-13

    Modern history of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is reviewed. The history of radio searches is discussed, as well as the major advances that have occurred in radio searches and prospects for new instruments and search strategies. Recent recognition that searches for optical and infrared signals make sense, and the reasons for this are described, as well as the equipment and special detection methods used in optical searches. The long-range future of the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed in the context of the history of rapid change, on the cosmic and even the human time scale, of the paradigms guiding SETI searches. This suggests that SETI searches be conducted with a very open mind. PMID:21220287

  16. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  17. Visual search.

    PubMed

    Chan, Louis K H; Hayward, William G

    2013-07-01

    Visual search is the act of looking for a predefined target among other objects. This task has been widely used as an experimental paradigm to study visual attention, and because of its influence has also become a subject of research itself. When used as a paradigm, visual search studies address questions including the nature, function, and limits of preattentive processing and focused attention. As a subject of research, visual search studies address the role of memory in search, the procedures involved in search, and factors that affect search performance. In this article, we review major theories of visual search, the ways in which preattentive information is used to guide attentional allocation, the role of memory, and the processes and decisions involved in its successful completion. We conclude by summarizing the current state of knowledge about visual search and highlight some unresolved issues. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:415-429. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1235 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. [Advances in reconstructive options of nerve injuries in the hand].

    PubMed

    Bíró, Vilmos

    2012-11-11

    The author summarizes the most important data about the development of reconstructive techniques of nerve injuries in the hand based on literature references and the author's own experience in the past decades. A new bulk of knowledge turned into a common property related to the micro- and macroanatomic structure of peripheral nerves, the process of nerve regeneration, and the technical conditions of nerve reconstructive operations. This knowledge is a prerequisite for hand surgeons to perform their nerve reconstructive operations on a contemporary high level with an optimal result. After a critical review of literature data, the author reports his own experience and sketches the coming possible roads. A detailed list of references is also provided for those who are interested in the field.

  19. Advanced Vulvar Cancers: What are the Best Options for Treatment?

    PubMed

    Soderini, Alejandro; Aragona, Alejandro; Reed, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of patients with vulvar cancer remains challenging for gynecologic oncologists. Up to 30 % of the cases are diagnosed in a clinical condition of irresectability, and some kind of strategy has to be taken into account beyond surgery. In this regard, a common and standard definition is critical to maximize oncological results and minimize complications after treatments. Each patient treatment must be tailored individually according to their clinical and biological features and to the setting in which they are dealing with. PMID:27586378

  20. Advanced pancreatic cancer - how to choose an adequate treatment option

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Eija A

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is poor, making it one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. The 5-year overall survival rate remains below 5% and little progress is made during the past decade. Only about 10%-20% of patients are eligible for curative-intent surgery and the majority end up having recurring disease even after radical surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy in metastatic disease is palliative at best, aiming at disease and symptom control and prolongation of life. Treatment always causes side effects, the degree of which varies from patient to patient, depending on the patient’s general condition, concomitant morbidities as well as on the chosen treatment modality. Why is pancreatic cancer so resistant to treatment? How to best help the patient to reach the set treatment goals? PMID:26478662

  1. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  2. Update on advanced imaging options for thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Michael P.; Carrasco, Jacqueline R.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a diverse spectrum of signs and symptoms that appears to have immunologic and pathologic causative factors as diverse as its clinical presentations. Lymphocytes, hormones, and cytokines affect orbital fibroblasts and other similar cells, which exert their effects on orbital tissues, including the extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and optic nerve. This complicated inflammatory cascade and the myriad of clinical findings that result contributes to the active phase of TAO. The distinction between the active and inactive phases of TAO is an important one, as the proper treatment will depend on the disease phase and degree thereof. Several clinical grading scales and scores have been established to help qualify and quantify the disease severity. Aiding clinical exam and acumen, proper and reproducible imaging of the orbit and ocular adnexa is incredibly important to the management of TAO. Orbital ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy each have unique abilities, including quantifying orbital changes, assessing disease activity, correlating orbital findings with clinical changes, guiding appropriate treatment, and monitoring therapeutic responses. Further, study ease, accessibility, cost, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and risks are all important considerations in picking the right test with which to diagnose and follow TAO. This analysis will provide a review of orbital imaging for TAO, including the mechanism of each imaging technique as well as their rationales, advantages, disadvantages, and utilities. PMID:23961023

  3. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... A narrowed valve may be repaired using a balloon to widen the valve opening. For a leaky ... heart artery can be opened using an inflatable balloon. Artery-clogging plaque is pushed against the blood ...

  4. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  5. Rivals in the dark: how competition influences search in decisions under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nathaniel D; Hertwig, Ralph; Kareev, Yaakov; Avrahami, Judith

    2014-10-01

    In choices between uncertain options, information search can increase the chances of distinguishing good from bad options. However, many choices are made in the presence of other choosers who may seize the better option while one is still engaged in search. How long do (and should) people search before choosing between uncertain options in the presence of such competition? To address this question, we introduce a new experimental paradigm called the competitive sampling game. We use both simulation and empirical data to compare search and choice between competitive and solitary environments. Simulation results show that minimal search is adaptive when one expects competitors to choose quickly or is uncertain about how long competitors will search. Descriptively, we observe that competition drastically reduces information search prior to choice.

  6. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive. PMID:20623902

  7. Current and emerging options for taxol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Guojian; Pfeifer, Blaine A

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel (trademark "Taxol") is a plant-derived isoprenoid natural product that exhibits potent anticancer activity. Taxol was originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree in 1967 and triggered an intense scientific and engineering venture to provide the compound reliably to cancer patients. The choices available for production include synthetic and biosynthetic routes (and combinations thereof). This chapter focuses on the currently utilized and emerging biosynthetic options for Taxol production. A particular emphasis is placed on the biosynthetic production hosts including macroscopic and unicellular plant species and more recent attempts to elucidate, transfer, and reconstitute the Taxol pathway within technically advanced microbial hosts. In so doing, we provide the reader with relevant background related to Taxol and more general information related to producing valuable, but structurally complex, natural products through biosynthetic strategies.

  8. Fertility-preserving options for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Plante, Marie; Roy, Michel

    2006-04-01

    Childbearing is one of the most important life goals for many women, and fertility preservation is a very important factor in the overall quality of life of cancer survivors. Cervical cancer frequently affects young women; because some women tend to delay childbearing, fertility preservation must be considered when treatment options are discussed. Over the past decade, the radical trachelectomy procedure has become a well established fertility-preserving option for young women with early-stage cancer; this procedure is associated with low morbidity, good oncologic outcome, and a high proportion of pregnancies that reach the third trimester and babies that are delivered at term. This article will review available literature on the vaginal radical trachelectomy procedure and data from other surgical approaches, such as the abdominal radical trachelectomy. In addition, the potential future application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by fertility-preserving surgery in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer will be examined. Finally, ultraconservative surgical approaches (eg, conization alone with or without laparoscopic lymphadenectomy) in very early-stage disease will be discussed.

  9. Energy storage options for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Martin, J.F.; Olszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Review of storage options (superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels) suggests that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675/sup 0/K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (approx. 550 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  10. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. Objectives: To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters – reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Materials and Methods: Participants were 3rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants’ option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Results: Students score more (P = 0.000) and took less time (P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more (P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Conclusion: Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs. PMID:27721545

  11. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  12. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  13. Steam generator waste disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1994-12-31

    The steam generator waste stream has been examined, and disposal options associated with the decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station have been investigated as described in NUREG/CR-0130. Specifically, the removal and disposal of the steam generators and those activities and associated occupational doses inherent in the activities have been examined. The results of this effort are compared in this paper to more recent data for the reference PWR contained in NUREG/CR-5884, and a determination of the appropriate volumes and activities is made. These data are used to complete projections of steam generator waste volumes and activities generated from light water reactor decommissioning using the DECON decommissioning alternative. Several disposal options for the steam generators are considered and the segmentation, one-piece waste package, and smelting options are detailed.

  14. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  15. Assessing Preferences for AAC Options in Communication Interventions for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2011-01-01

    We synthesized studies that assessed preference for using different augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) options. Studies were identified via systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists. Studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) setting, (c) communication options assessed, (d) design, (e)…

  16. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  17. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  18. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  19. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  20. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  1. Advanced ISDN satellite designs and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1992-01-01

    The research performed by GTE Government Systems and the University of Colorado in support of the NASA Satellite Communications Applications Research (SCAR) Program is summarized. Two levels of research were undertaken. The first dealt with providing interim services Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) satellite (ISIS) capabilities that accented basic rate ISDN with a ground control similar to that of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The ISIS Network Model development represents satellite systems like the ACTS orbiting switch. The ultimate aim is to move these ACTS ground control functions on-board the next generation of ISDN communications satellite to provide full-service ISDN satellite (FSIS) capabilities. The technical and operational parameters for the advanced ISDN communications satellite design are obtainable from the simulation of ISIS and FSIS engineering software models of the major subsystems of the ISDN communications satellite architecture. Discrete event simulation experiments would generate data for analysis against NASA SCAR performance measure and the data obtained from the ISDN satellite terminal adapter hardware (ISTA) experiments, also developed in the program. The Basic and Option 1 phases of the program are also described and include the following: literature search, traffic mode, network model, scenario specifications, performance measures definitions, hardware experiment design, hardware experiment development, simulator design, and simulator development.

  2. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  3. Options for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    Between 69 percent and 90 percent of English language learners (ELLs) in middle and high schools were born in the United States and have been in U.S. schools since kindergarten still have not achieved the academic proficiency to succeed in an all-English mainstream program. Various ELL program options are available for school districts to…

  4. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  5. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  6. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ..., CPOs, Large Traders, ECPs, and ESPs 2. SDs, MSPs, SEFs, and SDRs 3. Entities Eligible To Engage in... Recordkeeping, 76 FR 29818, May 23, 2011 (``Product Definitions NPRM''). The final rule and interpretations that... not applicable. \\7\\ Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps, 76 FR 6095, Feb. 3, 2011. Note that...

  7. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  8. The $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future electric vehicles. Northrop Grumman has achieved the intent of the program by taking several steps toward reducing the cost of the electric vehicle powertrain, demonstrating technologies in the form of hardware and introducing enhancements into production that are consistent with the needs of the market.

  9. New therapeutic options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sligh, James E

    2014-06-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that is frequently treated by cryosurgery. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of man, and early-stage lesions are usually cured via surgery. Advanced basal cell carcinoma may require more extensive surgery resulting in deformity, and many advanced lesions cannot be treated surgically. Several recent developments have improved therapeutic options for both conditions. Cryosurgery is still a mainstay of treatment for AK, but the introduction of effective topical agents, imiquimod cream and ingenol mebutate, has provided alternatives to cryosurgery. For advanced basal cell carcinoma, the small-molecule inhibitor vismodegib has proven to be an effective therapy for lesions that are not amenable to surgery and has demonstrated ability to achieve dramatic improvement in advanced, potentially disfiguring cancer. PMID:25268601

  10. Current and future treatment options for cystic fibrosis lung disease: latest evidence and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Claire; Davies, Jane C

    2016-05-01

    Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) has conventionally targeted downstream consequences of the defect such as mucus plugging and infection. More recently, significant advances have been made in treating the root cause of the disease, namely a defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. This review summarizes current pulmonary treatment options and highlights advances in research and development of new therapies. PMID:27347364

  11. Current and future treatment options for cystic fibrosis lung disease: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Claire; Davies, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) has conventionally targeted downstream consequences of the defect such as mucus plugging and infection. More recently, significant advances have been made in treating the root cause of the disease, namely a defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. This review summarizes current pulmonary treatment options and highlights advances in research and development of new therapies. PMID:27347364

  12. Space station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 2: Options development DR-5. Volume 1: Technology options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The second task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the development of an information base that will support the conduct of trade studies and provide sufficient data to make key design/programmatic decisions. This volume identifies the preferred options in the technology category and characterizes these options with respect to performance attributes, constraints, cost, and risk. The technology category includes advanced materials, processes, and techniques that can be used to enhance the implementation of SSDS design structures. The specific areas discussed are mass storage, including space and round on-line storage and off-line storage; man/machine interface; data processing hardware, including flight computers and advanced/fault tolerant computer architectures; and software, including data compression algorithms, on-board high level languages, and software tools. Also discussed are artificial intelligence applications and hard-wire communications.

  13. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  14. 12 CFR 950.5 - Terms and conditions for advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Bank. (b) Advance pricing—(1) General. A Bank shall not price its advances to members below: (i) The... embedded options; and (ii) The administrative and operating costs associated with making such advances to members. (2) Differential pricing. (i) Each Bank may, in pricing its advances, distinguish among...

  15. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  16. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  17. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  18. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  19. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  20. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  1. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  2. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  3. New options in the management of tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Tendon injuries can be acute or chronic, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, either alone or in combination. Tendinopathies are a common cause of disability in occupational medicine and account for a substantial proportion of overuse injuries in sports. Tendinopathy is essentially a failed healing response, with haphazard proliferation of tenocytes, abnormalities in tenocytes, with disruption of collagen fibres and subsequent increase in noncollagenous matrix. The scientific evidence base for managing tendinopathies is limited. What may appear clinically as an "acute tendinopathy" is actually a well advanced failure of a chronic healing response in which there is neither histologic nor biochemical evidence of inflammation. In this review we report the new options for the management of tendinopathy, including eccentric exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, injections (intratendinous injections of corticosteroids, aprotinin, polidocanol platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood injection, high-volume injections) and surgery. Open surgery aims to excise fibrotic adhesions, remove areas of failed healing and make multiple longitudinal incisions in the tendon to detect intratendinous lesions, and to restore vascularity and possibly stimulate the remaining viable cells to initiate cell matrix response and healing. New surgical techniques aim to disrupt the abnormal neoinnervation to interfere with the pain sensation caused by tendinopathy. These procedures are intrinsically different from the classical ones in present use, because they do not attempt to address directly the pathologic lesion, but act only to denervate them. They include endoscopy, electrocoagulation, and minimally invasive stripping. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to clarify better the best therapeutic options for the management of tendinopathy.

  4. Carotid artery stenting: current and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Morr, Simon; Lin, Ning; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting technologies are rapidly evolving. Options for endovascular surgeons and interventionists who treat occlusive carotid disease continue to expand. We here present an update and overview of carotid stenting devices. Evidence supporting carotid stenting includes randomized controlled trials that compare endovascular stenting to open surgical endarterectomy. Carotid technologies addressed include the carotid stents themselves as well as adjunct neuroprotective devices. Aspects of stent technology include bare-metal versus covered stents, stent tapering, and free-cell area. Drug-eluting and cutting balloon indications are described. Embolization protection options and new direct carotid access strategies are reviewed. Adjunct technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound imaging and risk stratification algorithms, are discussed. Bare-metal and covered stents provide unique advantages and disadvantages. Stent tapering may allow for a more fitted contour to the caliber decrement between the common carotid and internal carotid arteries but also introduces new technical challenges. Studies regarding free-cell area are conflicting with respect to benefits and associated risk; clinical relevance of associated adverse effects associated with either type is unclear. Embolization protection strategies include distal filter protection and flow reversal. Though flow reversal was initially met with some skepticism, it has gained wider acceptance and may provide the advantage of not crossing the carotid lesion before protection is established. New direct carotid access techniques address difficult anatomy and incorporate sophisticated flow-reversal embolization protection techniques. Carotid stenting is a new and exciting field with rapidly advancing technologies. Embolization protection, low-risk deployment, and lesion assessment and stratification are active areas of research. Ample room remains for further innovations and developments. PMID:25349483

  5. Treatment Options to Manage Wound Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Curtis E.; Kennedy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioburden is an accepted barrier to chronic wound healing. Defining the significance, phenotype, clinical classification, and treatment guidelines has been historically lacking of evidence and based on paradigms that do not represent the scientific or clinical reality. The Problem Chronic wound bioburden is typically abundant, polymicrobial, and extremely diverse. These microbes naturally adopt biofilm phenotypes, which are quite often viable but not culturable, thereby going undetected. The failures of culture-based detection have led to abandonment of routine bioburden evaluation and aggressive treatment or, worse, to assume bioburden is not a significant barrier. Predictably, treatment regimens to address biofilm phenotypes lagged behind our diagnostic tools and understanding. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Microbial DNA-based diagnostic tools and treatment regimens have emerged, which provide and leverage objective information, resulting in a dramatic impact on outcomes. Relevance to Clinical Care Modern medicine demands decisions based on objective evidence. The diagnostic and treatment protocols reviewed herein empower clinicians to practice modern medicine with regard to bioburden, with DNA level certainty. Conclusion Bioburden is a significant barrier to healing for all chronic wounds. Molecular diagnostics provide the first objective means of assessing wound bioburden. The accuracy and comprehensive data from such diagnostic methodologies provide clinicians with the ability to employ patient-specific treatment options, targeted to each patient's microbial wound census. Based on current outcomes data, the most effective therapeutic options are topical (TPL) antibiofilm agents (ABF) combined with TPL antibiotics (ABX). In specific patients, systemic ABX and selective biocides are also appropriate, but not exclusive of ABF combined with TPL ABX. PMID:24527291

  6. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  8. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS

  9. Superintendent Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boring, Michael R.

    This guide is intended to be a tool to help those involved in the superintendent selection process. Section titles reflect the guide's contents. "The Decision to Seek a Superintendent"; "The Case for Using a Search Consultant"; "Setting a Timeline"; "Involvement of Parents, Citizens, Students and Staff"; "Describing the Person Sought and the…

  10. The practicing physician's current perspective on therapeutic options in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Drenth, D.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Boonstra, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decades the management of patients with stable as well as unstable manifestations of coronary artery disease has evolved in every aspect of routine clinical practice. Modern diagnostic modalities allow reliable and objective assessment of both the anatomical and functional consequences of the early as well as advanced stages of this disease, which remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pharmacological therapy now includes several classes of drugs with mortality benefits documented by randomised controlled trials. Surgical and percutaneous revascularisation techniques have shown rapid technical improvements and are now applicable in a wide range of clinical conditions. In this paper we will attempt to place the current status of the three therapeutic options for patients with coronary artery disease into perspective. It is important to realise that it is impossible to write a complete overview, a Pubmed search: 'PCI or drug therapy or surgery for coronary artery disease' results in 1,152,117 hits. Therefore, we have chosen the viewpoint of the practicing physician to synthesise this abundance of information in the context of modern clinical practice in a high volume cardiothoracic and cardiological practice. PMID:25696508

  11. Emerging treatment options for refractory angina pectoris: ranolazine, shock wave treatment, and cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marco; Gambini, Elisa; Bassetti, Beatrice; Capogrossi, Maurizio; Pompilio, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    A challenge of modern cardiovascular medicine is to find new, effective treatments for patients with refractory angina pectoris, a clinical condition characterized by severe angina despite optimal medical therapy. These patients are not candidates for surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Herein we review the most up-to-date information regarding the modern approach to the patient with refractory angina pectoris, from conventional medical management to new medications and shock wave therapy, focusing on the use of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) in the treatment of this condition. Clinical limitations of the efficiency of conventional approaches justify the search for new therapeutic options. Regenerative medicine is considered the next step in the evolution of organ replacement therapy. It is driven largely by the same health needs as transplantation and replacement therapies, but it aims further than traditional approaches, such as cell-based therapy. Increasing knowledge of the role of circulating cells derived from bone marrow (EPCs) on cardiovascular homeostasis in physiologic and pathologic conditions has prompted the clinical use of these cells to relieve ischemia. The current state of therapeutic angiogenesis still leaves many questions unanswered. It is of paramount importance that the treatment is delivered safely. Direct intramyocardial and intracoronary administration has demonstrated acceptable safety profiles in early trials, and may represent a major advance over surgical thoracotomy. The combined efforts of bench and clinical researchers will ultimately answer the question of whether cell therapy is a suitable strategy for treatment of patients with refractory angina.

  12. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  13. Modeling of Solid Waste Processing Options in BIO-Plex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Luis F.; Finn, Cory; Kang, Sukwon; Hogan, John; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    BIO-Plex is a ground-based test bed currently under development by NASA for testing technologies and practices that may be utilized in future long-term life support missions. All aspects of such an Advanced Life Support (ALS) System must be considered to confidently construct a reliable system, which will not only allow the crew to survive in harsh environments, but allow the crew time to perform meaningful research. Effective handling of solid wastes is a critical aspect of the system, especially when recovery of resources contained in the waste is required. This is particularly important for ALS Systems configurations that include a Biomass Production Chamber. In these cases, significant amounts of inedible biomass waste may be produced, which can ultimately serve as a repository of necessary resources for sustaining life, notably carbon, water, and plant nutrients. Numerous biological and physicochemical solid waste processing options have been considered. Biological options include composting, aerobic digestion, and anaerobic digestion. Physicochemical options include pyrolysis, SCWO (supercritical water oxidation), various incineration configurations, microwave incineration, magnetically assisted gasification, and low temperature plasma reaction. Modeling of these options is a necessary step to assist in the design process. A previously developed top-level model of BIO-Plex implemented in MATLAB Simulink (r) for the use of systems analysis and design has been adopted for this analysis. Presently, this model only considered incineration for solid waste processing. Present work, reported here, includes the expansion of this model to include a wider array of solid waste processing options selected from the above options, bearing in mind potential, near term solid waste treatment systems. Furthermore, a trade study has also been performed among these solid waste processing technologies in an effort to determine the ideal technology for long-term life support

  14. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  15. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  16. 38 CFR 8.25 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 8.25 Section 8.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Optional Settlements § 8.25 Options. Insurance will be paid in a lump sum only when selected...

  17. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  18. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

  19. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  20. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  1. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  2. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  3. [Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy].

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B; Borloz, S; Ziltener, J-L

    2012-07-25

    Patellar tendinopathy is also called jumper's knee because of its high incidence in athletes with jumping or cutting activities as soccer, basketball, volleyball. Many different treatment methods have been described. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment for this condition. According to the literature, eccentric exercise-based physical therapy should be proposed first because of its strong scientific evidence. Shockwave therapy and injections may be useful but their real efficacy still has to be proven by randomized controlled study. For patients recalcitrant to more conservative options, operative management may be indicated.

  4. Energy Options for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Obenschain, Stephen; Conover, David; Bajura, Rita; Greene, David; Brown, Marilyn; Boes, Eldon; McCarthy, Kathyrn; Christian, David; Dean, Stephen; Kulcinski, Gerald; Denholm, P. L.

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major energy sources, means for resolving or mitigating environmental issues, and the role to be played by yet to be deployed sources, like fusion, were major topics of presentation and discussion.

  5. Superintendent Search and Selection Processes in the State of Wisconsin: Seeking the Best Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Local school boards have the responsibility to select school superintendents to lead their districts. The process by which school boards go about searching for and selecting a superintendent varies. In Wisconsin, school boards have the option to hire a search firm or other outside assistance, or they can choose to search for and select a…

  6. Higgs Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Krisztian

    2009-11-01

    We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.

  7. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  8. [Gastroparesis and its treatment options].

    PubMed

    Igaz, Péter; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-03-01

    Gastroparesis is a disorder of gastric emptying that occurs in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Its cardinal features include nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety and discomfort. Weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and malnutrition may develop in severe cases. The majority of cases is idiopathic, long standing diabetes mellitus is responsible for about 25-30% of cases. Diabetic gastroparesis may render glucose control extremely difficult, its treatment represents a major challenge. Besides frequent, small meals and psychological support, several drug options are available, however, their efficacy is limited and only a few randomized studies have been performed to date. Prokinetic agents (erythromycin, domperidone, metoclopramide) and antiemetics (phenothiazines, serotonin antagonists, butyrophenones) are the most wide-spread medicaments. Among the novel, recently developed agents, 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonists and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists are the most promising. Injection of botulinum toxin into the pyloric sphincter resulted in faster gastric emptying and symptom alleviation in some studies. Gastric electric stimulation appears to be one of the most effective options, both low and high-frequency stimulation may alleviate symptoms. Gastrostomy/jejunostomy and other surgical interventions are considered as "last resort". PMID:18292033

  9. Treatment options for threatened miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N S

    2009-12-01

    Threatened miscarriage, as demonstrated by vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps, is a common complication of pregnancy. It occurs in about 20% of recognised pregnancies. Risk of miscarriage is increased in older women and those with a history of miscarriage. Low serum levels of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are a risk factor for miscarriage. Other risk factors include heavy bleeding, early gestational age and an empty gestational sac of >15-17 mm diameter. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings provide valuable information about the prognosis and are important to establish in order to determine potential treatment options. Although bed rest is the most common choice of treatment, there is little evidence of its value. Other options include luteal support with progesterone, dydrogesterone or hCG. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that progesterone or dydrogesterone may reduce the rate of miscarriage, although further data from double-blind, randomised-controlled trials are necessary to confirm efficacy. PMID:19945236

  10. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  11. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  12. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consider the quality of the Contractor's past performance under this contract in accordance with 48 CFR 517... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice...

  13. Energy storage options for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Martin, J. F.; Olszewski, M.

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels are assessed; the results obtained suggest that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 kJ/kg to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675 K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (about 500 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  14. First Core and Refueling Options for IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, Bojan; Carelli, Mario D.; Greenspan, Ehud; Milosevic, Miodrag; Vujic, Jasmina; Padovani, Enrico; Ganda, Francesco

    2002-07-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. The IRIS design addresses key requirements associated with advanced reactors, including improved safety, enhanced proliferation resistance, competitive electricity production cost, and improved waste management. IRIS is a modular, small/medium size (100 to 335 MWe) PWR with integral vessel configuration. Its design is based on proven LWR technology, so that no new technology development is needed and near term deployment is possible. At the same time, aim was to introduce improvements as compared to present PWRs. These opposing requirements resulted in an evolutionary approach to fuel and core design, balancing new features and the need to avoid extensive testing and demonstration programs. A path forward was devised by selecting the current fuel technology for the first IRIS core, but keeping future upgrades possible through the variable moderation fuel assembly design. This paper describes this approach and discusses core fueling options that enable achieving four-year and eight-year core lifetime. (authors)

  15. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    PubMed

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications.

  16. Identifying and removing duplicate records from systematic review searches

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yoojin; Lemieux, Michelle; McTavish, Jill; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness of different options for de-duplicating records retrieved from systematic review searches. Methods Using the records from a published systematic review, five de-duplication options were compared. The time taken to de-duplicate in each option and the number of false positives (were deleted but should not have been) and false negatives (should have been deleted but were not) were recorded. Results The time for each option varied. The number of positive and false duplicates returned from each option also varied greatly. Conclusion The authors recommend different de-duplication options based on the skill level of the searcher and the purpose of de-duplication efforts. PMID:26512216

  17. [Searching articles and their management].

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2010-05-01

    The development of digitalizing technology and the Internet has enabled medical doctors and researchers in medicine to search and read the latest articles at their desk without visiting a library. As a result of the time and effort spent for searching articles can be extremely reduced by learning how to use effective tools in combination, the time for the research activity will certainly be greatly saved. It is promising that the advancement of science database, online journals, evaluating system of the journal impact will be great help for researchers. PMID:20446610

  18. The Correlates of Taiwan Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs concerning Internet Environments, Online Search Strategies, and Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlates among teachers' epistemological beliefs concerning Internet environments, their web search strategies and search outcomes. The sample of this study included 105 teachers from 63 grades 1 to 9 schools in Taiwan. The results show that the teachers with more advanced epistemological beliefs concerning…

  19. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  20. EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

  1. Slowed Search in the Context of Unimpaired Grouping in Autism: Evidence from Multiple Conjunction Search.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    In multiple conjunction search, the target is not known in advance but is defined only with respect to the distractors in a given search array, thus reducing the contributions of bottom-up and top-down attentional and perceptual processes during search. This study investigated whether the superior visual search skills typically demonstrated by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would be evident in multiple conjunction search. Thirty-two children with ASD and 32 age- and nonverbal IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children were administered a multiple conjunction search task. Contrary to findings from the large majority of studies on visual search in ASD, response times of individuals with ASD were significantly slower than those of their TD peers. Evidence of slowed performance in ASD suggests that the mechanisms responsible for superior ASD performance in other visual search paradigms are not available in multiple conjunction search. Although the ASD group failed to exhibit superior performance, they showed efficient search and intertrial priming levels similar to the TD group. Efficient search indicates that ASD participants were able to group distractors into distinct subsets. In summary, while demonstrating grouping and priming effects comparable to those exhibited by their TD peers, children with ASD were slowed in their performance on a multiple conjunction search task, suggesting that their usual superior performance in visual search tasks is specifically dependent on top-down and/or bottom-up attentional and perceptual processes.

  2. Operational options for green ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  3. Options for Martian propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

  4. Literature searches on Ayurveda: An update

    PubMed Central

    Aggithaya, Madhur G.; Narahari, Saravu R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The journals that publish on Ayurveda are increasingly indexed by popular medical databases in recent years. However, many Eastern journals are not indexed biomedical journal databases such as PubMed. Literature searches for Ayurveda continue to be challenging due to the nonavailability of active, unbiased dedicated databases for Ayurvedic literature. In 2010, authors identified 46 databases that can be used for systematic search of Ayurvedic papers and theses. This update reviewed our previous recommendation and identified current and relevant databases. Aims: To update on Ayurveda literature search and strategy to retrieve maximum publications. Methods: Author used psoriasis as an example to search previously listed databases and identify new. The population, intervention, control, and outcome table included keywords related to psoriasis and Ayurvedic terminologies for skin diseases. Current citation update status, search results, and search options of previous databases were assessed. Eight search strategies were developed. Hundred and five journals, both biomedical and Ayurveda, which publish on Ayurveda, were identified. Variability in databases was explored to identify bias in journal citation. Results: Five among 46 databases are now relevant – AYUSH research portal, Annotated Bibliography of Indian Medicine, Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles (DHARA), PubMed, and Directory of Open Access Journals. Search options in these databases are not uniform, and only PubMed allows complex search strategy. “The Researches in Ayurveda” and “Ayurvedic Research Database” (ARD) are important grey resources for hand searching. About 44/105 (41.5%) journals publishing Ayurvedic studies are not indexed in any database. Only 11/105 (10.4%) exclusive Ayurveda journals are indexed in PubMed. Conclusion: AYUSH research portal and DHARA are two major portals after 2010. It is mandatory to search PubMed and four other databases because all five

  5. On the relationship between human search strategies, conspicuity, and search performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Bijl, Piet; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    We determined the relationship between search performance with a limited field of view (FOV) and several scanning- and scene parameters in human observer experiments. The observers (38 trained army scouts) searched through a large search sector for a target (a camouflaged person) on a heath. From trial to trial the target appeared at a different location. With a joystick the observers scanned through a panoramic image (displayed on a PC-monitor) while the scan path was registered. Four conditions were run differing in sensor type (visual or thermal infrared) and window size (large or small). In conditions with a small window size the zoom option could be used. Detection performance was highly dependent on zoom factor and deteriorated when scan speed increased beyond a threshold value. Moreover, the distribution of scan speeds scales with the threshold speed. This indicates that the observers are aware of their limitations and choose a (near) optimal search strategy. We found no correlation between the fraction of detected targets and overall search time for the individual observers, indicating that both are independent measures of individual search performance. Search performance (fraction detected, total search time, time in view for detection) was found to be strongly related to target conspicuity. Moreover, we found the same relationship between search performance and conspicuity for visual and thermal targets. This indicates that search performance can be predicted directly by conspicuity regardless of the sensor type.

  6. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  7. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Foletto, Michele Ceolin; Haas, Sandra Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life. PMID:24770508

  8. How collective comparisons emerge without individual comparisons of the options.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elva J H; Feinerman, Ofer; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-07-22

    Collective decisions in animal groups emerge from the actions of individuals who are unlikely to have global information. Comparative assessment of options can be valuable in decision-making. Ant colonies are excellent collective decision-makers, for example when selecting a new nest-site. Here, we test the dependency of this cooperative process on comparisons conducted by individual ants. We presented ant colonies with a choice between new nests: one good and one poor. Using individually radio-tagged ants and an automated system of doors, we manipulated individual-level access to information: ants visiting the good nest were barred from visiting the poor one and vice versa. Thus, no ant could individually compare the available options. Despite this, colonies still emigrated quickly and accurately when comparisons were prevented. Individual-level rules facilitated this behavioural robustness: ants allowed to experience only the poor nest subsequently searched more. Intriguingly, some ants appeared particularly discriminating across emigrations under both treatments, suggesting they had stable, high nest acceptance thresholds. Overall, our results show how a colony of ants, as a cognitive entity, can compare two options that are not both accessible by any individual ant. Our findings illustrate a collective decision process that is robust to differences in individual access to information.

  9. Parents’ Online Portrayals of Pediatric Treatment and Research Options

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Rebecca; Henderson, Gail E.; Churchill, Larry R.; King, Nancy M. P.; Rothschild, Barbra B.; Lohser, Sara; Davis, Arlene M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents of seriously ill children face difficult decisions when standard therapies are limited or ineffective. In their search for information, they may turn to websites created by other parents facing similar experiences. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 21 websites created by families with children affected by cancer or genetic disease, two serious conditions with a range of treatment and clinical trial options. Our research questions address how parent authors portray serious pediatric illness, available options, parties to decision making, and sources of influence. In addition, we examine what these sites reveal about family vulnerability to various risks, particularly the risk of misunderstanding the distinction between standard treatment and research and the risk of overestimating the likely benefits of research participation, as well as whether vulnerability varies by type of condition. Our results demonstrate typically favorable views on research, but with inadequate distinctions between research and treatment and a complex set of trade-offs in consideration of research risks and potential benefits. While portraits of vulnerability emerge for both parents and children, so do portraits of strength and resilience. As a result, parents describe frustration with both under- and over-protection from research participation. Our discussion of these findings clarifies the potential for parent-authored websites to inform and influence families considering research and treatment options for their seriously ill children. PMID:19754237

  10. Perioperative pain management in hip arthroscopy; what options are there?

    PubMed

    Bech, N H; Hulst, A H; Spuijbroek, J A; van Leuken, L L A; Haverkamp, D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156

  11. Perioperative pain management in hip arthroscopy; what options are there?

    PubMed Central

    Bech, N. H.; Hulst, A. H.; Spuijbroek, J. A.; van Leuken, L. L. A.; Haverkamp, D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy is a fast growing orthopedic field of expertise. As in any field of surgery adequate postoperative pain management regimes are of utmost importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on anesthetic options for perioperative pain management for hip arthroscopy. We searched the Pubmed/Medline and Embase database for literature and included 10 studies for our analysis. Because of the variety of pain scales and different ways of measured pain no meta-analysis could be performed and a descriptive review is performed. There are several types of pain regimens that can mostly be divided in two groups: local anesthetics and nerve blocks. Included studies show a rather large variation in reported visual analogue scale scores, post anesthesia care unit admission time and opioid usage. There are several anesthetic options available for hip arthroscopy. Different studies use different dosages, anesthetic regimens and different protocols; this partly explains the differences between studies with similar techniques. Peripheral nerve blocks seems promising but regarding current literature no clear recommendation can be made about what the best perioperative pain management option is, an overview of all reported techniques is given. PMID:27583156

  12. Option pricing for stochastic volatility model with infinite activity Lévy jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoli; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply the stochastic volatility model driven by infinite activity Lévy processes to option pricing which displays infinite activity jumps behaviors and time varying volatility that is consistent with the phenomenon observed in underlying asset dynamics. We specially pay attention to three typical Lévy processes that replace the compound Poisson jumps in Bates model, aiming to capture the leptokurtic feature in asset returns and volatility clustering effect in returns variance. By utilizing the analytical characteristic function and fast Fourier transform technique, the closed form formula of option pricing can be derived. The intelligent global optimization search algorithm called Differential Evolution is introduced into the above highly dimensional models for parameters calibration so as to improve the calibration quality of fitted option models. Finally, we perform empirical researches using both time series data and options data on financial markets to illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  13. Interrupted Visual Searches Reveal Volatile Search Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Y. Jeremy; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated memory from interrupted visual searches. Participants conducted a change detection search task on polygons overlaid on scenes. Search was interrupted by various disruptions, including unfilled delay, passive viewing of other scenes, and additional search on new displays. Results showed that performance was unaffected by…

  14. [Ethics in organ transplantation: continous search for defining what is acceptable].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In the past 50 years, Transplant Medicine has been adopted worldwide as a growing option for treatment of many organic diseases. Ethical Issues in organ replacement therapy have emerged since the beginning. Significant advancements in the care of critically ill patients, as well as the increasing need of cadaveric organs for transplantation, definitively influenced a complex discussion about new criteria for definition of death, one of the most complex ethic debates in last century. Criteria for organ assignment are also cause of profound debate, especially when the number of patients waiting for an organ is extremely high compared with organ availability. Living donor represents a very complex figure in modern medicine, security issues as well as the need to offer them absolute respect to their capacity to decide must be considered in every patient. Ethics in transplantation represent a continuous search for defining what is acceptable.

  15. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  16. Pancreatic cancer and SBRT: A new potential option?

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Carla; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Local control remains a major issue for patients with unresectable, locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The role of radiation therapy in the management of LAPC represents an area of some controversy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is an emerging treatment option for LAPC as it can provide a therapeutic benefit with significant advantages for patients’ quality of life over standard conventional chemoradiation. The objective of this review is to present the rationale for stereotactic body radiotherapy in LAPC, as well as to discuss the potential limitations and caveats of the currently available studies. PMID:26549996

  17. Fertility Preservation Options for Men and Women With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E; Gilbert, Sara Babcock; Meacham, Randall B; Kondapalli, Laxmi A

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 0.2% of Americans aged 20 to 39 years are childhood cancer survivors. Advances in cancer detection and therapy have greatly improved survival rates for young cancer patients; however, treatment of childhood cancers can adversely impact reproductive function. Many cancer patients report a strong desire to be informed of existing options for fertility preservation and future reproduction prior to initiation of gonadotoxic cancer therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. This article discusses, in detail, the effects of cancer treatment on fertility in men and women, and outlines both current and experimental methods of fertility preservation among cancer patients. PMID:26839518

  18. [The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Options and problems in application].

    PubMed

    Haasper, C; Junge, M; Ernstberger, A; Brehme, H; Hannawald, L; Langer, C; Nehmzow, J; Otte, D; Sander, U; Krettek, C; Zwipp, H

    2010-05-01

    The new AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) was released with an update by the AAAM (Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine) in 2008. It is a universal scoring system in the field of trauma applicable in clinic and research. In engineering it is used as a classification system for vehicle safety. The AIS can therefore be considered as an international, interdisciplinary and universal code of injury severity. This review focuses on a historical overview, potential applications and new coding options in the current version and also outlines the associated problems. PMID:20376615

  19. Solar power satellites. A review of the space transportation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fearn, D. G.

    1980-03-01

    The options available for lifting both heavy payloads and personnel to low Earth orbit, and from there to geostationary orbit are reviewed. It is concluded that conventional launcher technology using liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engines should be adequate for the former task. The latter can best be accomplished using electric propulsion with ion thrusters being the most suitable devices, owing to their high efficiency and advanced state of development. Environmental effects of such a transportation system are considered and it is concluded that they should be acceptable.

  20. Surgical Options for Drug-Refractory Overactive Bladder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Starkman, Jonathan S; Smith, Christopher P; Staskin, David R

    2010-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence. This syndrome is idiopathic in most instances without clearly defined pathophysiology. Studies clearly show that OAB negatively impacts health-related quality of life and impairs daily functioning in a large proportion of patients. Despite recent advances in drug delivery and improved tolerability of antimuscarinic drug class, a large percentage of patients remain refractory to conventional pharmacological therapy for this chronic condition. There are several unique and effective treatments that are available for this difficult population. We review the various surgical options within the urological armamentarium to treat patients with refractory OAB. PMID:20811558

  1. Options For Development of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houta, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission system have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed.

  2. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.

  3. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  4. Feedback options in nonlinear numerical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugger, Jens; Mashayekhi, Sima

    2012-09-01

    Feedback options are options where information about the trading of the underlying asset is fed back into the pricing model. This results in nonlinear pricing models. A survey of the literature about feedback options in finance is presented. The pricing model for the full feedback option on an infinite slab is presented and boundary values on a bounded domain are derived. This bounded, nonlinear, 2 dimensional initial-boundary value problem is solved numerically using a number of standard finite difference schemes and the methods incorporated in the symbolic software Maple{trade mark, serif}.

  5. Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/. PMID:18949581

  6. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... an election or waiver that remains in effect. The 60-day time limit for Option B or Option C...

  7. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... election or waiver which remains in effect. The 31-day time limit for Option B or Option C begins on...

  8. 5 CFR 870.504 - Optional insurance: Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional insurance: Election. 870.504...: Election. (a)(1) Each employee must elect or waive Option A, Option B, and Option C coverage, in a manner... an election or waiver that remains in effect. The 60-day time limit for Option B or Option C...

  9. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip.

  10. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  11. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  12. Searching and Indexing Genomic Databases via Kernelization

    PubMed Central

    Gagie, Travis; Puglisi, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advance of DNA sequencing technologies has yielded databases of thousands of genomes. To search and index these databases effectively, it is important that we take advantage of the similarity between those genomes. Several authors have recently suggested searching or indexing only one reference genome and the parts of the other genomes where they differ. In this paper, we survey the 20-year history of this idea and discuss its relation to kernelization in parameterized complexity. PMID:25710001

  13. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome.

  14. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  15. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  16. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  17. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  18. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  19. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  20. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  1. 78 FR 35559 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 7997) relating to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by a partnership. The final regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction...

  2. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  3. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  4. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  5. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  6. 23 CFR 500.104 - State option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State option. 500.104 Section 500.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.104 State option. Except as specified in § 500.105...

  7. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mitigation Options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation Options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  8. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mitigation Options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation Options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  9. 32 CFR 211.9 - Mitigation options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mitigation options. 211.9 Section 211.9 National... MISSION COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION PROCESS Project Evaluation Procedures § 211.9 Mitigation options. (a) In discussing mitigation to avoid an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States, the...

  10. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  11. Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, C.A.

    2001-01-16

    The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

  12. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  13. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

  14. Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

  15. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  16. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  17. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  18. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  19. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise... DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS General § 90.3 Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a... meter of air. Each of these miners shall be notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the...

  20. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  1. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Many options for exploration of the Moon and Mars have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration VSE was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of the moon and Mars and those of the Augustine human spaceflight commission for the implications of each architecture on the Environmental Control and Life Support, ExtraVehicular Activity and Thermal Control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

  2. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    PubMed

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  3. Design Options for the High-Foot Ignition Capsule Series on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Clark, D.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H.-S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Leeper, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Several options exist for improving implosion performance in the High-Foot series of ignition capsules on NIF. One option is to modify the fill tube used to supply DT to the capsule. Simulations indicate that a gold-coated glass tube may reduce implosion hydro effects and allow fielding a larger diameter tube capable of supporting the capsule, eliminating the need for the nominal tent support. A second option adds a fourth shock to the implosion history. According to simulation, this extra shock improves fuel confinement and capsule performance. A third option studies the feasibility of holding the DT fuel in liquid form in a foam layer inside the shell. This ``wetted foam'' concept, advanced by Olson, has existed for several years and may allow some control over the convergence of the capsule during implosion. This work was performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Incorporating Asymmetric Dependency Patterns in the Evaluation of IS/IT projects Using Real Option Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of my dissertation is to create a general approach to evaluating IS/IT projects using Real Option Analysis (ROA). This is an important problem because an IT Project Portfolio (ITPP) can represent hundreds of projects, millions of dollars of investment and hundreds of thousands of employee hours. Therefore, any advance in the…

  5. 77 FR 67042 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Segregated Futures Customer Accounts on a Gross Basis,'' Release No. 34-67896 (September 20, 2012), 77 FR... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of No Objection to Advance Notice Filing, as Modified by Amendment No. 1 Thereto, Relating to the Margining of Segregated...

  6. Distance Education for Gifted Students: Leveraging Technology to Expand Academic Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Technological advances and widespread access to the Internet are facilitating new educational approaches that go beyond the traditional face-to-face classroom setting. Distance education has emerged as a valuable option for a number of special populations of learners whose needs are more difficult to meet in the classroom, of which gifted students…

  7. Reverse Abdominoplasty: A Practical Option for Oncological Trunk Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pantelides, Nicholas M.; Mondal, Debabrata; Wishart, Gordon C.; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Following radical oncological resection, full-thickness upper central trunk defects present a significant challenge. Common reconstructive options include pedicled flaps, such as pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, and latissimus dorsi. In complex cases, free tissue transfer may be required. Reverse abdominoplasty, although initially described for cosmetic body contouring, can be used to reconstruct upper central trunk defects following radical tumour ablation. We present 4 such applications in the management of advanced or recurrent malignancies and review the relative indications for this approach. Methods: Four consecutive cases (2004-2010) were reviewed with respect to indication, operative procedure, and complications. Results: There were no cases of complete flap loss. One patient underwent revision for marginal flap necrosis while another developed local recurrence, requiring re-excision and reconstruction with flap advancement. Conclusions: Where pedicled flaps are unavailable or insufficient, adjacent abdominal tissue can be recruited into chest wall defects, avoiding microsurgical free tissue transfer. The authors feel that the reverse abdominoplasty is currently underused in this context and offers an excellent alternative in complex cases where other reconstructive options are unavailable, or where comorbidities preclude free-tissue transfer. The technique is versatile, simple to perform and affords an acceptable cosmetic outcome, yet is not widely reported in the literature. It has particular merit in cases with a high chance of disease recurrence, in the management of recurrent breast cancer, and in patients with multiple comorbidities. The reverse abdominoplasty should therefore be considered when evaluating patients for oncological trunk reconstruction. PMID:23359844

  8. End-of-life issues in advanced dementia

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions about management of end-stage pneumonia, poor nutritional intake, and dehydration in advanced dementia. Sources of information Ovid MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles published until February 2015. No level I studies were identified; most articles provided level III evidence. The symptom management suggestions are partially based on recent participation in a Delphi procedure to develop a guideline for optimal symptom relief for patients with pneumonia and dementia. Main message Feeding tubes are not recommended for patients with end-stage dementia. Comfort feeding by hand is preferable. Use of parenteral hydration might be helpful but can also contribute to discomfort at the end of life. Withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration is generally not associated with manifestations of discomfort if mouth care is adequate. Because pneumonia usually causes considerable discomfort, clinicians should pay attention to symptom control. Sedation for agitation is often useful in patients with dementia in the terminal phase. Conclusion Symptomatic care is an appropriate option for end-stage manifestations of advanced dementia. The proposed symptom management guidelines are based on a literature review and expert consensus. PMID:25873701

  9. 'Net Search Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Suzanne S.

    1997-01-01

    Provides strategies for effective Internet searches. Categorizes queries into four types and describes tools: subject lists; indexes/directories; keyword search engines; Usenet newsgroups; and special purpose search tools. Discusses the importance of deciphering information and adjusting to changes. (AEF)

  10. The Extreme Searcher's Guide to Web Search Engines: A Handbook for the Serious Searcher. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Randolph

    This book aims to facilitate more effective and efficient use of World Wide Web search engines by helping the reader: know the basic structure of the major search engines; become acquainted with those attributes (features, benefits, options, content, etc.) that search engines have in common and where they differ; know the main strengths and…

  11. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  12. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  13. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  14. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  15. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence - The ultimate exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D.; Tarter, J.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Conners, M.; Clark, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    A survey highlighting the central issues of the SETI program (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), including its rationale, scope, search problems, and goals is presented. Electromagnetic radiation is suggested as the most likely means via which knowledge of extraterrestrial intelligence will be obtained, and the variables governing these signals are discussed, including: signal frequency and polarization, state, possible coordinates, and signal duration. The modern history of SETI and NASA's involvement is briefly reviewed, and the search strategies used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ames Research Center are discussed and compared. Some of the potential scientific and cultural impacts of the SETI program are mentioned, noting advancements in technological, biological, and chemical research.

  16. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  17. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  18. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

  19. Networking Options for Beowulf Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Thomas L.

    2000-03-01

    Beowulf-class PC clusters have emerged as an important type of high end computing system providing unprecedented price-performance advantage and configuration flexibility. Derived from mass market commodity off-the-shelf hardware and software components, Beowulf systems are being implemented across the country and around the world for a wide array of applications and with diverse structures and scale. Critical to the success and effectiveness of Beowulfs has been the availability of low cost, moderate bandwidth local area networks (LAN) to provide communications channels between PC nodes. From the early days with 10 Mbps Ethernet, system area networking (SAN) has evolved dramatically providing a number of choices of technology and protocol with, in some cases, more than 1 Gbps per channel peak bandwidth. Beowulf systems have been implemented with many of these and in a number of different configurations and topologies. Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Giganet, Myranet, SCI as well as a number of switch nodes are in use. Systems exceeding a thousand processors either have been or are being assembled and commercial vendors are now marketing Beowulf-class systems as turn-key computers. The technology is advancing so rapidly that information even a year old is largely out of date. This presentation will provide an up to date description of the current state-of-the-art in system area networks for Beowulf-class computing and give examples of existing or planned systems employing these technologies.

  20. Technoeconomic comparisons of leading hydrogen storage options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpetis, C.

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main features of the leading options for hydrogen storage and to deliver a basic framework for technoeconomic comparisons. From the utilization point of view, several major areas of hydrogen storage (e.g., for large-scale stationary storage, transient storage, onboard storage for vehicular applications) must be considered separately. In each area, more than one storage option (gaseous, liquid, adsorbed, or adsorbed in solid materials) may be economically beneficial. Typical areas of beneficial use and restrictive features will be shown for each of the different storage options.

  1. Why implementing the space option is necessary for society.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Marco C; Bernasconi, Cristina

    2004-03-01

    For several years, specialized agencies have been searching for "new programs" that could reinvigorate the support for space activities and stop their budgets' decline of. But the same time, they have been retrenching by focusing on collecting and distributing information, putting scientific research as their core projects. On a planet soon to host a 10-billion population that will impact the biosphere's workings as never before, at a time when many governments and organizations see the virtue in the management of scarcity, musing on the origins of life and of the solar system can hardly be expected to be invested with high priority. The space option arose from the analysis of the issues confronting humanity. In reviewing the material needs of the human population in the near future, the analysis finds that the impact on the biosphere will perforce be much larger than it usually seems to be acceptable to assume.

  2. Why implementing the space option is necessary for society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Marco C.; Bernasconi, Cristina

    2004-03-01

    For several years, specialized agencies have been searching for "new programs" that could reinvigorate the support for space activities and stop their budgets' decline of. But the same time, they have been retrenching by focusing on collecting and distributing information, putting scientific research as their core projects. On a planet soon to host a 10-billion population that will impact the biosphere's workings as never before, at a time when many governments and organizations see the virtue in the management of scarcity, musing on the origins of life and of the solar system can hardly be expected to be invested with high priority. The space option arose from the analysis of the issues confronting humanity. In reviewing the material needs of the human population in the near future, the analysis finds that the impact on the biosphere will perforce be much larger than it usually seems to be acceptable to assume.

  3. The use of geoscience methods for terrestrial forensic searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, J. K.; Ruffell, A.; Jervis, J. R.; Donnelly, L.; McKinley, J.; Hansen, J.; Morgan, R.; Pirrie, D.; Harrison, M.

    2012-08-01

    Geoscience methods are increasingly being utilised in criminal, environmental and humanitarian forensic investigations, and the use of such methods is supported by a growing body of experimental and theoretical research. Geoscience search techniques can complement traditional methodologies in the search for buried objects, including clandestine graves, weapons, explosives, drugs, illegal weapons, hazardous waste and vehicles. This paper details recent advances in search and detection methods, with case studies and reviews. Relevant examples are given, together with a generalised workflow for search and suggested detection technique(s) table. Forensic geoscience techniques are continuing to rapidly evolve to assist search investigators to detect hitherto difficult to locate forensic targets.

  4. Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-17

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating

  5. SKYWARD: the next generation airborne infrared search and track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, L.; Colombi, G.; Ondini, A.; Quaranta, C.; Giunti, C.; Sozzi, B.; Balzarotti, G.

    2016-05-01

    Infrared Search and Track systems are an essential element of the modern and future combat aircrafts. Passive automatic search, detection and tracking functions, are key points for silent operations or jammed tactical scenarios. SKYWARD represents the latest evolution of IRST technology in which high quality electro-optical components, advanced algorithms, efficient hardware and software solutions are harmonically integrated to provide high-end affordable performances. Additionally, the reduction of critical opto-mechanical elements optimises weight and volume and increases the overall reliability. Multiple operative modes dedicated to different situations are available; many options can be selected among multiple or single target tracking, for surveillance or engagement, and imaging, for landing or navigation aid, assuring the maximum system flexibility. The high quality 2D-IR sensor is exploited by multiple parallel processing chains, based on linear and non-linear techniques, to extract the possible targets from background, in different conditions, with false alarm rate control. A widely tested track processor manages a large amount of candidate targets simultaneously and allows discriminating real targets from noise whilst operating with low target to background contrasts. The capability of providing reliable passive range estimation is an additional qualifying element of the system. Particular care has been dedicated to the detector non-uniformities, a possible limiting factor for distant targets detection, as well as to the design of the electro-optics for a harsh airborne environment. The system can be configured for LWIR or MWIR waveband according to the customer operational requirements. An embedded data recorder saves all the necessary images and data for mission debriefing, particularly useful during inflight system integration and tuning.

  6. Advanced manned earth-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    1986-10-01

    Advanced manned launch vehicle concepts which are designed to meet the space transportation architecture and mission needs for the early 21st century are described. Concepts are described which are based both on modest (evolutionary) and revolutionary advancements in performance technologies but with emphasis on defining operations cost. Design options feature fully reusable, vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, rocket-powered concepts and include a variety of possible staging arrangements depending on the desired mission emphasis and the available technologies.

  7. Space transfer vehicle avionics advanced development needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of preliminary transportation program options for the exploration initiative is underway. The exploration initiative for the Moon and Mars is outlined by mission phases. A typical lunar/Mars outpost technology/advanced development schedule is provided. An aggressive and focused technology development program is needed as early as possible to successfully support these new initiatives. The avionics advanced development needs, plans, laboratory facilities, and benefits from an early start are described.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  9. Observation option toolkit for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M

    2001-04-01

    The observation option for acute otitis media (AOM) refers to deferring antibiotic treatment of selected children for up to 3 days, during which time management is limited to analgesics and symptomatic relief. With appropriate follow-up complications are not increased, and clinical outcomes compare favorably with routine initial antibiotic therapy. Although used commonly in the Netherlands and certain Scandinavian countries, this approach has not gained wide acceptance in Europe and the United States. This article describes an evidence-based toolkit developed by the New York Region Otitis Project for judicious use of the observation option. The toolkit is not intended to endorse the observation option as a preferred method of management, nor is it intended as a rigid practice guideline to supplant clinician judgement. Rather, it presents busy clinicians with the tools needed to implement the observation option in everyday patient care should they so desire.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  11. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  14. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  15. Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldemberg, J.

    1978-01-01

    Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

  16. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  17. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 7997) relating to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments... value of $33,000 and basis of $24,000 ($30,000 original basis less $6,000 depreciation in Years...

  18. The Natural Resources Management Option in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1975-01-01

    The article is devoted to a discussion of the Natural Resources Management Advisory Committee, the development of teaching materials and the workshops planned for instructors of the Natural Resources Management Option. (Author)

  19. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: current fixation options.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jared L; McGlamry, Michael C

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the current literature on first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis rates using various forms of fixation, as well as reviewing biomechanical studies comparing the strengths of the different fixation options that are available.

  20. Evaluating State Options for Reducing Medicaid Churning

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Katherine; Short, Pamela Farley; Graefe, Deborah R.; Uberoi, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid churning - the constant exit and re-entry of beneficiaries as their eligibility changes - has long been a problem for both Medicaid administrators and recipients. Churning will continue under the Affordable Care Act, because despite new federal rules, Medicaid eligibility will continue to be based on current monthly income. We developed a longitudinal simulation model to evaluate four policy options for modifying or extending Medicaid eligibility to reduce churning. The simulations suggest that two options, extending Medicaid eligibility either to the end of a calendar year or for twelve months after enrollment, would be far more effective in reducing churning than the other options of a three-month extension or eligibility based on projected annual income. States should consider implementation of the option that best balances costs, including both administration and services, with improved health of Medicaid enrollees. PMID:26153313

  1. How do people perceive and generate options?

    PubMed

    Raab, Markus; de Oliveira, Rita F; Heinen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the question of how people perceive and generate options. Although most current theoretical approaches explain option perception and option generation as requiring extensive and costly cognitive processes, we will argue that people perceive their possibilities for action and generate options without such elaborate means. Borrowing from the contributions of direct perception and bounded rationality, we present and analyze data from three sports tasks: the basketball jump shot, ball allocation in handball, and trampoline somersaulting. Data from kinematics, eye-tracking, and choice behavior experiments are presented and reanalyzed to draw the parallels and distinctions between the two approaches. In conclusion, integrating research on perception, action, and cognition provides a promising description of the bidirectional link between mind and motion.

  2. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  3. Online Search Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Michael; Worley, Penny

    This course syllabus describes methods for optimizing online searching, using as an example searching on the National Library of Medicine (NLM) online system. Four major activities considered are the online interview, query analysis and search planning, online interaction, and post-search analysis. Within the context of these activities, concepts…

  4. Multimedia Web Searching Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares multimedia Web searching by Excite and FAST search engine users in 2001. Highlights include audio and video queries; time spent on searches; terms per query; ranking of the most frequently used terms; and differences in Web search behaviors of U.S. and European Web users. (Author/LRW)

  5. Moving past serology: Diagnostic options without serum.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Michael P; Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I

    2016-09-01

    Detecting antibodies formed in serum in response to infection is the traditional function of serology. Diagnostic modalities have included complement fixation tests, agar gel immune-diffusion, radioimmunoassay, ELISA and immunofluorescence. More recent technology now allows for the direct detection of pathogens by PCR. This review details the options for diagnostic testing using specimen types other than serum, identifying the advantages and disadvantages of these options and providing evidence for more widespread use of these techniques and specimen types. PMID:27160006

  6. Tracking Models for Optioned Portfolio Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jianfeng

    In this paper we study a target tracking problem for the portfolio selection involving options. In particular, the portfolio in question contains a stock index and some European style options on the index. A refined tracking-error-variance methodology is adopted to formulate this problem as a multi-stage optimization model. We derive the optimal solutions based on stochastic programming and optimality conditions. Attention is paid to the structure of the optimal payoff function, which is shown to possess rich properties.

  7. Dark circles: etiology and management options.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Daniel P; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2015-01-01

    Given their multifactorial nature and the fact that individual patients may have more than a single underlying cause, cosmetic practitioners should be well versed in a number of potential treatment options encompassing all facets of under-eye dark circles. New therapeutic options are also forthcoming. Longer-lasting HA fillers, wavelength tunable laser devices, and topicals speeding up healing and enhancing results after fractionated laser therapy will all serve to make the future of dark circle treatment unabatedly bright.

  8. Managing financial risk with options on futures.

    PubMed

    Bond, M T; Marshall, B S

    1995-05-01

    With the rise of managed care and capitation, more providers will be sharing in the financial risk of providing care. To help protect their organizations from the risk of unexpectedly high utilization under such a fixed-payment system, healthcare financial managers soon will be able to use options on futures contracts. These contracts provide wide profit potential but limited loss potential. Before investing in options on futures, however, healthcare financial managers should consider issues such as basis risk and trading costs.

  9. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  10. A hybrid modeling approach for option pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajizadeh, Ehsan; Seifi, Abbas

    2011-11-01

    The complexity of option pricing has led many researchers to develop sophisticated models for such purposes. The commonly used Black-Scholes model suffers from a number of limitations. One of these limitations is the assumption that the underlying probability distribution is lognormal and this is so controversial. We propose a couple of hybrid models to reduce these limitations and enhance the ability of option pricing. The key input to option pricing model is volatility. In this paper, we use three popular GARCH type model for estimating volatility. Then, we develop two non-parametric models based on neural networks and neuro-fuzzy networks to price call options for S&P 500 index. We compare the results with those of Black-Scholes model and show that both neural network and neuro-fuzzy network models outperform Black-Scholes model. Furthermore, comparing the neural network and neuro-fuzzy approaches, we observe that for at-the-money options, neural network model performs better and for both in-the-money and an out-of-the money option, neuro-fuzzy model provides better results.

  11. Status and Future of Deep Searches for Compact Binary Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitz, Alexander` Harvey; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Deep offline searches for gravitational waves from binary black hole, binary neutron star, and neutron star- black hole mergers were conducted during the first Advanced LIGO observing run, and recently Advanced LIGO announced the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We discuss the recent results, the methodology of the high latency searches, along with improvements for the upcoming observing runs.

  12. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  13. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  15. Bioinformatics: searching the Net.

    PubMed

    Kastin, S; Wexler, J

    1998-04-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an explosion in the volume of published medical information. As this volume has increased, so has the need for efficient methods for searching the data. MEDLINE, the primary medical database, is currently limited to abstracts of the medical literature. MEDLINE searches use AND/OR/NOT logical searching for keywords that have been assigned to each article and for textwords included in article abstracts. Recently, the complete text of some scientific journals, including figures and tables, has become accessible electronically. Keyword and textword searches can provide an overwhelming number of results. Search engines that use phrase searching, or searches that limit the number of words between two finds, improve the precision of search engines. The development of the Internet as a vehicle for worldwide communication, and the emergence of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a common vehicle for communication have made instantaneous access to much of the entire body of medical information an exciting possibility. There is more than one way to search the WWW for information. At the present time, two broad strategies have emerged for cataloging the WWW: directories and search engines. These allow more efficient searching of the WWW. Directories catalog WWW information by creating categories and subcategories of information and then publishing pointers to information within the category listings. Directories are analogous to yellow pages of the phone book. Search engines make no attempt to categorize information. They automatically scour the WWW looking for words and then automatically create an index of those words. When a specific search engine is used, its index is searched for a particular word. Usually, search engines are nonspecific and produce voluminous results. Use of AND/OR/NOT and "near" and "adjacent" search refinements greatly improve the results of a search. Search engines that limit their scope to specific sites, and

  16. On the Use of Librarians Selection Routines in Web Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsinakos, Avgoustos A.; Margaritis, Kostantinos G.

    Information retrieval on the World Wide Web has a major obstacle: although data is abundant, it is unlabeled and randomly indexed. This paper discusses the implementation of a consultative Web search engine that minimizes the expertise level that is required from a user to accomplish an advanced search session. The system takes advantage of the…

  17. The Sweet Spot of a Nonacademic Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Because academic culture frowns on Ph.D.'s who consider leaving the ivory tower, most of those who jump ship find themselves at a loss as to where and how to begin a job search. Yet a nonacademic job search is actually quite similar to a standard research project. Both require advance planning, substantial research, collating evidence for an…

  18. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  19. Comparative analyses of spent nuclear fuel transport modal options: Transport options under existing site constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Brentlinger, L.A.; Hofmann, P.L.; Peterson, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    The movement of nuclear waste can be accomplished by various transport modal options involving different types of vehicles, transport casks, transport routes, and intermediate intermodal transfer facilities. A series of systems studies are required to evaluate modal/intermodal spent fuel transportation options in a consistent fashion. This report provides total life-cycle cost and life-cycle dose estimates for a series of transport modal options under existing site constraints. 14 refs., 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Pancreatic cancer from bench to bedside: molecular pathways and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Christoforos; Sapalidis, Konstantinos; Kotidis, Efstathios; Mixalopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsavlis, Drosos; Baka, Sofia; Man, Yan-Gao; Kanellos, John

    2016-01-01

    In the last forty years the pancreatic cancer treatment has made advances, however; still novel drugs are needed. It is known that the five year survival rate remains around 5%. The best treatment option still remains surgery, if patients are diagnosed early. In the last decade the biology of pancreatic cancer has been vastly explored and novel agents such as; tyrosine kinase agents, or vaccines have been added as a treatment perspective. The big challenge is now to translate this knowledge in better outcomes for patients. In this current review we will present information from pancreatic cancer diagnosis to molecular pathways and treatment options; current and future. PMID:27275478

  1. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  2. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  3. Decision aids for advance care planning: an overview of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mary; Ratner, Edward; McCreedy, Ellen; Shippee, Nathan; Kane, Robert L

    2014-09-16

    Advance care planning honors patients' goals and preferences for future care by creating a plan for when illness or injury impedes the ability to think or communicate about health decisions. Fewer than 50% of severely or terminally ill patients have an advance directive in their medical record, and physicians are accurate only about 65% of the time when predicting patient preferences for intensive care. Decision aids can support the advance care planning process by providing a structured approach to informing patients about care options and prompting them to document and communicate their preferences. This review, commissioned as a technical brief by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program, provides a broad overview of current use of and research related to decision aids for adult advance care planning. Using interviews of key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 1990 to May 2014, the authors found that many decision aids are widely available but are not assessed in the empirical literature. The 16 published studies testing decision aids as interventions for adult advance care planning found that most are proprietary or not publicly available. Some are constructed for the general population, whereas others address disease-specific conditions that have more predictable end-of-life scenarios and, therefore, more discrete choices. New decision aids should be designed that are responsive to diverse philosophical perspectives and flexible enough to change as patients gain experience with their personal illness courses. Future efforts should include further research, training of advance care planning facilitators, dissemination and access, and tapping potential opportunities in social media or other technologies. PMID:25069709

  4. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  5. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search. PMID:23442731

  6. 12 CFR 1266.5 - Terms and conditions for advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the safe and sound operation of the Bank. (b) Advance pricing—(1) General. A Bank shall not price its... the marketplace, including embedded options; and (ii) The administrative and operating costs associated with making such advances to members. (2) Differential pricing. (i) Each Bank may, in pricing...

  7. 12 CFR 1266.5 - Terms and conditions for advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the safe and sound operation of the Bank. (b) Advance pricing—(1) General. A Bank shall not price its... the marketplace, including embedded options; and (ii) The administrative and operating costs associated with making such advances to members. (2) Differential pricing. (i) Each Bank may, in pricing...

  8. 12 CFR 1266.5 - Terms and conditions for advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the safe and sound operation of the Bank. (b) Advance pricing—(1) General. A Bank shall not price its... the marketplace, including embedded options; and (ii) The administrative and operating costs associated with making such advances to members. (2) Differential pricing. (i) Each Bank may, in pricing...

  9. Search for neutral leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

  10. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  11. Population level policy options for increasing the prevalence of smokefree homes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Howden‐Chapman, Philippa

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify and evaluate the options for population level government policies to increase the prevalence of homes free of secondhand smoke. Methods The literature was searched for population level policy options and evidence on them. Three criteria were used to evaluate the policy options: effectiveness, the reductions on inequalities in secondhand smoke exposure, and cost effectiveness. The setting was four developed, English speaking jurisdictions: Britain, USA, Australia, and New Zealand. Results Evidence from all four countries shows some association between relatively comprehensive tobacco control programmes and lower prevalence levels of smoking in homes. The evidence of the effect of such programmes on inequalities in smokefree home prevalence is limited. No published evidence was found of the cost effectiveness of the programmes in achieving changes in smokefree homes. Within comprehensive programmes, there is some indirect evidence that some mass media campaigns could increase the prevalence of smokefree homes. Structural options that have potential to support smokefree homes include smokefree places legislation, and laws for the protection of children. Conclusion The available evidence to date suggests that comprehensive tobacco control programmes (to reduce the prevalence of smoking in the total population) are likely to be the most effective and sustainable option for increasing the prevalence of smokefree homes. PMID:16537345

  12. A Solar Dynamic Power Option for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the potential performance and related technology requirements of Solar Dynamic power systems for a Space Solar Power satellite. Space Solar Power is a concept where solar energy is collected in orbit and beamed to Earth receiving stations to supplement terrestrial electric power service. Solar Dynamic systems offer the benefits of high solar-to-electric efficiency, long life with minimal performance degradation, and high power scalability. System analyses indicate that with moderate component development, SD systems can exhibit excellent mass and deployed area characteristics. Using the analyses as a guide, a technology roadmap was -enerated which identifies the component advances necessary to make SD power generation a competitive option for the SSP mission.

  13. Surgical options for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Laurie M; Salpekar, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Despite ongoing investigation into pharmacologic treatments for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), outcomes for chronic administration of medications remain disappointing. In many instances LGS is treatment refractory, resulting in poor prognoses that include intellectual disability, persisting seizures, and psychiatric conditions. For patients with treatment resistance to other modalities for LGS, a further option is surgical intervention. Evaluation for surgery should involve interictal electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, and age-appropriate neuropsychological/developmental assessment. Resective surgery, where seizure foci are removed, successfully controls seizures in many cases, particularly where lesionectomy or lobar resections are appropriate. Recent studies of resective surgery on individuals with LGS show promising results, with a high percentage of patients having improved seizure control. Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical approach that aims at controlling potentially injurious seizures, for example, atonic or drop seizures, by preventing the bilateral spread of epileptic activity. Once associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality, microsurgical techniques and surgery limited to the anterior region of the callosum have greatly diminished complications of corpus callosotomy surgery. Vagus nerve stimulation, another palliative procedure, offers rates of seizure improvement similar to those of corpus callosotomy, with the exception of atonic seizure for which corpus callosotomy may lead to a greater reduction. Recent advances in surgical techniques offer encouraging options for treatment of LGS.

  14. From Earth to Orbit: An assessment of transportation options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Artur

    1992-01-01

    The report assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-Orbit transportation systems and options that could be developed in support of future national space programs. Transportation requirements, including those for Mission-to-Planet Earth, Space Station Freedom assembly and operation, human exploration of space, space science missions, and other major civil space missions are examined. These requirements are compared with existing, planned, and potential launch capabilities, including expendable launch vehicles (ELV's), the Space Shuttle, the National Launch System (NLS), and new launch options. In addition, the report examines propulsion systems in the context of various launch vehicles. These include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), the Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), existing expendable launch vehicle engines, and liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon engines. Consideration is given to systems that have been proposed to accomplish the national interests in relatively cost effective ways, with the recognition that safety and reliability contribute to cost-effectiveness. Related resources, including technology, propulsion test facilities, and manufacturing capabilities are also discussed.

  15. From Earth to Orbit: An assessment of transportation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Blond, Edmund; Brill, Yvonne C.; Budiansky, Bernard; Cooper, Robert S.; Demisch, Wolfgang H.; Hawk, Clark W.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Mager, Artur

    The report assesses the requirements, benefits, technological feasibility, and roles of Earth-to-Orbit transportation systems and options that could be developed in support of future national space programs. Transportation requirements, including those for Mission-to-Planet Earth, Space Station Freedom assembly and operation, human exploration of space, space science missions, and other major civil space missions are examined. These requirements are compared with existing, planned, and potential launch capabilities, including expendable launch vehicles (ELV's), the Space Shuttle, the National Launch System (NLS), and new launch options. In addition, the report examines propulsion systems in the context of various launch vehicles. These include the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), the Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU), the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), existing expendable launch vehicle engines, and liquid-oxygen/hydrocarbon engines. Consideration is given to systems that have been proposed to accomplish the national interests in relatively cost effective ways, with the recognition that safety and reliability contribute to cost-effectiveness. Related resources, including technology, propulsion test facilities, and manufacturing capabilities are also discussed.

  16. Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

  17. Therapeutic options for the management of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Maria L; Rehman, Azeem A; Gondi, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Since its initial characterization, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has remained one of the most devastating and difficult cancers to treat. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in an estimated 38460 deaths annually. With few screening tools available to detect this disease at an early stage, 94% of patients will die within five years of diagnosis. Despite decades of research that have led to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer cells, few effective therapies have been developed to target these pathways. Other treatment options have included more sophisticated pancreatic cancer surgeries and combination therapies. While outcomes have improved modestly for these patients, more effective treatments are desperately needed. One of the greatest challenges in the future of treating this malignancy will be to develop therapies that target the tumor microenvironment and surrounding pancreatic cancer stem cells in addition to pancreatic cancer cells. Recent advances in targeting pancreatic stellate cells and the stroma have encouraged researchers to shift their focus to the role of desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer pathobiology in the hopes of developing newer-generation therapies. By combining novel agents with current cytotoxic chemotherapies and radiation therapy and personalizing them to each patient based on specific biomarkers, the goal of prolonging a patient’s life could be achieved. Here we review the most effective therapies that have been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and discuss the future potential of therapeutic options. PMID:25170201

  18. Advanced protein crystal growth programmatic sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the costs of various APCG (Advanced Protein Crystal Growth) program options and to determine the parameters which, if changed, impact the costs and goals of the programs and to what extent. This was accomplished by developing and evaluating several alternate programmatic scenarios for the microgravity Advanced Protein Crystal Growth program transitioning from the present shuttle activity to the man tended Space Station to the permanently manned Space Station. These scenarios include selected variations in such sensitivity parameters as development and operational costs, schedules, technology issues, and crystal growth methods. This final report provides information that will aid in planning the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Program.

  19. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  20. Disposition options for {sup 233}U

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; Krichinsky, A.M.

    1998-04-27

    The United States is implementing a program to dispose of excess nuclear-weapons-usable materials--including {sup 233}U. A series of studies have identified multiple {sup 233}U disposition options, and these options are described herein. Most of the options involve adding depleted uranium containing {sup 238}U to the {sup 233}U. Converting the {sup 233}U into a mixture of <12 wt % {sup 233}U in {sup 238}U converts the weapons-usable {sup 233}U into nonweapons-usable {sup 233}U. For {sup 233}U that is considered waste, further isotopic dilution to <0.66 wt % {sup 233}U in {sup 238}U minimizes potential long-term repository criticality concerns and in many cases minimizes final waste volumes.

  1. Evaluation of nonelectrical energy-transmission options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Reed, S. A.; Delene, J. G.; Gorton, R. L.

    1981-10-01

    The possibility of substituting nonelectrical energy forms (generated at central nuclear plants) for prime fuels (gas and oil) was evaluated. Steam and combustible gases are considered appropriate energy forms for delivery to industrial users. The energy transport mechanisms evaluated include molten salt, hot oil, open and closed loop chemical heat pipes, and hydrogen. Nonnuclear options including medium-Btu gas and hydrogen (both from coal) provide a comparative base for nuclear alternatives. All economic evaluations are presented in constant 1980 dollars for plant startups in the year 1990 and 2000. The delivered-energy cost is provided for each option as a function of delivery distance for a common set of economic ground rules. Environmental, institutional, and other intangible factors are discussed for each energy transport option and for very high temperature reactors.

  2. Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

    2011-01-01

    Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

  3. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  4. Environmental performance of algal biofuel technology options.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Venkatesh; Stratton, Russell W; Pearlson, Matthew N; Jersey, Gilbert R; Beyene, Abraham G; Weissman, Joseph C; Rubino, Michele; Hileman, James I

    2012-02-21

    Considerable research and development is underway to produce fuels from microalgae, one of several options being explored for increasing transportation fuel supplies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This work models life-cycle GHG and on-site freshwater consumption for algal biofuels over a wide technology space, spanning both near- and long-term options. The environmental performance of algal biofuel production can vary considerably and is influenced by engineering, biological, siting, and land-use considerations. We have examined these considerations for open pond systems, to identify variables that have a strong influence on GHG and freshwater consumption. We conclude that algal biofuels can yield GHG reductions relative to fossil and other biobased fuels with the use of appropriate technology options. Further, freshwater consumption for algal biofuels produced using saline pond systems can be comparable to that of petroleum-derived fuels. PMID:22324757

  5. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes. PMID:27620096

  6. Takeoff Performance Monitoring System display options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The development of displays for the Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TPMS) is described with attention given to the three concepts prepared for commercial applications. The TPMS algorithm is described and related to the display requirements for pilots of two-engine airplanes. Head-up and -down displays are considered for displaying the simple advisory data which indicate whether the takeoff is a 'Go' or 'No-go' based on engine failure, acceleration error, and runway length. Six pilots are shown the three display options which include: (1) basic information; (2) basic data with 'Go/No-go' advisory flags; and (3) basic data, advisory flags, and an abort-warning symbol. The pilots tended to select the option with the most advisory data available, but the inconclusive preference study led to the concept of presenting all three configurations as possible display options for the TPMS.

  7. A Study of Three-option and Four-option Multiple Choice Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terence H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study used to determine differences in exam reliability, difficulty, and student evaluations. Indicates that when a fourth option was added to the three-option items, the exams became more difficult. Includes methods, results discussion, and tables on student characteristics, whole test analyses, and selected items. (RT)

  8. Cube search, revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-03-16

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with "equivalent" 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target.

  9. Cube search, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  10. Predicting consumer behavior with Web search

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sharad; Hofman, Jake M.; Lahaie, Sébastien; Pennock, David M.; Watts, Duncan J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that Web search volume can “predict the present,” meaning that it can be used to accurately track outcomes such as unemployment levels, auto and home sales, and disease prevalence in near real time. Here we show that what consumers are searching for online can also predict their collective future behavior days or even weeks in advance. Specifically we use search query volume to forecast the opening weekend box-office revenue for feature films, first-month sales of video games, and the rank of songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, finding in all cases that search counts are highly predictive of future outcomes. We also find that search counts generally boost the performance of baseline models fit on other publicly available data, where the boost varies from modest to dramatic, depending on the application in question. Finally, we reexamine previous work on tracking flu trends and show that, perhaps surprisingly, the utility of search data relative to a simple autoregressive model is modest. We conclude that in the absence of other data sources, or where small improvements in predictive performance are material, search queries provide a useful guide to the near future. PMID:20876140

  11. Predicting consumer behavior with Web search.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sharad; Hofman, Jake M; Lahaie, Sébastien; Pennock, David M; Watts, Duncan J

    2010-10-12

    Recent work has demonstrated that Web search volume can "predict the present," meaning that it can be used to accurately track outcomes such as unemployment levels, auto and home sales, and disease prevalence in near real time. Here we show that what consumers are searching for online can also predict their collective future behavior days or even weeks in advance. Specifically we use search query volume to forecast the opening weekend box-office revenue for feature films, first-month sales of video games, and the rank of songs on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, finding in all cases that search counts are highly predictive of future outcomes. We also find that search counts generally boost the performance of baseline models fit on other publicly available data, where the boost varies from modest to dramatic, depending on the application in question. Finally, we reexamine previous work on tracking flu trends and show that, perhaps surprisingly, the utility of search data relative to a simple autoregressive model is modest. We conclude that in the absence of other data sources, or where small improvements in predictive performance are material, search queries provide a useful guide to the near future. PMID:20876140

  12. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  13. Technological options for acid rain control

    SciTech Connect

    Princiotta, F.T.; Sedman, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements.

  14. Adapting mudharabah principle in Islamic option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaimi, Siti Noor Aini binti; Salleh, Hassilah binti

    2013-04-01

    Most of the options today use the Black-Scholes model as the basis in valuing their price. This conventional model involves the elements that are strictly prohibited in Islam namely riba, gharar and maisir. Hence, this paper introduces a new mathematical model that has been adapted with mudharabah principle to replace the Black-Scholes model. This new model which is more compatible with Islamic values produces a new Islamic option which avoids any form of oppression and injustice to all parties involved.

  15. Androgenetic Alopecia: An Update of Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yanna; Blanco, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by a non-scarring progressive miniaturization of the hair follicle in predisposed men and women with a pattern distribution. Although AGA is a very prevalent condition, approved therapeutic options are limited. This article discusses the current treatment alternatives including their efficacy, safety profile, and quality of evidence. Finasteride and minoxidil for male androgenetic alopecia and minoxidil for female androgenetic alopecia still are the therapeutic options with the highest level evidence. The role of antiandrogens for female patients, the importance of adjuvant therapies, as well as new drugs and procedures are also addressed. PMID:27554257

  16. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  17. Diesel plant retrofitting options to enhance decentralized electricity supply in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E I; Barley, C D; Drouilhet, S

    1997-09-01

    Over the last 20 years, the government of Indonesia has undertaken an extensive program to provide electricity to the population of that country. The electrification of rural areas has been partially achieved through the use of isolated diesel systems, which account for about 20% of the country`s generated electricity. Due to many factors related to inefficient power production with diesels, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with PLN, the Indonesian national utility, Community Power Corporation, and Idaho Power Company, analyzed options for retrofitting existing diesel power systems. This study considered the use of different combinations of advanced diesel control, the addition of wind generators, photovoltaics and batteries to reduce the systems of overall cost and fuel consumption. This analysis resulted in a general methodology for retrofitting diesel power systems. This paper discusses five different retrofitting options to improve the performance of diesel power systems. The systems considered in the Indonesian analysis are cited as examples for the options discussed.

  18. Advanced geothermal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetten, J. T.; Murphy, H. D.; Hanold, R. J.; Myers, C. W.; Dunn, J. C.

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the U.S. Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico was producing 10 MW thermal, and still climbing, proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction was demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive.

  19. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of the noninvasive options.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Lisa; Varcak, Susan Combs

    2016-09-01

    Recommended screening options for colorectal cancer are divided into noninvasive stool-based options, and invasive procedure-based options. Because multiple screening strategies are effective, efforts to reduce deaths from colorectal cancer should focus on maximizing the number of patients who are screened. This article reviews noninvasive stool-based screening options. PMID:27575898

  20. 48 CFR 2917.202 - Use of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of options. 2917.202 Section 2917.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.202 Use of options. The HCA may, in unusual circumstances, approve option quantities in...

  1. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When... exercise options only after determining that— (1) Funds are available; (2) The requirement covered by...

  2. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When... exercise options only after determining that— (1) Funds are available; (2) The requirement covered by...

  3. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  4. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When... exercise options only after determining that— (1) Funds are available; (2) The requirement covered by...

  5. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that...

  6. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  7. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  8. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that...

  9. 48 CFR 317.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of options. 317... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.207 Exercise of options. (h) Before..., and the Section 508 Official or designee, prior to exercise of an option. The Contracting...

  10. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  11. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that...

  12. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that...

  13. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that...

  14. 48 CFR 317.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of options. 317... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.207 Exercise of options. (h) Before..., and the Section 508 Official or designee, prior to exercise of an option. The Contracting...

  15. 48 CFR 317.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercise of options. 317... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.207 Exercise of options. (h) Before..., and the Section 508 Official or designee, prior to exercise of an option. The Contracting...

  16. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When... exercise options only after determining that— (1) Funds are available; (2) The requirement covered by...

  17. 48 CFR 317.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of options. 317... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.207 Exercise of options. (h) Before..., and the Section 508 Official or designee, prior to exercise of an option. The Contracting...

  18. 48 CFR 317.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 317... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 317.207 Exercise of options. (h) Before..., and the Section 508 Official or designee, prior to exercise of an option. The Contracting...

  19. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When... exercise options only after determining that— (1) Funds are available; (2) The requirement covered by...

  20. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...