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Sample records for advanced secondary batteries

  1. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi-Electron Reaction Materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi-electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in-depth understanding of multi-electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi-electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi-electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium- and sodium-ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal-air batteries, and Li-S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi-electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this.

  2. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi‐Electron Reaction Materials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi‐electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in‐depth understanding of multi‐electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi‐electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi‐electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium‐ and sodium‐ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal–air batteries, and Li–S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi‐electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this. PMID:27840796

  3. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  4. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  5. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

  6. Porous membranes in secondary battery technologies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjing; Yuan, Zhizhang; Zhao, Yuyue; Zhang, Hongzhang; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-03-13

    Secondary batteries have received huge attention due to their attractive features in applications of large-scale energy storage and portable electronic devices, as well as electrical vehicles. In a secondary battery, a membrane plays the role of separating the anode and cathode to prevent the occurrence of a short circuit, while allowing the transport of charge carriers to achieve a complete circuit. The properties of a membrane will largely determine the performance of a battery. In this article, we review the research and development progress of porous membranes in secondary battery technologies, such as lithium-based batteries together with flow batteries. The preparation methods as well as the required properties of porous membranes in different secondary battery technologies will be elucidated thoroughly and deeply. Most importantly, this review will mainly focus on the optimization and modification of porous membranes in different secondary battery systems. And various modifications on commercial porous membranes along with novel membrane materials are widely discussed and summarized. This review will help to optimize the membrane material for different secondary batteries, and favor the understanding of the preparation-structure-performance relationship of porous membranes in different secondary batteries. Therefore, this review will provide an extensive, comprehensive and professional reference to design and construct high-performance porous membranes.

  7. Advanced cell technology for high performance Li-A1/FeS{sub 2} secondary batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G. L.

    1998-07-10

    In early 1993. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a major R and D effort to develop bipolar Li-Al/LiCl-LiBr-KBr/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicles, targeting the USABC Long-Term Goals. Significant advancements were achieved in the areas of (i) chemical purity, (ii) electrode and electrolyte additives, and (iii) peripheral seals. It was determined that key chemical constituents contained undesirable impurities. ANL developed new chemical processes for preparing Li{sub 2}S, FeS, and CoS{sub 2} that were >98.5% pure. We evaluated a large variety of electrode and electrolyte additives for reducing cell area specific impedance (ASI). Candidate positive electrode additives offered increased electronic conductivity, enhanced reaction kinetics, and/or improved porous electrode morphology. CoS{sub 2}, CuFeS{sub 2}, MgO, and graphite (fibers) were identified as the most beneficial impedance-reducing positive electrode additives. Although electronically conductive carbon and graphite additives produced measurable ASI reductions in the negative electrode, they degraded its structural integrity and were deemed impractical. Lil and LiF were identified as beneficial electrolyte additives, that enhance positive electrode kinetics. ANL refined its baseline metal/ceramic peripheral seal and increased its strength by a factor of three (achieving a safety factor >10). In parallel, ANL developed a high-strength advanced metal/ceramic seal that offers appreciable cost reductions.

  8. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  9. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  10. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, some of the most difficult problems have been solved in the development of long-lived lithium/sulfide secondary batteries having molten chloride electrolytes. Recent tests of Li-Al/FeS2 cells have demonstrated 1000 cycles of operation and the practicality of achieving a specific energy of 175 Wh/kg for prismatic cells. Bipolar cells now under study may achieve even higher specific energy. Also, bipolar cells make possible the use of low-cost coated current collectors for the positive electrode instead of the expensive molybdenum current collectors that have been required for prismatic cells. Very compact batteries to power an electric van have been conceptually designed with this approach. These batteries would provide a range for the loaded vehicle of more than 100 miles for a battery weighing 280 kg, only 15 percent of the loaded vehicle weight (1930 kg).

  11. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  12. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  13. Facile synthesis of novel two-dimensional silver-coated layered double hydroxide nanosheets as advanced anode material for Ni-Zn secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Yang, Zhanhong; Wang, Ruijuan

    2014-04-01

    Silver-coated layered double hydroxide (Ag-coated LDH) nanosheets are successfully prepared by a facile silver mirror reaction and their electrochemical performance has been evaluated as anode materials for Ni-Zn secondary batteries. The microstructure and morphology of as-prepared Ag-coated Zn/Al-LDH are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). As anode material for Ni-Zn secondary batteries, Ag-coated Zn/Al-LDH exhibits high specific capacity (400 mAh g-1), good charge-discharge properties and excellent cycling performance, which is attributed to the effect of the electron conductivity improvement by the Ag coating on the surface of Zn/Al-LDH nanosheet. This newly designed Ag-coated Zn/Al-LDH may offer a promising anode candidate for high-performance Ni-Zn secondary batteries.

  14. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  15. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Liu, Meilin; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  16. Secondary aerospace batteries and battery materials: A bibliography, 1969 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P.; Halpert, G.; Ekpanyaskun, S.; Nche, P.

    1976-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the subject of secondary aerospace battery materials and related physical and electrochemical processes was compiled from references to journal articles published between 1969 and 1974. A total of 332 citations are arranged in chronological order under journal titles. Indices by system and component, techniques and processes, and author are included.

  17. Hierarchical Co@C Nanoflowers: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties as an Advanced Negative Material for Alkaline Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Zichao; Cao, Bingqiang; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-11-04

    Hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers have been facilely synthesized via a simple route based on a low-temperature solid-phase reaction. The obtained hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers, each constructed of a number of nanosheets, display a three-dimensional architecture with an average grain size of about 300 nm. The electrochemical properties of the Co@C nanoflowers as the negative material for Ni/Co cells have been systemically researched. In particular, Co@C material exhibits high discharge-specific capacity and good cycling stability. The discharge-specific capacity of our Co@C-3 electrode can reach 612.1 mA h g(-1), and the specific capacity of 415.3 mA h g(-1) is retained at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) after 120 cycles, indicating its great potential for high-performance Ni/Co batteries. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co@C electrode also exhibits favorable rate capability. These desirable properties can be attributed to porous pathways, which allow fast transportation of ions and electrons and easy accessibility to the electrolyte. The dominant electrochemical mechanism of Co@C can be attributed to the reduction-oxidation reaction between metallic cobalt and cobalt hydroxide in alkaline solution.

  18. Nanomaterials in Secondary Battery Development

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C. R.

    1999-09-15

    This granted funded research into the application of nanoscience to Li-ion batteries. Different synthesis strategies were employed to create a nanofiber electrode (based on tin-oxide) and a honeycomb electrode (carbon). In both cases, we showed that the nanostructured material was capable of delivering dramatically increased specific capacity (mAh/g) upon discharge when compared to conventional film electrodes. This ability is due to the decreased solid-state diffusion distance of the Li-ion in the nanostructured electrodes. The nanofiber-SnO{sub 2} electrode was created by the template synthesis method. Briefly, a precursor solution impregnates the monodisperse nanoscopic pores of a sacrificial template membrane. The pores run the membrane's entire length. The precursor solution is then processed to the desired material, here using sol-gel chemistry, and the template is removed. This leaves nanostructures of the desired product intact and extending from a substrate like the bristles of a brush. This research topic combines this nanofabrication technique with the Sn-based anode. Tin-oxide based composites have shown great promise as an alternative material for Li-ion battery anodes. This material is electrochemically converted to composite Sn/LiO{sub 2} electrodes. In this form, they are theoretically capable of storing twice the amount of Li as carbon, the current commercial anode. We showed important improvements in rate-capabilities and cycle-life of this Sn-based nanoscale electrode compared to a thin-film electrode of the same material. Rate-capabilities are a measurement of the specific capacity able to be delivered at increasing discharge rates (1C = 1/h). Figure 1 compares the rate capabilities of the nanostructured electrode to that of the film control electrode. This report shows the nanostructured material was capable of delivering dramatically increased specific capacity (mAh/g) upon discharge when compared to conventional film electrodes.

  19. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-01

    New battery systems having high energy density are actively being researched in order to satisfy the rapidly developing market for longer-lasting mobile electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here, we report a new Li-Te secondary battery system with a redox potential of ~1.7 V (vs. Li+/Li) adapted on a Li metal anode and an advanced Te/C nanocomposite cathode. Using a simple concept of transforming TeO2 into nanocrystalline Te by mechanical reduction, we designed an advanced, mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrode material with high energy density (initial discharge/charge: 1088/740 mA h cm-3), excellent cyclability (ca. 705 mA h cm-3 over 100 cycles), and fast rate capability (ca. 550 mA h cm-3 at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. We firmly believe that the mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite constitutes a breakthrough for the realization and mass production of excellent energy storage systems.

  20. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-22

    New battery systems having high energy density are actively being researched in order to satisfy the rapidly developing market for longer-lasting mobile electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here, we report a new Li-Te secondary battery system with a redox potential of ~1.7 V (vs. Li(+)/Li) adapted on a Li metal anode and an advanced Te/C nanocomposite cathode. Using a simple concept of transforming TeO2 into nanocrystalline Te by mechanical reduction, we designed an advanced, mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrode material with high energy density (initial discharge/charge: 1088/740 mA h cm(-3)), excellent cyclability (ca. 705 mA h cm(-3) over 100 cycles), and fast rate capability (ca. 550 mA h cm(-3) at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. We firmly believe that the mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite constitutes a breakthrough for the realization and mass production of excellent energy storage systems.

  1. Hydrogen /Hydride/-air secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarradin, J.; Bronoel, G.; Percheron-Guegan, A.; Achard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of metal hydrides as negative electrodes in a hydrogen-air secondary battery seems promising. However, in an unpressurized cell, more stable hydrides that LaNi5H6 must be selected. Partial substitutions of nickel by aluminium or manganese increase the stability of hydrides. Combined with an air reversible electrode, a specific energy close to 100 Wh/kg can be expected.

  2. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-07-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  3. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  4. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  5. Advanced battery development in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimotake, H.; Nelson, P. A.

    Batteries for load leveling and electric vehicle applications are under development in the United States. The most difficult requirements for these applications are long cycle life, high power density, and low cost. Steady progress is being made in developing advanced batteries. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring development of sodium sulfur, zinc bromine, zinc chloride, and aluminum air batteries. Exploratory research is being conducted on a variety of cell systems, such as lithium metal sulfide, alkali metal sulfur, glass electrolyte, and low temperature organic electrolyte. This paper reviews the US government effort in the development of advanced batteries and discusses some of the key systems.

  6. An advanced maintenance free aircraft battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, J.; Green, J.; Kulin, T.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an advanced aircraft battery system designed to provide 20 years of maintenance free operation with the flexibility for use on all US Air Force aircraft. System, battery, and charger/analyzer requirements are identified. The final design approach and test results are also presented. There are two general approaches to reduce the maintenance cost of batteries. One approach is to develop a disposable battery system, such that after some time interval the battery is simply replaced. The other approach, the subject of this paper, is to develop a battery that does not require any scheduled maintenance for the design life of the aircraft. This approach is currently used in spacecraft applications where battery maintenance is not practical.

  7. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  8. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  9. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  10. High cycle life secondary lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Carter, Boyd J. (Inventor); Shen, David H. (Inventor); Somoano, Robert B. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A secondary battery (10) of high energy density and long cycle is achieved by coating the separator (18) with a film (21) of cationic polymer such as polyvinyl-imidazoline. The binder of the positive electrode (14) such as an ethylene-propylene elastomer binder (26) containing particles (28) of TiS.sub.2 chalcogenide can also be modified to contain sulfone functional groups by incorporating liquid or solid sulfone materials such as 0.1 to 5 percent by weight of sulfolane into the binder. The negative lithium electrode (14), separator (18) and positive electrode (16) are preferably spirally wound and disposed within a sealed casing (17) containing terminals (32, 34). The modified separator and positive electrode are more wettable by the electrolytes in which a salt is dissolved in a polar solvent such as sulfolane.

  11. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  12. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-12-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  13. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS sub 2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  14. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  15. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  16. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  17. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1990-02-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and a bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 W h/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  18. Life prediction and reliability assessment of lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Seung-Wook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ick-Jun; Moon, Seong-In; Sun, Yang-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Reliability assessment of lithium secondary batteries was mainly considered. Shape parameter (β) and scale parameter (η) were calculated from experimental data based on cycle life test. We also examined safety characteristics of lithium secondary batteries. As proposed by IEC 62133 (2002), we had performed all of the safety/abuse tests such as 'mechanical abuse tests', 'environmental abuse tests', 'electrical abuse tests'. This paper describes the cycle life of lithium secondary batteries, FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) and the safety/abuse tests we had performed.

  19. New Secondary Batteries Using Electronically Conductive Polymer Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A Li/Polypyrrole secondary battery was designed and built, and the effect of controlling the morphology of the polymer on enhancement of counterion diffusion in the polymer phase was explored. The experimental work was done at Colorado State University, while the mathematical modeling of the battery was done at Texas A and M University. Manuscripts and publications resulting from the project are listed.

  20. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  1. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-12-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  2. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  3. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  4. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  5. Organic cathode for a secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bugga, R.V.; Distefano, S.; Williams, R.M.; Bankston, C.P.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes a battery system. It comprises: a first body of liquid meal anode comprising a Group I metal; a record body of liquid cathode comprising a combination of Group I metal salt and Group III metal salt molten at the temperature of operation of the battery containing a minor amount of an organic carbonitrile depolarizer containing at least one adjacent ethylenic bond.

  6. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg-1, close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  7. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation “beyond-lithium” battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new “multivalent ion” battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, or La3+ ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni2+ ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni2+ ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg−1, close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times). PMID:26365600

  8. Secondary batteries with multivalent ions for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengjun; Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-09-14

    The use of electricity generated from clean and renewable sources, such as water, wind, or sunlight, requires efficiently distributed electrical energy storage by high-power and high-energy secondary batteries using abundant, low-cost materials in sustainable processes. American Science Policy Reports state that the next-generation "beyond-lithium" battery chemistry is one feasible solution for such goals. Here we discover new "multivalent ion" battery chemistry beyond lithium battery chemistry. Through theoretic calculation and experiment confirmation, stable thermodynamics and fast kinetics are presented during the storage of multivalent ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), or La(3+) ions) in alpha type manganese dioxide. Apart from zinc ion battery, we further use multivalent Ni(2+) ion to invent another rechargeable battery, named as nickel ion battery for the first time. The nickel ion battery generally uses an alpha type manganese dioxide cathode, an electrolyte containing Ni(2+) ions, and Ni anode. The nickel ion battery delivers a high energy density (340 Wh kg(-1), close to lithium ion batteries), fast charge ability (1 minute), and long cycle life (over 2200 times).

  9. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  10. Impact of modern battery design and the implications for primary and secondary lead production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. W.; Manders, J. E.; Eckfeld, S.; Prengaman, R. D.

    The emerging change in the automobile industry with the advent of the 42 V electrical operating system will impose a revolutionary change not only on the car industry, but also on the battery industry overall. The implications of this change will be felt by the battery producers, most of whom will require new or advanced production techniques for 36 V batteries, and subsequently by their suppliers of raw material. The demand for batteries of higher quality—in particular, the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery, which is the battery of choice for the new automotive system—will place much higher demands upon the quality of the raw materials used in battery manufacture. It has been well documented that high-quality raw materials, such as lead, acid and separators, are a requirement in order to guarantee battery performance. The presence of impurities (antimony, arsenic, tellurium, etc.) in the enclosed system of the VRLA battery will impart problems such as dry-out, self-discharge and negative-plate capacity loss which will result in premature failure of the battery. One major problem for both primary and secondary lead producers is the presence of these impurities in their metal streams. Of particular interest to the smelters are the levels of antimony and silver. The latter element is increasing to alarming levels. With changing battery technology, both elements will pose serious problems to the lead producers in maintaining high-quality lead under the present cost structure. Some of the challenges that face the lead industry in meeting the demands of VRLA battery producers for product of higher quality are examined in this paper.

  11. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  12. Development of a lithium secondary battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.; Willie, R.

    1985-01-01

    A nonporous membrane based on the polymerization of 2,3-dihydrofuran followed by crosslinking in situ was prepared. The material is compatible with rechargeable Li battery components and, when swollen with an appropriate solvent such as tetrahydrofuran, exhibits separator resistance and Li transport equivalent to Celgard.

  13. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammells, A. F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The application of polycrystalline Ca(2+) conducting beta-double prime alumina solid electrolytes to a new type of high temperature battery is investigated, experimentally. The negative electrode in the battery consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electrochemistry was mediated by the solid electrolyte via molten salt eutectic CaCl2 (51.4 m/o), and CaI2 (mp 550 C). The molten salt and the calcium alloy material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca2 Ca(2+) conducting polycrystalline electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having related crystallographic structure. The electrochemical reversibility of the cells was measured at 580 C. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cells are plotted vs. time in a graph.

  14. Secondary battery material and synthesis method

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Hongjian; Kepler, Keith Douglas; Wang, Yu

    2013-10-22

    A composite Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material stabilized by treatment with a second transition metal oxide phase that is highly suitable for use in high power and energy density Li-ion cells and batteries. A method for treating a Li.sub.1+xMn.sub.2-x-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 cathode material utilizing a dry mixing and firing process.

  15. Organic cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid catholyte for a battery based on liquid metal such as sodium anode and a solid, ceramic separator such as beta alumina (BASE) comprises a mixture of a Group I-III metal salt such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a minor amount of an organic carbonitrile depolarizer having at least one adjacent ethylenic band such as 1 to 40 percent by weight of tetracyanoethylene. The tetracyanoethylene forms an adduct with the molten metal salt.

  16. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  17. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  18. Assessment and reuse of secondary batteries cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, E. L.; Kindlein, W.; Souza, S.; Malfatti, C. F.

    The popularity of portable electronic devices and the ever-growing production of the same have led to an increase in the use of rechargeable batteries. These are often discarded even before the end of their useful life. This, in turn, leads to great waste in material and natural resources and to contamination of the environment. The objective of this study was thus to develop a methodology to assess and reuse NiMH battery cells that have been disposed of before the end of their life cycle, when they can still be used. For such, the capacity of these cells, which were still in good operating conditions when the batteries were discarded, was assessed, and the percentage was estimated. The results reveal that at the end of the assessment process, a considerable number of these cells still had reuse potential, with approximately 37% of all discarded and tested cells being approved for reuse. The methodology introduced in this study showed it is possible to establish an environmentally correct alternative to reduce the amount of this sort of electronic trash.

  19. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  20. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  1. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to characterize the transport properties in electronically conductive polymers and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in lithium/polymer secondary batteries. During this research period, progress has been made in a literature survey of the historical background, methods of preparation, the physical and chemical properties, and potential technological applications of polythiophene. Progress has also been made in the characterization of polypyrrole flat films and fibrillar films. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronocoulometry were used to gain information on peak currents and potentials switching reaction rates, charge capacity, and charge retention. Battery charge/discharge studies were also performed.

  2. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  3. Secondary lithium batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

  4. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996-2013: method development and detailed accounting by battery type.

    PubMed

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E O; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-01

    In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows - due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996-2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%.

  5. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives are to optimize the transport rates in electronically conductive polypyrrole films by controlling the morphology of the film and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in a lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery. During this research period, a better understanding was gained of the fundamental electrochemical switching processes within the polypyrrole film. Three publications were submitted based on the work completed.

  6. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  7. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  8. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  9. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  10. Preparation and Development of Advanced Battery Catalysts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 07 04 ) Catalysis, Lithium Batteries ,, Thionvl Chloride 𔄃 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if...report describes some initial studies to evaluate new catalytic materials to improve the performance of high energy density, active lithium batteries ...at 33rd Power Sources Symposium, Cherry Hill, NJ, Jun 1988)• 3. Schlaikjer, C. R., Chapter 13 in Lithium Batteries , J. P. Gabano, Ed., Academic Press

  11. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed.

  12. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  13. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    SciTech Connect

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese

  14. A lithium electrode with a zinc substrate for secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Morita, M.; Katsuma, H.

    1983-03-01

    Koch (1981) and Abraham (1982) have reported work concerning the development of a lithium secondary battery using an organic electrolyte. An efficient Li electrode is a vital factor in connection with the realization of the considered rechargeable batteries. In order to obtain good efficiency in charge-discharge cycling operations, it has been proposed to employ Li negative plates with metal substrates. High coulombic efficiency was achieved using an Al substrate, which forms an alloy with deposited Li during the period of charging. The present investigation is concerned with the charge-discharge characteristics of a Li electrode with a Zn substrate in propylene carbonate solution containing LiClO4 or LiBF4. It is found that the efficiency in the case of a plate with a Zn substrate, which alloys easily with deposited Li, is as high as that obtained in connection with the use of an Al substrate.

  15. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  16. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  17. Updating United States Advanced Battery Consortium and Department of Energy battery technology targets for battery electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Bae, Chulheung; Elder, Ron; Cunningham, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer significant potential to reduce the nation's consumption of petroleum based products and the production of greenhouse gases however, their widespread adoption is limited largely by the cost and performance limitations of modern batteries. With recent growth in efforts to accelerate BEV adoption (e.g. the Department of Energy's (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge) and the age of existing BEV battery technology targets, there is sufficient motivation to re-evaluate the industry's technology targets for battery performance and cost. Herein we document the analysis process that supported the selection of the United States Advanced Battery Consortium's (USABC) updated BEV battery technology targets. Our technology agnostic approach identifies the necessary battery performance characteristics that will enable the vehicle level performance required for a commercially successful, mass market full BEV, as guided by the workgroup's OEM members. The result is an aggressive target, implying that batteries need to advance considerably before BEVs can be both cost and performance competitive with existing petroleum powered vehicles.

  18. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  19. New secondary batteries utilizing electronically conductive polymer cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Charles R.; White, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to optimize the transport rates in electronically conductive polypyrrole films by controlling the morphology of the film and to assess the utility of these films as cathodes in a lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery. During this research period, progress has been made in improving the charge transport rate of the supermolecular-engineered polypyrrole electrode by eliminating the polypyrrole baselayer that hampered earlier work. Also, the fibril density of the polypyrrole electrode was increased, providing more electroactive sites per unit area.

  20. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  1. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  2. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    1992-10-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991-1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  3. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β″-Al 2O 3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 °C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  4. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  5. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  6. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

  7. Study for promotion of introducing advanced battery energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    An advanced battery energy storage system is examined, with studies focused mainly on its technical development, but also its commercialization, cost, reliability, simplification and compactness. The purpose of this project is to study the parameters which are needed in order to promote introduction of the advanced battery energy storage system. Systems which are expected to be commercialized in the near future are a customer peak-cut system, an isolated island peak-cut system, and emergency electric power sources. When technology reaches maturity, a load-leveling system to be installed at substations of electric utilities are expected to be commercially used. With the study on commercial application as one of the purposes, small scale (50 to 100 kW) advanced battery energy storage systems are expected to be trially employed to peak cut use at customers (prime) end. To promote introduction of the system, it is necessary to make environmental improvement in the institutional aspect.

  8. Performance evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F.; Kulaga, J. E.; Webster, C. E.; Gillie, K. R.; Hogrefe, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    At the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle operating conditions. During 1989 and the first quarter of 1990, single cell and multicell modules from seven developers were examined for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers with an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modeling and continuing R&D. This paper summarizes the performance and life characterizations of two single cells and seven 3- to 960-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, lead-acid, and Zn/Br).

  9. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  10. Advances in primary lithium liquid cathode batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    1989-05-01

    Recent work on cell development and various aspects of cell chemistry and cell development of lithium/thionyl chloride liquid cathode batteries is reviewed. As a result of safety studies, a number of cell sizes can now be considered satisfactory for many applications and the energy densities of these cells is higher than any other developed battery system. Primary batteries operate with low to moderate currents and the anode delay effect appears to be under reasonable control. Reserve cells are in the design stage and operate at high to very high power densities as well as very high energy densities. The nature of the anode film and the operation of the lithium anode has been studied with substantial success and understanding has grown accordingly. Also, studies of the structure of the electrolyte and the effects on the electrolyte of impurities and additives have led to improved understanding in this area as well. Work in progress on new electrolytes is reviewed. The state of the art of mathematical modeling is also discussed and it is expected that this work will continue to develop.

  11. ANL's electric vehicle battery activities for USABC. [US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides advanced battery R D; technology transfer to industry; technical analyses, assessments, modeling, and databases; and independent testing and post-test analyses of advanced batteries. These capabilities and services are being offered to the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) are being negotiated for USABC-sponsored work at ANL. A small portion of DOE's cost share for USABC projects has been provided to ANL to continue R D and testing activities on key technologies that were previously supported directly by DOE. This report summarizes progress on these USABC projects during the period of April I through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 2.0 Nickel/Metal Hydride Support 3.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  12. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  13. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  14. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of transition metal oxides for secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Striebel, K.A.; Deng, C.Z.; Cairns, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to prepare thin films of several complex metal oxides of significance in secondary batteries from a single stoichiometric target with a substrate temperature of 600 C in the presence of 200 mtorr O{sub 2}. Films of the candidate bifunctional air electrocatalysts, for metal air batteries, La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} were prepared on glassy carbon substrates. Glassy carbon was found to either erode during the ablation process (with the cobaltates) or cause film cracking after deposition because of its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion. The use of stainless steel substrates yielded 0.3 {micro}m-thick dense films of La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} which were suitable for electrochemical measurements in concentrated alkaline electrolytes. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiCoO{sub 2} films were prepared at thickness` of 0.3 {micro}m and 1.5 {micro}m. The 0.3 {micro}m-thick films delivered 176 mC/cm{sup 2}-{micro}m and 323 mC/cm{sup 2} for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and LiCoO{sub 2}, respectively, in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/PC.

  16. X-ray spectroscopic studies of secondary battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Svilen Dimitar

    1998-09-01

    X-ray spectroscopic methods, both NEXAFS and EXAFS were used in the study of the structural and electronic properties of different types of new battery materials. NEXAFS analysis of the spectra of Lisb{1-x}CoO2 secondary battery cathodes revealed that the addition of Li proceeds is strongly correlated to the increase in electronic charge on the Co ion. A structural phase transition is confirmed for x=0.5. The presence of Mnsp{+2} is detected in the conventionally made LiMnOsb2 cathodes but not in ones prepared according to the new ADL process. Lisb{x}Vsb6Osb{13} cathode material, where 0≤ x≤6, was measured using x-ray absorption, EPR and NMR techniques. The intercalation mechanism involves a conversion of Vsp{+5} to Vsp{+4} in Vsb6Osb{13} until the composition Lisb2Vsb6Osb{13} is reached. Further addition of lithium is accompanied by the conversion of Vsp{+4} to Vsp{+3} until Lisb8Vsb6Osb{13} is reached. The process is complicated and involves structural phase changes and increasing structural disorder within the multi-phase system as Li concentration is increased. Studies of LiNi/CoOsb2 intercalation cathodes prepared by a novel sol-gel technique suggests that although the partial substitution of Co for Ni stabilizes the system by removing Nisp{+2}, a Jahn-Teller type structural distortion in the predominantly Nisp{=3} system persists. In-situ EXAFS measurements of the pyrite cathode in a new Li/CPE/FeSsb2 showed two distinct environments of the Fe ion, which were interpreted as those of metallic Fe and residual FeSsb2 at high lithium concentration, and Lisb2FeSsb2 and residual FeSsb2 at low lithium concentration. The formation of FeS was not detected. A new type of hydrogen ion battery incorporating a MnSOsb4sp&*slash;Hsb2O based cathode and polymer electrolyte was also studied. Heavily cycled and discharged cathodes showed an almost identical Mn local structure to that of single cycled ones. The Mn environment becomes very different in the charged cathodes

  17. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-05-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  18. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-01-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  19. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  20. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  1. The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-07

    devices use lithium - ion batteries comprised of a graphite anode and metal oxide cathode. Lithium , being the third-lightest element, is already synonymous...support shuttling lithium ions ( battery cycling) such as the separator, electrolyte, and cathode and anode superstructures contribute most of the...The Role of Dissolved Gas in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Secondary Lithium Metal Batteries Johanna K. Stark1, Yi Ding2, and Paul A. Kohl1

  2. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

  3. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  4. Experimental investigation and model development of the Skylab ATM secondary nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The performance of a Ni-Cd battery was evaluated and the cyclic battery controls to be used on the ATM batteries were determined. Cell and battery performance models were developed which to predict the performance of the secondary Ni-Cd batteries on the ATM. Capacity degradation and charge acceptance characteristics were considered. Mathematical models for each of these operating areas were developed based on data from two separate test programs. The capacity degradation model describes the expected usable battery capacity as a function of time, temperature, and depth-of-discharge. The charge acceptance model describes the cell charge acceptance as a function of charge rate, temperature, and state of charge. The models were designed for computer use and to facilitate possible battery modification. They can be used to predict expected performance or to compare real time performance during flight.

  5. Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1995-07-01

    Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  7. Advanced Battery Management Challenges for Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-06

    NCA, NCM) 2.5-4.1 7.5-12.3 10-16.4 15-24.6 17.5-28.7 20-32.8 L F P Nominal Voltage(V) ( LiFePO4 ) 3.3 9.9 13.2 19.8 23.1 26.4 n x 3.3 Voltage range...V) ( LiFePO4 ) 2.0-3.7 6-11.1 8-14.8 12-22.2 14-25.9 16-29.6 15 12V 6T 24V 6T UNCLASSIFIED Advanced Chemistry BMS • Required for Li-ion

  8. Heat transfer analysis of metal hydrides in metal-hydrogen secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Dharia, D.; Gidaspow, D.

    1976-01-01

    The heat transfer between a metal-hydrogen secondary battery and a hydrogen-storing metal hydride was studied. Temperature profiles of the endothermic metal hydrides and the metal-hydrogen battery were obtained during discharging of the batteries assuming an adiabatic system. Two hydride materials were considered in two physical arrangements within the battery system. In one case the hydride is positioned in a thin annular region about the battery stack; in the other the hydride is held in a tube down the center of the stack. The results show that for a typical 20 ampere-hour battery system with lanthanum pentanickel hydride as the hydrogen reservoir the system could perform successfully.

  9. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1985-01-01

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  10. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  11. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  12. Secondary Li battery incorporating 12-Crown-4 ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rechargeable lithium battery which utilizes a polyethylene oxide (PEO) solid polymeric electrolyte complexed with a lithium salt is disclosed. The conductivity is increased an order of magnitude and interfacial charge transfer resistance is substantially decreased by incorporating a minor amount of 12-Crown-4 ether in the PEO-lithium salt solid electrolyte film. Batteries containing the improved electrolyte permit operation at a lower temperature with improved efficiency.

  13. Advances in Wearable Fiber-Shaped Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-06-01

    It is highly desirable to develop flexible and efficient energy-storage systems for widely used wearable electronic products. To this end, fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) attract increasing interest due to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, compared with conventional bulky and planar structures. Recent advances in the fabrication, structure, mechanism, and properties of fiber-shaped LIBs are summarized here, with a focus on the electrode material. Remaining challenges and future directions are also highlighted to provide some useful insights from the viewpoint of practical applications.

  14. Limiting Factors to Advancing Thermal Battery Technology for Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    batteries are capable of supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal...supplanting lithium / thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power...the present lithium thermal battery technology. Improvements benefit missile, small vehicle, and sonobuoy capabilities. The Electrochemistry Branch

  15. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  16. The Research and Development of a Soluble Reactants and Products Secondary Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    A redox battery system which employs an aqueous dectrolyte is developed. Results are presented of the following experimental studies (1) measurement of the essential physical and chemical properties of the reactants and products; (2) evaluation of commerically available anion membranes as the cell separator, (3) determination of the composition and degradation mechanism of the anion membrane, and/or developing an anion membrane separator; and (4) evaluation of the performance of prototype secondary battery systems.

  17. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  18. Feasibility study for a secondary Na/S battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Schiff, R.; Brummer, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of a moderate temperature Na battery was studied. This battery is to operate at a temperature in the range of 100-150 C. Two kinds of cathode were investigated: (1) a soluble S cathode consisting of a solution of Na2Sn in an organic solvent and (2) an insoluble S cathode consisting of a transition metal dichalcogenide in contact with a Na(+)ion conducting electrolyte. Four amide solvents, dimethyl acetamide, diethyl acetamide, N-methyl acetamide and acetamide, were investigated as possible solvents for the soluble S cathode. Results of stability and electrochemical studies using these solvents are presented. The dialkyl substituted amides were found to be superior. Although the alcohol 1,3-cyclohexanediol was found to be stable in the presence of Na2Sn at 130 C, its Na2Sn solutions did not appear to have suitable electrochemical properties.

  19. Development of cylindrical secondary lithium/polyaniline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changzhi, Li; Borong, Zhang; Baochen, Wang

    1993-04-01

    The cylindrical 'D'-size batteries were fabricated by polyaniline paste cathode and lithium foil anode sandwiched with microporous polypropylene separator. The electrolyte used was LiClO 4 dissolved in a mixed solvent of propylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane. The results of charge/discharge curves, charge/discharge cycles, the short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage storage and the change of discharge capacity with temperature, discharge current are reported.

  20. Primary and secondary use of electric mobility batteries from a life cycle perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Ricardo; Marques, Pedro; Garcia, Rita; Moura, Pedro; Freire, Fausto; Delgado, Joaquim; de Almeida, Aníbal T.

    2014-09-01

    With age and cycling, batteries used in Electric Vehicles (EVs) will reach a point in which they will no longer be suitable for electric mobility; however, they still can be used in stationary energy storage. This article aims at assessing the Life-Cycle (LC) environmental impacts associated with the use of a battery in an EV and secondly, at assessing the LC environmental impacts/benefits of using a battery, no longer suitable for electric mobility, for energy storage in a household. Three electricity mixes with different shares of renewable, nuclear and fossil energy sources are considered. For the primary battery use, three in-vehicle use scenarios are assessed, addressing three different driving profiles. For the secondary use, two scenarios of energy storage strategies are analyzed: peak shaving and load shifting. Results show that a light use of the battery in the EV has 42-50% less impacts per km than an intensive use. After its use in the vehicle, the battery life can be extended by 1.8-3.3 years; however, this is not always beneficial from an environmental point of view, since the impacts are strongly dependent on the electricity generation mix and on the additional efficiency losses in the battery.

  1. Advanced catalytic electrode development for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, D.K.; Grindstaff, B.K.; Hoofnagle, P.S.; Chiappetti, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Low catalyst loading gas diffusion membrane electrodes have been developed for spaceflight qualified nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) batteries. These electrodes involve the use of new electrode designs and innovative manufacturing methods. Supported catalysts, mixed catalysts and alterative catalyst systems have been developed to decrease catalyst loading levels, and therefore reduce electrode cost, without reducing performance or reliability. This advanced electrode technology has currently accumulated more than 13,000 charge/discharge cycles in real-time, low-earth-orbit (LEO) testing. The technology has been incorporated into several nickel-hydrogen spaceflight programs including the TUBSAT B spacecraft, built by the Technical University of Berlin and launched in January of 1994 aboard a Russian Cyclone rocket.

  2. Safety Characteristics of Lithium Primary and Secondary Battery Systems. Formulation of a Lithium Battery Safety Matrix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    bags. 3) Cushioning of mineral wool , vermiculite or equivalent. Required labeling FLAMMABLE SOLID FLAMMABLE SOLID and DANGEROUS WHEN WET Authorized modes...or equivalent material such as mineral wool . Only permitted, hazardous waste transport companies may carry lithium batteries for disposal. The

  3. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Gary; Hammel, Carol; Altemos, Edward A.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  4. Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 3, Formal Geometry. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This text is the second of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. This volume is devoted to a rigorous development of theorems in plane geometry from 22…

  5. Comparison of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, B.E.; Lalk, T.R.; Swan, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Battery technologies of different chemistries, manufacture and geometry were evaluated as candidates for use in Electric Vehicles (EV). The candidate batteries that were evaluated include four single cell and seven multi-cell modules representing four technologies: Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal Hydride and Zinc-Bromide. A standard set of testing procedures for electric vehicle batteries, based on industry accepted testing procedures, and any tests which were specific to individual battery types were used in the evaluations. The batteries were evaluated by conducting performance tests, and by subjecting them to cyclical loading, using a computer controlled charge--discharge cycler, to simulate typical EV driving cycles. Criteria for comparison of batteries were: performance, projected vehicle range, cost, and applicability to various types of EVs. The four battery technologies have individual strengths and weaknesses and each is suited to fill a particular application. None of the batteries tested can fill every EV application.

  6. The twelfth annual battery conference on applications and advances: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, H.A.; Seo, E.T.

    1997-12-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Battery Conference. A total of 58 papers were presented in the following technical sessions: Aircraft battery systems; Military power sources; Space and communications; Materials and processes; Testing and evaluation; Electric vehicles; Small batteries; Stationary applications; Battery electronics and management; and Power sources R and D. Fifty papers were selected and indexed for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles-A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The candidate battery systems for electric vehicles have been evaluated on a common basis. The batteries with the highest probability of successful development and commercialization appear to be lead-acid, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, zinc-chlorine, lithium-metal sulfide, and sodium sulfur. The relative development risk was assessed and compared to the desirability of the corresponding batteries.

  8. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and

  9. Test Procedures for Characterizing, Evaluating, and Managing Separator Materials used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guasp, Edwin; Manzo, Michelle A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary alkaline batteries, such as nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc, are commonly used for aerospace applications. The uniform evaluation and comparison of separator properties for these systems is dependent upon the measurement techniques. This manual presents a series of standard test procedures that can be used to evaluate, compare, and select separator materials for use in alkaline batteries. Detailed test procedures evaluating the following characteristics are included in this manual: physical measurements of thickness and area weight, dimensional stability measurements, electrolyte retention, resistivity, permeability as measured via bubble pressure, surface evaluation via SEM, chemical stability, and tensile strength.

  10. Advanced EV/HEV battery pack testing using the ABC-150 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.

    1997-12-01

    The ABC-150 battery test system is the first system designed for the demanding requirements of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery testing. With high accuracy, fast response and flexible test automation capabilities, the ABC-150 provides the most advanced set of capabilities for EV/HEV battery pack testing. These features are described and several examples of actual use are given.

  11. Proceedings of the tenth annual battery conference on applications and advances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This is a collection of papers presented at the 1995 Annual Battery Conference on Application and Advances. The goal of the conference is to fill the need for improved communication between the developers and users of battery systems and the designers of interfacing electronic power conversion and control components and systems. The Conference attempts to attain that goal through deliberations on issues involving the interactions between those battery and electronic systems in commercial, industrial, space and military applications.

  12. Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 2nd, California State University, Long Beach, Jan. 14-16, 1986, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Das, R.L.; Frank, H.A.; Pickett, D.F. Jr.; Eliash, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on battery applications and advances are presented. The general topics considered include: power systems in biomedical applications, batteries in electronic and computer applications, batteries in transportation and energy systems, space power systems, aircraft power systems, applications in defense systems, battery safety issues, and quality assurance and manufacturing.

  13. Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

  14. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C.; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann

    2014-06-16

    . Two prominent examples, the lithium-ion and sodium-sulfur battery, are described to show the current stage of development. New routes are presented as promising technologies for safe and long-life electrochemical storage cells.

  15. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    . Two prominent examples, the lithium-ion and sodium-sulfur battery, are described to show the current stage of development. New routes are presented as promising technologies for safe and long-life electrochemical storage cells.

  16. New Secondary Batteries Utilizing Electronically Conductive Polypyrrole Cathode. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeu, Taewhan

    1991-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the dynamic behavior in electronically conducting polypyrroles and to provide guidance toward designs of new secondary batteries based on these polymers, two mathematical models are developed; one for the potentiostatically controlled switching behavior of polypyrrole film, and one for the galvanostatically controlled charge/discharge behavior of lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery cell. The first model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge states, and electrochemical potentials within the thin polypyrrole film during switching process as functions of applied potential and position. Thus, the detailed mechanisms of charge transport and electrochemical reaction can be understood. Sensitivity analysis is performed for independent parameters, describing the physical and electrochemical characteristic of polypyrrole film, to verify their influences on the model performance. The values of independent parameters are estimated by comparing model predictions with experimental data obtained from identical conditions. The second model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge state, and electrochemical potentials within the battery system during charge and discharge processes as functions of time and position. Energy and power densities are estimated from model predictions and compared with existing battery systems. The independent design criteria on the charge and discharge performance of the cell are provided by studying the effects of design parameters.

  17. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

  18. PEO-based polymer electrolytes for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Micah Kristin

    Polyethers mixed with lithium salts are excellent candidates for electrolytes in rechargeable lithium batteries. Polyether systems with low crystallinity result in fast ion mobility and therefore high conductivities. In this work the properties of several poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes are examined with an emphasis on systems with reduced crystallinity including, composite polymer electrolytes, oligomeric polyethers, and (AB) microblock copolymers. Highly conductive and processable composite polymer electrolytes were made using surface functionalized fumed silica fillers and PEGDME-500 (LiClO 4, O/Li = 20). The fillers were both hydrophobic and cross-linkable and formed an open three-dimensional network in the electrolytes due to van der Waals forces. The open network allowed for high ionic mobility and provided for the mechanical stability of the composite. Methacrylate monomers of differing hydrophobicity were added to cross-link the silica network and impart permanent mechanical stability. The optical, conductive, thermal, mechanical, and kinetic properties of the composites are examined as a function of monomer hydrophobicity and filler surface chemistry. It was found that hydrophobic monomers such as butyl methacrylate and octyl methacrylate preferentially phase separate onto the filler surface while hydrophilic methyl methacrylate is soluble in the electrolyte phase. The composites were both photochemically and thermally cured to 85--95% conversion of monomer to polymer. Hydrophilic monomers such as methyl methacrylate are more compatible with the electrolyte after polymerization and therefore provide for better mechanical properties in the composite. However, unpolymerized methyl methacrylate can react at the electrodes resulting in increased interfacial resistance. A branched oligomeric polyether, star(12)PEO, was prepared and characterized. Electrolytes formed from star(12)PEO and LiClO4 were characterized by DSC and variable temperature impedance

  19. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  20. Carbon-Coated Current Collectors for High-Power Li-ion Secondary Batteries III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    process called roll- calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. Introduction: The basic principle for... calcination . The same positive effects seen on small samples have been reproduced. 15. SUBJECT TERMS lithium ion secondary battery, Carbon-Coated Current...foils after clip- calcination . Table 2. Fitted parameters form Raman spectrum. Raman Center Area Width(FWHM) Height PA-Al G 1582.1 6723.6

  1. Novel nitrogen-based organosulfur electrodes for advanced intermediate temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visco, S. J.; Dejonghe, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperatures (100 to 200 C) have attracted considerable interest due to their inherent advantages (reduced corrosion and safety risks) over higher temperature systems. Current work in this laboratory has involved research on a class of intermediate temperature Na/beta double prime- alumina/RSSR batteries conceptually similar to Na/S cells, but operating within a temperature range of 100 to 150 C, and having an organosulfur rather than inorganic sulfur positive electrode. The organosulfur electrodes are based on the reversible, two electron eduction of organodisulfides to the corresponding thiolate anions, RSSR + 2 electrons yield 2RS(-), where R is an organic moiety. Among the advantages of such a generic redox couple for battery research is the ability to tailor the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of the RSSR molecule through choice of the organic moiety. The viscosity, liquidus range, dielectric constant, equivalent weight, and redox potential can in fact be verified in a largely predictable manner. The current work concerns the use of multiple nitrogen organosulfur molecules, chosen for application in Na/RSSR cells for their expected oxidizing character. In fact, a Na/RSSR cell containing one of these materials, the sodium salt of 5-mercapto 1-methyltetrazole, yielded the highest open circuit voltage obtained yet in the laboratory; 3.0 volts in the charged state and 2.6 volts at 100 percent discharge. Accordingly, the cycling behavior of a series of multiple nitrogen organodisulfides as well as polymeric organodisulfides are presented in this manuscript.

  2. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  3. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  4. Advanced developments in NiH{sub 2} dependent pressure vessel (DPV) cell and battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, D.B.; Fox, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    The Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI) as an advanced battery for military and commercial, aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy and energy density as well as reduced cost, while retaining the established Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) technology flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced parts count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers cost and weight savings with minimal design risks.

  5. Overview of NASA battery technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebling, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.

  6. Vanadium-based nanostructure materials for secondary lithium battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui Teng; Rui, Xianhong; Sun, Wenping; Yan, Qingyu; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2015-08-01

    Vanadium-based materials, such as V2O5, LiV3O8, VO2(B) and Li3V2(PO4)3 are compounds that share the characteristic of intercalation chemistry. Their layered or open frameworks allow facile ion movement through the interspaces, making them promising cathodes for LIB applications. To bypass bottlenecks occurring in the electrochemical performances of vanadium-based cathodes that derive from their intrinsic low electrical conductivity and ion diffusion coefficients, nano-engineering strategies have been implemented to ``create'' newly emerging properties that are unattainable at the bulk solid level. Integrating this concept into vanadium-based cathodes represents a promising way to circumvent the aforementioned problems as nanostructuring offers potential improvements in electrochemical performances by providing shorter mass transport distances, higher electrode/electrolyte contact interfaces, and better accommodation of strain upon lithium uptake/release. The significance of nanoscopic architectures has been exemplified in the literature, showing that the idea of developing vanadium-based nanostructures is an exciting prospect to be explored. In this review, we will be casting light on the recent advances in the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium-based cathodes. Furthermore, efficient strategies such as hybridization with foreign matrices and elemental doping are introduced as a possible way to boost their electrochemical performances (e.g., rate capability, cycling stability) to a higher level. Finally, some suggestions relating to the perspectives for the future developments of vanadium-based cathodes are made to provide insight into their commercialization.

  7. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  8. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  9. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  10. Polymeric gel electrolytes reinforced with glass-fibre cloth for lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ho Cheol; Chun, Jong Han; Kim, Sang Hern; Ko, Jang Myoun; Jo, Soo Ik; Chung, Jae Sik; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    Polymeric gel electrolytes (PGE), based on polyacrylonitrile blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)), which are reinforced with glass-fibre cloth (GFC) to increase the mechanical strength, are prepared for the practical use in lithium secondary batteries. The resulting electrolytes exhibit electrochemical stability at 4.5 V against lithium metal and a conductivity value of (2.0-2.1)×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. The GFC-PGE electrolytes show excellent strength and flexibility when used in batteries even if they contain a plasticiser. A test cell with LiCoO 2 as a positive electrode and mesophase pich-based carbon fibre (MCF) as a negative electrode display a capacity of 110 mAh g -1 based on the positive electrode weight at the 0.2 C rate at room temperature. Over 80% of the initial capacity is retained after 400 cycles. This indicates that GFC is suitable as a reinforcing material to increase the mechanical strength of gel-based electrolytes for lithium secondary batteries.

  11. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  12. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  13. Atomistic Conversion Reaction Mechanism of WO3 in Secondary Ion Batteries of Li, Na, and Ca.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Haiyan; Luo, Langli; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Fei; Du, Yingge; Mao, Scott X; Wang, Chongmin

    2016-05-17

    Intercalation and conversion are two fundamental chemical processes for battery materials in response to ion insertion. The interplay between these two chemical processes has never been directly seen and understood at atomic scale. Here, using in situ HRTEM, we captured the atomistic conversion reaction processes during Li, Na, Ca insertion into a WO3 single crystal model electrode. An intercalation step prior to conversion is explicitly revealed at atomic scale for the first time for Li, Na, Ca. Nanoscale diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations revealed that after intercalation, the inserted ion-oxygen bond formation destabilizes the transition-metal framework which gradually shrinks, distorts and finally collapses to an amorphous W and Mx O (M=Li, Na, Ca) composite structure. This study provides a full atomistic picture of the transition from intercalation to conversion, which is of essential importance for both secondary ion batteries and electrochromic devices.

  14. Advanced Separators for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yinyu; Li, Junsheng; Lei, Jiaheng; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhizhong; Qu, Deyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Tengfei; Tang, Haolin

    2016-11-09

    Li-ion and Li-S batteries find enormous applications in different fields, such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. A separator is an indispensable part of the battery design, which functions as a physical barrier for the electrode as well as an electrolyte reservoir for ionic transport. The properties of the separators directly influence the performance of the batteries. Traditional polyolefin separators showed low thermal stability, poor wettability toward the electrolyte, and inadequate barrier properties to polysulfides. To improve the performance and durability of Li-ion and Li-S batteries, development of advanced separators is required. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the fabrication and application of novel separators, including the functionalized polyolefin separator, polymeric separator, and ceramic separator, for Li-ion and Li-S batteries. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these separators are discussed. A brief outlook for the future directions of the research in the separators is also provided.

  15. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  16. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  17. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  18. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deluca, W. H.; Gillie, K. R.; Kulaga, J. E.; Smaga, J. A.; Tummillo, A. F.; Webster, C. E.

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies: (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R and D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R and D.

  19. Performance and life evaluation of advanced battery technologies for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric vehicle (EV) operating conditions at the Argonne Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL). The ADL provides a common basis for both performance characterization and life evaluation with unbiased application of tests and analyses. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted in 1990 on nine single cells and fifteen 3- to 360-cell modules that encompass six technologies (Na/S, Zn/Br, Ni/Fe, Ni/Cd, Ni-metal hydride, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. The results provide battery users, developers, and program managers an interim measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and a source of basic data for modelling and continuing R D. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  1. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  2. Handbook of secondary storage batteries and charge regulators in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Solar photovoltaic systems often require battery subsystems to store reserve electrical energy for times of zero insolation. This handbook is designed to help the system designer make optimum choices of battery type, battery size and charge control circuits. Typical battery performance characteristics are summarized for four types of lead-acid batteries: pure lead, lead-calcium and lead-antimony pasted flat plate and lead-antimony tubular positive types. Similar data is also provided for pocket plate nickel cadmium batteries. Economics play a significant role in battery selection. Relative costs of each battery type are summarized under a variety of operating regimes expected for solar PV installations.

  3. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  4. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  5. High Volumetric Capacity Three-Dimensionally Sphere-Caged Secondary Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Chen, Xi; Kim, Jinwoo; Zheng, Qiye; Ning, Hailong; Sun, Pengcheng; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Niu, Junjie; Braun, Paul V

    2016-07-13

    High volumetric energy density secondary batteries are important for many applications, which has led to considerable efforts to replace the low volumetric capacity graphite-based anode common to most Li-ion batteries with a higher energy density anode. Because most high capacity anode materials expand significantly during charging, such anodes must contain sufficient porosity in the discharged state to enable the expansion, yet not excess porosity, which lowers the overall energy density. Here, we present a high volumetric capacity anode consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite formed in only a few steps which includes both a 3D structured Sn scaffold and a hollow Sn sphere within each cavity where all the free Sn surfaces are coated with carbon. The anode exhibits a high volumetric capacity of ∼1700 mA h cm(-3) over 200 cycles at 0.5C, and a capacity greater than 1200 mA h cm(-3) at 10C. Importantly, the anode can even be formed into a commercially relevant ∼100 μm thick form. When assembled into a full cell the anode shows a good compatibility with a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode. In situ TEM observations confirm the electrode design accommodates the necessary volume expansion during lithiation.

  6. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  7. High-capacity thick cathode with a porous aluminum current collector for lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hidetoshi; Kubota, Masaaki; Nemoto, Miyu; Masuda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yuichi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A high-capacity thick cathode has been studied as one of ways to improve the energy density of lithium secondary batteries. In this study, the LiFePO4 cathode with a capacity per unit area of 8.4 m Ah cm-2 corresponding to four times the capacity of conventional cathodes has been developed using a three-dimensional porous aluminum current collector called "FUSPOROUS". This unique current collector enables the smooth transfer of electrons and Li+-ions through the thick cathode, resulting in a good rate capability (discharge capacity ratio of 1.0 C/0.2 C = 0.980) and a high charge-discharge cycle performance (80% of the initial capacity at 2000th cycle) even though the electrode thickness is 400 μm. To take practical advantage of the developed thick cathode, conceptual designs for a 10-Ah class cell were also carried out using graphite and lithium-metal anodes.

  8. Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    Two types of secondary zinc cell have been evaluated in our laboratory to assess their suitability to power an electric van. Single cells were charged and discharged with constant-current cycles as well as with controlled-power discharge profiles, scaled to the predicted mass of a full-size battery. Both cells were able to meet the requirements for power discharge specified by the so-called Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS) early in life (the first 15 cycles). The Zn/air cell achieved an average of 72 SFUDS repetions (7.2 h) per discharge. The Zn/NiOOH cell achieved an average of 51 SFUDS repetitions (5.1 h) per discharge. The bifunctional air electrodes did not reach oxygen-evolution potentials during the 8-s regenerative breaking portions of the SFUDS cycle.

  9. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  10. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  11. Advances in lithium and calcium high-rate oxyhalide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, W. P.; Green, S.; Sargeant, D. G.; Packer, R. K.

    The characteristics of lithium and calcium oxyhalide battery systems are considered, with special attention given to those of lithium-thionyl chloride and lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells. It is shown that, for a capability of above 50 mA/sq cm, lithium-sulfuryl chloride is the preferred cell chemistry, although calcium-thionyl chloride (which is acceptable up to 50 mA/sq cm) may be preferrable if thermal management is a problem. Lithium-sulfuryl chloride cells were found to exhibit a form of concentration polarization which is strongly dependent on interelectrode separation. In such cells, interelectrode separations have to be minimized if premature failure is to be avoided.

  12. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  13. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  14. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  15. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  16. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  17. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  18. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  19. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  20. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  1. Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    The LiFePO4 Cathode DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Nanophase and...Nanocomposite Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries: The LiFePO4 Cathode Shoufeng Yang, Yanning Song, Peter Y. Zavalij and M. Stanley Whittingham...Institute for Materials Research, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13902-1600, U.S.A. ABSTRACT LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by high temperature

  2. An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-02-01

    Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

  3. Advanced calcium-thionyl chloride high-power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Emanuel

    1989-07-01

    Recently, a breakthrough was made in the development of two advanced Ca-TC systems which have much better electric storage properties than the state-of-the-art Ca-SOC cell. This was done by replacing the CaX2 (X=AlCl4) electrolyte by SrX2 (type A), or BaX2 (type B). The project's goals are to gain a better understanding of the electrochemistry of the advanced systems and to establish their safety and performance. In this phase, the cell performance was improved significantly. An improved C-size A7 type cell delivers 4.4 Ah at 0.9 A rate and room temperature which is 50 percent more than similar size commercial lithium cells have. The SAFT LSH14 lithium-thionyl chloride and the Duracell L028SH lithium-SO2 cells have at this rate only 2.9 and 2.7 Ah respectively. During one year of storage at room temperature the heat generation rate of 150 sq cm C-size A7 type cells decreased to a level of 60 to 70 microwatts. A cell lost 0.3 Ah after this storage period. The effect of several parameters on the corrosion rate of calcium in TC solutions was studied. Preliminary results indicate: SO2 decreases corrosion, there is no stress corrosion due to twisting of Ca foils, the native oxide layer helps in preventing corrosion, Ca foils as received contain only about 90 percent metallic calcium. The role native calcium oxide layer plays depends on the type of electrolyte used.

  4. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-04-03

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g(-1) (2.27 V vs Li(+) /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g(-1) (2.60 V vs Li(+) /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries.

  5. Highly reversible lithium metal secondary battery using a room temperature ionic liquid/lithium salt mixture and a surface-coated cathode active material.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shiro; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Ohno, Yasutaka; Usami, Akira; Mita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2006-02-07

    For the purpose of realizing high-voltage, high-capacity, long-life and safe rechargeable batteries, a lithium secondary battery that uses high-voltage stable ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 cathode powder and a nonvolatile high-safety room temperature ionic liquid was fabricated.

  6. Prediction Methods and Data Fusion for Prognostics of Primary and Secondary Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    where lead-acid, nickel- cadmium , lithium, and alkaline batteries are being run to failure. During a test, battery impedance data is collected along...and widely used methods in laboratory practice is AC Voltammetry . This technique can provide information on the electrochemical dynamics of the...impedance of the cell can determine. Figure 2 represents the measured impedance of a nickel- cadmium battery that has been partially discharged. 167 Real

  7. Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, Fall 1996. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaviside, Sheila; And Others

    The "Survey of Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, Fall 1996" collected information from 911 regular United States public elementary and secondary schools regarding the availability and use of advanced telecommunications, and in particular, access to the Internet, plans to obtain Internet access, use of…

  8. Summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Odonnell, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    A summary of NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Activities is presented. The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program represents a unified NASA wide effort with the overall objective of providing NASA with the policy and posture which will increase the safety, performance, and reliability of space power systems. The specific objectives of the program are to: enhance cell/battery safety and reliability; maintain current battery technology; increase fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; provide a means to bring forth advanced technology for flight use; assist flight programs in minimizing battery technology related flight risks; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  9. Structural and kinetic characterization of lithium intercalation into carbon anodes for secondary lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Norio; Satoh, Asako; Hara, Michikazu; Ohsaki, Takahisa

    1995-02-01

    Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into carbons has been studied using mesophase-pitch-based carbon fibers with different heat-treatment temperatures, coke, and graphites as anodes for secondary lithium batteries. The variations in the average layer spacing and the voltage profile for the carbons with intercalating depend on the degree of graphitization. The intercalation into a more disordered carbon fiber heated at 900 C has been characterized as intercalation into the layer structure for 0 < x < 0.5 in Li{sub x}C{sub 6}, but additional lithium insertion into an unorganized carbon loses the layer structure. The polarization resistance (R{sub p}) estimated from the impedance spectrum decreased by increasing degree of graphitization. The variation in R{sub p} with intercalation revealed the intercalation processes in various disordered carbons to be single-phase reactions with different stoichiometries of lithium intercalation. The chemical diffusion coefficient D{sub Li} of lithium ions in carbons decreased by increasing the composition x in Li{sub x}C{sub 6} up to x = 0.5. The chemical diffusion coefficient was considerably affected by the texture and the degree of graphitization of the carbons. The graphitized carbon fiber heated at 3,000 C for 0.1 < x < 0.5 in Li{sub x}C{sub 6} exhibited one order magnitude larger values of D{sub Li} than those of graphites. The rapid diffusion in the graphitized carbon fiber has been attributed to the radial texture in the cross section. It has been found that the activation energy for the diffusion process decreased by increasing the degree of graphitization.

  10. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  11. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  12. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Silicon-integrated Li-ion Secondary Micro Batteries with Side-by-Side Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeppner, K.; Ferch, M.; Eisenreich, M.; Marquardt, K.; Hahn, R.; Mackowiak, P.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Ngo, H.-D.; Gernhardt, R.; Toepper, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of silicon-integrated lithium ion secondary micro batteries with a side-by-side electrode setup. Two cavities separated by a narrow silicon spacer served as a containment for the electrodes and were etched into <110>-Si by wet chemical etching using aqueous KOH solution. The etched silicon battery containment was passivated by a stress-compensated layer of SiO2/Si3N4. Ti/Pt-current collectors were applied by E-beam evaporation and lift-off structuring. A volumetric dispenser served to fill the cavities with slurries of the active materials - lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) as the anode and graphite as the cathode material. Encapsulation, electrolyte filling, and electrochemical characterisation of the finished cells took place in an Ar-filled glove box. The fabricated batteries have shown a rate capability of up to 5C and a linear capacity loss rate of <1 % per cycle over 30 full-cycles. Battery containments with different cavity and spacer widths have been fabricated.

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl3 solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO4 (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  14. Ionic liquid electrolytes with high sodium ion fraction for high-rate and long-life sodium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Yao; Kiko, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2016-11-01

    Sodium secondary batteries are attracting considerably renewed interest as new battery systems owing to the high and uniform abundance and cost advantages of Na. However, their performance is still far from optimal as compared to the well-developed Li-ion technology. Herein, Na secondary batteries with unprecedented rate capability and a long life has been achieved by using a highly concentrated bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anion (FSA-)-based ionic liquid electrolyte (3.3 mol dm-3 Na[FSA]) and a Na2FeP2O7 positive electrode, in a targeted operating temperature range from room to intermediate. Nearly full discharge capacity is obtained at 4000 mA g-1, and 79% of the capacity is retained at a discharge rate as high as 20000 mA g-1 at 363 K. Stable cycling (>300 cycles) with satisfactory coulombic efficiency (>99.5%) is found at an intermediate rate (100 mA g-1) over 298-363 K. A high-rate cycling test (1000 mA g-1) at 363 K reveals that the cell could retain 93% of its initial capacity after 1500 cycles.

  15. [Advances of genome and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Chang; Miao, Ke-Pai; Qian, Kai-Xian

    2005-11-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive, soil-inhabiting bacteria of Actinomycetales. These organisms exhibit complex life cycle and secondary metabolic pathways, and produce many economically important secondary metabolites. This review presented recent progress in Streptomycetes chromosome structure,genomics and the research of secondary metabolic pathway in Streptomyces. As more genomic sequences become available, it wiil be greatly facilitated to elucidate metabolic and regulatory networks and gain the over-production of desired metabolites or create the novel production of commercially important compounds.

  16. Incorporating Sulfur Inside the Pores of Carbons for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: An Electrolysis Approach.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui; Yang, Chao; Wang, Si-Qiong; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-01-26

    We have developed an electrolysis approach that allows effective and uniform incorporation of sulfur inside the micropores of carbon nanosheets for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries. The sulfur-carbon hybrid can be prepared with a 70 wt % sulfur loading, in which no nonconductive sulfur agglomerations are formed. Because the incorporated sulfur is electrically connected to the carbon matrix in nature, the hybrid cathode shows excellent electrochemical performance, including a high reversible capacity, good rate capability, and good cycling stability, as compared to one prepared using the popular melt-diffusion method.

  17. Computer-Aided Engineering and Secondary Use of Automotive Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Newbauer, J.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  18. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  19. A home environment test battery for status assessment in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Westin, Jerker; Dougherty, Mark; Nyholm, Dag; Groth, Torgny

    2010-04-01

    A test battery for assessing patient state in advanced Parkinson's disease, consisting of self-assessments and motor tests, was constructed and implemented on a hand computer with touch screen in a telemedicine setting. The aim of this work was to construct an assessment device, applicable during motor fluctuations in the patient's home environment. Selection of self-assessment questions was based on questions from an e-diary, previously used in a clinical trial. Both un-cued and cued tapping tests and spiral drawing tests were designed for capturing upper limb stiffnes, slowness and involuntary movements. The patient interface gave an audible signal at scheduled response times and was locked otherwise. Data messages in an XML-format were sent from the hand unit to a central server for storage, processing and presentation. In tapping tests, speed and accuracy were calculated and in spiral tests, standard deviation of frequency filtered radial drawing velocity was calculated. An overall test score, combining repeated assessments of the different test items during a test period, was defined based on principal component analysis and linear regression. An evaluation with two pilot patients before and after receiving new types of treatments was performed. Compliance and usability was assessed in a clinical trial (65 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease) and correlations between different test items and internal consistency were investigated. The test battery could detect treatment effect in the two pilot patients, both in self-assessments, tapping tests' results and spiral scores. It had good patient compliance and acceptable usability according to nine nurses. Correlation analysis showed that tapping results provided different information as compared to diary responses. Internal consistency of the test battery was good and learning effects in the tapping tests were small.

  20. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  1. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  2. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; ...

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  3. Atomistic Conversion Reaction Mechanism of WO 3 in Secondary Ion Batteries of Li, Na, and Ca

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yang; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Haiyan; Luo, Langli; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Fei; Du, Yingge; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chongmin

    2016-04-13

    Reversible insertion and extraction of ionic species into a host lattice governs the basic operating principle for both rechargeable battery (such as lithium batteries) and electrochromic devices (such as ANA Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner electrochromic window). Intercalation and/or conversion are two fundamental chemical processes for some materials in response to the ion insertion. The interplay between these two chemical processes has never been established. It is speculated that the conversion reaction is initiated by ion intercalation. However, experimental evidence of intercalation and subsequent conversion remains unexplored. Here, using in situ HRTEM and spectroscopy, we captured the atomistic conversion reaction processes during lithium, sodium and calcium ion insertion into tungsten trioxide (WO3) single crystal model electrodes. An intercalation step right prior to conversion is explicitly revealed at atomic scale for the first time for these three ion species. Combining nanoscale diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, it is found that, beyond intercalation, the inserted ion-oxygen bonding formation destabilized the transition-metal framework which gradually shrunk, distorted and finally collapsed to a pseudo-amorphous structure. This study provides a full atomistic picture on the transition from intercalation to conversion, which is of essential for material applications in both secondary ion batteries and electrochromic devices.

  4. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Silicon-integrated Li-ion Secondary Micro Batteries with Interdigital Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeppner, K.; Ferch, M.; Froebe, A.; Gernhardt, R.; Hahn, R.; Mackowiak, P.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Roder, S.; Saalhofen, I.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of silicon-integrated lithium ion secondary micro batteries with a side-by-side electrode setup. Cavities separated by narrow silicon spacers served as containments for two interdigitally arranged electrodes and were etched into <110>-Si by wet chemical etching. The etched silicon battery containments were passivated by a layer of SiOx/SixNy. Al current collectors were applied by sputtering and back etching. A volumetric micro dispenser served to fill the cavities with slurries of the active materials - lithium cobalt manganese oxide (Liy(Ni1/2Co1/5Mn3/10)O2) as the cathode and lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) as the anode material. Filling with electrolyte, encapsulation, and electrochemical characterization of the finished cells took place in an Ar-filled glove box. The fabricated batteries with IDE show considerably lower impedances than cells with single side by side electrodes and are capable of constant current loads up to 10 C. A linear capacity loss rate of <0.1% per cycle was observed over 30 full cycles at 0.2C.

  5. Electrochemical properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) submicron-fibrous electrode for zinc/polymer secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhijiang; Guo, Jie; Yang, Haizheng; Xu, Yi

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to develop an aqueous zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers secondary battery system. Zn foil and ZnCl2 are used as anode active materials and the electrolytic solution, respectively. Poly(5-cyanoindole) synthesized by chemical oxidation is electrospun into fibers and used as cathode active materials. FTIR and NMR test are carried out to investigate the chemical structure of poly(5-cyanoindole). Surface properties of electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers are studied by SEM, TEM, and BET. The performance of zinc/electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers battery system is evaluated in term of electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammogram, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, discharge capacity and durability test. The cell achieves 2.0 V electromotive force with about 107-61 Ah Kg-1 discharge capacity at 0.2C-10C rate. At 800th cycle, the discharge capacity remains 80-57 Ah Kg-1 at 0.2C-2C rate, which is about 75-63% of the maximum discharge capacity. These results indicate that the cell has very excellent cyclic properties as well as fast charge/discharge properties. Electrospun poly(5-cyanoindole) fibers have been proved to be a better candidate than polyindole powder as cathode material in zinc/polymer battery.

  6. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  7. Cycle-life improvement study for secondary silver-zinc batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Giltner, L.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an introductory discussion of the general characteristics and advantages of the silver-zinc, manually activated, rechargeable battery. Cycle-life limitations are discussed and the test results of a cycle-life improvement study, completed in 1995, are provided. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement in cycle-life over the baseline design for certain variations in the separator system. The silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) battery system has been uniquely efficient to satisfy high energy density applications in a very extensive range of commercial, military, aerospace and marine applications. These programs have demonstrated the high reliability and safety of this battery system for over forty years.

  8. Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Collection of Used Batteries by Secondary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane

    2011-01-01

    This research is based on Kollmuss and Agyeman's mode, and aims to determine if the prerequisites for pro-environmental behaviour, such as the collection of used batteries at school, are ethical, cognitive and environmental. A questionnaire/opinionnaire was given to 102, 14-17-year-olds to gather data on: (1) their current recycling habits, (2)…

  9. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g‑1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  10. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-15

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g(-1), long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  11. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-01-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g−1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials. PMID:28294179

  12. Ionic liquid-based membranes as electrolytes for advanced lithium polymer batteries.

    PubMed

    Navarra, M A; Manzi, J; Lombardo, L; Panero, S; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-01-17

    Gel-type polymer electrolytes are formed by immobilizing a solution of lithium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in N-n-butyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium N,N-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Py₂₄TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with added mixtures of organic solvents, such as ethylene, propylene and dimethyl carbonates (EC, PC, and DMC, respectively), into a poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) matrix, and their properties investigated. The addition of the organic solvent mixtures results in an improvement of the ionic conductivity and in the stabilization of the interface with the lithium electrode. Conductivity values in the range of 10⁻³-10⁻²  S cm⁻¹ are obtained in a wide temperature range. These unique properties allow the effective use of these membranes as electrolytes for the development of advanced polymer batteries based on a lithium metal anode and an olivine-type lithium iron phosphate cathode.

  13. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  14. Anode Design Based on Microscale Porous Scaffolds for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Choi, Hyelim; Nam, Kyungju; Lee, Sukyung; Um, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyungbae; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub; Choe, Heeman

    2017-01-01

    Considering the increasing demands for advanced power sources, present-day lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) must provide a higher energy and power density and better cycling stability than conventional LIBs. This study suggests a promising electrode design solution to this problem using Cu, Co, and Ti scaffolds with a microscale porous structure synthesized via freeze-casting. Co3O4 and TiO2 layers are uniformly formed on the Co and Ti scaffolds, respectively, through a simple thermal heat-treatment process, and a SnO2 layer is formed on the Cu scaffold through electroless plating and thermal oxidation. This paper characterizes and evaluates the physical and electrochemical properties of the proposed electrodes using scanning electron microscopy, four-point probe and coin-cell tests to confirm the feasibility of their potential use in LIBs.

  15. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  16. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  17. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  18. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  19. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

  20. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-08-15

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO₄ are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and CeO₂ nanoparticles and various Li(+) conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.

  1. Numerical simulation of thermal behavior of lithium-ion secondary batteries using the enhanced single particle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Makoto; Okuda, Chikaaki; Kawauchi, Shigehiro

    2014-04-01

    To understand the thermal behavior of lithium-ion secondary batteries, distributed information related to local heat generation across the entire electrode plane, which is caused by the electrochemical reaction that results from lithium-ion intercalation or deintercalation, is required. To accomplish this, we first developed an enhanced single particle (ESP) model for lithium-ion batteries that provides a cost effective, timely, and accurate method for estimating the local heat generation rates without excessive computation costs. This model accounts for all the physical processes, including the solution phase limitation. Next, a two-way electrochemical-thermal coupled simulation method was established. In this method, the three dimensional (3D) thermal solver is coupled with the quasi-3D porous electrode solver that is applied to the unrolled plane of spirally wound electrodes, which allows both thermal and electrochemical behaviors to be reproduced simultaneously at every computational time-step. The quasi-3D porous electrode solver implements the ESP model. This two-way coupled simulation method was applied to a thermal behavior analysis of 18650-type lithium-ion cells where it was found that temperature estimates of the electrode interior and on the cell can wall obtained via the ESP model were in good agreement with actual experimental measurements.

  2. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  3. Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide: CDMO) as positive material for a lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohma, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishio, K.; Nakane, I.; Furukawa, N.

    1990-12-01

    Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (CDMO) has been developed as the positive material for lithium secondary batteries. CDMO is prepared from lithium salt and manganese dioxide by heat treatment. It is a composite oxide of γ/β-MnO 2 and Li 2MnO 3. The influence on rechargeability of lithium salts, heat-treatment temperature, and manganese dioxide type has been investigated by conducting cycle tests with flat cells. Lithium hydroxide is more reactive with MnO 2 in the production of Li 2MnO 3 than either Li 2O or Li 2CO 3. The optimum condition for preparing CDMO is to heat treat LiOH and MnO 2 at about 375 °C. CDMO prepared from EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) yields a larger and more stable capacity than CDMO prepared from CMD (chemical manganese dioxide). Sodium-free EMD exhibits the largest discharge capacity.

  4. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  5. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  6. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  7. Carbon-Coated Current Collectors for High-Power Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    Principal Investigators: - e-mail address : nlw001@ntu.edu.tw - Institution : National Taiwan university - Mailing Address : 1, sec. 4, Roosevelt...AUTHOR(S) Nae-Lih Wu 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) National Taiwan...Current Collectors on Power Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Li-Ion Battery,” J. Power Sources, in press (2011). Presentation: The 219th

  8. Electrode and solid electrolyte thin films for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Kelder, E. M.; Schoonman, J.

    Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) was employed to prepare thin layers of Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 (nominal composition) and BPO 4:0.035Li 2O for all-solid-state thin film lithium-ion batteries. The relationships between layer morphologies and deposition conditions such as solvent composition of the precursor solutions and substrate temperature were investigated. It was found that a low substrate temperature and/or high boiling point of the solvent may lead to a relatively dense structure. Reticular porous structures are formed, if films were deposited at 250°C and a mixture of 85 vol.% butyl carbitol and 15 vol.% ethanol was used as the solvent. The Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers, formed in the 250-400°C temperature range, were amorphous or micro-crystalline. After annealing beyond 600 °C, they could be crystallized into a spinel-structured material. Glassy BPO 4:0.035Li 2O layers could fill the pores of porous Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers to form a dense intermediate electrolyte layer. Thin-film rocking-chair batteries, Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|BPO 4:0.035Li 2O|Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|Al, were prepared and revealed an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V after charging.

  9. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  10. Scalable fracture-free SiOC glass coating for robust silicon nanoparticle anodes in lithium secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunghun; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-12-10

    A variety of silicon (Si) nanostructures and their complex composites have been lately introduced in the lithium ion battery community to address the large volume changes of Si anodes during their repeated charge-discharge cycles. Nevertheless, for large-scale manufacturing it is more desirable to use commercial Si nanoparticles with simple surface coating. Most conductive coating materials, however, do not accommodate the volume expansion of the inner Si active phases and resultantly fracture during cycling. To overcome this chronic limitation, herein, we report silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) glass as a new coating material for Si nanoparticle anodes. The SiOC glass phase can expand to some extent due to its active nature in reacting with Li ions and can therefore accommodate the volume changes of the inner Si nanoparticles without disintegration or fracture. The SiOC glass also grows in the form of nanocluster to bridge Si nanoparticles, thereby contributing to the structural integrity of secondary particles during cycling. On the basis of these combined effects, the SiOC-coated Si nanoparticles reach a high reversible capacity of 2093 mAh g(-1) with 92% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the coating and subsequent secondary particle formation were produced by high-speed spray pyrolysis based on a single precursor solution.

  11. A simple preparation method for spherical carbons and their anodic performance in lithium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ou Jung; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Ji Hyun; Oh, Seung M.

    This work reports a simple preparation method for spherical hard carbons and graphites. The phenolic resin and methylnaphthalene-derived mesophase pitch (MNMP) powders are employed as the precursor for hard carbon and graphite, respectively. The irregular-shaped precursor powders are converted to spherical carbons by first coating with fine-grained fumed silica powder and carbonizing/graphitizing under an argon atmosphere. Two characteristic features are observed in this preparation. First, among the used silica powders, only those having a hydrophobic surface group are effective for the irregular to sphere conversion. Second, the conversion takes place near the glass transition temperature of the resin and the softening point of the pitch, respectively. Based on these observations, an irregular to sphere conversion mechanism has been proposed. The spherical carbon powders exhibit a higher tap density and smaller surface area than those of the irregular-shaped ones, which is an advantageous feature for practical lithium batteries.

  12. Cycle life estimation of lithium secondary battery by extrapolation method and accelerated aging test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, K.; Kumai, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Miyashiro, H.; Terada, N.; Iwahori, T.; Tanaka, T.

    The testing methods to estimate the life cycles of lithium ion batteries for a short period, have been developed using a commercialized cell with LiCoO 2/hard carbon cell system. The degradation reactions with increasing cycles were suggested to occur predominantly above 4 V from the results of operating voltage range divided tests. In the case of the extrapolation method using limited cycle data, the straight line approximation was useful as the cycle performance has the linearity, but the error is at most 40% in using the initial short cycle data. In the case of the accelerated aging tests using the following stress factors, the charge and/or discharge rate, large accelerated coefficients were obtained in the high charge rate and the high temperature thermal stress.

  13. Nickel-metal hydride electric vehicle batteries through materials science advances

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, S.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Gifford, P.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Ovshinsky, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proprietary, multicomponent hydrogen storage materials have been developed making use of the principles of disorder by atomic engineering of the short-range and intermediate-range order. These materials form the basis for Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries which have emerged as the leading battery technology for electric vehicle applications. Ovonic Batteries have the highest volumetric energy density available extending the practical range of electric vehicles from under 100 miles to over 200 miles.

  14. Primary and Secondary Lithium Batteries Capable of Operating at Low Temperatures for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Brandon, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives and Approach: (1) Develop advanced Li ]ion electrolytes that enable cell operation over a wide temperature range (i.e., -60 to +60 C). Improve the high temperature stability and lifetime characteristics of wide operating temperature electrolytes. (2) Define the performance limitations at low and high temperature extremes, as well as, life limiting processes. (3) Demonstrate the performance of advanced electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells.

  15. Battery technologies for large-scale stationary energy storage.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β″-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  16. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    Formation of a glue-nanofiller layer between grains, consisting of a middle-temperature spinel-like Lix CoO2 phase, reinforces the strength of the incoherent interfacial binding between anisotropically oriented grains by enhancing the face-to-face adhesion strength. The cathode treated with the glue-layer exhibits steady cycling performance at both room-temperature and 60 °C. These results represent a step forward in advanced lithium-ion batteries via simple cathode coating.

  17. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    limiting the life and/or performance of batteries. Consequently, development of new improved separators would be very beneficial for the advanced high capacity batteries.

  18. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  19. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  20. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed. PMID:27711259

  1. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  2. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; ...

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  3. Recent Advances and Prospects of Cathode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xingde; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) receive significant attention for electrochemical energy storage and conversion owing to their wide availability and the low cost of Na resources. However, SIBs face challenges of low specific energy, short cycling life, and insufficient specific power, owing to the heavy mass and large radius of Na(+) ions. As an important component of SIBs, cathode materials have a significant effect on the SIB electrochemical performance. The most recent advances and prospects of inorganic and organic cathode materials are summarized here. Among current cathode materials, layered transition-metal oxides achieve high specific energies around 600 mW h g(-1) owing to their high specific capacities of 180-220 mA h g(-1) and their moderate operating potentials of 2.7-3.2 V (vs Na(+) /Na). Porous Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C nanomaterials exhibit excellent cycling performance with almost 100% retention over 1000 cycles owing to their robust structural framework. Recent emerging cathode materials, such as amorphous NaFePO4 and pteridine derivatives show interesting electrochemical properties and attractive prospects for application in SIBs. Future work should focus on strategies to enhance the overall performance of cathode materials in terms of specific energy, cycling life, and rate capability with cationic doping, anionic substitution, morphology fabrication, and electrolyte matching.

  4. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  5. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Lithium Sulfide Nanocrystals for Use in Advanced Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-30

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1-5 μm). Electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  7. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  8. Career Advancement Experiences of Hispanic Secondary Principals in Suburban School Districts: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of Hispanic secondary school principals who work in suburban school districts regarding their career advancement. Moreover, the objective of this research was to understand these Hispanic principals' motivational drivers and barriers regarding their career choices,…

  9. Li-Ion Battery Cathodes: Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode (Adv. Mater. 23/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    The formation of a spinel Lix CoO2 layer in a Ni-rich secondary particle for lithium-ion batteries is reported by S. K. Kwak, J. Cho, and co-workers on page 4705, who find that the spinel-like Lix CoO2 layer, between layered primary particles, can enhance the mechanical strength of secondary particles by enhancing the interfacial binding energy among the grains. Moreover, the layer can effectively protect the unstable surface of the primary particles and offers a fast electron-ion pathway, resulting in overall enhancements of stability and kinetics in battery performance.

  10. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  11. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

  12. 76 FR 3118 - Notice of Availability of Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... early registration is encouraged. 1. ARL 01-37--Choosing Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries (US 7... Electrolytes and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Cells Comprising the Same (US 7,442,471 B1). 3. ARL 02-27--Additive... solvent electrolyte battery with additive alkali metal salt of a mixed anhydride combination of...

  13. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries (US 7,585,579). 2. ARL 02-06--Solvent Systems Comprising a Mixture of Lactams and Esters for Non-Aqueous Electrolytes and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Cells Comprising the Same (US...,172,834 B1). 4. ARL 02-27 D1--Non-aqueous solvent electrolyte battery with additive alkali metal...

  14. A flexible sulfur-graphene-polypropylene separator integrated electrode for advanced Li-S batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Da-Wei; Shan, Xu-Yi; Pei, Songfeng; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2015-01-27

    A flexible Li-S battery based on an integrated structure of sulfur and graphene on a separator is developed. The internal graphene current collector offers a continuous conductive pathway, a modified interface with sulfur, and a good barrier to and an effective reservoir for dissolved polysulfides, consequently improving the capacity and cyclic life of the Li-S battery.

  15. In situ Raman spectroscopy of lithium electrode surface in ambient temperature lithium secondary battery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, Hiroyasu

    1992-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize surface layers on lithium electrodes in different solvents such as propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl ether (PEG400DME). Both DMC and DEC were used singly, and also mixed with either methyl acetate (MA) or methyl formate (MF). The Raman spectra showed that passive films formed on the Li surface in different solvents may have different chemical structures, which changed during the charging and discharging processes. Raman spectroscopy was also applied to characterize zinc electrode surfaces in alkaline solutions. The results suggested that ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} formed on the Zn electrode when a passive potential was applied. A solid film of fullerene C{sub 60}, which could be used as a cathode in Li rechargeable batteries, was examined in the PEG400DME solution by both electrochemical and Raman spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed five redox peaks which suggested the formation of C{sub 60}{sup {minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 3{minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 4{minus}}, and C{sub 60}{sup 5{minus}}. Raman spectra obtained from a thin C{sub 60} film indicated that the thin fulleride film dissolved in the PEG400DME/LiClO{sub 4} solution at negative potentials.

  16. Reversible air electrodes integrated with an anion-exchange membrane for secondary air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Yao, Masaru; Siroma, Zyun; Senoh, Hiroshi; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    Reversible air electrodes integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been proposed for use in rechargeable metal-air batteries or unitized regenerative fuel cells to reduce the impact of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reversible air electrodes were prepared with an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) as a polymer electrolyte membrane and platinum-based catalysts. The AEM at the interface between the alkaline electrolyte and the air electrode layer plays major roles in AEM-type air electrodes as follows: it blocks (a) the permeation of cations in the alkaline electrolyte into the air electrode layer to prevent carbonate precipitation, (b) penetration of the alkaline solution itself, and (c) neutralization of the alkaline electrolyte by carbon dioxide, all of which prevent performance degradation of oxygen reactions. Catalysts for decreasing the overvoltage of oxygen reactions were also investigated with the AEM-type air electrode, and the overall efficiency was improved due to a remarkable decrease in the potential for the oxygen evolution reaction with Pt-Ir catalysts.

  17. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  18. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  19. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Gorti, Sarma B.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T.; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R.; Wang, Hsin

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  20. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  1. Graphene–Selenium Hybrid Microballs as Cathode Materials for High-performance Lithium–Selenium Secondary Battery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Jeong, Jun Hui; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-08-01

    In this study, graphene–selenium hybrid microballs (G–SeHMs) are prepared in one step by aerosol microdroplet drying using a commercial spray dryer, which represents a simple, scalable continuous process, and the potential of the G–SeHMs thus prepared is investigated for use as cathode material in applications of lithium–selenium secondary batteries. These morphologically unique graphene microballs filled with Se particles exhibited good electrochemical properties, such as high initial specific capacity (642 mA h g‑1 at 0.1 C, corresponding to Se electrochemical utilisation as high as 95.1%), good cycling stability (544 mA h g‑1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C 84.5% retention) and high rate capability (specific capacity of 301 mA h g‑1 at 5 C). These electrochemical properties are attributed to the fact that the G–SeHM structure acts as a confinement matrix for suppressing the dissolution of polyselenides in the organic electrolyte, as well as an electron conduction path for increasing the transport rate of electrons for electrochemical reactions. Notably, based on the weight of hybrid materials, electrochemical performance is considerably better than that of previously reported Se-based cathode materials, attributed to the high Se loading content (80 wt%) in hybrid materials.

  2. Graphene–Selenium Hybrid Microballs as Cathode Materials for High-performance Lithium–Selenium Secondary Battery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Jeong, Jun Hui; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    In this study, graphene–selenium hybrid microballs (G–SeHMs) are prepared in one step by aerosol microdroplet drying using a commercial spray dryer, which represents a simple, scalable continuous process, and the potential of the G–SeHMs thus prepared is investigated for use as cathode material in applications of lithium–selenium secondary batteries. These morphologically unique graphene microballs filled with Se particles exhibited good electrochemical properties, such as high initial specific capacity (642 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C, corresponding to Se electrochemical utilisation as high as 95.1%), good cycling stability (544 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C; 84.5% retention) and high rate capability (specific capacity of 301 mA h g−1 at 5 C). These electrochemical properties are attributed to the fact that the G–SeHM structure acts as a confinement matrix for suppressing the dissolution of polyselenides in the organic electrolyte, as well as an electron conduction path for increasing the transport rate of electrons for electrochemical reactions. Notably, based on the weight of hybrid materials, electrochemical performance is considerably better than that of previously reported Se-based cathode materials, attributed to the high Se loading content (80 wt%) in hybrid materials. PMID:27480798

  3. Sn-O-C composite anode for Li secondary battery synthesized by an electrodeposition technique using organic carbonate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Toshiyuki; Jeong, Moongook; Yokoshima, Tokihiko; Nara, Hiroki; Toyoda, Ayano; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2013-11-01

    The Sn-O-C composite anode for the Li secondary battery was synthesized by electrodeposition using an organic carbonate solvent. The composite of Sn with organic/inorganic compounds was prepared by the simultaneous reaction of the reduction of Sn2+ ions and electrolysis of the mixture of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate. The galvanostatic potential transients for the electrodeposition of the Sn-O-C composite indicate that multiple steps of reactions corresponding to the electrochemical reduction of the tin precursor and the decomposition of organic solvents are involved. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the as-deposited Sn-O-C composite anode were characterized to elucidate the mechanism of the synthesis of the buffering matrix enduring volume expansion. The electrochemical behavior of the Sn-O-C composite anode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatical charge/discharged tests. The discharge capacity of 465 mAh (g of Sn)-1 was obtained at the 100th cycle showing 80% of the capacity retention after the 100th cycle. The discharge capacity was stable after the 50th cycle, where the phase transformation of the Sn element from Sn to Li0.4Sn at the discharged state was found.

  4. New technology from 100 ampere-hour Ni-Cd space battery program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present paper describes some of the results of a 100 Ah battery development program. Background, module design, cell terminal design, and other technology newly used are described. It is shown that the program led to successful production of both cell and module, and that several areas utilized new technology and contributed advances to the sealed secondary battery state-of-the-art.

  5. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  6. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  7. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  8. Comparison of a test battery for assessing the toxicity of a bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent before and after secondary treatment implementation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, R; Moreira-Santos, M; Lopes, I; Silva, L; Rebola, J; Mendonça, E; Picado, A; Ribeiro, R

    2010-02-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents may cause harmful effects to the aquatic environment due to the combined influence of physical factors, toxic compounds, and nutrient enrichment. In the present study, the effectiveness of secondary treatment in reducing the toxicity of an elemental chlorine-free bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent was evaluated. To characterize the toxicity of the effluent, before and after the implementation of secondary treatment, a battery of tests with organisms bearing different functions at the ecosystem level was used, namely Vibrio fischeri (5-min luminescence), Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72-h growth), Lemna minor (7-day growth), Daphnia magna (21-day reproduction and 24-h postexposure feeding), Chironomus riparius (9-day growth), and Danio rerio (28-day growth). For the effluent sample collected before the implementation of secondary treatment, P. subcapitata was the most sensitive organism followed by V. fischeri and D. magna, and no toxic effects were observed toward the other organisms. For the effluent sample collected after the implementation of secondary treatment, the effluent caused no toxic effects on any of the tested species. The present results demonstrated not only that secondary treatment efficaciously reduced effluent toxicity toward the selected test organisms but also the usefulness of a battery of tests to characterize the toxicity of pulp mill effluents.

  9. [Research advances in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Liu, Min; Xu, Chang

    2015-09-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is one of the main reasons for high mortality of the newborn and a factor that leads to respiratory and circulatory failure in newborns with CDH. PPHN secondary to CDH is severe and difficult to treat, with poor prognosis. Therefore, prenatal intervention aims for preventing the pathological process of CDH, especially the etiological treatment for impeding the development of PPHN, has become a research focus. Given unknown causes and poor outcomes of PPHN, this article summarizes the research advances in pathogenesis and treatment of PPHN secondary to CDH based on related studies so as to provide a reference for relevant studies and clinical treatment.

  10. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  11. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; ...

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  12. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  14. An advanced lithium-air battery exploiting an ionic liquid-based electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Elia, G A; Hassoun, J; Kwak, W-J; Sun, Y-K; Scrosati, B; Mueller, F; Bresser, D; Passerini, S; Oberhumer, P; Tsiouvaras, N; Reiter, J

    2014-11-12

    A novel lithium-oxygen battery exploiting PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI as ionic liquid-based electrolyte medium is reported. The Li/PYR14TFSI-LiTFSI/O2 battery was fully characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, capacity-limited cycling, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of this extensive study demonstrate that this new Li/O2 cell is characterized by a stable electrode-electrolyte interface and a highly reversible charge-discharge cycling behavior. Most remarkably, the charge process (oxygen oxidation reaction) is characterized by a very low overvoltage, enhancing the energy efficiency to 82%, thus, addressing one of the most critical issues preventing the practical application of lithium-oxygen batteries.

  15. Properties of advanced C-size calcium-thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elster, E.; Cohen, R.; Brand, M.; Lavi, Y.; Peled, E.

    The Ca-TC battery is a very promising candidate for high-energy-density and high-power-density applications. Its major drawback has been rapid corrosion of the calcium anode. This results from unsuitable properties of the CaCl2 solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) covering the calcium anode. The corrosion problem of the calcium anode has been solved by replacing the Ca(AlCl4)2 electrolyte with Sr(AlCl4)2 or Ba(AlCl4)2. In these modifications, the chemical composition and the properties of the SEI have been changed in order to provide better protection for the calcium anode against corrosion. These modified calcium batteries are expected to have room temperature shelf life of three years, and performance similar to that of the state-of-the-art calcium battery.

  16. Advances in lithium-sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li-S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li-S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li-S batteries are summarized.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of polyamides with cyclic disulfide structure and their application to positive active material for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Oyari, Yoshiaki; Onimura, Kenjiro; Oishi, Tsutomu

    Polyamides (DTA-I, DTA-II, and DTA-III) containing cyclic disulfide structure were prepared by condensation between 1,2-dithiane-3,6-dicarboxylic acid (DTA) and alkyl diamine, NH 2-(CH 2) n-NH 2 (DTA-I; n=4, DTA-II; n=6, DTA-III; n=8) and their application to positive active material for lithium secondary batteries was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements under slow sweep rate (0.5 mV s -1) with a carbon paste electrode containing the polyamide (DTA-I, DTA-II, or DTA-III) were performed. The results indicated that the polyamides were electroactive in the organic electrolyte solution (propylene carbonate (PC)-1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), 1:1 by volume containing lithium salt, such as LiClO 4). The responses based on the redox of the disulfide bonds in the polyamide were observed. Test cells, Li/PC-DME (1:1. by volume) with 1 mol dm -3 LiClO 4/the polyamide cathode, were constructed and their performance was tested under constant current charge/discharge condition. The average capacity of the test cells with the DTA-III cathode was 64.3 Ah kg -1 of cathode (135 Wh kg -1 of cathode, capacity (Ah kg -1) of the cathode×average cell voltage (2.10 V)). Performance of the cell with linear polyamide containing disulfide bond (-CO-(CH 2) 2-S-S-(CH 2) 2-CONH-(CH 2) 8-NH-, GTA-III) was also investigated and the average capacity was 56.8 Ah kg -1 of cathode (100 Wh kg -1 of cathode, capacity (Ah kg -1) of the cathode×average cell voltage (1.76 V)). Cycle efficiency of the test cell with the DTA-III cathode was higher than that with the GTA-III cathode.

  18. Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamedes, Zoe

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

  19. Advanced separators based on aromatic polymer for high energy density lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Woo, Jung-Je; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-21

    A process includes casting a solution including poly(phenylene oxide), inorganic nanoparticles, a solvent, and a non-solvent on a substrate; and removing the solvent to form a porous film; wherein: the porous film is configured for use as a porous separator for a lithium ion battery.

  20. Phosphorus-Based Alloy Materials for Advanced Potassium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchao; Mao, Jianfeng; Li, Sean; Chen, Zhixin; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-08

    Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are interesting as one of the alternative metal-ion battery systems to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance and low cost of potassium. We have herein investigated Sn4P3/C composite as a novel anode material for PIBs. The electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 384.8 mA h g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) and a good rate capability of 221.9 mA h g(-1), even at 1 A g(-1). Its electrochemical performance is better than any anode material reported so far for PIBs. It was also found that the Sn4P3/C electrode displays a discharge potential plateau of 0.1 V in PIBs, slightly higher than for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) (0.01 V), and well above the plating potential of metal. This diminishes the formation of dendrites during cycling, and thus Sn4P3 is a relatively safe anode material, especially for application in large-scale energy storage, where large amounts of electrode materials are used. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism of the Sn4P3/C composite as PIB anode is proposed. This work may open up a new avenue for further development of alloy-based anodes with high capacity and long cycle life for PIBs.

  1. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3 catalysts for zinc air secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Seyoung; Kim, Ketack; Kim, Hyunsoo; Nam, Sangyong; Eom, Seungwook

    2010-05-01

    We prepared La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3 (x=0.1-0.4) catalysts for a zinc air battery by using the citrate method under controlled pH. The prepared precursor powder was heat treated at the calcination temperature of 700 °C and examined for the optimum structure of the cathode. The structure and performance of the catalysts were examined by x-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope. The air electrode was prepared by blending the catalyst, Vulcan XC-72R (carbon black), and (polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE) suspension. The oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction were examined by linear sweep voltammetry. The results showed that La0.7Sr0.3Co0.7Fe0.3O3 (LSCF0.7) is an excellent catalyst for the zinc air secondary battery.

  3. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  4. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    SciTech Connect

    Hookfin, J.D.

    1995-05-12

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

  5. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.

    2015-01-01

    Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…

  6. Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 1, Organizing Geometric Knowledge, Chapter 2, Concepts and Skills in Algebra. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This text is the first of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. The first chapter, devoted to organizing geometric knowledge, deals with the distinction…

  7. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  8. Recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a variety of interesting biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these SMs. Aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. This fungus also produces other SMs, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones, and territram, with interesting bioactivities. This review will cover recent progress in genome mining of SMs identified in this fungus. The identification and characterization of the gene cluster for these SMs, as well as the proposed biosynthetic pathways, will be discussed in depth. PMID:25566227

  9. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  10. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-07

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Bae, Jae Young; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite synthesized on Ni foam without any binder. • This composite was directly applied as anode material of Li secondary batteries. • Showed the highest initial (2420 mAh/g) and discharging (2092 mAh/g) capacity. • This material achieved a retention rate of 86.4% after 30 cycles. - Abstract: In this study, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–carbon nanofibers composite were synthesized and applied as the anode materials in lithium secondary batteries. CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite were grown via chemical vapor deposition method with iron-copper catalysts. Mesoporous SiO{sub 2} materials were prepared by sol–gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammoniumchloride as the template. Ethylene was used as the carbon source and passes into a quartz reactor of a tube furnace heated to 600 °C, and the temperature was maintained at 600 °C for 10 min to synthesize CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite. The electrochemical characteristics of the as-prepared CNFs and mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composite as the anode of lithium secondary batteries were investigated using a three-electrode cell. In particular, the mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites synthesized without binder after depositing mesoporous SiO{sub 2} on Ni foam showed the highest charging and discharging capacity and retention rate. The initial capacity (2420 mAh/g) of mesoporous SiO{sub 2}–CNFs composites decreased to 2092 mAh/g after 30 cycles at a retention rate of 86.4%.

  12. Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Hedstrom, J. C.; Stroh, K. R.; Huff, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants - the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

  13. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential.

  14. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  15. Development of Cellulose/PVDF-HFP Composite Membranes for Advanced Battery Separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Agubra, Victor; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Mao, Yuanbing

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary as Li-ion batteries transition from consumer electronic to vehicular and industrial uses. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency and safety is the quality of the separators, which prevent electric short-circuits between cathode and anode, while allowing an easy flow of ions between them. In this study, cellulose acetate was dissolved in a mixed solvent with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and the mixture was forcespun in a peudo paper making process to yield nanofibrillated nonwoven mats. The mats were soaked in NaOH/Ethanol to strip PVP and regenerate cellulose from its acetate precursor. The cellulose mats were then dipped in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to yield the cellulose/PVDF-HFP composte membranes. These membranes were characterized chemically through FTIR spectroscopy and solvent-stability tests, thermally through DSC, physically by stress/strain measurements along with weight-based electrolyte uptake, and electrically by AC-impedance spectroscopy combined with capacitative cycling.

  16. How does uncertainty shape patient experience in advanced illness? A secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Etkind, Simon Noah; Bristowe, Katherine; Bailey, Katharine; Selman, Lucy Ellen; Murtagh, Fliss EM

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty is common in advanced illness but is infrequently studied in this context. If poorly addressed, uncertainty can lead to adverse patient outcomes. Aim: We aimed to understand patient experiences of uncertainty in advanced illness and develop a typology of patients’ responses and preferences to inform practice. Design: Secondary analysis of qualitative interview transcripts. Studies were assessed for inclusion and interviews were sampled using maximum-variation sampling. Analysis used a thematic approach with 10% of coding cross-checked to enhance reliability. Setting/participants: Qualitative interviews from six studies including patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal disease, cancer and liver failure. Results: A total of 30 transcripts were analysed. Median age was 75 (range, 43–95), 12 patients were women. The impact of uncertainty was frequently discussed: the main related themes were engagement with illness, information needs, patient priorities and the period of time that patients mainly focused their attention on (temporal focus). A typology of patient responses to uncertainty was developed from these themes. Conclusion: Uncertainty influences patient experience in advanced illness through affecting patients’ information needs, preferences and future priorities for care. Our typology aids understanding of how patients with advanced illness respond to uncertainty. Assessment of these three factors may be a useful starting point to guide clinical assessment and shared decision making. PMID:27129679

  17. Combinatorial computational chemistry approach for materials design: applications in deNOx catalysis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, lanthanoid complex, and lithium ion secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A; Miyamoto, Akira

    2007-02-01

    Computational chemistry can provide fundamental knowledge regarding various aspects of materials. While its impact in scientific research is greatly increasing, its contributions to industrially important issues are far from satisfactory. In order to realize industrial innovation by computational chemistry, a new concept "combinatorial computational chemistry" has been proposed by introducing the concept of combinatorial chemistry to computational chemistry. This combinatorial computational chemistry approach enables theoretical high-throughput screening for materials design. In this manuscript, we review the successful applications of combinatorial computational chemistry to deNO(x) catalysts, Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, lanthanoid complex catalysts, and cathodes of the lithium ion secondary battery.

  18. Research on Selection Methods and Programming for Advanced Black Students at the Secondary Level of Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; And Others

    This research investigated the phenomenon of underrepresentation of blacks in advanced level secondary school courses in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Initial interviews revealed that the problem of racial imbalance in advanced level courses was not one of identifying black gifted youth or of offering attractive programs for them, but of black children…

  19. Solid state cathode materials for secondary magnesium-ion batteries that are compatible with magnesium metal anodes in water-free electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Adam J.; Bartlett, Bart M.

    2016-10-01

    With high elemental abundance, large volumetric capacity, and dendrite-free metal deposition, magnesium metal anodes offer promise in beyond-lithium-ion batteries. However, the increased charge density associated with the divalent magnesium-ion (Mg2+), relative to lithium-ion (Li+) hinders the ion-insertion and extraction processes within many materials and structures known for lithium-ion cathodes. As a result, many recent investigations incorporate known amounts of water within the electrolyte to provide temporary solvation of the Mg2+, improving diffusion kinetics. Unfortunately with the addition of water, compatibility with magnesium metal anodes disappears due to forming an ion-insulating passivating layer. In this short review, recent advances in solid state cathode materials for rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries are highlighted, with a focus on cathode materials that do not require water contaminated electrolyte solutions for ion insertion and extraction processes.

  20. Highly Flexible Graphene/Mn3O4 Nanocomposite Membrane as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xu; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-28

    Advanced electrode design is crucial in the rapid development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging flexible electronics. Herein, we report a rational synthesis of graphene/Mn3O4 nanocomposite membranes with excellent mechanical flexibility and Li-ion storage properties. The strong interaction between the large-area graphene nanosheets and long Mn3O4 nanowires not only enables the membrane to endure various mechanical deformations but also produces a strong synergistic effect of enhanced reaction kinetics by providing enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area and reduced electron/ion transport resistance. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a freestanding anode for Li-ion batteries, which delivers a high specific capacity of ∼800 mAh g(-1) based on the total electrode mass, along with superior high-rate capability and excellent cycling stability. A flexible full Li-ion battery is fabricated with excellent electrochemical properties and high flexibility, demonstrating its great potential for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  1. Earth Abundant Fe/Mn-Based Layered Oxide Interconnected Nanowires for Advanced K-Ion Full Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuanpeng; Xu, Xiaoming; Niu, Chaojiang; Meng, Jiashen; Huang, Meng; Liu, Xiong; Liu, Ziang; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-01-11

    K-ion battery (KIB) is a new-type energy storage device that possesses potential advantages of low-cost and abundant resource of K precursor materials. However, the main challenge lies on the lack of stable materials to accommodate the intercalation of large-size K-ions. Here we designed and constructed a novel earth abundant Fe/Mn-based layered oxide interconnected nanowires as a cathode in KIBs for the first time, which exhibits both high capacity and good cycling stability. On the basis of advanced in situ X-ray diffraction analysis and electrochemical characterization, we confirm that interconnected K0.7Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 nanowires can provide stable framework structure, fast K-ion diffusion channels, and three-dimensional electron transport network during the depotassiation/potassiation processes. As a result, a considerable initial discharge capacity of 178 mAh g(-1) is achieved when measured for KIBs. Besides, K-ion full batteries based on interconnected K0.7Fe0.5Mn0.5O2 nanowires/soft carbon are assembled, manifesting over 250 cycles with a capacity retention of ∼76%. This work may open up the investigation of high-performance K-ion intercalated earth abundant layered cathodes and will push the development of energy storage systems.

  2. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  3. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (<30 nm). Nanosized intermetallic SnSb compounds can exhibit improved structural stability and conductivity during charge and discharge reactions compared to the corresponding individuals (Sn and Sb particles). In the meantime, RGO sheets can tightly anchor SnSb alloy particles on the surfaces, which can not only effectively suppress the agglomeration of SnSb particles but also maintain excellent electronic conduction. Furthermore, the mechanical flexibility of the RGO phase can accommodate the volume expansion and contraction of SnSb particles during the prolonged cycling, therefore, improve the electrode integrity mechanically and electronically. All of these contribute to the electrochemical performance improvements of the RGO-SnSb nanocomposite-based electrodes in rechargeable Na-ion batteries.

  4. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  5. Recent advances in first principles computational research of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying Shirley; Arroyo-de Dompablo, M Elena

    2013-05-21

    To meet the increasing demands of energy storage, particularly for transportation applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, researchers will need to develop improved lithium-ion battery electrode materials that exhibit high energy density, high power, better safety, and longer cycle life. The acceleration of materials discovery, synthesis, and optimization will benefit from the combination of both experimental and computational methods. First principles (ab Initio) computational methods have been widely used in materials science and can play an important role in accelerating the development and optimization of new energy storage materials. These methods can prescreen previously unknown compounds and can explain complex phenomena observed with these compounds. Intercalation compounds, where Li(+) ions insert into the host structure without causing significant rearrangement of the original structure, have served as the workhorse for lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes. Intercalation compounds will also facilitate the development of new battery chemistries such as sodium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical discharge reaction process, the intercalating species travel from the negative to the positive electrode, driving the transition metal ion in the positive electrode to a lower oxidation state, which delivers useful current. Many materials properties change as a function of the intercalating species concentrations (at different state of charge). Therefore, researchers will need to understand and control these dynamic changes to optimize the electrochemical performance of the cell. In this Account, we focus on first-principles computational investigations toward understanding, controlling, and improving the intrinsic properties of five well known high energy density Li intercalation electrode materials: layered oxides (LiMO2), spinel oxides (LiM2O4), olivine phosphates (LiMPO4), silicates-Li2MSiO4, and the tavorite-LiM(XO4)F (M = 3d

  6. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  7. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  8. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  10. Carbon fiber electrode for redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Shimada, M.

    1987-03-01

    Advanced secondary batteries have been developed as electrical energy storage systems for use in electrical utility load-levelling and stand-alone photovoltaic installations. Among them, the redox flow system based on aqueous iron and chromium redox couple is one of the most advanced. An important key to its feasibility is electrode fabrication. Woven and non-woven fabrics of carbon fibers have been used as thin but three dimensional electrodes of the redox flow system in view of their electric conductivity, chemical stability, and economy. One of the electrochemical problems of iron-chromium redox battery related to the electrode is the slow reaction rate of reduction and oxidation of chromium complex ion. As the electron transfer rate of chromium complex ion is lower than that of iron ion, the voltaic efficiency of the battery tends to decrease.

  11. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, A.; Gu, M.; Colby, R.; Yan, P.; Wang, C. M.; Zheng, J. M.; Xiao, J.; Genc, A.; Zhang, J. G.; Belharouak, I.; Wang, D.; Amine, K.; Thevuthasan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cations in Li-ion battery cathodes as a function of cycling is a pivotal characteristic of battery performance. The transition metal cation distribution has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical imaging techniques. Here laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is used to map the three-dimensional distribution of Li at a sub-nanometre spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. As-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions. Cycled material has an overall loss of Li in addition to Ni-, Mn- and Li-rich regions. Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. APT results were compared to energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping with a scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm the transition metal cation distribution. PMID:26272722

  12. The Interplay of Al and Mg Speciation in Advanced Mg Battery Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    See, Kimberly A; Chapman, Karena W; Zhu, Lingyang; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Barile, Christopher J; Chupas, Peter J; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Mg batteries are an attractive alternative to Li-based energy storage due to the possibility of higher volumetric capacities with the added advantage of using sustainable materials. A promising emerging electrolyte for Mg batteries is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) which shows high Mg electrodeposition and stripping efficiencies and relatively high anodic stabilities. As prepared, MACC is inactive with respect to Mg deposition; however, efficient Mg electrodeposition can be achieved following an electrolytic conditioning process. Through the use of Raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, (27)Al and (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis, we explore the active vs inactive complexes in the MACC electrolyte and demonstrate the codependence of Al and Mg speciation. These techniques report on significant changes occurring in the bulk speciation of the conditioned electrolyte relative to the as-prepared solution. Analysis shows that the active Mg complex in conditioned MACC is very likely the [Mg2(μ-Cl)3·6THF](+) complex that is observed in the solid state structure. Additionally, conditioning creates free Cl(-) in the electrolyte solution, and we suggest the free Cl(-) adsorbs at the electrode surface to enhance Mg electrodeposition.

  13. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, A.; Gu, M.; Colby, R.; Yan, P.; Wang, C. M.; Zheng, J. M.; Xiao, J.; Genc, A.; Zhang, J. G.; Belharouak, I.; Wang, D.; Amine, K.; Thevuthasan, S.

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of cations in Li-ion battery cathodes as a function of cycling is a pivotal characteristic of battery performance. The transition metal cation distribution has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical imaging techniques. Here laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is used to map the three-dimensional distribution of Li at a sub-nanometre spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. As-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions. Cycled material has an overall loss of Li in addition to Ni-, Mn- and Li-rich regions. Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. APT results were compared to energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping with a scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm the transition metal cation distribution.

  14. Advanced porous electrodes with flow channels for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Arjun; Wai, Nyunt; Schweiss, Ruediger; Whitehead, Adam; Lim, Tuti M.; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Improving the overall energy efficiency by reducing pumping power and improving flow distribution of electrolyte, is a major challenge for developers of flow batteries. The use of suitable channels can improve flow distribution through the electrodes and reduce flow resistance, hence reducing the energy consumption of the pumps. Although several studies of vanadium redox flow battery have proposed the use of bipolar plates with flow channels, similar to fuel cell designs, this paper presents the use of flow channels in the porous electrode as an alternative approach. Four types of electrodes with channels: rectangular open channel, interdigitated open cut channel, interdigitated circular poked channel and cross poked circular channels, are studied and compared with a conventional electrode without channels. Our study shows that interdigitated open channels can improve the overall energy efficiency up to 2.7% due to improvement in flow distribution and pump power reduction while interdigitated poked channel can improve up to 2.5% due to improvement in flow distribution.

  15. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  16. Advanced rechargeable aluminium ion battery with a high-quality natural graphite cathode

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Di-Yan; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Lin, Meng-Chang; ...

    2017-02-13

    There has been some interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion–graphite intercalation mechanism. An aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of B110 mAhg-1 with Coulombic efficiency B98%, at a current density of 99mAg-1 (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltage plateaus (2.25–2.0 V and 1.9–1.5 V). The cell has a capacity of 60mAhg-1 at 6 C, over 6,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiency B 99%. Raman spectroscopymore » shows two different intercalation processes involving chloroaluminate anions at the two discharging plateaus, while C–Cl bonding on the surface, or edges of natural graphite, is found using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Lastly, theoretical calculations are employed to investigate the intercalation behaviour of choloraluminate anions in the graphite electrode.« less

  17. Advanced rechargeable aluminium ion battery with a high-quality natural graphite cathode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di-Yan; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Lin, Meng-Chang; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Hsin-An; Gong, Ming; Wu, Yingpeng; Yuan, Chunze; Angell, Michael; Hsieh, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Chia-Chun; Dai, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion–graphite intercalation mechanism. Here, an aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of ∼110 mAh g−1 with Coulombic efficiency ∼98%, at a current density of 99 mA g−1 (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltage plateaus (2.25–2.0 V and 1.9–1.5 V). The cell has a capacity of 60 mAh g−1 at 6 C, over 6,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiency ∼ 99%. Raman spectroscopy shows two different intercalation processes involving chloroaluminate anions at the two discharging plateaus, while C–Cl bonding on the surface, or edges of natural graphite, is found using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Finally, theoretical calculations are employed to investigate the intercalation behaviour of choloraluminate anions in the graphite electrode. PMID:28194027

  18. Advanced rechargeable aluminium ion battery with a high-quality natural graphite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di-Yan; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Lin, Meng-Chang; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Hsin-An; Gong, Ming; Wu, Yingpeng; Yuan, Chunze; Angell, Michael; Hsieh, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Chia-Chun; Dai, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    Recently, interest in aluminium ion batteries with aluminium anodes, graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes has increased; however, much remains to be done to increase the cathode capacity and to understand details of the anion-graphite intercalation mechanism. Here, an aluminium ion battery cell made using pristine natural graphite flakes achieves a specific capacity of ~110 mAh g-1 with Coulombic efficiency ~98%, at a current density of 99 mA g-1 (0.9 C) with clear discharge voltage plateaus (2.25-2.0 V and 1.9-1.5 V). The cell has a capacity of 60 mAh g-1 at 6 C, over 6,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiency ~ 99%. Raman spectroscopy shows two different intercalation processes involving chloroaluminate anions at the two discharging plateaus, while C-Cl bonding on the surface, or edges of natural graphite, is found using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Finally, theoretical calculations are employed to investigate the intercalation behaviour of choloraluminate anions in the graphite electrode.

  19. Embedded fiber-optic sensing for accurate internal monitoring of cell state in advanced battery management systems part 1: Cell embedding method and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Ajay; Kiesel, Peter; Sommer, Lars Wilko; Schwartz, Julian; Lochbaum, Alexander; Hegyi, Alex; Schuh, Andreas; Arakaki, Kyle; Saha, Bhaskar; Ganguli, Anurag; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, ChaeAh; Hah, Hoe Jin; Kim, SeokKoo; Hwang, Gyu-Ok; Chung, Geun-Chang; Choi, Bokkyu; Alamgir, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    A key challenge hindering the mass adoption of Lithium-ion and other next-gen chemistries in advanced battery applications such as hybrid/electric vehicles (xEVs) has been management of their functional performance for more effective battery utilization and control over their life. Contemporary battery management systems (BMS) reliant on monitoring external parameters such as voltage and current to ensure safe battery operation with the required performance usually result in overdesign and inefficient use of capacity. More informative embedded sensors are desirable for internal cell state monitoring, which could provide accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimates and early failure indicators. Here we present a promising new embedded sensing option developed by our team for cell monitoring, fiber-optic sensors. High-performance large-format pouch cells with embedded fiber-optic sensors were fabricated. The first of this two-part paper focuses on the embedding method details and performance of these cells. The seal integrity, capacity retention, cycle life, compatibility with existing module designs, and mass-volume cost estimates indicate their suitability for xEV and other advanced battery applications. The second part of the paper focuses on the internal strain and temperature signals obtained from these sensors under various conditions and their utility for high-accuracy cell state estimation algorithms.

  20. Management of severe sleep apnea secondary to juvenile arthritis with temporomandibular joint replacement and mandibular advancement

    PubMed Central

    Paul, S. Arun; Simon, S. Sibu; Issac, Barney; Kumar, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Variations affecting the growth centers can severely affect the normal formation and subsequent function of vital musculoskeletal structures. We report a case of bilateral condylar atrophy with a history of juvenile arthritis (JA) resulting in progressive obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adulthood. In addition to this, the case report emphasizes the role of temporomandibular joint replacement and advancement of the mandible to correct progressive OSA secondary to idiopathic JA. Computed tomography revealed micrognathia, condylar hypoplasia, and decreased pharyngeal airway space. The resultant increase in the retrolingual-pharyngeal airway space following the surgery, helped to completely resolve the presenting symptoms. It is hoped that the described technique could be used in similar cases with a predictable outcome. PMID:26538944

  1. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.

    1980-12-01

    The status of electrochemical storage systems is reviewed. Secondary batteries were recommended, however, selected mechanically rechargeable batteries and aspects of energy conservation in industrial electrochemistry were included. Batteries included are: lead acid, nickel/iron, nickel/zinc; advanced: lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur, zinc/chlorine; and research and development: metal/air, hydrogen/chlorine, zinc/bromine, redox, organic electrolytes, solid state. Electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials are examined. Energy conservation and alternative processes in electrochemical industry are reviewed. The potential contributions of the battery program to the various missions supported such as electric vehicles, photovoltaic systems, distributed electrical energy systems, and energy conservation in industry are discussed.

  2. Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yingwen; Luo, Langli; Zhong, Li; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate the application of the Chevrel phase Mo6S8 nanocubes as the anode material for rechargeable Zn-ion batteries. Mo6S8 can host Zn2+ ions reversibility both in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes with specific capacities around 90 mAh/g and exhibited remarkable intercalation kinetics as well as stability. Furthermore, we assembled full cells by integrating Mo6S8 anode with zinc-polyiodide (I-/I3-) based catholytes, and demonstrated that such fuel cells was also able to deliver outstanding rate performance and cyclic stability. This first demonstration of zinc intercalating anode could inspire the design of advanced Zn ion batteries.

  3. Catalytic Cycle Employing a TEMPO-Anion Complex to Obtain a Secondary Mg-O2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tohru; Hase, Yoko; Yagi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Naoko; Takechi, Kensuke

    2014-05-15

    Nonaqueous Mg-O2 batteries are suitable only as primary cells because MgO precipitates formed during discharging are not decomposed electrochemically at ambient temperatures. To address this problem, the present study examined the ability of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-oxyl (TEMPO)-anion complex to catalyze the decomposition of MgO. It was determined that this complex was capable of chemically decomposing MgO at 60 °C. A catalytic cycle for the realization of a rechargeable Mg-O2 electrode was designed by combining the decomposition of MgO via the TEMPO-anion complex and the TEMPO-redox couple. This work also demonstrates that a nonaqueous Mg-O2 battery incorporating acrylate polymer having TEMPO side units in the cathode shows evidence of being rechargeable.

  4. DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

  5. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  6. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  7. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-18

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P'2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/'Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology.

  8. Hierarchical MoS2 @Carbon Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Yuwen; Guo, Chunli; Tang, Bin

    2015-12-07

    Hierarchical hybridized nanocomposites with rationally constructed compositions and structures have been considered key for achieving superior Li-ion battery performance owing to their enhanced properties, such as fast lithium ion diffusion, good collection and transport of electrons, and a buffer zone for relieving the large volume variations during cycling processes. Hierarchical MoS2 @carbon microspheres (HMCM) have been synthesized in a facile hydrothermal treatment. The structure analyses reveal that ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes (ca. 2-5 nm) are vertically supported on the surface of carbon nanospheres. The reversible capacity of the HMCM nanocomposite is maintained at 650 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles at 1 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the capacity can reach 477 mA h g(-1) even at a high current density of 4 A g(-1) . The outstanding electrochemical performance of HMCM is attributed to the synergetic effect between the carbon spheres and the ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes. Additionally, the carbon matrix can supply conductive networks and prevent the aggregation of layered MoS2 during the charge/discharge process; and ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes with enlarged surface areas, which can guarantee the flow of the electrolyte, provide more active sites and reduce the diffusion energy barrier of Li(+) ions.

  9. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems FY16 EOY Report

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.

    2016-10-12

    The goal of this work is to increase the power output of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries and investigate the change in power output and film resistance in real-time during tritium loading of adsorbent films. To this end, several tritium-compatible test vessels with the capability of measuring both the resistivity of a tritium trapping film and the power output of a betavoltaic device in-situ have been designed and fabricated using four electrically insulated feedthroughs in tritium-compatible load cells. Energy conversion devices were received from Widetronix, a betavoltaic manufacturing firm based in Ithaca, NY. Thin films were deposited on the devices and capped with palladium to facilitate hydrogen loading. Gold contacts were then deposited on top of the films to allow resistivity measurements of the film during hydrogen loading. Finally, the chips were wire bonded and installed in the test cells. The cells were then baked-out under vacuum and leak checked at temperature to reduce the chances of tritium leaks during loading. Following the bake-out, IV curves were measured to verify no internal wires were compromised, and the cells were delivered to Tritium for loading. Tritium loading is anticipated in October, 2017.

  10. Mastering the interface for advanced all-solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Xi; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Xin, Sen; Xue, Leigang; Jia, Quanxi; Goodenough, John B

    2016-11-22

    A solid electrolyte with a high Li-ion conductivity and a small interfacial resistance against a Li metal anode is a key component in all-solid-state Li metal batteries, but there is no ceramic oxide electrolyte available for this application except the thin-film Li-P oxynitride electrolyte; ceramic electrolytes are either easily reduced by Li metal or penetrated by Li dendrites in a short time. Here, we introduce a solid electrolyte LiZr2(PO4)3 with rhombohedral structure at room temperature that has a bulk Li-ion conductivity σLi = 2 × 10(-4) S⋅cm(-1) at 25 °C, a high electrochemical stability up to 5.5 V versus Li(+)/Li, and a small interfacial resistance for Li(+) transfer. It reacts with a metallic lithium anode to form a Li(+)-conducting passivation layer (solid-electrolyte interphase) containing Li3P and Li8ZrO6 that is wet by the lithium anode and also wets the LiZr2(PO4)3 electrolyte. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 cell with a polymer catholyte shows good cyclability and a long cycle life.

  11. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  12. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Dumenil, S.; Alias, M.; Christin, R.; de Mascarel, A.; Perrin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the recent progress in the carbon honeycomb grid technology for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with absorptive glass-mat separators (AGM-VRLAB). The work is focused on the development of negative current collectors using industrial grade composite honeycomb precursors. The developed model AGM-VRLA cells comprised of one prototype honeycomb negative electrode and two conventional traction positive counter-electrodes show high utilisation of the negative active material and long cycle life both in high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling mode and in deep cycling mode. The analysis of the results from the cycle-life tests and the tear-down analysis indicate that the benefits delivered by the novel grids can be related to the low mesh size of the grid, low γ-coefficient, as well as the use of milled carbon fibre additive. The combination of the three, results in the reversibility of the negative active material sulfation process when the electrolyte concentration in the cells is lower than the one traditionally used in the AGM-VRLAB technology. The negative plates show no signs of irreversible degradation after more than 900 cycles in deep cycling mode and more than 2000 capacity turnovers (equivalent cycles) in HRPSoC cycling mode.

  13. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g-1 and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  14. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M.; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P′2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/‘Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology. PMID:26777573

  15. Rational design of redox mediators for advanced Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Dae; Lee, Byungju; Zheng, Yongping; Hong, Jihyun; Kim, Jinsoo; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Ko, Youngmin; Lee, Minah; Cho, Kyeongjae; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of effective catalysts is an important step towards achieving Li-O2 batteries with long cycle life and high round-trip efficiency. Soluble-type catalysts or redox mediators (RMs) possess great advantages over conventional solid catalysts, generally exhibiting much higher efficiency. Here, we select a series of organic RM candidates as a model system to identify the key descriptor in determining the catalytic activities and stabilities in Li-O2 cells. It is revealed that the level of ionization energies, readily available parameters from a database of the molecules, can serve such a role when comparing with the formation energy of Li2O2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energy of the electrolyte. It is demonstrated that they are critical in reducing the overpotential and improving the stability of Li-O2 cells, respectively. Accordingly, we propose a general principle for designing feasible catalysts and report a RM, dimethylphenazine, with a remarkably low overpotential and high stability.

  16. Laser cutting of graphite anodes for automotive lithium-ion secondary batteries: investigations in the edge geometry and heat-affected zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy.

  17. Selective Ion Transporting Polymerized Ionic Liquid Membrane Separator for Enhancing Cycle Stability and Durability in Secondary Zinc-Air Battery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Chi, Won Seok; Kwon, Ohchan; Lee, Jin Goo; Kim, Jong Hak; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2016-10-05

    Rechargeable secondary zinc-air batteries with superior cyclic stability were developed using commercial polypropylene (PP) membrane coated with polymerized ionic liquid as separators. The anionic exchange polymer was synthesized copolymerizing 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-butylimidazolium hydroxide (EBIH) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) monomers by free radical polymerization for both functionality and structural integrity. The ionic liquid induced copolymer was coated on a commercially available PP membrane (Celguard 5550). The coat allows anionic transfer through the separator and minimizes the migration of zincate ions to the cathode compartment, which reduces electrolyte conductivity and may deteriorate catalytic activity by the formation of zinc oxide on the surface of the catalyst layer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data revealed the copolymer-coated separator showed less zinc element in the cathode, indicating lower zinc crossover through the membrane. Ion coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed over 96% of zincate ion crossover was reduced. In our charge/discharge setup, the constructed cell with the ionic liquid induced copolymer casted separator exhibited drastically improved durability as the battery life increased more than 281% compared to the pure commercial PP membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during the cycle process elucidated the premature failure of cells due to the zinc crossover for the untreated cell and revealed a substantial importance must be placed in zincate control.

  18. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  19. Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

  20. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  1. Development of Large Scale Advanced NI-CD Batteries Employing Roll-Bonded Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-17

    LONG-TERM TESTING ..................... TASK 3 - FABRICATION OF SIX ADVANCED 2000-Ah CELLS ........................ METHOD OF...TIME, h TABLE 2-24. 2000-AH NI-CD CELL 2-41 NSWCDD/TR-94/50 METHOD OF TEST A continuous method of testing was used following the formation procedure as...MICHAEL MCKUBRE C/O SRI INTERNATIONAL 333 RAVENSWOOD AVENUE MENLO PARK CA 84025 ATTN SATYAMARAYANA KODALI TACOM WARREN MI 48397-5000 ATTN BRADFORD M

  2. MicroRNA changes in advanced radiotherapy techniques and its effect to secondary cancers.

    PubMed

    Sert, Fatma

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of RNA, produced copies of endogenous hairpin-shaped, are 21-25 nucleotide length, small, and single chain. Recent studies have revealed that hundreds of miRNAs are found in the human genome and are responsible for diverse cellular processes including the control of developmental timing, cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. miRNAs can activate the initiation of apoptosis, cessation of the cell cycle and aging in case of DNA damage by stimulating the tumor suppressor target gene p53 directly and indirectly. DNA damage is composed by multiple stress factors including ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species, UV exposure and drugs like doxorubicin and camptothecin. Radiation is used widely in health, academic area, and industry for producing electricity. As a result of using radiation widely in different fields, environmental radiation exposure is increasing as well. Whereas high dose radiation exposure causes DNA damage and gives rise to ionization to molecules of living cells by accelerating malignant tumor formation. Fields receiving high dose radiation are evaluated in terms of adverse effects, therapeutic efficacy and secondary malignancies in radiotherapy applications. Dose distributions are re-created when it is required. On the other hand, fields received low dose and the doses that the patient is exposure in simulation and/or portal imaging are often overlooked. The changes in miRNA levels arising in low dose radiation field and its effect to neoplastic process in cell will be pathfinder in terms of secondary cancers or second primary cancers. It is shown that there are differences between the level changes of miRNA in low dose fields which are overlooked in daily practical applications because of not resulting with acute or chronic side effect and the level changes of miRNA in high dose fields. With the help of verifying so-called differences in low dose fields which are seen in advanced radiation techniques

  3. Determination of the lead-acid battery's dynamic response using Butler-Volmer equation for advanced battery management systems in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Budde-Meiwes, Heide; Kowal, Julia; Sarfert, Christel; Schoch, Eberhard; Königsmann, Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hybrid vehicles (μH) are currently starting to dominate the European market and seize constantly growing share of other leading markets in the world. On the one hand, the additional functionality of μH reduces the CO2 emissions and improves the fuel economy, but, on the other hand, the additional stress imposed on the lead-acid battery reduces significantly its expected service life in comparison to conventional vehicles. Because of that μH require highly accurate battery state detection solutions. They are necessary to ensure the vehicle reliability requirements, prolong service life and reduce warranty costs. This paper presents an electrical model based on Butler-Volmer equation. The main novelty of the presented approach is its ability to predict accurately dynamic response of a battery considering a wide range of discharge current rates, state-of-charges and temperatures. Presented approach is fully implementable and adaptable in state-of-the-art low-cost platforms. Additionally, shown results indicate that it is applicable as a supporting tool for state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and scalable for the different battery technologies and sizes. Validation using both static pulses and dynamic driving profile resulted in average absolute error of 124 mV regarding cranking current rate of 800 A respectively.

  4. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  5. Discharge/charge reaction mechanism of a pyrite-type FeS2 cathode for sodium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajou, Ayuko; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Hara, Satoshi; Okada, Shigeto

    2014-02-01

    The structure changes of iron disulfide (FeS2) during discharge/charge process were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near the edge structure (XANES). Although the cyclability of the FeS2/Na battery is poor, FeS2/Na battery has a large first discharge capacity of 758 mA h g-1. It corresponds to 85% of the theoretical capacity based on the 4.0 Na reaction per FeS2 (893 mA h g-1). According to the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of discharged FeS2 pellets, there were no clear traces of iron valence change. However, the clear S K-edge jump shifted to lower energy with increasing Na content in FeS2. This is because the binding energy of S 1s electrons decrease as the oxidation number of S decreases, suggesting that the charge neutrality of the cathode after 2.0 Na discharge is kept by an S valence change from (S-S)2- to S2-. Moreover, Na2S diffraction peaks were detected at the 3.0 Na discharged state as a trace of Na conversion reaction in the FeS2 cathode.

  6. Hierarchical micro-lamella-structured 3D porous copper current collector coated with tin for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Um, Ji Hyun; Choi, Hyelim; Yoon, Won-Sub; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman

    2017-03-01

    A Novel 3D porous Sn-Cu architecture is prepared as an anode material for use in an advanced lithium-ion battery. Micro-lamellar-structured 3D porous Cu foam, which is electroless-plated with Sn as an active material, is used as anode current collector. Compared to Sn-coated Cu foil, the 3D Sn-Cu foam exhibits superior Li-ion capacity and stable capacity retention, demonstrating the advantage of 3D porous architecture by preserving its structural integrity. In addition, the effect of heat-treatment after Sn plating is investigated. Sn/Sn6Cu5 and SnO2/Cu10Sn3 were formed on and in the 3D Sn-Cu foam under the heat-treatment at 150 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The development of Cu10Sn3 in the 3D Sn-Cu foam heat-treated at 500 °C can be a key factor for the enhanced cyclic stability because the Cu10Sn3 inactively reacts with Li-ion and alleviates the volume expansion of SnO2 as an inactive matrix.

  7. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  8. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  9. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale.

  10. Embedded fiber-optic sensing for accurate internal monitoring of cell state in advanced battery management systems part 2: Internal cell signals and utility for state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Saha, Bhaskar; Raghavan, Ajay; Kiesel, Peter; Arakaki, Kyle; Schuh, Andreas; Schwartz, Julian; Hegyi, Alex; Sommer, Lars Wilko; Lochbaum, Alexander; Sahu, Saroj; Alamgir, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    A key challenge hindering the mass adoption of Lithium-ion and other next-gen chemistries in advanced battery applications such as hybrid/electric vehicles (xEVs) has been management of their functional performance for more effective battery utilization and control over their life. Contemporary battery management systems (BMS) reliant on monitoring external parameters such as voltage and current to ensure safe battery operation with the required performance usually result in overdesign and inefficient use of capacity. More informative embedded sensors are desirable for internal cell state monitoring, which could provide accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimates and early failure indicators. Here we present a promising new embedded sensing option developed by our team for cell monitoring, fiber-optic (FO) sensors. High-performance large-format pouch cells with embedded FO sensors were fabricated. This second part of the paper focuses on the internal signals obtained from these FO sensors. The details of the method to isolate intercalation strain and temperature signals are discussed. Data collected under various xEV operational conditions are presented. An algorithm employing dynamic time warping and Kalman filtering was used to estimate state-of-charge with high accuracy from these internal FO signals. Their utility for high-accuracy, predictive state-of-health estimation is also explored.

  11. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  12. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  13. Assessment of high power HEV lead-acid battery advancements by comparative benchmarking with a European test procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Mario; Pede, Giovanni; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Macerata, Diego

    The technical and practical suitability of lead-acid batteries for applications in vehicles with electrical drivetrains (battery-powered or hybrid electric) has been experimentally investigated in a variety of testing programmes. Under the direction and funding support of the Commission of the European Community, since early 1990s, the R&D Organisation EUCAR, a collaborative partnership of most European car manufacturers, has been conducting battery technological assessment projects, through bench tests carried out by different independent laboratories throughout Europe, using agreed test procedures. In this framework, ENEA acted as independent testing institute and tested, among others, three high power lead-acid batteries of various technologies (flat plate electrodes and spiral wound) for EV and HEV applications. In addition, different battery sizes and operating conditions have been tested at ENEA in a separate collaboration with ALTRA-IRISBUS. This paper intends to trace technological and performance improvements of high power lead-acid battery technology through the analysis of experimental data during parameter and life cycle tests, including the effects of battery sizes, charge/discharge profiles and testing procedures, with special emphasis on the reduction of the internal resistance and the variation of peak power and cycle life.

  14. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type glass ceramics in acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Y.; Zhang, T.; Johnson, P.; Imanishi, N.; Hirano, A.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Sammes, N.

    The stability of a NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LTAP), in acetic acid and formic acid solutions was examined. XRD patterns of the LTAP powders immersed in 100% acetic acid and formic acid at 50 °C for 4 months showed no change as compared to the pristine LTAP. However, the electrical conductivity of LTAP drastically decreased. On the other hand, no significant electrical conductivity change of LTAP immersed in lithium formate saturated formic acid-water solution was observed, and the electrical conductivity of LTAP immersed in lithium acetate saturated acetic acid-water increased. Cyclic voltammogram tests suggested that acetic acid was stable up to a high potential, but formic acid decomposed under the decomposition potential of water. The acetic acid solution was considered to be a candidate for the active material in the air electrode of lithium-air rechargeable batteries. The cell reaction was considered as 2Li + 2 CH 3COOH + 1/2O 2 = 2CH 3COOLi + H 2O. The energy density of this lithium-air system is calculated to be 1477 Wh kg -1 from the weights of Li and CH 3COOH, and an observed open-circuit voltage of 3.69 V.

  15. Effect of the length and surface area on electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanowires for alkaline secondary battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional porous Co3O4 nanowires with different length have been successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of Co-NA polymer precursors at various hydrothermal reaction times. The positive effects of longer nanowires and larger surface area on electrochemical performance of Co3O4 samples were investigated systematically. All the as-prepared Co3O4 samples display excellent discharge capacities and cycle stability on account of large surface area and porous structure, indicating great potential application of porous Co3O4 nanowires for alkaline rechargeable batteries. The Co3O4-24 h sample with the longest length shows the most outstanding electrochemical performance, and displays the maximum discharge capacity of 450.1 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 90.4% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Electrochemical reactions between Co and Co(OH)2 occurring on the Co3O4 electrodes are investigated by XRD, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Choi, Jeong-Gil; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  17. Effect of multilayer structure on cyclic performance of Si/Fe anode electrode in lithium-ion secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Kook; Lee, Seong-Rae; Cho, Won Il; Won Cho, Byung

    2013-02-07

    A buffer-strengthened Si/Fe multilayer film, consisting of amorphous silicon layers and polycrystalline Fe layers, is investigated as the anode for Li-ion batteries. This film can achieve a stable cycle-life performance with a high capacity. Decreasing the thickness of the Fe layer can lead to a higher capacity, which is related to the fast transport of the Li ion, but the cyclic performance deteriorates with repeated cycling. In contrast, increasing the thickness of the Fe buffer layers and the number of deposit stacks improves the cycle life with high reversibility. Because of the strain in the Si layers suppressed by the primary multilayer structure, the long-term strength is preserved and the substantial fracture toughness is enhanced by the increasing numbers of effective grain boundaries and interfacial layers. In addition, we demonstrate that the Ti underlayer promotes the electrochemical properties in the Si/Fe multilayer for various Fe layer thicknesses because of the enhanced adhesion of the interfacial electrode and current collector. The mechanically optimized Si/Fe multilayer films can have superior cycle-life performances and higher capacities. Notably, the 16-bilayer deposited electrode exhibits an excellent capacity retention of ~95% with ~204 mAh g(-1) over 300 cycles at a 1 C rate.

  18. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; ...

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  19. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  20. Operando characterization of batteries using x-ray absorption spectroscopy: advances at the beamline XAFS at synchrotron Elettra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Giorgetti, Marco; Dominko, Robert; Stievano, Lorenzo; Arčon, Iztok; Novello, Nicola; Olivi, Luca

    2017-02-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a synchrotron radiation based technique that is able to provide information on both local structure and electronic properties in a chemically selective manner. It can be used to characterize the dynamic processes that govern the electrochemical energy storage in batteries, and to shed light on the redox chemistry and changes in structure during galvanostatic cycling to design cathode materials with improved properties. Operando XAS studies have been performed at beamline XAFS at Elettra on different systems. For Li-ion batteries, a multiedge approach revealed the role of the different cathode components during the charge and discharge of the battery. In addition, Li-S batteries for automotive applications were studied. Operando sulfur K-edge XANES and EXAFS analysis was used to characterize the redox chemistry of sulfur, and to relate the electrochemical mechanism to its local structure.

  1. Research in Secondary Schools. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Volume 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary education of students with learning and behavioral disabilities is an issue of great importance. Unlike elementary schools, secondary schools require substantially more independent functioning, assume the effective use of student planning and study skills, and often lack the classes in basic skills needed by some learners. Further, new…

  2. Analytical investigation of AlCl[3]/SO[2]Cl[2] catholyte materials for secondary fuze reserve batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Paul Charles; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Segall, Judith M.; Malizia, Louis A., Jr.; Cherry, Brian Ray; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Clark, Nancy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Simpson, Regina Lynn; Boyle, Timothy J.; Garcia, Manuel Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Exploration of the fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system for the ARDEC Self-Destruct Fuze Reserve Battery Project under accelerated aging conditions was completed using a variety of analytical tools. Four different molecular species were identified in this solution, three of which are major. The relative concentrations of the molecular species formed were found to depend on aging time, initial concentrations, and storage temperature, with each variable affecting the kinetics and thermodynamics of this complex reaction system. We also evaluated the effect of water on the system, and determined that it does not play a role in dictating the observed molecular species present in solution. The first Al-containing species formed was identified as the dimer [Al({mu}-Cl)Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2}, and was found to be in equilibrium with the monomer, AlCl{sub 3}. The second species formed in the reaction scheme was identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (I), a scrambled AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 2} adduct. The SO{sub 2}(g) present, as well as CL{sub 2}(g), was formed through decomposition of SO{sub 2}CL{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2}(g) generated was readily consumed by AlCl{sub 3} to form the adduct 1 which was experimentally verified when 1 was also isolated from the reaction of SO{sub 2}(g) and AlCl {sub 3}. The third species found was tentatively identified as a compound having the general formula {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}. This was based on {sup 27}Al NMR data that revealed a species with tetrahedrally coordinated Al metal centers with increased oxygen coordination and the fact that the precipitate, or gel, that forms over time was shown by Raman spectroscopic studies to possess a component that is consistent with SOCl{sub 2}. The precursor to the precipitate should have similar constituents, thus the assignment of {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2

  3. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  4. Advanced Na-NiCl2 Battery Using Nickel-Coated Graphite with Core-Shell Microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hee-Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Li, Guosheng

    2017-04-05

    Stationary electric energy storage devices (rechargeable batteries) have gained increasing prominence due to great market needs, such as smoothing the fluctuation of renewable energy resources and supporting the reliability of the electric grid. With regard to raw materials availability, sodium-based batteries are better positioned than lithium batteries due to the abundant resource of sodium in Earth's crust. However, the sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) battery, one of the most attractive stationary battery technologies, is hindered from further market penetration by its high material cost (Ni cost) and fast material degradation at its high operating temperature. Here, we demonstrate the design of a core-shell microarchitecture, nickel-coated graphite, with a graphite core to maintain electrochemically active surface area and structural integrity of the electron percolation pathway while using 40% less Ni than conventional Na-NiCl2 batteries. An initial energy density of 133 Wh/kg (at ∼C/4) and energy efficiency of 94% are achieved at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C.

  5. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  6. Li distribution characterization in Li-ion batteries positive electrodes containing LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 secondary particles (0.75 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Azuma, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H.; Fujita, K.; Kato, Y.; Perlado, J. M.; Nakai, S.

    2012-11-01

    The elemental distribution of as-received (non-charged) and charged Li-ion battery positive electrodes containing LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (0.75 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.0) microparticles as active material is characterized by combining μ-PIXE and μ-PIGE techniques. PIGE measurements evidence that the Li distribution is inhomogeneous (existence of Li-rich and Li-depleted regions) in as-received electrodes corresponding with the distribution of secondary particles but it is homogeneous within the studied individual secondary micro-particles. The dependence of the Li distribution on electrode thickness and on charging conditions is characterized by measuring the Li distribution maps in specifically fabricated cross-sectional samples. These data show that decreasing the electrode thickness down to 35 μm and charging the batteries at slow rate give rise to more homogeneous Li depth profiles.

  7. Development of non-flammable lithium secondary battery with room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte: Performance of electroplated Al film negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Koichi; Yamamoto, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kohei; Minami, Takuto; Takeuchi, Ken; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Koura, Nobuyuki

    The negative electrode performance of the electroplated Al film electrode in the LiCl saturated AlCl 3-1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium chloride (EMIC) + SOCl 2 melt as the electrolyte for use in non-flammable lithium secondary batteries was evaluated. In the cyclic voltammogram of the electroplated Al film electrode in the melt, the oxidation and reduction waves corresponding to the electrochemical insertion/extraction reactions of the Li + ion were observed at 0-0.80 V vs. Li +/Li, which suggested that the electroplated Al film electrode operated well in the electrolyte. The almost flat potential profiles at about 0.40 V vs. Li +/Li on discharging were shown. The discharge capacity and charge-discharge efficiency was 236 mAh g -1 and 79.2% for the 1st cycle and it maintained 232 mAh g -1 and 77.9% after the 10th cycle. In addition, the initial charge-discharge efficiencies of the electroplated Al film electrode were higher than that of carbon electrodes. The main cathodic polarization reaction was the insertion of Li + ions, and side reactions hardly occurred due to the decomposition reaction of the melt because the Li content corresponding to the electricity was almost totally inserted into the film after charging.

  8. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  9. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  10. Control requirements for future battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that sophisticated battery control systems are required to support the high power, high energy spacecraft secondary battery systems of the post 1985 time period. Four categories of battery control system functions are defined and discussed: battery operational control, auxiliary system control, battery system status indication and fault detection fault isolation. A concept for implementation of such a control system is also presented and discussed.

  11. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  12. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  13. Advanced Automotive Battery Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-14

    for Public Release investment in capital equipment such as mixers, coaters, drying ovens, calendering mills, electrode slitters, cell winders...the stakeholder community. Coaters Slitters Calendering mills Winders Formation Powder processing Raw materials production Mixing

  14. Development of advanced secondary zinc cells for power-source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jenn-Shing; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1991-12-01

    The general advantages of Zn/AgO batteries are high specific energy, high discharge rate capability, good charge acceptance, and low self-discharge rate. However, the principal disadvantages of high cost and short cycle life have limited the use of this battery to applications where high specific energy is the prime requisite, such as military and flight applications, portable electronic equipment, etc. The major objectives of this research project are to improve the Zn/AgO cell cycle life and increases its performance. The redistribution of Zn active material (shape change) and the growth of Zn dendrites (which leads to cell shorting) have been identified as primary factors that limit the cycle-life performance of Zn/AgO cells. These phenomena can be largely overcome by improvements in separator materials, and by additives to the electrode and electrolyte. Recent development work on Zn/AgO cells has been concentrated in the area of Zn electrode and separator improvements to extend the lifetimes of cells.

  15. NASA aerospace battery systems program update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Schulze, Norman R.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a battery systems program designed to enhance the safety, reliability, and performance of NASA's aerospace primary and secondary batteries as well as battery power systems is presented. The status of research in all three areas is reviewed. The approach to achieving the program objectives involves increasing the fundamental understanding of primary and secondary cells; providing for improved nickel-cadmium manufacturing process control; providing for the establishment of a NASA standard nickel-hydrogen cell design; establishing specifications, design and operational guidelines for both primary and secondary cells and batteries; providing training relating to the above areas; and opening and maintaining communication lines within NASA and the aerospace battery community.

  16. An Historical Summary and Prospects for the Future of Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Subjects covered in this report include a historical evolution of batteries in space, evolution and status of nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries, present applications, future applications and advanced batteries for future missions.

  17. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet

  18. [Advances in influence of UV-B radiation on medicinal plant secondary metabolism].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Fang, Minfeng; Yue, Ming; Chai, Yongfu; Wang, Hui; Li, Yifei

    2012-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion results in an increased level of solar UV-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) reaching the earth surface. By the effect of UV-B radiation, various medicinal active ingredients changed because of the change of gene expression, enzyme activity and secondary metabolism, clinical effect is also changed. The research status of UV-B radiation and the accumulation of plant secondary metabolites in the past 10 years were summarized in this paper to supply reference for cultivation and exploitation of the medicinal plants.

  19. Advance Organizers in Secondary Special Education Resource Classrooms: Effects on Student Engagement Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…

  20. What Characterizes the Algebraic Competence of Norwegian Upper Secondary School Students? Evidence from TIMSS Advanced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Ida Friestad

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is the fundamental language of mathematics, and a profound understanding of school algebra is an important prerequisite for further studies in mathematical sciences. The aim of this study is to characterize the algebraic competence of the Norwegian upper secondary school students participating in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  1. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  2. A novel electrospun polysulfone fiber membrane: application to advanced treatment of secondary bio-treatment sewage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Gu, Q; Hu, H; Li, F

    2008-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers and fine fibers have been used to remove submicron particles in air filtration. In this paper, direct-and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) pre-coagulation filtration of secondary bio-treatment sewage was studied using electrospun polysulfone fiber membrane (EPSFM). According to the results obtained, for direct filtration, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and NH3-N decreased 86.7, 71.2, 91.7% respectively, in filtrate of secondary bio-treatment sewage, while for PAC pre-coagulation filtration, the removal rate of SS, COD(Cr) and NH3-N reached 91.3, 85.3, 93.3 % respectively. EPSFM had a high efficiency in removing NH3-N, COD(Cr) and SS, especially for micron and submicron particles. EPSFM can reduce the content of some toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn and Ti, through interception and adsorption mechanism and can also remove dissolved organic matter such as humics and proteins through interception mechanism. EPSFM can remove some of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) by adsorption and filtration, the removal rate of VOCs was in the range of 59-100 %. The number of VOCs in secondary bio-treatment sewage and its filtrate from direct filtration were 27 and 18 respectively, the major VOCs were benzene-, cyclohexane-, adamantine- and hydrocarbon derivates.

  3. The regulation of the secondary metabolism of Streptomyces: new links and experimental advances.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Gilles P; McDowall, Kenneth J

    2011-07-01

    Streptomycetes and other actinobacteria are renowned as a rich source of natural products of clinical, agricultural and biotechnological value. They are being mined with renewed vigour, supported by genome sequencing efforts, which have revealed a coding capacity for secondary metabolites in vast excess of expectations that were based on the detection of antibiotic activities under standard laboratory conditions. Here we review what is known about the control of production of so-called secondary metabolites in streptomycetes, with an emphasis on examples where details of the underlying regulatory mechanisms are known. Intriguing links between nutritional regulators, primary and secondary metabolism and morphological development are discussed, and new data are included on the carbon control of development and antibiotic production, and on aspects of the regulation of the biosynthesis of microbial hormones. Given the tide of antibiotic resistance emerging in pathogens, this review is peppered with approaches that may expand the screening of streptomycetes for new antibiotics by awakening expression of cryptic antibiotic biosynthetic genes. New technologies are also described that have potential to greatly further our understanding of gene regulation in what is an area fertile for discovery and exploitation

  4. A station blackout simulation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor using the integrated primary and secondary system model

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper deals with thermal-hydraulic analysis of ANSR`s cooling systems during nominal and transient conditions, with the major effort focusing upon the construction and testing of computer models of the reactor`s primary, secondary and reflector vessel cooling systems. The code RELAP5 was used to simulate transients, such as loss of coolant accidents and loss of off-site power, as well as to model the behavior of the reactor in steady state. Three stages are involved in constructing and using a RELAP5 model: (1) construction and encoding of the desired model, (2) testing and adjustment of the model until a satisfactory steady state is achieved, and (3) running actual transients using the steady-state results obtained earlier as initial conditions. By use of the ANSR design specifications, a model of the reactor`s primary and secondary cooling systems has been constructed to run a transient simulating a loss of off-site power. This incident assumes a pump coastdown in both the primary and secondary loops. The results determine whether the reactor can survive the transition from forced convection to natural circulation.

  5. Advances in Charge-Compensation in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervig, R. L.; Chen, J.; Schauer, S.; Stanley, B. D.; Moore, G. M.; Roggensack, K.

    2012-12-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a sample is bombarded by a charged particle beam (the primary ion) and sputtered positive or negative secondary ions are analyzed in a mass spectrometer. When the target is not conducting (like many geological materials), sample charging can result in variable deflection of secondary ions away from the mass spectrometer and a low, unstable, or absent signal. Applying a thin conducting coat (e.g., C, Au) to polished samples is required, and if the primary ion beam is negatively-charged, the build-up of negative charge can be alleviated by secondary electrons draining to the conducting coat at the edge of the crater (if a positive potential is applied to the sample for the collection of positive secondary ions) or accelerated away from the crater (if a negative potential is applied for negative ion study). Unless the sputtered crater in the conducting coat becomes too large, sample charging can be kept at a controllable level, and high-quality trace element analyses and isotope ratios have been obtained using this technique over the past 3+ decades. When a positive primary beam is used, the resulting build-up of positive charge in the sample requires an electron gun to deliver sufficient negative charge to the sputtered crater. While there are many examples of successful analyses using this approach, the purpose of this presentation is to describe a very simple technique for aligning the electron gun on Cameca nf and 1270/80 SIMS instruments. This method allows reproducible analyses of insulating phases with a Cs+ primary beam and detection of negative secondary ions. Normally, the filament voltage on the E-gun is the same as the sample voltage; thus electrons do not strike the sample except when a positive charge has built up (e.g., in the analysis crater!). In this method, we decrease the sample voltage by 3 or more kV, so that the impact energy of the electrons is sufficient to induce a cathodoluminescent (CL) image on an

  6. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium–sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles. PMID:27762261

  7. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  8. Advanced Placement in Studio Art and Secondary Art Education Policy: Countering the Null Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.; Sims-Gunzenhauser, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Because of education reform policy and misconceptions about artistry and artistic assessment, visual art education remains in the margins of high school education. One response to the lack of supportive arts education policy is the Advanced Placement (AP) Studio Art Program, a visual arts assessment at the high school level that engages large…

  9. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  10. Secondary Girls' Perceptions of Advanced ICT Subjects: Are They Boring and Irrelevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timms, Carolyn; Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on two questions from a survey of year 11 and 12 girls' perceptions of the two advanced computing subjects available within Education Queensland (EQ). The two subjects are Information Processing Technology (IPT) and Information Technology Systems (ITS). Similar to trends in other western countries, the Queensland experience…

  11. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    Nickelate in 18650 Cell 24 8. Installation of Resistance Welder 25 9. Bi-Cell Vacuum Dryer and with Activation Box 26 10. Semi...DOD lithium-ion rechargeable cells/batteries are composed of combinations using Asian 18650 cells including the BB2590. This dependence is due to the...much lower cost of the Asian and particularly the Chinese 18650 cells which are made on very large scale and also with lower labor costs. LithChem

  13. Novel aqueous dual-channel aluminum-hydrogen peroxide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart

    1994-06-01

    A dual-channel aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery is introduced with an open-circuit voltage of 1.9 volts, polarization losses of 0.9 mV cm(exp 2) mA(exp -1), and power densities of 1 W/cm(exp 2). Catholyte and anolyte cell compartments are separated by an Ir/Pd modified porous nickel cathode. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode. The battery is expressed by aluminum oxidation and aqueous solution phase hydrogen peroxide reduction for an overall battery discharge consisting of 2Al + 3H2O2 + 2OH(-) yields 2AlO2(-) + 4H2O E = 2.3 V. The search for electrical propulsion sources which fit the requirements for electrically powered vehicles has blurred the standard characteristics associated with electrochemical storage systems. Presently, electrochemical systems comprised of mechanically rechargeable primary batteries, secondary batteries, and fuel cells are candidates for electrochemical propulsion sources. While important advances in energy and power density continue for nonaqueous and molten electrolytes, aqueous electrolyte batteries often have an advantage in simplicity, conductivity, cost effectiveness, and environmental impact. Systems coupling aluminum anodes and aqueous electrolytes have been investigated. These systems include: aluminum/silver oxide, aluminum/manganese dioxide, aluminum air, aluminum/hydrogen peroxide aqueous batteries, and the recently introduced aluminum/ferricyanide and aluminum sulfur aqueous batteries. Conventional aqueous systems such as the nickel cadmium and lead-acid batteries are characterized by their relatively low energy densities and adverse environmental impact. Other systems have substantially higher theoretical energy capacities. While aluminum-silver oxide has demonstrated the highest steady-state power density, its high cost is an impediment for widespread utilization for electric propulsion.

  14. Understanding the Redox Obstacles in High Sulfur-Loading Li-S Batteries and Design of an Advanced Gel Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zu, Chenxi; Li, Longjun; Guo, Jianhe; Wang, Shaofei; Fan, Donglei; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-04-07

    Lithium-sulfur batteries with a high energy density are being considered a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage. However, realization of Li-S batteries is plagued by poor sulfur utilization due to the shuttle of intermediate lithiation products between electrodes and its dynamic redistribution. To optimize the sulfur utilization, an understanding of its redox behavior is essential. Herein, we report a gel cathode consisting of a polysulfide-impregnated O- and N-doped porous carbon and an independent, continuous, and highly conducting 3-dimensional graphite film as the charge-transfer network. This design decouples the function of electron conduction and polysulfide absorption, which is beneficial for understanding the sulfur redox behavior and identifying the dominant factors leading to cell failure when the cells have high sulfur content and insufficient electrolyte. This design also opens up new prospects of tuning the properties of Li-S batteries via separately designing the material functions of electron conduction and polysulfide absorption.

  15. Janus Solid-Liquid Interface Enabling Ultrahigh Charging and Discharging Rate for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Hou, Yuyang; Duan, Yandong; Song, Xiaohe; Wei, Yi; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Jiangtao; Guo, Hua; Zhuo, Zengqing; Liu, Lili; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, Yuping; Pan, Feng

    2015-09-09

    LiFePO4 has long been held as one of the most promising battery cathode for its high energy storage capacity. Meanwhile, although extensive studies have been conducted on the interfacial chemistries in Li-ion batteries,1-3 little is known on the atomic level about the solid-liquid interface of LiFePO4/electrolyte. Here, we report battery cathode consisted with nanosized LiFePO4 particles in aqueous electrolyte with an high charging and discharging rate of 600 C (3600/600 = 6 s charge time, 1 C = 170 mAh g(-1)) reaching 72 mAh g(-1) energy storage (42% of the theoretical capacity). By contrast, the accessible capacity sharply decreases to 20 mAh g(-1) at 200 C in organic electrolyte. After a comprehensive electrochemistry tests and ab initio calculations of the LiFePO4-H2O and LiFePO4-EC (ethylene carbonate) systems, we identified the transient formation of a Janus hydrated interface in the LiFePO4-H2O system, where the truncated symmetry of solid LiFePO4 surface is compensated by the chemisorbed H2O molecules, forming a half-solid (LiFePO4) and half-liquid (H2O) amphiphilic coordination environment that eases the Li desolvation process near the surface, which makes a fast Li-ion transport across the solid/liquid interfaces possible.

  16. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  17. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  18. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  19. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  20. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  1. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  2. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  3. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  4. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  5. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  6. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  7. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  8. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  9. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  10. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujare, Nirupama U.; Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a high-temperature electrochemically-reversible calcium-oxygen cell in which the negative electroactive material consists of a calcium-silicon alloy contained within an expanded stainless steel electrode assembly immersed into a binary molten salt CaO-CaCl2 (mp 593 C). The empirical electrochemistry occurring upon electrochemical cycling is: 2CaSi + 1/2 O2(air) going to CaO + CaSi2, with oxygen being reversibly mediated to the binary molten salt via the oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte; charge-discharge curves at 850 C clearly demonstrated voltage plateaus associated with the reversible formation of CaSi and CaSi2. If unit activity Ca were used as the negative electroactive material, the cell thermodynamic open-circuit voltage at 850 C is expected to be about 2.28 V. The theoretical energy density for this system calculates to 985 W h/lb.

  11. Lithium-Graphite Secondary Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    C") co - P u j >C 0 w- 0 - .5- ap ...J i F-- t.. to 0 0 i OIL 0 0L 0s Cr-j it4 000 M. to %0 %0 0 00r-r - ;r -d WO 0 0 w - Z;fl 3 :zwV)Z...0 r 4 I. 4 0 0 0 VA 0- u m. 0 V + w 01.- _j 9L .. J to 5 I p Po. oi c co 4J Li 4-𔃽 U) Z 0 +. "t 0. CM CW qr ~ ~ .C .O4 J f U~ 4’ Co 0JUC 3 03 41 m...mixture of graphite and teflon moulding 17 N L. It ir 4j 4A 0. 0 0 CUL C - 0 %0- 41 w In 2~ P 0’U-. z Lo zr J-i -. 00H U0 w....ff .o .2 4-cu 00 C 4JE -GJ

  12. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  13. Secondary Metabolism in Penicillium expansum: Emphasis on Recent Advances in Patulin Research.

    PubMed

    Tannous, Joanna; Keller, Nancy P; Atoui, Ali; El Khoury, André; Lteif, Roger; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2017-03-31

    The plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. Relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. Otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. This review includes knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanisms used for secondary metabolite production in P. expansum, with special emphasis on patulin biosynthesis. The abiotic factors triggering the production of patulin and the strategies developed to reduce or prevent the contamination by this mycotoxin are comprehensively discussed. The database presented in this review would be useful for the prioritization and development of future research.

  14. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, February--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-05-20

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies.

  15. Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon as an advanced electrocatalyst for Al-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingsha; Zhou, Zhi; Liu, Kun; Li, Fuzhi; Peng, Zhiguang; Tang, Yougen; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon materials containing non-precious metal (TM-N-C) and Co-based oxides have been extensively investigated as promising catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we report a novel Co3O4/Co-N-C modified ketjenblack carbon (KB) catalyst via a one-pot and scalable pyrolysis process using cheap melamine, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate and KB as raw materials. Owing to the high specific surface area and good electrical conductivity, this KB-based catalyst exhibits remarkable catalytic activity with a half-wave potential of 0.798 V (vs RHE) and a limiting current density of 5.10 mA cm-2 in alkaline solution, which are comparable with those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C. More importantly, it displays superior stability to Pt/C, which makes it one of the most promising non-noble-metal catalysts. Al-air batteries with this catalyst are also tested and generate a maximum power density of 161.1 mW cm-2, which is close to that with 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst (161.9 mW cm-2). After the discharge for 18 h at 50 mA cm-2, the voltage degradation of Al-air battery with Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB is 7%, while that using Pt/C is increased to 12%. By virtues of its remarkable performance, low cost and simple fabrication method, Co3O4/Co-N-C modified KB here can be used as an efficient ORR cathode catalyst instead of the commercial Pt/C for practical Al-air batteries.

  16. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  17. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  18. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  19. Development of advanced batteries at Argonne National Laboratory. Summary report for 1979. [Li-Al/LiCl-KCl/FeS or FeS/sub 2/, 40 kWh; also Ca-Si/FeS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    A summary for 1979 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of advanced batteries is presented. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications. The principal cells under investigation at present are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of Li-Al alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte; the cell operating temperature is 400 to 500/sup 0/C. A small effort on the development of a calcium/metal sulfide cell is also being conducted. During 1979, cell and battery development work continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40-kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. to ANL for testing. During heat-up, one of the modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program, completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  20. The Use of Redox Mediators for Enhancing Utilization of Li2S Cathodes for Advanced Li-S Battery Systems.

    PubMed

    Meini, Stefano; Elazari, Ran; Rosenman, Ariel; Garsuch, Arnd; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-03-06

    The development of Li2S electrodes is a crucial step toward industrial manufacturing of Li-S batteries, a promising alternative to Li-ion batteries due to their projected two times higher specific capacity. However, the high voltages needed to activate Li2S electrodes, and the consequent electrolyte solution degradation, represent the main challenge. We present a novel concept that could make feasible the widespread application of Li2S electrodes for Li-S cell assembly. In this concept, the addition of redox mediators as additives to the standard electrolyte solution allows us to recover most of Li2S theoretical capacity in the activation cycle at potentials as low as 2.9 VLi, substantially lower than the typical potentials >4 VLi needed with standard electrolyte solution. Those novel additives permit us to preserve the electrolyte solution from being degraded, allowing us to achieve capacity as high as 500 mAhg(-1)Li2S after 150 cycles with no major structural optimization of the electrodes.

  1. A case of advanced second-degree atrioventricular block in a ferret secondary to lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Menicagli, F.; Lanza, A.; Sbrocca, F.; Baldi, A.; Spugnini, E.P.

    2016-01-01

    A female ferret was referred as an emergency for severe respiratory distress symptoms. At presentation, the patient was listlessness, dyspnoeic, and hyper-responsive. The clinical examination evidenced dyspnea with cyanosis, altered cardiac rhythm, and hepatomegaly. Electrocardiography showed an advanced second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. The liver aspirate was diagnostic for lymphoma. The patient did not respond to supportive therapy and rapidly died. Post-mortem exams confirmed the presence of lymphoma with hepatic involvement. Moreover, a pericardial lymphocytic infiltration and a widespread myocardial nodular localization of lymphoma were evidenced as well. This condition was probably the cause of the cardiac arrhythmia. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of cardiac lymphoma causing heart block in ferrets. PMID:27200273

  2. Recent advances in managing a spinal cord injury secondary to trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Christopher S.; Martin, Allan R.; Fehlings, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affect 1.3 million North Americans, producing devastating physical, social, and vocational impairment. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma is followed by a significant secondary injury which includes local ischemia, pro-apoptotic signaling, release of cytotoxic factors, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Expedient delivery of medical and surgical care during this critical period can improve long-term functional outcomes, engendering the concept of “Time is Spine”. We emphasize the importance of expeditious care while outlining the initial clinical and radiographic assessment of patients. Key evidence-based early interventions (surgical decompression, blood pressure augmentation, and methylprednisolone) are also reviewed, including findings of the landmark Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS). We then describe other neuroprotective approaches on the edge of translation such as the sodium-channel blocker riluzole, the anti-inflammatory minocycline, and therapeutic hypothermia. We also review promising neuroregenerative therapies that are likely to influence management practices over the next decade including chondroitinase, Rho-ROCK pathway inhibition, and bioengineered strategies. The importance of emerging neural stem cell therapies to remyelinate denuded axons and regenerate neural circuits is also discussed. Finally, we outline future directions for research and patient care. PMID:27303644

  3. Cycle life test. [of secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Statistical information concerning cell performance characteristics and limitations of secondary spacecraft cells is presented. Weaknesses in cell design as well as battery weaknesses encountered in various satellite programs are reported. Emphasis is placed on improving the reliability of space batteries.

  4. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

  5. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  6. Solvothermal preparation of tin phosphide as a long-life anode for advanced lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Hongzhe; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Lanbing; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) nanoparticles with different sizes are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method at 180 °C for 10 h. The as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have an average size of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, their size could be easily controlled by the solvent ratio. The long cycle stability and rate performance of the as-obtained Sn4P3 nanoparticles have been tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Electrochemical measurements show that the Sn4P3 nanoparticles with a smallest size give the best cycling and rate performances. They deliver a discharge capacity of 612 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles and could still maintain 442 mAh g-1 after 320 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 within voltage limit of 0.01-3.0 V. Even after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the specific capacity still could be remained at 315 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performances of Sn4P3 electrode might be largely attributed to their small-size. Furthermore, the as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have also been tested as an anode material for Na-ion batteries, this Sn4P3 anode can deliver a reversible capacity of 305 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g-1.

  7. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  8. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002764.htm Button batteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... in the United States. Where Found These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches Symptoms If ...

  9. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  10. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-10-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  11. Anatase TiO2@C composites with porous structure as an advanced anode material for Na ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhian; Du, Ke; Lai, Yanqing; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a facile strategy to synthesize the porous structure TiO2@C composites through a two-step method, in which the precursor of MIL-125(Ti) was firstly prepared by solvent thermal method and then calcined under inert atmosphere. When employed as anodes for Na ion batteries, TiO2@C composites can exhibit a superior cyclability with a reversible sodium storage capacity of 148 mAh g-1 at the current density 0.5 A g-1 after 500 cycles and an excellent rate performance with a capacity of 88.9 mAh g-1 even the current reached to 2.5 A g-1 due to the dispersion of anatase TiO2 throughout amorphous carbon matrix and the synergistic effect between the anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and carbon matrix, which can availably enhance the electric conductivity and alleviate the volumetric variation of TiO2 during the insertion/extraction process of Na+.

  12. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  13. Free-standing CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam for advanced lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanfeng; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Wensheng; Dong, Chaoqun; Cheng, Guanhua; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-11-01

    For lithium ion batteries (LIBs), low electronic conductivity of CuO leads to rapid capacity decay and poor structural stability. Herein, we successfully fabricate three-dimensional CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam by facile and efficient electrochemical oxidation. When being applied as anode material for LIBs, the CuO electrodes deliver stable reversible capacities of 523.9 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, 376.1 mA h g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and 322.7 mA h g-1 at 2.0 A g-1 with high coulombic efficiency (>99%) after 100 cycles. A long cycle life of up to 400 cycles at 2.0 A g-1 is also achieved with the retention capacity of 193.5 mA h g-1. Moreover, the electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and can regain its original capacities as reversing to the low current densities. Noticeably, on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and in situ Raman measurements confirm the formation of solid electrolyte interface film and the conversion mechanism for the CuO electrodes, respectively. The superior lithium storage performance can be attributed to the favorable nanoflake structures with high surface area and the perfect electrical contact between CuO and Cu substrate.

  14. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structural degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.

  15. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g−1 and 84% at 150 mA g−1 over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g−1 (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  16. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; ...

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore » degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  17. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  18. The 1982 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics concerned with advanced battery technology are addressed including lithium cell and battery safety developments, mathematical modelling, charge control of aerospace power systems, and the application of nickel hydrogen cells/batteries vis-a-vis nickel cadmium cells/batteries.

  19. Battery performance models in ADVISOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, V. H.

    This paper summarizes battery modeling capabilities in ADVISOR—the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's advanced vehicle simulator written in the Matlab/Simulink environment. ADVISOR's Matlab-oriented battery models consist of the following: (1) an internal resistance model, (2) a resistance-capacitance ( RC) model, (3) a PNGV capacitance model, (4) a neural network (nnet) lead acid model, and (5) a fundamental lead acid battery model. For the models, the electric schematics (where applicable), thermal models, accuracy, existing datasets, and sample validation plots are presented. A brief summary of ADVISOR's capabilities for co-simulation with Saber is presented, which links ADVISOR with Saber's lead acid battery model. The models outlined in this paper were presented at the workshop on 'Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models' in August 2001.

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. Aerospace Battery Activities at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has "pioneered" rechargeable secondary battery design, test, infusion and in-orbit battery management among NASA installations. Nickel cadmium batteries of various designs and sizes have been infused for LEO, GEO and Libration Point spacecraft. Nickel-Hydrogen batteries have currently been baselined for the majority of our missions. Li-Ion batteries from ABSL, JSB, SaFT and Lithion have been designed and tested for aerospace application.

  2. Lewis Research Center battery overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; the Space Station Freedom (SSF) photovoltaic power module division; Ni/H2 battery and cell design; individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell testing SSF support; the LeRC Electrochemical Technology Branch; improved design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells; advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells; a lightweight nickel-hydrogen cell; bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development and technology; aerospace nickel-metal hydride cells; the NASA Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology Flight Experiment; and the lithium-carbon dioxide battery thermodynamic model.

  3. MxMn8O16 (M = Ag or K) as promising cathode materials for secondary Mg based batteries: The role of the cation M

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Jianping; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Altug S. Poyraz; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, AgxMn8O16 (Ag-OMS-2) and KxMn8O16 (K-OMS-2) were investigated as high voltage cathode materials for Mg based batteries. Both MxMn8O16 materials delivered high initial capacities (>180 mA h g–1), and KxMn8O16 showed high cycle stability with a reversible capacity of >170 mA h g–1 after 20 cycles.

  4. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  5. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  6. Structural phase transition and electrode characteristics of LiMn{sub 2{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 4} positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Idemoto, Y.; Udagawa, K.; Koura, N.; Richardson, J. W., Jr.; Takeuchi, K.; Loong, C.-K.

    1999-12-10

    With in mind improving the cycle performance of 4V class lithium manganese oxide positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery, the authors have been investigating the effects of partial substitution of Mn by another metal. The crystal phase transition in the quaternary spinel LiMn{sub 2{minus}x}Mg{sub x}O{sub 4} was studied by neutron powder diffraction at 200K and DSC measurements at low temperatures. They find that substituting Mn by Mg resulted in a more stable crystal structure with the Jahn-Teller transition suppressed down to low temperature. The charge-discharge characteristics of these positive electrode active materials were investigated at 4V range. Although the discharge capacity decreased with increasing Mg content, the cycle performance was improved with increasing Mg content.

  7. Environmental impact assessment and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong

    2014-03-18

    Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries' environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.

  8. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03].

  9. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  10. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  11. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  12. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  13. Battery Life Estimator Manual Linear Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2009-08-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  14. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-07

    In the work, a facile and green two-step synthetic strategy was purposefully developed to efficiently fabricate hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 microrods (MRs) with a high tap density of ∼0.85 g cm(3) , which were assembled by 1D nanofiber (NF) subunits, and further utilized as a long-life anode for advanced Li-ion batteries. The significant role of the mixed solvent of glycerin and water in the formation of such hierarchical mesoporous MRs was systematically investigated. After 488 cycles at a large current rate of 1000 mA g(-1) , the resulting ZnFe2 O4 MRs with high loading of ∼1.4 mg per electrode still preserved a reversible capacity as large as ∼542 mAh g(-1) . Furthermore, an initial charge capacity of ∼1150 mAh g(-1) is delivered by the ZnFe2 O4 anode at 100 mA g(-1) , resulting in a high Coulombic efficiency of ∼76 % for the first cycle. The superior Li-storage properties of the as-obtained ZnFe2 O4 were rationally associated with its mesoprous micro-/nanostructures and 1D nanoscaled building blocks, which accelerated the electron transportation, facilitated Li(+) transfer rate, buffered the large volume variations during repeated discharge/charge processes, and provided rich electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces for efficient lithium storage, particularly at high rates.

  15. Hierarchical self-assembled structures based on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as advanced negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries and 3D microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Tiva; Valvo, Mario; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Sandström, Robin; Edström, Kristina; Wågberg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Hierarchical structures based on carbon paper and multi-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were fabricated and subsequently decorated with hematite nanorods to obtain advanced 3D architectures for Li-ion battery negative electrodes. The carbon paper provides a versatile metal-free 3D current collector ensuring a good electrical contact of the active materials to its carbon fiber network. Firstly, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes onto the carbon paper were studied and a high footprint area capacity of 2.1 mAh cm-2 at 0.1 mA cm-2 was obtained. The Li can be stored in the inter-wall regions of the nanotubes, mediated by the defects formed on their walls by the nitrogen atoms. Secondly, the incorporation of hematite nanorods raised the footprint area capacity to 2.25 mAh cm-2 at 0.1 mA cm-2. However, the repeated conversion/de-conversion of Fe2O3 limited both coulombic and energy efficiencies for these electrodes, which did not perform as well as those including only the N-doped carbon nanotubes at higher current densities. Thirdly, long-cycling tests showed the robust Li insertion mechanism in these N-doped carbonaceous structures, which yielded an unmatched footprint area capacity enhancement up to 1.95 mAh cm-2 after 60 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 and an overall capacity of 204 mAh g-1 referred to the mass of the entire electrode.

  16. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  17. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... requirements established for mailpieces containing equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries in... exposure of the contents during normal handling in the mail. 135.63 Secondary Lithium-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries. Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those used to power...

  18. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for

  19. Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.

  20. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  1. Batteries used to Power Implantable Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2012-01-01

    Battery systems have been developed that provide years of service for implantable medical devices. The primary systems utilize lithium metal anodes with cathode systems including iodine, manganese oxide, carbon monofluoride, silver vanadium oxide and hybrid cathodes. Secondary lithium ion batteries have also been developed for medical applications where the batteries are charged while remaining implanted. While the specific performance requirements of the devices vary, some general requirements are common. These include high safety, reliability and volumetric energy density, long service life, and state of discharge indication. Successful development and implementation of these battery types has helped enable implanted biomedical devices and their treatment of human disease. PMID:24179249

  2. Microstructures and electrochemical properties of a SiO1.39-C composite for a lithium-ion secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Jung Hoon; Jang, Bo Yun; Kim, Jun Soo; Lee, Jin Seok; Cho, Churl Hee

    2013-04-01

    SiO1.39 nanoparticles synthesized by using an evaporation and condensation process were composited with phenol resin and conducting carbon (C), and their microstructures and electrochemical properties were investigated. A dense, micro-sized SiO1.39-C composite was synthesized to prevent capacity fading of the SiO x nanoparticles. To densify and coarsen this composite, we carried out pelletizing, annealing and crushing of the sample. The electrical conductivity was also improved by the composition without any structural change. Crushed particles were used as an anode material for a Li-ion battery, and its cyclic performance was evaluated. By composition, the coulombic efficiency was observed to increase from 93.6 to 97.5% at the 5 th cycle, and it continued increasing with each additional cycle. For the composite annealed at 1,000 °C in a 4-vol.% H2/Ar atmosphere, the specific capacity and the coulombic efficiency at the 20 th cycle were measured as 426 mAhg-1 and 99.7%, respectively.

  3. Simulation of the Secondary Frequency Control Capability of the Advanced PSH Technology and Its Application to the SMUD System

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, Vladimir; Feltes, James; Kazachkov, Yuriy

    2013-11-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), as a typical balancing authority and project team member, was suggested by the Advanced Technology Modeling TFG for testing the models of the advanced pump storage hydro technology newly developed in the course of the DOE project and for demonstration of the potential benefits of this technology.

  4. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk.

  5. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  6. Advanced treatment of municipal secondary effluent by catalytic ozonation using Fe3O4-CeO2/MWCNTs as efficient catalyst.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Qi

    2017-02-23

    The advanced treatment of municipal secondary effluent was performed by catalytic ozonation using Fe3O4-CeO2/MWCNTs as catalyst. The experimental results showed that in catalytic ozonation system, the removal efficiency of soluble COD was more than 46% after 30 min reaction, and about 36% of effluent organic matters (EfOMs) were mineralized, which was four times higher than that in single ozonation system. Moreover, proteins, humic acids, and UV254 decreased obviously after 30 min reaction, but polysaccharides did not significantly decrease. In catalytic ozonation system, the ozone utilization increased, which is favorable for the degradation of EfOM. The organic compounds and alkalinity were the main hydroxyl radical consumers in municipal secondary effluent. The catalytic ozonation process was also effective for the degradation of two target micropollutants (sulfamethazine and carbamazepine). The catalyst could be stable after five-time reuse for catalytic ozonation of effluent.

  7. Functionalized ionic liquids based on quaternary ammonium cations with two ether groups as new electrolytes for Li/LiFePO4 secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yide; Zhang, Jianhao; Song, Jianzhi; Zhang, Zhengxi; Fang, Shaohua; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2014-05-01

    New functionalized ILs based on quaternary ammonium cations with two ether groups and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSA-) anion are synthesized and characterized. Physical and electrochemical properties, including melting point, thermal stability, viscosity, conductivity and electrochemical stability are investigated for these ILs. All these ILs are liquids at room temperature except N,N-diethyl-N,N-bis(2-ethoxyethyl)ammonium TFSA (N22(2o2)(2o2)-TFSA, Tm = 29.7 °C), and the viscosities of N-methyl-N-ethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-(2-ethoxyethyl)ammonium TFSA (N12(2o1)(2o2)-TFSA) and N-methyl-N-ethyl-N,N-bis(2-ethoxyethyl)ammonium TFSA (N12(2o2)(2o2)-TFSA) are 68.0 cP and 63.0 cP at 25 °C, respectively. N-Methyl-N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium TFSA (DEME-TFSA) and five ILs with lower viscosity are chosen to dissolve 0.6 mol kg-1 of LiTFSA as IL electrolytes without additive for lithium battery. Lithium plating and striping on Ni electrode can be observed in these IL electrolytes, and cycle performances of lithium symmetrical cells are also investigated for these IL electrolytes. Li/LiFePO4 cells using these IL electrolytes without additives have good cycle property at the current rate of 0.1 C, and the N-methyl-N-ethyl-N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium TFSA (N12(2o1)(2o1)-TFSA) and N12(2o2)(2o2)-TFSA electrolytes own better rate property than DEME-TFSA electrolyte.

  8. Advanced Battery System for Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE...OBLIGATIONS, OR NOTICE ON A SPECIFIC DOCUMENT. TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Program Objective 1 2.1 Discussion 1...Nic’,el Baterv. Aircrarz Power Ccrve-sior ýZSvZems TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 SUMMARY 1 3 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 1 3.1

  9. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  10. Environmental characteristics comparison of Li-ion batteries and Ni-MH batteries under the uncertainty of cycle performance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yajuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Lijing; Bao, Liying; Wu, Feng

    2012-08-30

    An environmental impact assessment model for secondary batteries under uncertainty is proposed, which is a combination of the life cycle assessment (LCA), Eco-indicator 99 system and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The LCA can describe the environmental impact mechanism of secondary batteries, whereas the cycle performance was simulated through MCS. The composite LCA-MCS model was then carried out to estimate the environmental impact of two kinds of experimental batteries. Under this kind of standard assessment system, a comparison between different batteries could be accomplished. The following results were found: (1) among the two selected batteries, the environmental impact of the Li-ion battery is lower than the nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, especially with regards to resource consumption and (2) the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery is less sensitive to cycle uncertainty, its environmental impact fluctuations are small when compared with the selected Ni-MH battery and it is more environmentally friendly. The assessment methodology and model proposed in this paper can also be used for any other secondary batteries and they can be helpful in the development of environmentally friendly secondary batteries.

  11. Examining single-source secondary impacts estimated from brute-force, decoupled direct method, and advanced plume treatment approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    In regulatory assessments, there is a need for reliable estimates of the impacts of precursor emissions from individual sources on secondary PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) and ozone. Three potential methods for estimating th...

  12. Dependence of property, crystal structure and electrode characteristics on Li content for Li xNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 as a cathode active material for Li secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idemoto, Yasushi; Takanashi, Yu; Kitamura, Naoto

    We investigated the dependence of the properties, crystal and electronic structures and electrode characteristics of Li xNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 as a cathode active material for Li secondary batteries. Li xNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 was prepared by a solid-state method and solution method. The crystal structure was determined by neutron and X-ray diffractions using the Rietveld analysis. All the samples were obtained as the α-NaFeO 2 type with the space group R-3 m. From the charge-discharge test, the cycle performance was improved with the decreasing Li content (x ≦ 1.066) although the discharge capacity decreased. Samples made by the solid-state method showed a better electrode performance than those made by the solution method. We measured the chemical diffusion coefficient of Li (DLi+ ˜) by the GITT method. The DLi+ ˜ in the stable cycle region was much improved in the sample prepared by the solid-state method than by the solution method. From the neutron powder diffraction, it was confirmed that Li 2CO 3 was formed by increasing the Li content (0.994 < x ≦ 1.066) as a secondary phase. Cation mixing was improved with the decreasing Li content. The bond length of the 3b site-6c site decreased with decreasing Li content. From the electron density images on the (1 1 0) plane for Li xNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2, the covalent bond of the 3b site-6c site increased with the decreasing Li content. This may be one of the reasons why the cycle performance improved with the decreasing Li content.

  13. The Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+:1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and FSA-:bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolytes for sodium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Numata, Koma; Itani, Eiko; Sakai, Shoichiro; Nitta, Koji; Inazawa, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    Physical and electrochemical properties of the Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+:1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and FSA-:bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquids have been investigated in view of their application as electrolytes for sodium secondary batteries operating in a wide temperature range. The Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] ionic liquids in the range of 0.0 ≤ x(Na[FSA]) ≤ 0.5 are in the liquid state at room temperature, where x(Na[FSA]) is the mole fraction of Na[FSA]. In the case of x(Na[FSA]) = 0.3, the ionic conductivity, viscosity, and electrochemical window at 298 K are 5.4 mS cm-1, 78 mPa s, and 5.1 V, respectively. Sodium metal deposition/dissolution test in the ionic liquid at x(Na[FSA]) = 0.3 resulted in average cycle efficiencies of 69% and 96% at 298 K and 363 K, respectively, at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2.

  14. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  15. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  16. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  17. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  18. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  19. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  20. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  1. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  2. Flexible Batteries: Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Copic, Davor; George, Chandramohan; De Volder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An advanced battery architecture composed of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) current collectors is used to mitigate stresses in flexible batteries. On Page 6705, C. George, M. De Volder, and co-workers describe the fabrication process and characteristics of this new generation of ultraflexible batteries, which show high rate and cyclablility. These batteries may find applications in the powering of flexible displays and logics.

  3. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  5. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  6. Advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The concept design for a small (less than 10 MWe) solar thermal electric generating plant was completed using projected 1985 technology. The systems requirements were defined and specified. The components, including an engineering prototype for one 15 kWe module of the generating plant, were conceptually designed. Significant features of the small solar thermal power plant were identified as the following: (1) 15 kWe Stirling-cycle engine/alternator with constant power output; (2) 10 meter point-focusing paraboloidal concentrator with cantilevered cellular glass reflecting panels; (3) primary heat pipe with 800 C output solar cavity receiver; (4) secondary heat pipe with molten salt thermal energy storage unit; (5) electric energy transport system; and (6) advanced battery energy storage capability.

  7. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  8. Self-Supported CoP Nanorod Arrays Grafted on Stainless Steel as an Advanced Integrated Anode for Stable and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Zhu, Min

    2017-03-05

    To alleviate the capacity degradation of anode materials for Li-ion batteries, caused by serious volume expansion and particle aggregation, intensive attention has been devoted to the rational design and fabrication of novel anode architectures. Herein, self-supported CoP nanorod arrays have been facilely synthesized using hydrothemally deposited Co(CO3 )0.5 (OH)⋅0.11 H2 O nanorod arrays as the precursor, through a gas-phase phosphidation method. As the anode for Li-ion batteries, such 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays show an initial discharge capacity of 1067 mAh g(-1) and a high reversible charge capacity of 737 mAh g(-1) at 0.4 Ag(-1) . After 400 cycles, their specific capacity can reach 510 mAh g(-1) ; even after 900 cycles, they can still deliver a specific capacity of 390 mAh g(-1) . CoP//LiCoO2 full-cells also exhibit a high reversible capacity of 400 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. These unique 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays also show ultrastable cycling performance over 500 cycles when used as the anode in a Na-ion battery.

  9. Ultrahigh Capacity Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Enabled by Dry-Pressed Holey Graphene Air Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Moitoso, Brandon; Martinez-Martinez, Chalynette; Walsh, Evan D; Lacey, Steven D; Kim, Jae-Woo; Dai, Liming; Hu, Liangbing; Connell, John W

    2017-03-31

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all the Li-based energy storage systems, but many challenges prevent them from practical use. A major obstacle is the sluggish performance of the air cathode, where both oxygen reduction (discharge) and oxygen evolution (charge) reactions occur. Recently, there have been significant advances in the development of graphene-based air cathode materials with a large surface area and catalytically active for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions especially with additional catalysts or dopants. However, most studies reported so far have examined air cathodes with a limited areal mass loading rarely exceeding 1 mg/cm(2). Despite the high gravimetric capacity values achieved, therefore, the actual (areal) capacities of those batteries were far from sufficient for practical applications. Here, we present the fabrication, performance, and mechanistic investigations of high mass loading (up to 10 mg/cm(2)) graphene-based air electrodes for high-performance Li-O2 batteries. Such air electrodes could be easily prepared within minutes under solvent-free and binder-free conditions by compression molding holey graphene materials because of their unique dry compressibility associated with in-plane holes. Li-O2 batteries with a high mass loading thus prepared exhibited excellent gravimetric capacity as well as ultrahigh areal capacity (as high as ~40 mAh/cm(2)). The batteries were also cycled at a high curtailing areal capacity (2 mAh/cm(2)), showing a better cycling stability for ultrathick cathodes than their thinner counterparts. Detailed postmortem analyses of the electrodes clearly revealed the battery failure mechanisms under both primary and secondary modes, arising from the oxygen diffusion blockage and the catalytic site deactivation, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the dry-pressed holey graphene electrodes are a highly viable architectural platform for high capacity

  10. Research advances and challenges in one-dimensional modeling of secondary settling tanks--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Stenstrom, M K

    2014-11-15

    Sedimentation is one of the most important processes that determine the performance of the activated sludge process (ASP), and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) have been frequently investigated with the mathematical models for design and operation optimization. Nevertheless their performance is often far from satisfactory. The starting point of this paper is a review of the development of settling theory, focusing on batch settling and the development of flux theory, since they played an important role in the early stage of SST investigation. The second part is an explicit review of the established 1-D SST models, including the relevant physical law, various settling behaviors (hindered, transient, and compression settling), the constitutive functions, and their advantages and disadvantages. The third part is a discussion of numerical techniques required to solve the governing equation, which is usually a partial differential equation. Finally, the most important modeling challenges, such as settleability description, settling behavior understanding, are presented.

  11. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  12. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  13. Battery developments: The positive connection to a greener future

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1995-02-01

    Extraordinary innovations are being made in the performance of today`s portable electronic equipment. But, although electronics manufacturers have been leaping generations ahead of themselves technologically, they are still forced to look back to see battery technology struggling to close the distance that ever widens with each new electronics breakthrough. The need to improve battery performance, namely in the area of battery longevity, has stemmed from a growing consumer demand and has become one of the electronics industry`s newest challenges. Battery manufactures like Duracell, Ovonic Battery Company (OBC), Ergenics, Matsushita, and Sony Corporation are answering the call with research and development programs that will aid the transition to more efficient, environmentally friendly batteries. Traditionally, the market was dedicated to primary batteries, or non-rechargeable, disposable batteries that are composed of zinc-carbon, alkaline-manganese, mercury oxide, silver oxide, lithium metal, and lead-acid. Conventional lead-acid automotive batteries, while rechargeable, are toxic and not recyclable; new secondary battery designs will satisfy the needs of the electronics industry, while offering environmental benefits. The new types, such as rechargeable nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion, and lithium-polymer have longer life-cycles and are also recyclable. Zinc-air batteries, which are classified as primary batteries, are not rechargeable but offer substantial power and environmental benefits. Portable computers, cellular telephones, video camcorders, stereo equipment, and LCD televisions are a few of the many practical applications that will benefit from new battery technology.

  14. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.; Harkness, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A life cycle test of secondary electric batteries for spacecraft applications was conducted. A sample number of nickel cadmium batteries were subjected to general performance tests to determine the limit of their actual capabilities. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of spacecraft batteries. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is provided.

  15. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  16. The 1996 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 Workshop was held on three consecutive days and was divided into five sessions. The first day consisted of a General Primary Battery Session and a Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Reconditioning Experience Focused Session. The second day consisted of a Nickel-Hydrogen Session and a Nickel-Cadmium Session. The third and final day was devoted to an Other Secondary Technologies Session which covered sodium-sulfur, nickel-zinc, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium ion technologies.

  17. Advanced treatment of textile dyeing secondary effluent using magnetic anion exchange resin and its effect on organic fouling in subsequent RO membrane.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Li; Shi, Jialu; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-02

    Strict regulations are forcing dyeing factory to upgrade existing waste treatment system. In this study, advanced treatment of dyeing secondary effluent by magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP) was investigated and compared with ultrafiltration (UF); NDMP as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) was also studied. NDMP resin (20 mL/L) gave higher removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (83.9%) and colority (94.9%) than UF with a cut-off of 10 kDa (only 48.6% and 44.1%, respectively), showing that NDMP treatment was effective to meet the stringent discharge limit of DOC and colority. Besides, NDMP resin (20 mL/L) as a pretreatment of RO increased the permeate flux by 12.5% and reduced irreversible membrane fouling by 6.6%, but UF pretreatment did not mitigate RO membrane fouling. The results of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra and resin fractions showed that NDMP had more efficient removal than UF for transphilic acid and hydrophilic fraction, such as protein-like organic matters and soluble microbial products, which contributed to a significant proportion of RO membrane fouling. In sum, NDMP resin treatment not only gave effective removal of DOC and colority of dyeing secondary effluent, but exhibited some improvement for RO membrane flux and irreversible fouling.

  18. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  19. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  20. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.