Science.gov

Sample records for advanced short takeoff

  1. Ready for Takeoff: China’s Advancing Aerospace Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    percent of the 12,700 civil helicopters projected for delivery worldwide between 2010 and 2017 (Xia, 2009, p. 58). 2 The figures for Australia, the United...engine light helicopter with a maxi - mum takeoff weight of approximately 1,700 kg. Its design is con- sidered highly advanced, with extensive use of

  2. Design of a Low Cost Short Takeoff-vertical Landing Export Fighter/attack Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Anne; Bodeker, Dan, III; Miu, Steve; Petro, Laura; Senf, Cary Taylor; Woeltjen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    The design of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft is presented that is suitable for export. An advanced four poster, low bypass turbofan engine is to be used for propulsion. Preliminary aerodynamic analysis is presented covering a determination of CD versus CL, CD versus Mach number, as well as best cruise Mach number and altitude. Component locations are presented and center of gravity determined. Cost minimization is achieved through the use of developed subsystems and standard fabrication techniques using nonexotic materials. Conclusions regarding the viability of the STOVL design are presented.

  3. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short-Takeoff and Vertical-Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary study of a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. Three configurations (a lift plus lift/cruise concept, a hybrid fan vectored thrust concept, and a mixed flow vectored thrust concept) were initially investigated with one configuration selected for further design analysis. The selected configuration, the lift plus lift/cruise concept, was successfully integrated to accommodate the powered lift short takeoff and vertical landing requirements as well as the demanding supersonic cruise and point performance requirements. A supersonic fighter aircraft with a short takeoff and vertical landing capability using the lift plus lift/cruise engine concept seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  4. Low Noise Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing Transport Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    The saturation of the airspace around current airports combined with increasingly stringent community noise limits represents a serious impediment to growth in world aviation travel. Breakthrough concepts that both increase throughput and reduce noise impacts are required to enable growth in aviation markets. Concepts with a 25 year horizon must facilitate a 4x increase in air travel while simultaneously meeting community noise constraints. Attacking these horizon issues holistically is the concept study of a Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) high subsonic transport under the NASA's Revolutionary Systems Concepts for Aeronautics (RSCA) project. The concept is a high-lift capable airframe with a partially embedded distributed propulsion system that takes a synergistic approach in propulsion-airframe-integration (PAI) by fully integrating the airframe and propulsion systems to achieve the benefits of both low-noise short take-off and landing (STOL) operations and efficient high speed cruise. This paper presents a summary of the recent study of a distributed propulsion/airframe configuration that provides low-noise STOL operation to enable 24-hour use of the untapped regional and city center airports to increase the capacity of the overall airspace while still maintaining efficient high subsonic cruise flight capability.

  5. Preliminary design of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Borchers, Paul; Gomer, Charlie; Henderson, Dean; Jacobs, Tavis; Lawson, Todd; Peterson, Eric; Ross, Tweed, III; Bellmard, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary design study of a supersonic Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter is presented. A brief historical survey of powered lift vehicles was presented, followed by a technology assessment of the latest supersonic STOVL engine cycles under consideration by industry and government in the U.S. and UK. A survey of operational fighter/attack aircraft and the modern battlefield scenario were completed to develop, respectively, the performance requirements and mission profiles for the study. Three configurations were initially investigated with the following engine cycles: a hybrid fan vectored thrust cycle, a lift+lift/cruise cycle, and a mixed flow vectored thrust cycle. The lift+lift/cruise aircraft configuration was selected for detailed design work which consisted of: (1) a material selection and structural layout, including engine removal considerations, (2) an aircraft systems layout, (3) a weapons integration model showing the internal weapons bay mechanism, (4) inlet and nozzle integration, (5) an aircraft suckdown prediction, (6) an aircraft stability and control analysis, including a takeoff, hover, and transition control analysis, (7) a performance and mission capability study, and (8) a life cycle cost analysis. A supersonic fighter aircraft with STOVL capability with the lift+lift/cruise engine cycle seems a viable option for the next generation fighter.

  6. Adaptive Data-based Predictive Control for Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan Spencer; Acosta, Diana Michelle; Phan, Minh Q.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based Predictive Control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. The characteristics of adaptive data-based predictive control are particularly appropriate for the control of nonlinear and time-varying systems, such as Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) aircraft. STOL is a capability of interest to NASA because conceptual Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) transport aircraft offer the ability to reduce congestion in the terminal area by utilizing existing shorter runways at airports, as well as to lower community noise by flying steep approach and climb-out patterns that reduce the noise footprint of the aircraft. In this study, adaptive data-based predictive control is implemented as an integrated flight-propulsion controller for the outer-loop control of a CESTOL-type aircraft. Results show that the controller successfully tracks velocity while attempting to maintain a constant flight path angle, using longitudinal command, thrust and flap setting as the control inputs.

  7. Takeoff certification considerations for large subsonic and supersonic transport airplanes using the Ames flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Fry, E. B.; Forrest, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data for use in development of takeoff airworthiness standards for new aircraft designs such as the supersonic transport (SST) and the large wide-body subsonic jet transport are provided. An advanced motion simulator was used to compare the performance and handling characteristics of three representative large jet transports during specific flight certification tasks. Existing regulatory constraints and methods for determining rotation speed were reviewed, and the effects on takeoff performance of variations in rotation speed, pitch attitude, and pitch attitude rate during the rotation maneuver were analyzed. A limited quantity of refused takeoff information was obtained. The aerodynamics, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio of the subject SST resulted in takeoff speeds limited by climb (rather than lift-off) considerations. Take-off speeds based on U.S. subsonic transport requirements were found unacceptable because of the criticality of rotation-abuse effects on one-engine-inoperative climb performance. Adequate safety margin was provided by takeoff speeds based on proposed Anglo-French supersonic transport (TSS) criteria, with the limiting criterion being that takeoff safety speed be at least 1.15 times the one-engine-inoperative zero-rate-of-climb speed. Various observations related to SST certification are presented.

  8. A Conceptual Design of a Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Jet Airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Most jet airliner conceptual designs adhere to conventional takeoff and landing performance. Given this predominance, takeoff and landing performance has not been critical, since it has not been an active constraint in the design. Given that the demand for air travel is projected to increase dramatically, there is interest in operational concepts, such as Metroplex operations that seek to unload the major hub airports by using underutilized surrounding regional airports, as well as using underutilized runways at the major hub airports. Both of these operations require shorter takeoff and landing performance than is currently available for airliners of approximately 100-passenger capacity. This study examines the issues of modeling performance in this now critical flight regime as well as the impact of progressively reducing takeoff and landing field length requirements on the aircraft s characteristics.

  9. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5%. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9% respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1%. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  10. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb, and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5 percent. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9 percent respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1 percent. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  11. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  12. Reconfigurable Flight Control System for a STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) Aircraft Using Quantitative Feedback Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    AD-R163 939 RECONFIGURANLE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR R STOt. (SHORT 1/03~TAKE-OFF AND LANDI.. (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON RFD OH...QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK THEORY THESIS AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-8 Bruce T. Clough 1Lt USAF C fAPPtoved foi ptub~ ~a.. Ie DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR ...UNIVERSITY It AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-8 .-. ..: DI FEB 12’NO RECONFIGURABLE FLIGHT CONTROL

  13. Quiet Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing Subsonic Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This NASA funded study conceived a revolutionary airplane concept to enable future traffic growth by using regional air space. This requires a very quiet airplane with STOL capability. Starting with a Blended Wing Body that is cruise efficient with inherent low noise characteristics from forward noise shielding and void of aft downward noise reflections, integration of embedded distributed propulsion enables incorporation of the revolutionary concept for jet noise shielding. Embedded distributed propulsion also enables incorporation of a fan bleed internally blown flap for quiet powered lift. The powered lift provides STOL capability for operation at regional airports with rapid take-off and descent to further reduce flyover noise. This study focused on configuring the total engine noise shielding STOL concept with a BWB airplane using the Boeing Phantom Works WingMOD multidisciplinary optimization code to define a planform that is pitch controllable. The configuration was then sized and mission data developed to enable NASA to assess the flyover and sideline noise. The foundational technologies needed are identified including military dual use benefits.

  14. Optimum design considerations of a gust alleviator for aircraft. [for aircraft stability of short takeoff aircraft during atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehman, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    A gust alleviation system for aircraft flying in turbulent air was analyzed. A vane sensor (with noise) was used to measure vertical gusts, and elevators and flaps were used to reduce the root-mean-square value of the normal accelerations associated with the aircraft response to gusts. Since turbulence has stochastic properties, stochastic control theory was used in the analysis. A quadratic performance-index function involving normal acceleration and control deflections was minimized. Application of the analysis was illustrated by a short take-off and landing (STOL) airplane in flight through turbulent air. Effects of varying the noise characteristics of the vane sensor and of a weighting matrix in the performance-index function were determined. Calculations were performed as required by stochastic control theory to obtain the root-mean-square response of the airplane to turbulence. Results show that good alleviation was calculated when the intensity of the measurement noise was about 3.6 percent of the vane deflection angles.

  15. Wind-Tunnel Results of Advanced High-Speed Propellers at Takeoff, Climb, and Landing Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers have been completed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as part of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program. The 62.2 cm (24.5 in.) diameter adjustable-pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds (i.e., from Mach 0.10 to 0.34) at zero angle of attack in the NASA Lewis 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise-design-point operating condition of Mach 0.80, and 10.668 km (35,000 ft) I.S.A. altitude, a 243.8 m/s (800 ft/sec) tip speed, and a high power loading of 301 kW/sq m (37.5 shp/sq ft). Each model had its own integrally designed area-ruled spinner, but used the same specially contoured nacelle. These features reduced blade-section Mach numbers and relieved blade-root choking at the cruise condition. No adverse or unusual low-speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propeller. Typical efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propellers were 50.2 and 54.9 percent, respectively, at a takeoff condition of Mach 0.20 and 53.7 and 59.1 percent, respectively, at a climb condition of Mach 0.34.

  16. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  17. Final Scientific/Technical Report: ADVANCED INTEGRATION OF POWER TAKE-OFF IN VIVACE

    SciTech Connect

    Simiao, Gustavo

    2014-03-21

    Vortex Hydro Energy is commercializing a University of Michigan patented MHK device, the VIVACE converter (Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy). Unlike water turbines, it does not use propeller blades. Rather, river or ocean currents flow around cylinders causing them to move up and down in Flow Induced Motions (FIM). This kinetic energy of the cylinder is then converted to electricity. Importantly, the VIVACE converter is simpler in design and more cost effective than water turbines. This project accelerated the development of the VIVACE technology. Funding from the DOE enabled VHE to accelerate the development in three ways. One was to increase the efficiency of the hydrodynamics of the system. This aided in maximizing the power output for a wide range of water speeds. The second was to design, build, and test an efficient power take-off (PTO) that converted the most power from the VIVACE cylinders into electricity. This effort was necessary because of the nature of power generated using this technology. Although the PTO uses off-the-shelf components, it is specifically tuned to the specific water flow characteristics. The third way the development was accelerated was by testing the improved Beta 1B prototype over a longer period of time in a river. The greatest benefit from the longer open-water testing-period is a better understand of the power generation characteristics of the system as well as the maintenance lifespan of the device. Renewable energy generation is one of today’s most challenging global dilemmas. The energy crisis requires tapping into every source of energy and developing every technology that can generate energy at a competitive cost within the next 50 years. Development of VIVACE will bolster domestic energy security and mitigate global climate change. There are numerous commercial and military applications for a fully developed system, which could generate clean/renewable energy from small scale (1-5kW) to medium scale (500k

  18. Takeoff predictions for powered-lift aircraft. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardwell, Douglas A.; Sandlin, Doral R.

    1988-01-01

    Takeoff predictions for powered-lift short takeoff (STO) and conventional takeoff (CTO) aircraft have been added to NASA Ames Research Center's Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) code. The new computer code predicts the aircraft engine and nozzle settings required to achieve the minimum takeoff roll. As a test case, the code predicted takeoff ground rolls and nozzle settings for the YAV-8B Harrier that compared well with measured values. Brief analysis of takeoff performance for an Ejector, Remote Augmented Lift, Hybrid-Tandem Fan, and Vectored Thrust STO aircraft using the new routine will be presented.

  19. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  20. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  1. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  2. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  3. Assessment at full scale of nozzle/wing geometry effects on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics. [short takeoff aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groesbeck, D.; Vonglahn, U.

    1979-01-01

    The effects on acoustic characteristics of nozzle type and location on a wing for STOL engine over-the-wing configurations are assessed at full scale on the basis of model-scale data. Three types of nozzle configurations are evaluated: a circular nozzle with external deflector mounted above the wing, a slot nozzle with external deflector mounted on the wing and a slot nozzle mounted on the wing. Nozzle exhaust plane locations with respect to the wing leading edge are varied from 10 to 46 percent chord (flaps retracted) with flap angles of 20 (takeoff altitude) and 60 (approach attitude). Perceived noise levels (PNL) are calculated as a function of flyover distance at 152 m altitude. From these plots, static EPNL values, defined as flyover relative noise levels, are calculated and plotted as a function of lift and thrust ratios. From such plots the acoustic benefits attributable to variations in nozzle/deflector/wing geometry at full scale are assessed for equal aerodynamic performance.

  4. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  5. Calculation of vertical and ramp-assisted takeoffs for supersonic cruise fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure that allows rapid preliminary evaluations of the vertical, short, and normal takeoff performance of supersonic cruise aircraft concepts was developed into a numerical computer program. The program is used to determine the effects on takeoff performance of various parameters, such as thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, thrust vector angle, and flap setting. Ramp-assisted takeoffs for overloaded configurations typical of a ground-attack mission are included. The effects of wind on the takeoff performance are also considered.

  6. Ski jumping takeoff in a wind tunnel with skis.

    PubMed

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha; Komi, Paavo

    2011-11-01

    The effect of skis on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping takeoff was examined in a wind tunnel. Takeoff forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the tunnel floor. Signals from the front and rear parts of the force plate were collected separately to examine the anteroposterior balance of the jumpers during the takeoff. Two ski jumpers performed simulated takeoffs, first without skis in nonwind conditions and in various wind conditions. Thereafter, the same experiments were repeated with skis. The jumpers were able to perform very natural takeoff actions (similar to the actual takeoff) with skis in wind tunnel. According to the subjective feeling of the jumpers, the simulated ski jumping takeoff with skis was even easier to perform than the earlier trials without skis. Skis did not much influence the force levels produced during the takeoff but they still changed the force distribution under the feet. Contribution of the forces produced under the rear part of the feet was emphasized probably because the strong dorsiflexion is needed for lifting the skis to the proper flight position. The results presented in this experiment emphasize that research on ski jumping takeoff can be advanced by using wind tunnels.

  7. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  8. Prediction of noise constrained optimum takeoff procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optimization method is used to predict safe, maximum-performance takeoff procedures which satisfy noise constraints at multiple observer locations. The takeoff flight is represented by two-degree-of-freedom dynamical equations with aircraft angle-of-attack and engine power setting as control functions. The engine thrust, mass flow and noise source parameters are assumed to be given functions of the engine power setting and aircraft Mach number. Effective Perceived Noise Levels at the observers are treated as functionals of the control functions. The method is demonstrated by applying it to an Advanced Supersonic Transport aircraft design. The results indicate that automated takeoff procedures (continuously varying controls) can be used to significantly reduce community and certification noise without jeopardizing safety or degrading performance.

  9. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines....57; or (2) With all engines operating, 115 percent of the horizontal distance from the start of...

  10. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more... airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines....57; or (2) With all engines operating, 115 percent of the horizontal distance from the start of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 25.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.113 Takeoff distance... along the takeoff path from the start of the takeoff to the point at which the airplane is 35 feet...

  12. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 25.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.113 Takeoff distance... along the takeoff path from the start of the takeoff to the point at which the airplane is 35 feet...

  13. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 25.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.113 Takeoff distance... along the takeoff path from the start of the takeoff to the point at which the airplane is 35 feet...

  14. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  15. Lockheed Electra - takeoff from runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 15-second movie clip shows the National Science Foundation Lockheed Electra rotate, lift off, and stow its landing gear on takeoff. On March 24, 1998, an L-188 Electra aircraft owned by the National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia and operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, flew near Boulder with an Airborne Coherent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for Advanced In-flight Measurement. This aircraft was on its first flight to test its ability to detect previously invisible forms of clear air turbulence. Coherent Technologies Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, built the LiDAR device for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden participated in this effort as part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, for which the lead center was Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Results of the test indicated that the device did successfully detect the clear air turbulence.

  16. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Brubaker, P. W.; Bryant, S. L.; Clay, C. W.; Giridharadas, B.; Hamamoto, M.; Kelly, T. J.; Proctor, D. K.; Myron, C. E.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a preliminary design study which investigates the use of selected advanced technologies to achieve low cost design for small (50-passenger), short haul (50 to 1000 mile) transports are reported. The largest single item in the cost of manufacturing an airplane of this type is labor. A careful examination of advanced technology to airframe structure was performed since one of the most labor-intensive parts of the airplane is structures. Also, preliminary investigation of advanced aerodynamics flight controls, ride control and gust load alleviation systems, aircraft systems and turbo-prop propulsion systems was performed. The most beneficial advanced technology examined was bonded aluminum primary structure. The use of this structure in large wing panels and body sections resulted in a greatly reduced number of parts and fasteners and therefore, labor hours. The resultant cost of assembled airplane structure was reduced by 40% and the total airplane manufacturing cost by 16% - a major cost reduction. With further development, test verification and optimization appreciable weight saving is also achievable. Other advanced technology items which showed significant gains are as follows: (1) advanced turboprop-reduced block fuel by 15.30% depending on range; (2) configuration revisions (vee-tail)-empennage cost reduction of 25%; (3) leading-edge flap addition-weight reduction of 2500 pounds.

  17. Ski jump takeoff performance predictions for a mixed-flow, remote-lift STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.

    1992-01-01

    A ski jump model was developed to predict ski jump takeoff performance for a short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The objective was to verify the model with results from a piloted simulation of a mixed flow, remote lift STOVL aircraft. The prediction model is discussed. The predicted results are compared with the piloted simulation results. The ski jump model can be utilized for basic research of other thrust vectoring STOVL aircraft performing a ski jump takeoff.

  18. Short rendezvous missions for advanced Russian human spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, Rafail F.; Budylov, Sergey G.

    2010-10-01

    The two-day stay of crew in a limited inhabited volume of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft till docking to ISS is one of the most stressful parts of space flight. In this paper a number of possible ways to reduce the duration of the free flight phase are considered. The duration is defined by phasing strategy that is necessary for reduction of the phase angle between the chaser and target spacecraft. Some short phasing strategies could be developed. The use of such strategies creates more comfortable flight conditions for crew thanks to short duration and additionally it allows saving spacecraft's life support resources. The transition from the methods of direct spacecraft rendezvous using one orbit phasing (first flights of " Vostok" and " Soyuz" vehicles) to the currently used methods of two-day rendezvous mission can be observed in the history of Soviet manned space program. For an advanced Russian human rated spacecraft the short phasing strategy is recommended, which can be considered as a combination between the direct and two-day rendezvous missions. The following state of the art technologies are assumed available: onboard accurate navigation; onboard computations of phasing maneuvers; launch vehicle with high accuracy injection orbit, etc. Some operational requirements and constraints for the strategies are briefly discussed. In order to provide acceptable phase angles for possible launch dates the experience of the ISS altitude profile control can be used. As examples of the short phasing strategies, the following rendezvous missions are considered: direct ascent, short mission with the phasing during 3-7 orbits depending on the launch date (nominal or backup). For each option statistical modeling of the rendezvous mission is fulfilled, as well as an admissible phase angle range, accuracy of target state vector and addition fuel consumption coming out of emergency is defined. In this paper an estimation of pros and cons of all options is conducted.

  19. Jet Transport Rejected Takeoffs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    r _ _ _ _ _ _ N AD—A05 6 032 FEDERAL AVIATIO N ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON 0 C FLIGHT—ETC FIG 1/2 ~,JET TRANSPORT REJECTED TAKEOFFS • (U)FED 77 0 S...AF~~16O-77-2 FOR FURTHER IRAN JET TRANSPORT R&JECTED TAKEDFFS DAVID W. OSTROWSKILI~~ H c ,~ ~~~~ C ...) ~~~~ O~ —1 w DDU FEB~JARY 1977U... FINAL...Pag. .po ,t No. 2 C.o.,,nm.rr, A c c . s s on No . 3. R.c ,pr. ns s Cat alog No. AFS-16~~-77-2_ j

  20. Fault analysis of mid-channel power takeoff in DCW MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Wu, Y. C. L.; Scott, M. H.

    1982-06-01

    Analysis is presented of the effect of loading faults on the mid-channel power takeoff of a diagonal-conducting-wall MHD generator in special loading schemes. Two-dimensional calculations indicate that an open-circuit condition in the upstream load circuit results in a large current density at the power takeoff anode and drives a shorting current over the interframe insulators at the cathode side. A short-circuit condition in the upstream load circuit results in a large current density at the power takeoff cathode and a shorting current over the interframe insulators at the anode side.

  1. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coussens, T. G.; Tullis, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits available by incorporation of advanced technologies into the small, short haul air transport were assessed. Low cost structure and advanced composite material, advanced turboprop engines and new propellers, advanced high lift systems and active controls; and alternate aircraft configurations with aft mounted engines were investigated. Improvements in fuel consumed and aircraft economics (acquisition cost and direct operating cost) are available by incorporating selected advanced technologies into the small, short haul aircraft.

  2. 14 CFR 23.53 - Takeoff performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff performance. 23.53 Section 23.53... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.53 Takeoff performance. (a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes, the takeoff distance must...

  3. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines operating, 115 percent of the horizontal... airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface as determined under § 23.57; or (2) With all engines.... For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum...

  4. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  5. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  6. Optimum take-off angle in the long jump.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Guzman, Maurice S; Bridgett, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we found that the optimum take-off angle for a long jumper may be predicted by combining the equation for the range of a projectile in free flight with the measured relations between take-off speed, take-off height and take-off angle for the athlete. The prediction method was evaluated using video measurements of three experienced male long jumpers who performed maximum-effort jumps over a wide range of take-off angles. To produce low take-off angles the athletes used a long and fast run-up, whereas higher take-off angles were produced using a progressively shorter and slower run-up. For all three athletes, the take-off speed decreased and the take-off height increased as the athlete jumped with a higher take-off angle. The calculated optimum take-off angles were in good agreement with the athletes' competition take-off angles.

  7. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Mall, O. D.; Awker, R. W.; Scholl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of selected advanced technologies for 19 and 30 passenger, short-haul aircraft were identified. Advanced technologies were investigated in four areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and ride quality. Configuration sensitivity studies were conducted to show design tradeoffs associated with passenger capacity, cabin comfort level, and design field length.

  8. Mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics: An advanced short course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Valter

    2016-08-01

    This paper collects and extends the lectures I gave at the “XXIV International Fall Workshop on Geometry and Physics” held in Zaragoza (Spain) during September 2015. Within these lectures I review the formulation of Quantum Mechanics, and quantum theories in general, from a mathematically advanced viewpoint, essentially based on the orthomodular lattice of elementary propositions, discussing some fundamental ideas, mathematical tools and theorems also related to the representation of physical symmetries. The final step consists of an elementary introduction the so-called (C∗-) algebraic formulation of quantum theories.

  9. Advanced short haul systems in high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The design requirements, performance, economics, and noise aspects of STOL and VTOL conceptual aircraft developed for short haul air transportation are reviewed, along with the characteristics of areas of high-density annual passenger flow in which the aircraft are intended to operate. It is shown that aircraft of 100 to 200 passenger capacity provide the best return on investment in high density markets. The various STOL propulsive lift concepts have the same general trends with field length; their wing loadings are 20 to 30 pounds per square foot higher than the nonpropulsive lift concepts. A comparison of the aircraft under consideration shows that no one aircraft concept will be optimum for all future operational environments.

  10. 14 CFR 23.53 - Takeoff performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operational limits established for takeoff with— (1) Takeoff power on each engine; (2) Wing flaps in the... performance, as required by §§ 23.55 through 23.59, must be determined with the operating engine(s) within... category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes,...

  11. 14 CFR 23.53 - Takeoff performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff performance. 23.53 Section 23.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... each engine; (2) Wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (3) Landing gear extended. (c) For...

  12. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the takeoff... point the critical engine must be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the takeoff... climb may not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for two-engine airplanes; (ii) 1.5 percent for...

  13. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the takeoff... point the critical engine must be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the takeoff... climb may not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for two-engine airplanes; (ii) 1.5 percent for...

  14. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the takeoff... point the critical engine must be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the takeoff... climb may not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for two-engine airplanes; (ii) 1.5 percent for...

  15. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the takeoff... point the critical engine must be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the takeoff... climb may not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for two-engine airplanes; (ii) 1.5 percent for...

  16. 14 CFR 25.111 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the takeoff... point the critical engine must be made inoperative and remain inoperative for the rest of the takeoff... climb may not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for two-engine airplanes; (ii) 1.5 percent for...

  17. 14 CFR 27.51 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the ranges of altitude from standard sea level conditions to the maximum altitude for which takeoff... and r.p.m. at the most critical center of gravity, and with weight from the maximum weight at sea level to the weight for which takeoff certification is requested for each altitude covered by...

  18. 14 CFR 27.51 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the ranges of altitude from standard sea level conditions to the maximum altitude for which takeoff... and r.p.m. at the most critical center of gravity, and with weight from the maximum weight at sea level to the weight for which takeoff certification is requested for each altitude covered by...

  19. 14 CFR 27.51 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the ranges of altitude from standard sea level conditions to the maximum altitude for which takeoff... and r.p.m. at the most critical center of gravity, and with weight from the maximum weight at sea level to the weight for which takeoff certification is requested for each altitude covered by...

  20. 14 CFR 27.51 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the ranges of altitude from standard sea level conditions to the maximum altitude for which takeoff... and r.p.m. at the most critical center of gravity, and with weight from the maximum weight at sea level to the weight for which takeoff certification is requested for each altitude covered by...

  1. 14 CFR 27.51 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the ranges of altitude from standard sea level conditions to the maximum altitude for which takeoff... and r.p.m. at the most critical center of gravity, and with weight from the maximum weight at sea level to the weight for which takeoff certification is requested for each altitude covered by...

  2. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10–14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5–10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the ‘fling’ mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205

  3. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-12-06

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

  4. 14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff warning system. 23.703 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. For all airplanes with a maximum weight more than 6,000... approved takeoff position, a takeoff warning system must be installed and meet the following...

  5. 14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff warning system. 23.703 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. For all airplanes with a maximum weight more than 6,000... approved takeoff position, a takeoff warning system must be installed and meet the following...

  6. 14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff warning system. 23.703 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75757, December 2... when selection out of an approved takeoff position, a takeoff warning system must be installed and...

  7. Take-off mechanics in hummingbirds (Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W; Altshuler, Douglas L; Powers, Donald R

    2004-03-01

    Initiating flight is challenging, and considerable effort has focused on understanding the energetics and aerodynamics of take-off for both machines and animals. For animal flight, the available evidence suggests that birds maximize their initial flight velocity using leg thrust rather than wing flapping. The smallest birds, hummingbirds (Order Apodiformes), are unique in their ability to perform sustained hovering but have proportionally small hindlimbs that could hinder generation of high leg thrust. Understanding the take-off flight of hummingbirds can provide novel insight into the take-off mechanics that will be required for micro-air vehicles. During take-off by hummingbirds, we measured hindlimb forces on a perch mounted with strain gauges and filmed wingbeat kinematics with high-speed video. Whereas other birds obtain 80-90% of their initial flight velocity using leg thrust, the leg contribution in hummingbirds was 59% during autonomous take-off. Unlike other species, hummingbirds beat their wings several times as they thrust using their hindlimbs. In a phylogenetic context, our results show that reduced body and hindlimb size in hummingbirds limits their peak acceleration during leg thrust and, ultimately, their take-off velocity. Previously, the influence of motivational state on take-off flight performance has not been investigated for any one organism. We studied the full range of motivational states by testing performance as the birds took off: (1) to initiate flight autonomously, (2) to escape a startling stimulus or (3) to aggressively chase a conspecific away from a feeder. Motivation affected performance. Escape and aggressive take-off featured decreased hindlimb contribution (46% and 47%, respectively) and increased flight velocity. When escaping, hummingbirds foreshortened their body movement prior to onset of leg thrust and began beating their wings earlier and at higher frequency. Thus, hummingbirds are capable of modulating their leg and

  8. TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES OF TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRCRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, W. E.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important considerations in the design of a commercial transport aircraft is the aircraft's performance during takeoff and landing operations. The aircraft must be designed to meet field length constraints in accordance with airworthiness standards specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations. In addition, the noise levels generated during these operations must be within acceptable limits. This computer program provides for the detailed analysis of the takeoff and landing performance capabilities of transport category aircraft. The program calculates aircraft performance in accordance with the airworthiness standards of the Federal Aviation Regulations. The aircraft and flight constraints are represented in sufficient detail to permit realistic sensitivity studies in terms of either configuration modifications or changes in operational procedures. This program provides for the detailed performance analysis of the takeoff and landing capabilities of specific aircraft designs and allows for sensitivity studies. The program is not designed to synthesize configurations or to generate aerodynamic, propulsion, or structural characteristics. This type of information must be generated externally to the program and then input as data. The program's representation of the aircraft data is extensive and includes realistic limits on engine and aircraft operational boundaries and maximum attainable lift coefficients. The takeoff and climbout flight-path is generated by a stepwise integration of the equation of motion. Special features include options for nonstandard-day operation, for balanced field length, for derated throttle to meet a given field length for off-loaded aircraft, and for throttle cutback during climbout for community noise alleviation. Advanced takeoff procedures for noise alleviation such as programmed throttle and control flaps may be investigated with the program. Approach profiles may incorporate advanced procedures such as two segment

  9. Advancing Sexuality Studies: A Short Course on Sexuality Theory and Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Gillian; Dowsett, Gary W.; Duncan, Duane; Slavin, Sean; Corboz, Julienne

    2013-01-01

    Critical Sexuality Studies is an emerging field of academic enquiry linked to an international network of advocacy agencies, activists, and political issues. This paper reports on the development of an advanced short course in sexuality theory and research, drawing on Critical Sexuality Studies and aiming directly at academics in developing…

  10. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  11. Effectiveness of the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short Version for Japanese Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Michiyo; Kira, Haruko; Hayashida, Shigeru; Ito, Sayoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short Version for Japanese patients with advanced cancer. Patients learned mindfulness practices and then made art to express their feelings in the first session. After receiving instruction on practicing mindfulness 2 weeks later, they participated in a second…

  12. Evaluation of a takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1987-01-01

    A takeoff performance monitoring system (TOPMS) has been developed to provide the pilot with graphic/numeric information pertinent to his decision to continue or abort a takeoff. The TOPMS instrument display consists primarily of a runway graphic overlaid with symbolic status, predictive, and advisory information including: (1) current position and airspeed, (2) predicted locations for reaching decision speed and rotation speed, (3) groundroll limit for reaching the rotation speed, (4) predicted stop point for an aborted takeoff from current conditions, (5) engine-failure flags, and (6) an overall situation advisory flag which recommends continuation or rejection of the takeoff. In this study, over 30 experienced multiengine pilots evaluated the TOPMS display on the Langley B-737 real-time research simulator. The display was judged to be easy to monitor and comprehend.

  13. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  14. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  15. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  16. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.105 - Takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... takeoff data must be based on— (1) In the case of land planes and amphibians: (i) Smooth, dry and wet..., hard-surfaced runways. (2) Smooth water, in the case of seaplanes and amphibians; and (3) Smooth,...

  18. The calculation of take-off run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1934-01-01

    A comparatively simple method of calculating length of take-off run is developed from the assumption of a linear variation in net accelerating force with air speed and it is shown that the error involved is negligible.

  19. Could preoperative short-course radiotherapy be the treatment of choice for localized advanced rectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, Juan Pablo; Eguiguren, Mikel; Cafiero, Sergio; Uranga, Intza; Diaz de Cerio, Ivan; Querejeta, Arrate; Urraca, Jose Maria; Minguez, Julian; Guimon, Elena; Puertolas, Jose Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Short-course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used in northern Europe for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer, but its role in the era of advanced imaging techniques is uncertain. Here, we reviewed articles and abstracts on SCRT published from 1974 through 2013 with the goal of identifying patients who might be best suited for short-course RT. We included relevant articles comparing surgery with or without preoperative radiation published before and after the advent of total mesorectal excision. We also analyzed two randomized trials directly comparing short-course RT with conventionally fractionated chemoradiation (the Polish Colorectal Study Group and the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group) that compared short-course RT with conventional chemoradiotherapy. We conclude from our review that short-course RT can be generally applied for operable rectal cancer and produces high rates of pelvic control with acceptable toxicity; it reduces local recurrence rates but does not increase overall survival. SCRT seems to be best used for tumors considered “low risk,” i.e., those that are >5 cm from the anal margin, without circumferential margin involvement, and involvement of fewer than 4 lymph nodes. Whether sequential chemotherapy can further improve outcomes remains to be seen, as does the best time for surgery (immediately or 6–8 weeks after RT). We further recommend that selection of patients for short-course RT should be based on findings from magnetic resonance imaging or transrectal ultrasonography. PMID:25535578

  20. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  1. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  2. Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

  3. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  4. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, noise level, and engine cycle characteristics on minimizing fuel consumption and minimizing operating cost at high fuel prices were evaluated for some advanced short-haul aircraft. The conceptual aircraft were designed for 148 passengers using the upper surface-internally blown jet flap, the augmentor wing, and the mechanical flap lift systems. Advanced conceptual STOL engines were evaluated as well as a near-term turbofan and turboprop engine. Emphasis was given to designs meeting noise levels equivalent to 95-100 EPNdB at 152 m (500 ft) sideline.

  5. Superconducting Cavity Design for Short-Pulse X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, R. Nassiri, G. Cheng, R.A. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting cavities have been analyzed for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Due to the strong damping requirements in the APS storage ring, single-cell superconducting cavities have been designed. The geometry has been optimized for lower-order and higher-order mode damping, reduced peak surface magnetic fields, and compact size. The integration of the cavity assembly, with dampers and waveguide input coupler, into a cryomodule will be discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 29.63 - Takeoff: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unfavorable center of gravity. The takeoff may be begun in any manner if— (a) The takeoff surface is defined; (b) Adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper center of gravity and control positions;...

  7. 14 CFR 29.63 - Takeoff: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unfavorable center of gravity. The takeoff may be begun in any manner if— (a) The takeoff surface is defined; (b) Adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper center of gravity and control positions;...

  8. 14 CFR 29.63 - Takeoff: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unfavorable center of gravity. The takeoff may be begun in any manner if— (a) The takeoff surface is defined; (b) Adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper center of gravity and control positions;...

  9. 14 CFR 29.63 - Takeoff: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unfavorable center of gravity. The takeoff may be begun in any manner if— (a) The takeoff surface is defined; (b) Adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper center of gravity and control positions;...

  10. 14 CFR 29.63 - Takeoff: Category B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unfavorable center of gravity. The takeoff may be begun in any manner if— (a) The takeoff surface is defined; (b) Adequate safeguards are maintained to ensure proper center of gravity and control positions;...

  11. 14 CFR 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., that would not allow a safe takeoff: (1) The wing flaps or leading edge devices are not within the approved range of takeoff positions. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control spoilers meeting...

  12. 14 CFR 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., that would not allow a safe takeoff: (1) The wing flaps or leading edge devices are not within the approved range of takeoff positions. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control spoilers meeting...

  13. 14 CFR 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., that would not allow a safe takeoff: (1) The wing flaps or leading edge devices are not within the approved range of takeoff positions. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control spoilers meeting...

  14. 14 CFR 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., that would not allow a safe takeoff: (1) The wing flaps or leading edge devices are not within the approved range of takeoff positions. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control spoilers meeting...

  15. 14 CFR 25.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., that would not allow a safe takeoff: (1) The wing flaps or leading edge devices are not within the approved range of takeoff positions. (2) Wing spoilers (except lateral control spoilers meeting...

  16. 14 CFR 29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., assuming the critical engine failure occurs at the engine failure point prior to the takeoff decision point... the takeoff to the point at which the rotorcraft attains and remains at least 35 feet above the... from the start of the takeoff to the point at which the rotorcraft attains and maintains a speed of...

  17. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  18. Take-off and propeller thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1933-01-01

    As a result of previous reports, it was endeavored to obtain, along with the truest possible comprehension of the course of thrust, a complete, simple and clear formula for the whole take-off distance up to a certain altitude, which shall give the correct relative weight to all the factors.

  19. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  20. 14 CFR 23.53 - Takeoff performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... each engine; (2) Wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (3) Landing gear extended. (c) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter... operating engine(s) within approved operating limitations....

  1. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum... must be accelerated on the ground to VEF at which point the critical engine must be made inoperative... takeoff surface, the available gradient of climb must not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for...

  2. 14 CFR 23.57 - Takeoff path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum... must be accelerated on the ground to VEF at which point the critical engine must be made inoperative... takeoff surface, the available gradient of climb must not be less than— (i) 1.2 percent for...

  3. 14 CFR 23.53 - Takeoff performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... each engine; (2) Wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (3) Landing gear extended. (c) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter... operating engine(s) within approved operating limitations....

  4. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  5. 14 CFR 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.107 Takeoff speeds. (a) V1 must be...., applying brakes, reducing thrust, deploying speed brakes) to stop the airplane during accelerate-stop...

  6. 14 CFR 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.107 Takeoff speeds. (a) V1 must be...., applying brakes, reducing thrust, deploying speed brakes) to stop the airplane during accelerate-stop...

  7. 14 CFR 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.107 Takeoff speeds. (a) V1 must be...., applying brakes, reducing thrust, deploying speed brakes) to stop the airplane during accelerate-stop...

  8. 14 CFR 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.107 Takeoff speeds. (a) V1 must be...., applying brakes, reducing thrust, deploying speed brakes) to stop the airplane during accelerate-stop...

  9. 14 CFR 25.107 - Takeoff speeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.107 Takeoff speeds. (a) V1 must be...., applying brakes, reducing thrust, deploying speed brakes) to stop the airplane during accelerate-stop...

  10. Advanced digital signal processing for short-haul and access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2016-02-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has been proved to be a successful technology recently in high speed and high spectrum-efficiency optical short-haul and access network, which enables high performances based on digital equalizations and compensations. In this paper, we investigate advanced DSP at the transmitter and receiver side for signal pre-equalization and post-equalization in an optical access network. A novel DSP-based digital and optical pre-equalization scheme has been proposed for bandwidth-limited high speed short-distance communication system, which is based on the feedback of receiver-side adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi-modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate 400GE on a single optical carrier based on the highest ETDM 120-GBaud PDM-PAM-4 signal, using one external modulator and coherent detection. A line rate of 480-Gb/s is achieved, which enables 20% forward-error correction (FEC) overhead to keep the 400-Gb/s net information rate. The performance after fiber transmission shows large margin for both short range and metro/regional networks. We also extend the advanced DSP for short haul optical access networks by using high order QAMs. We propose and demonstrate a high speed multi-band CAP-WDM-PON system on intensity modulation, direct detection and digital equalizations. A hybrid modified cascaded MMA post-equalization schemes are used to equalize the multi-band CAP-mQAM signals. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrates 550Gb/s high capacity WDMPON system with 11 WDM channels, 55 sub-bands, and 10-Gb/s per user in the downstream over 40-km SMF.

  11. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  12. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  14. Comprehensive embryo analysis of advanced maternal age-related aneuploidies and mosaicism by short comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mariona; Daina, Gemma; Obradors, Albert; Ramos, Laia; Velilla, Esther; Fernández, Sílvia; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-01-01

    The short comparative genomic hybridization (short-CGH) method was used to perform a comprehensive cytogenetic study of isolated blastomeres from advanced maternal age embryos, discarded after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), detecting aneuploidies (38.5% of which corresponded to chromosomes not screened by 9-chromosome FISH), structural aberrations (31.8%), and mosaicism (77.3%). The short-CGH method was subsequently applied in one PGS, achieving a twin pregnancy.

  15. Touchdown to take-off: at the interface of flight and surface locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roderick, William R T; Cutkosky, Mark R; Lentink, David

    2017-02-06

    Small aerial robots are limited to short mission times because aerodynamic and energy conversion efficiency diminish with scale. One way to extend mission times is to perch, as biological flyers do. Beyond perching, small robot flyers benefit from manoeuvring on surfaces for a diverse set of tasks, including exploration, inspection and collection of samples. These opportunities have prompted an interest in bimodal aerial and surface locomotion on both engineered and natural surfaces. To accomplish such novel robot behaviours, recent efforts have included advancing our understanding of the aerodynamics of surface approach and take-off, the contact dynamics of perching and attachment and making surface locomotion more efficient and robust. While current aerial robots show promise, flying animals, including insects, bats and birds, far surpass them in versatility, reliability and robustness. The maximal size of both perching animals and robots is limited by scaling laws for both adhesion and claw-based surface attachment. Biomechanists can use the current variety of specialized robots as inspiration for probing unknown aspects of bimodal animal locomotion. Similarly, the pitch-up landing manoeuvres and surface attachment techniques of animals can offer an evolutionary design guide for developing robots that perch on more diverse and complex surfaces.

  16. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  17. Study of belly-flaps to enhance lift and pitching moment coefficient of a Blended-Wing-Body airplane in landing and takeoff configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staelens, Yann Daniel

    During the first century of flight few major changes have been made to the configuration of subsonic airplanes. A distinct fuselage with wings, a tail, engines and a landing gear persists as the dominant arrangement. During WWII some companies developed tailless all-wing airplanes. However the concept failed to advance till the late 80's when the B-2, the only flying wing to enter production to date, illustrated its benefits at least for a stealth platform. The advent of the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) addresses the historical shortcomings of all-wing designs, specifically poor volume utility and excess wetted area as a result. The BWB is now poised to become the new standard for large subsonic airplanes. Major aerospace companies are studying the concept for next generation of passenger airplanes. But there are still challenges. One is the BWB's short control lever-arm pitch. This affects rotation and go-around performances. This study presents a possible solution by using a novel type of control surface, a belly-flap, on the under side of the wing to enhance its lift and pitching moment coefficient during landing, go-around and takeoff. Increases of up to 30% in lift-off CL and 8% in positive pitching moment have been achieved during wind tunnel tests on a generic BWB-model with a belly-flap. These aerodynamic improvements when used in a mathematical simulation of landing, go-around and takeoff procedure were showing reduction in landing-field-length by up to 22%, in takeoff-field-length by up to 8% and in loss in altitude between initiation of rotation and actual rotation during go-around by up to 21.5%.

  18. Unsteady flowfield of a propfan at takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Groeneweg, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The unsteady flowfield of a propfan operation at takeoff conditions with angular inflow is examined by solving the three-dimensional Euler equations. The operating conditions considered are: Mach no. = 0.31, advance ratio = 1.6, and inflow angle to the propfan = 8.3 deg. The predicted results clearly show the cyclic variations of the blade power and thrust coefficients due to angular inflow. The flow changes from blade passage to passage are illustrated in terms of static pressure contours. The predicted blade surface pressure waveforms were compared with flight measurements. The predictions at the inboard radial station, r/R = 0.68, show reasonable agreement with flight data. At the outboard radial station, r/R = 0.95, where the interactions of the tip vortex, the tip-region flow and the blade wake appear to result in a complex nonlinear measured response. The prediction shows poor agreement.

  19. Takeoff Performance Monitoring System display options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The development of displays for the Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TPMS) is described with attention given to the three concepts prepared for commercial applications. The TPMS algorithm is described and related to the display requirements for pilots of two-engine airplanes. Head-up and -down displays are considered for displaying the simple advisory data which indicate whether the takeoff is a 'Go' or 'No-go' based on engine failure, acceleration error, and runway length. Six pilots are shown the three display options which include: (1) basic information; (2) basic data with 'Go/No-go' advisory flags; and (3) basic data, advisory flags, and an abort-warning symbol. The pilots tended to select the option with the most advisory data available, but the inconclusive preference study led to the concept of presenting all three configurations as possible display options for the TPMS.

  20. Short-term effects of dietary advanced glycation end products in rats.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Malene W; Andersen, Jeanette M; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Madsen, Andreas N; Krath, Britta N; Monošík, Rastislav; Bak, Monika J; Nielsen, John; Holst, Birgitte; Skibsted, Leif H; Larsen, Lesli H; Dragsted, Lars O

    2016-02-28

    Dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) formed during heating of food have gained interest as potential nutritional toxins with adverse effects on inflammation and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the short-term effects of high and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW) dietary AGE on insulin sensitivity, expression of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), the AGE receptor 1 (AGER1) and TNF-α, F2-isoprostaglandins, body composition and food intake. For 2 weeks, thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 20% milk powder with different proportions of this being given as heated milk powder (0, 40 or 100%), either native (HMW) or hydrolysed (LMW). Gene expression of RAGE and AGER1 in whole blood increased in the group receiving a high AGE LMW diet, which also had the highest urinary excretion of the AGE, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1). Urinary excretion of N ε-carboxymethyl-lysine increased with increasing proportion of heat-treated milk powder in the HMW and LMW diets but was unrelated to gene expression. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity, F2-isoprostaglandins, food intake, water intake, body weight or body composition between the groups. In conclusion, RAGE and AGER1 expression can be influenced by a high AGE diet after only 2 weeks in proportion to MG-H1 excretion. No other short-term effects were observed.

  1. Evaluation of advanced multiplex short tandem repeat systems in pairwise kinship analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomonori; Osawa, Motoki; Ochiai, Eriko; Suzuki, Takanori; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    The AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit, comprising 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, is commonly employed in forensic practice for calculating match probabilities and parentage testing. The conventional system exhibits insufficient estimation for kinship analysis such as sibship testing because of shortness of examined loci. This study evaluated the power of the PowerPlex Fusion System, GlobalFiler Kit, and PowerPlex 21 System, which comprise more than 20 autosomal STR loci, to estimate pairwise blood relatedness (i.e., parent-child, full siblings, second-degree relatives, and first cousins). The genotypes of all 24 STR loci in 10,000 putative pedigrees were constructed by simulation. The likelihood ratio for each locus was calculated from joint probabilities for relatives and non-relatives. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated according to the product rule. The addition of STR loci improved separation between relatives and non-relatives. However, these systems were less effectively extended to the inference for first cousins. In conclusion, these advanced systems will be useful in forensic personal identification, especially in the evaluation of full siblings and second-degree relatives. Moreover, the additional loci may give rise to two major issues of more frequent mutational events and several pairs of linked loci on the same chromosome.

  2. The reduction of takeoff ground roll by the application of a nose gear jump strut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, Joseph C.; Maisel, Martin D.; Mcclain, J. Greer; Luce, W.

    1994-01-01

    A series of flight tests were conducted to evaluate the reduction of takeoff ground roll distance obtainable from a rapid extension of the nose gear strut. The NASA Quiet Short-haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) used for this investigation is a transport-size short take off and landing (STOL) research vehicle with a slightly swept wing that employs the upper surface blowing (USB) concept to attain the high lift levels required for its low-speed, short-field performance. Minor modifications to the conventional nose gear assembly and the addition of a high-pressure pneumatic system and a control system provided the extendable nose gear, or jump strut, capability. The limited flight test program explored the effects of thrust-to-weight ratio, wing loading, storage tank initial pressure, and control valve open time duration on the ground roll distance. The data show that a reduction of takeoff ground roll on the order of 10 percent was achieved with the use of the jump strut, as predicted. Takeoff performance with the jump strut was also found to be essentially independent of the pneumatic supply pressure and was only slightly affected by control valve open time within the range of the parameters examined.

  3. Considerations For Distributed Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-18

    that provides options to the JFC and the overall joint plan. The paper draws conclusions regarding the applicability of the new distributed concept...It also suggests a modification to the concept that provides options to the JFC and the overall joint plan. The paper draws conclusions...Moammar Gadhafi’s Secret Surveillance Network,” WIRED , May 18, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/05/ff_libya/. 14 locate in areas where aircraft can

  4. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.; Pasman, Renee

    2004-01-01

    This report Summarizes the work done is support of NASA/Ames Runway Independent Aircraft Research during the summer of 2003. This work centered on the tasks laid out by the Statement of Work, which was to: Identify and assess operational scenarios including airport air and ground operations and how RIA operations would interface; 2) Identify critical technologies and create a list of technologies that might be pushed to provide a quantum jump in operating economy, reliability, and safety should sufficient finding be available; 3) Create public domain powered high lift methodologies; and 4) Identify and assess vehicle concepts that provide innovative approaches to RIA operations. All these tasks were accomplished, with certain areas needing additional exploration in future grant work. Three designs were analyzed to provide strawman configurations for the RIA operations. All three aircraft carried 60 passengers, with a stage length of 1,000 nautical miles. They were capable of operating with a balanced field length of 2000 feet or less. Three different technology approaches were explored. The first, the Model 115, was a mid-wing USB design, developed as a near-term, low risk concept. The second aircraft, the EMAX, used a directed thrust system, was a far-term, high-risk approach. The third configuration was the Model 114, whose development began in summer 2002. In addition, further research was conducted on issues related to STOL operations, such as noise concerns, SNI operations, and other areas of interest.

  5. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  6. Flight investigation of the use of a nose gear jump strut to reduce takeoff ground roll distance of STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, Joseph C.; Hardy, Gordon; Martin, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A series of flight tests was conducted to evaluate the reduction of takeoff ground roll distance obtainable from a rapid extension of the nose gear strut. The NASA Quiet Short-haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) used for this investigation is a transport-size short takeoff and landing (STOL) research vehicle with a slightly swept wing that employs the upper surface blowing (USB) concept to attain the high lift levels required for its low speed, short-field performance. Minor modifications to the conventional nose gear assembly and the addition of a high pressure pneumatic system and a control system provided the extendible nose gear, or 'jump strut,' capability. The limited flight test program explored the effects of thrust-to-weight ratio, storage tank initial pressure, and control valve open time duration on the ground roll distance. The data show that the predicted reduction of takeoff ground roll on the order of 10 percent was achieved with the use of the jump strut. Takeoff performance with the jump strut was also found to be essentially independent of the pneumatic supply pressure and was only slightly affected by control valve open time within the range of the parameters examined.

  7. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Caravatta, Luciana; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Macchia, Gabriella; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa; Rossi, Marco; Flocco, Mariano; Scapati, Andrea; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  8. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  9. Shipboard trials of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft /QSRA/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.; Strickland, P. B.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of advanced state-of-the-art high lift STOL aircraft in the aircraft carrier environment was evaluated using the NASA Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA). The QSRA made repeated unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs from the USS Kitty Hawk while being flown by three pilots of significant different backgrounds. The exercise demonstrated that the USB propulsive lift technology presents no unusual problems in the aircraft carrier environment. Optimum parameters for landing the QSRA were determined from the shore-based program; these proved satisfactory during operations aboard ship. Correlation of shipboard experience with shore-based data indicates that both free deck takeoffs and unarrested landings could be conducted with zero to 35 knots of wind across the deck of an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk.

  10. Development of SCR Aircraft takeoff and landing procedures for community noise abatement and their impact on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulator studies to determine takeoff and landing procedures for a supersonic cruise transport concept that result in predicted community noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standards are discussed. The results indicate that with the use of advanced procedures, the subject simulated aircraft meets the FAA traded noise levels during takeoff and landing utilizing average flight crew skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating three of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) noise test conditions. These were: (1) thrust cutbacks at altitudes below 214 meters (700 ft); (2) thrust cutback level below those presently allowed; and (3) configuration change, other than raising the landing gear. It was not necessary to violate any FAR noise test conditions during landing approach. It was determined that the advanced procedures developed do not compromise flight safety. Automation of some of the aircraft functions reduced pilot workload, and the development of a simple head-up display to assist in the takeoff flight mode proved to be adequate.

  11. Measurement of Aeroplane Takeoff Speed and Cabin Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two experiments in which a pendulum was used to determine acceleration along the runway during the takeoff of a plane and the takeoff speed. Uses a water-filled nanometer to determines the drop in cabin pressure during the flight. (CCM)

  12. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  13. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  14. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  15. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  16. 14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff warning system. 23.703 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. For commuter category airplanes, unless it can be shown... warning system must be installed and meet the following requirements: (a) The system must provide to...

  17. 14 CFR 23.703 - Takeoff warning system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff warning system. 23.703 Section 23... Control Systems § 23.703 Takeoff warning system. For commuter category airplanes, unless it can be shown... warning system must be installed and meet the following requirements: (a) The system must provide to...

  18. 14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff... each point by a gradient of climb equal to— (1) 0.8 percent for two-engine airplanes; (2) 0.9...

  19. 14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff... each point by a gradient of climb equal to— (1) 0.8 percent for two-engine airplanes; (2) 0.9...

  20. 14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff... each point by a gradient of climb equal to— (1) 0.8 percent for two-engine airplanes; (2) 0.9...

  1. 14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff... each point by a gradient of climb equal to— (1) 0.8 percent for two-engine airplanes; (2) 0.9...

  2. 14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff... each point by a gradient of climb equal to— (1) 0.8 percent for two-engine airplanes; (2) 0.9...

  3. All-sky search for short gravitational-wave bursts in the first Advanced LIGO run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We present the results from an all-sky search for short-duration gravitational waves in the data of the first run of the Advanced LIGO detectors between September 2015 and January 2016. The search algorithms use minimal assumptions on the signal morphology, so they are sensitive to a wide range of sources emitting gravitational waves. The analyses target transient signals with duration ranging from milliseconds to seconds over the frequency band of 32 to 4096 Hz. The first observed gravitational-wave event, GW150914, has been detected with high confidence in this search; the other known gravitational-wave event, GW151226, falls below the search's sensitivity. Besides GW150914, all of the search results are consistent with the expected rate of accidental noise coincidences. Finally, we estimate rate-density limits for a broad range of non-binary-black-hole transient gravitational-wave sources as a function of their gravitational radiation emission energy and their characteristic frequency. These rate-density upper limits are stricter than those previously published by an order of magnitude.

  4. Short-Term Radiographic Complications and Healing Assessment of Single-Session Bilateral Tibial Tuberosity Advancements.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Briana; Barnhart, Matthew; Watson, Adam; Kennedy, Shawn; Naber, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to report on the short-term radiographic complications and bone healing associated with single-session bilateral tibial tuberosity advancements (TTAs). This retrospective study consists of 74 client-owned dogs with bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture that underwent consecutive single-session bilateral TTAs. Radiographs from 74 dogs (148 stifles) were evaluated for evidence of postoperative complications. One hundred forty-three of 148 stifles were scored for radiographic healing using a previously described scoring system. Variables evaluated for a relationship with radiographic complications and healing scores were: breed, age, body weight, sex, and TTA plate type. The overall radiographic complication rate was 17.6% (13/74). Twelve of the 13 radiographic complications were considered to be minor and one was major. Increasing body weight and use of a fork implant were statistically significant factors associated with an increased risk of complication. One hundred forty-three stifle radiographs met the inclusion criteria to be assessed for healing. The mean score was 2.96 out of 4.0. The overall radiographic complication rate and healing scores associated with single-session bilateral TTAs were found to be similar to those described for unilateral TTA.

  5. Short-term outcomes of CyberKnife therapy for advanced high-risk tumors: A report of 160 cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Shan; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Peng; Ma, Jian-Jun; Qu, Zhen; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Jun-Ti; Jia, Xi-Feng

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term outcomes of CyberKnife therapy in patients with advanced high-risk tumors. A total of 201 target areas from 341 advanced high-risk tumor lesions in 160 patients were treated with CyberKnife. A prescribed dose of 18-60 Gy to the gross tumor volume was delivered in 1-6 fractions to complete the entire treatment in 1 week. Radiographic studies and clinical examinations were performed at 1- to 3-month follow-up intervals, and the results were compared to outcomes of 160 similar advanced high-risk tumor patients who were treated by conformal radiotherapy (CRT). After CyberKnife therapy, the short-term improvement in the quality of life was significant according to radiographic study, radioimmunoassay and ZPS scores of these patients. The total rates of objective efficacy and alleviation of ascities were as high as 66.88 and 67.90%. The short-term outcomes in our series of patients with advanced high-risk tumors treated with CyberKnife appeared to be better compared to conventional CRT. CyberKnife may be an option for patients with incurable advanced high-risk tumors, although further studies of the long-term outcomes are required to confirm the validity.

  6. 14 CFR 29.55 - Takeoff decision point (TDP): Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff decision point (TDP): Category A... decision point (TDP): Category A. (a) The TDP is the first point from which a continued takeoff capability is assured under § 29.59 and is the last point in the takeoff path from which a rejected takeoff...

  7. Unmanned air vehicle: autonomous takeoff and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. L.; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon Walker

    2009-12-01

    UAVs are increasing in popularity and sophistication due to the demonstrated performance which cannot be attained by manned aircraft1. These developments have been made possible by development of sensors, instrumentation, telemetry and controls during the last few decades. UAVs are now common in areas such as aerial observation and as communication relays3. Most UAVs, however, are still flown by a human pilot via remote control from a ground station. Even the existing autonomous UAVs often require a human pilot to handle the most difficult tasks of take off and landing2 (TOL). This is mainly because the navigation of the airplane requires observation, constant situational assessment and hours of experience from the pilot himself4. Therefore, an autonomous takeoff and landing system (TLS) for UAVs using a few practical design rules with various sensors, instrumentation, etc has been developed. This paper details the design and modeling of the UAV TLS. The model indicates that the UAV's TLS shows promising stability.

  8. Unmanned air vehicle: autonomous takeoff and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. L.; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon Walker

    2010-03-01

    UAVs are increasing in popularity and sophistication due to the demonstrated performance which cannot be attained by manned aircraft1. These developments have been made possible by development of sensors, instrumentation, telemetry and controls during the last few decades. UAVs are now common in areas such as aerial observation and as communication relays3. Most UAVs, however, are still flown by a human pilot via remote control from a ground station. Even the existing autonomous UAVs often require a human pilot to handle the most difficult tasks of take off and landing2 (TOL). This is mainly because the navigation of the airplane requires observation, constant situational assessment and hours of experience from the pilot himself4. Therefore, an autonomous takeoff and landing system (TLS) for UAVs using a few practical design rules with various sensors, instrumentation, etc has been developed. This paper details the design and modeling of the UAV TLS. The model indicates that the UAV's TLS shows promising stability.

  9. NASA KingAir #801 during takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA KingAir N801NA during takeoff. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. Dryden assumed the mission and aircraft in September 1996. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.

  10. Gas Research Institute advanced stimulation technology: A short course. Held in Calgary, Canada on April 28-29, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This volume includes presentation materials prepared for a short course covering fundamental and practical information needed to understand and apply Advanced Stimulation Technology (AST). AST Deployment Program was designed to overcome barriers to the application of AST in today`s challenging economic environment. In addition to course materials, this workbook includes the short course agenda; a brief overview of AST methodology; a list of presenters with brief survey of their professional credentials and AST experience; concise information on the companies sponsoring the program; and some information on the technology transfer vehicles, i.e., information centers, publications, GRI/Net, and Regional Technology Transfer Agent program.

  11. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  12. Altus I aircraft in flight, retracting landing gear after takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The landing gear of the remotely piloted Altus I aircraft retracts into the fuselage after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, was designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology project, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet.

  13. Model ducted propulsor noise characteristics at takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A model Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The model was designed and manufactured by Pratt & Whitney. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and inlet angles of attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe that identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 10-dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane stator. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by inlet angle of attack at rotor speeds of above 96% design.

  14. 14 CFR 29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... takeoff surface, attains and maintains a speed of at least VTOSS, and establishes a positive rate of climb... least VTOSS and establishes a positive rate of climb, assuming the critical engine failure occurs at...

  15. 14 CFR 29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... takeoff surface, attains and maintains a speed of at least VTOSS, and establishes a positive rate of climb... least VTOSS and establishes a positive rate of climb, assuming the critical engine failure occurs at...

  16. 14 CFR 29.61 - Takeoff distance: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... takeoff surface, attains and maintains a speed of at least VTOSS, and establishes a positive rate of climb... least VTOSS and establishes a positive rate of climb, assuming the critical engine failure occurs at...

  17. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  18. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  19. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.

  20. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  1. The all-sky search for short-duration gravitational-wave bursts with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Ryan; LIGO-Virgo Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Sources of gravitational-wave transients include some of the most energetic events in the universe. In addition to the merger of compact stellar remnants, sources may include the core-collapse of massive stars, neutron star glitches, and cosmic string cusps. Searches for this latter category of transients often make minimal assumptions regarding their exact waveform morphologies, and are thus referred to as unmodeled searches. A network of the Advanced LIGO gravitational-wave detectors recently completed its first scientific data collection run. In this talk, we describe the all-time, all-sky search for unmodeled gravitational-wave transients in Advanced LIGO data.

  2. ADVANCED ARABIC READERS. I, SELECTIONS FROM THE MODERN NOVEL AND SHORT STORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRINNER, WILLIAM M.; KHOURI, MOUNAH A.

    THESE ELEVEN SELECTIONS, THE FIRST OF WHICH IS "THE NOVEL IN MODERN ARABIC LITERATURE," BY MUHAMMAD MANDUR, SERVE AS AN INTRODUCTION TO FORMAL ARABIC PROSE AND TO SOME OF THE "MORE IMPORTANT AND REPRESENTATIVE PRACTITIONERS OF THE ART OF NOVEL AND SHORT STORY WRITING." AT LEAST TWO YEARS OF COLLEGE-LEVEL TRAINING IN ARABIC ARE ASSUMED ON THE PART…

  3. Russian Advanced Course: A Short History of the Development of Russian Language and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint the student with the historical development of the Russian language and literature. Samples of the original works with English translations and lists of recommended readings are provided. Contents include a review of Russian literature by century, samples of the short story "Samizdat," and major…

  4. [Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; He, Jin; Wang, Jieping

    2011-08-01

    The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPRs) can protect bacteria and archaea with adaptive and heritable defense systems against the invasion of phage- and plasmid- associated mobile genetic elements. Here, we review the structure, diversity, mechanism of interference and self versus non-self discrimination of CRISPR systems. We also discuss the potential applications of this novel interference system.

  5. Short x-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.; NIH; SLAC

    2007-11-11

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  6. Short X-ray pulse generation using deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.-C.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Emery, L.; Harkay, K.; Nassiri, A.; Shastri, S.; Waldschmidt, G.; Yang, B.; Anfinrud, P.; Dolgashev, V.

    2007-11-01

    Storage-ring-based third-generation light sources can provide intense radiation pulses with durations as short as 100 ps. However, there is growing interest within the synchrotron radiation user community in performing experiments with much shorter X-ray pulses. Zholents et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 425 (1999) 385] recently proposed using RF orbit deflection to generate sub-ps X-ray pulses. In this scheme, two deflecting cavities are used to deliver a longitudinally dependent vertical kick to the beam. An optical slit can then be used to slice out a short part of the radiation pulse. Implementation of this scheme is planned for one APS beamline in the near future. In this paper, we summarize our feasibility study of this method and the expected X-ray beam parameters. We find that a pulse length of less than two picoseconds can be achieved.

  7. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2016-06-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of a two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, a magnetized beam is compressed with a velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch by a notable factor of 100 (from 15 A to 1.5 kA) while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  8. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  9. 78 FR 28135 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure... from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center (APA-200), FAA Headquarters Building, 800 Independence Avenue...

  10. 75 FR 60304 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    .... John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment Accordingly, pursuant to..., Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 2 Minden, LA, Minden-Webster, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  11. 75 FR 22215 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Wetumpka, AL, Wetumpka Muni, VOR-A, Amdt 2 Windsor Locks, CT, Bradley Intl, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle..., MA, Barnes Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 4 Westminster, MD, Carroll County Rgnl/Jack...

  12. 76 FR 28173 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure... flight operations under instrument flight rules at the affected airports. DATES: This rule is...

  13. 78 FR 64172 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure... flight operations under instrument flight rules at the affected airports. DATES: This rule is...

  14. 77 FR 5693 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure... flight operations under instrument flight rules at the affected airports. DATES: This rule is...

  15. Analysis and Model Tests of Autogiro Jump Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton

    1936-01-01

    An analysis is made of the autogiro jump take-off, in which the kinetic energy of the rotor turning at excess speed is used to effect a vertical take-off. By the use of suitable approximations, the differential equation of motion of the rotor during this maneuver is reduced to a form that can be solved. Only the vertical jump was studied; the effect of a forward motion during the jump is discussed briefly. The results of model tests of the jump take-off have been incorporated in the paper and used to establish the relative accuracy of the results predicted from the analysis. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was obtained by making justifiable allowances.

  16. LOCALIZATION OF SHORT DURATION GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENTS WITH THE EARLY ADVANCED LIGO AND VIRGO DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey

    2015-02-20

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg{sup 2} in 2015 and 60-110 deg{sup 2} in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg{sup 2}. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.

  17. Localization of Short Duration Gravitational-wave Transients with the Early Advanced LIGO and Virgo Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg2 in 2015 and 60-110 deg2 in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg2. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.

  18. Aerodynamic Ground Effect in Fruitfly Sized Insect Takeoff

    PubMed Central

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Maeda, Masateru; Engels, Thomas; Liu, Hao; Schneider, Kai; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic ground effect in flapping-wing insect flight is of importance to comparative morphologies and of interest to the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community. Recent studies, however, show apparently contradictory results of either some significant extra lift or power savings, or zero ground effect. Here we present a numerical study of fruitfly sized insect takeoff with a specific focus on the significance of leg thrust and wing kinematics. Flapping-wing takeoff is studied using numerical modelling and high performance computing. The aerodynamic forces are calculated using a three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver based on a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. It is coupled with a flight dynamics solver that accounts for the body weight, inertia and the leg thrust, while only having two degrees of freedom: the vertical and the longitudinal horizontal displacement. The natural voluntary takeoff of a fruitfly is considered as reference. The parameters of the model are then varied to explore possible effects of interaction between the flapping-wing model and the ground plane. These modified takeoffs include cases with decreased leg thrust parameter, and/or with periodic wing kinematics, constant body pitch angle. The results show that the ground effect during natural voluntary takeoff is negligible. In the modified takeoffs, when the rate of climb is slow, the difference in the aerodynamic forces due to the interaction with the ground is up to 6%. Surprisingly, depending on the kinematics, the difference is either positive or negative, in contrast to the intuition based on the helicopter theory, which suggests positive excess lift. This effect is attributed to unsteady wing-wake interactions. A similar effect is found during hovering. PMID:27019208

  19. Development and operating experience of a short-period superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; Boon, L.; Borland, M.; Capatina, D.; Collins, J.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Jaski, M.; Kasa, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kustom, R.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, J.; Moog, E.; Robinson, D.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Vella, A.; Xiao, A.; Xu, J.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Tsukanov, V.; Makarov, A.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Potratz, D.

    2015-04-01

    A decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator "SCU0" into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  20. Advances in high repetition rate, ultra-short, gigawatt laser systems for time-resolved spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L.F.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this article is to emphasize the current advances in the development of high-repetition rate amplifier pumps. Although this review highlights amplifier pump development, any recent data from achieved outputs via the tunable amplifier section is also discussed. The first section describes desirable parameters attributable to the pump amplifier while the rest of the article deals with specific examples for various options. The pump amplifiers can be characterized into two distinct classes; those achieving operation in the hundred hertz regime and those performing at repetition rates {ge}1kHz. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Advances in high repetition rate, ultra-short, gigawatt laser systems for time-resolved spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    DiMauro, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this article is to emphasize the current advances in the development of high-repetition rate amplifier pumps. Although this review highlights amplifier pump development, any recent data from achieved outputs via the tunable amplifier section is also discussed. The first section describes desirable parameters attributable to the pump amplifier while the rest of the article deals with specific examples for various options. The pump amplifiers can be characterized into two distinct classes; those achieving operation in the hundred hertz regime and those performing at repetition rates {ge}1kHz. 23 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House -- Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, D.; Brozyna, K.; Imm, C.

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian Homes), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft2 slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, R. and Engebrecht, C. 'Building America House Simulation Protocols.' Golden, CO: National Renewable EnergyLaboratory, 2010) while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic toconditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing ofindividual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  3. Short-Term Monitoring Results for Advanced New Construction Test House - Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, D.; Brozyna, K.; Imm, C.

    2013-09-01

    A builder (K. Hovnanian® Homes®), design consultant, and trades collaborated to identify a systems integrated measures package for a 2,253-ft² slab-on-grade ranch house to achieve a modeled energy savings of 60% with respect to the Building America House Simulation Protocols, while minimizing construction costs and without requiring changes to the drawing that would impact local code or zoning approval. The key building improvements were applying R-10 insulation to the slab edge, increasing exterior wall cavity insulation from R-13 to R-15, and increasing attic insulation from R-30 to R-38. Also, the air handling unit was relocated from the attic to conditioned space, and ductwork was relocated along the attic floor with an insulated bulkhead built above it. Short-term testing results showed that duct air leakage was low due to short duct runs and the placement of ductwork in conditioned space. However, during commissioning, the lack of access for servicing the ductwork and dampers in the bulkhead area prevented retroactive balancing of individual branches, resulting in significant differences between specified and measured airflow values for some duct runs. Thermal imaging results performed on the house when operating in both heating and cooling modes validated historic stratification issues of ceiling supply registers with high supply air temperatures. Long-term monitoring results will be detailed in a future report.

  4. Advanced concepts for high-power, short-pulse CO2 laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Daniel F.; Hasson, Victor; von Bergmann, Hubertus; Chen, Yu-hsin; Schmitt-Sody, A.; Penano, Joseph R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers are dominated by solid-state technology, which typically operates in the near-infrared. Efforts to extend this technology to longer wavelengths are meeting with some success, but the trend remains that longer wavelengths correlate with greatly reduced power. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is capable of delivering high energy, 10 micron wavelength pulses, but the gain structure makes operating in the ultra-short pulse regime difficult. The Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory are developing a novel CO2 laser designed to deliver ~1 Joule, ~1 picosecond pulses, from a compact gain volume (~2x2x80 cm). The design is based on injection seeding an unstable resonator, in order to achieve high energy extraction efficiency, and to take advantage of power broadening. The unstable resonator is seeded by a solid state front end, pumped by a custom built titanium sapphire laser matched to the CO2 laser bandwidth. In order to access a broader range of mid infrared wavelengths using CO2 lasers, one must consider nonlinear frequency multiplication, which is non-trivial due to the bandwidth of the 10 micron radiation.

  5. 78 FR 7652 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure..., individual SIAP and Takeoff Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center...

  6. 78 FR 50326 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure..., individual SIAP and Takeoff Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center...

  7. 77 FR 56762 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure..., individual SIAP and Takeoff Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center...

  8. Take-off Distances of a Supersonic Transport Configuration as Affected by Airplane Rotation During the Take-off Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert W.

    1961-01-01

    The take-off distances over a 35-foot obstacle have been determined for a supersonic transport configuration characterized by a low maximum lift coefficient at a high angle of attack and by high drag due to lift. These distances were determined analytically by means of an electronic digital computer. The effects of rotation speed, rotation angle, and rotation time were determined. A few configuration changes were made to determine the effects of thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, maximum lift coefficient, and induced drag on the take-off distance. The required runway lengths based on Special Civil Air Regulation No. SR-422B were determined for various values of rotation speed and compared with those based on full engine power. Increasing or decreasing the rotation speed as much as 5 knots from the value at which the minimum take-off distance occurred increased the distance only slightly more than 1 percent for the configuration studied. Under-rotation by 1 deg to 1.5 deg increased the take-off distance by 9 to 15 percent. Increasing the time required for rotation from 3 to 5 seconds had a rather small effect on the take-off distance when the values of rotation speed were near the values which result in the shortest take-off distance. When the runway length is based on full engine power rather than on SR-422B, the rotation speed which results in the shortest required runway length is 10 knots lower and the runway length is 4.3 percent less.

  9. Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicle with Increased Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J. (Inventor); Moore, Mark D. (Inventor); Busan, Ronald C. (Inventor); Rothhaar, Paul M. (Inventor); North, David D. (Inventor); Langford, William M. (Inventor); Laws, Christopher T. (Inventor); Hodges, William T. (Inventor); Johns, Zachary R. (Inventor); Webb, Sandy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that combine an advance vehicle configuration, such as an advanced aircraft configuration, with the infusion of electric propulsion, thereby enabling a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining a full vertical takeoff and landing ("VTOL") and hover capability for the vehicle. Embodiments may provide vehicles with both VTOL and cruise efficient capabilities without the use of ground infrastructure. An embodiment vehicle may comprise a wing configured to tilt through a range of motion, a first series of electric motors coupled to the wing and each configured to drive an associated wing propeller, a tail configured to tilt through the range of motion, a second series of electric motors coupled to the tail and each configured to drive an associated tail propeller, and an electric propulsion system connected to the first series of electric motors and the second series of electric motors.

  10. IBPRO - A Novel Short-Duration Teaching Course in Advanced Physics and Biology Underlying Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Michael C; Tracey, Monica W; Kacin, Sara E; Burmeister, Jay W

    2017-03-22

    This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists. These attendees receive keynote lectures and activities based on active learning strategies, merging together the clinical, biological and physics underpinnings of radiation oncology, at the forefront of the field. This experience is aimed at increasing collaborations, raising the level and amount of basic and applied research undertaken in radiation oncology, and enabling attendees to confidently become involved in the future teaching and training of researchers and radiation oncologists.

  11. A phase I trial of chlorambucil administered in short pulses in patients with advanced malignancies.

    PubMed

    Blumenreich, M S; Woodcock, T M; Sherrill, E J; Richman, S P; Gentile, P S; Epremian, B E; Kubota, T T; Allegra, J C

    1988-01-01

    We carried out a phase I trial with chlorambucil. Thirty patients with advanced cancer were entered in six dose levels: 36, 48, 60, 84, 108, and 144 mg/m2. The drug was given in six divided oral doses every 6 hours and the regimen was repeated every 3 weeks. The median age was 62 years (31-84), median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) 60 (40-90). All patients but one had received prior radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both. Central nervous system toxicity was dose limiting, occurring in 5 of 6 patients at 144 mg/m2. It was characterized by transient seizures, hallucinations, lethargy, stupor, and coma. Metoclopramide was successful in controlling nausea and vomiting, which was severe if the antiemetic was not used. Leukopenia (3 patients) and thrombocytopenia (2 patients) were mild. One patient with colorectal carcinoma had a minor response, and two patients with non-small cell lung cancer had stable disease. A safe dose for phase II trials is 108 mg/m2 in six 6-hourly oral doses.

  12. Superconducting Multi-Cell Deflecting Cavity for Short-Pulse X-Ray Generation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, L.H. Morrison, R. Nassiri, R.A. Rimmer, K. Tian, H. Wang

    2009-05-01

    A superconducting multi-cell cavity for the production of short x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been explored as an alternative to a single-cell cavity design in order to improve the packing factor and potentially reduce the number of high-power RF systems and low-level RF controls required. The cavity will operate at 2815 MHz in the APS storage ring and will require heavy damping of parasitic modes to maintain stable beam operation. Novel on-cell dampers, attached directly to the cavity body, have been utilized by taking advantage of the magnetic field null on the equatorial plane in order to enhance damping. Design issues and simulation results will be discussed.

  13. High-power Waveguide Dampers for the Short-Pulse X-Ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G J; Liu, J; Middendorf, M E; Nassiri, A; Smith, T L; Wu, G; Henry, J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wiseman, M

    2012-07-01

    High-power waveguide dampers have been designed and prototyped for the Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) cavities at the Advanced Photon Source. The cavities will operate at 2.815 GHz and utilize the TM110 dipole mode. As a result, higher-order (HOM) and lower-order mode (LOM) in-vacuum dampers have been designed to satisfy the demanding broadband damping requirements in the APS storage ring. The SPX single-cell cavity consists of two WR284 waveguides for damping the HOMs and one WR284 waveguide for primarily damping the LOM where up to 2kW will be dissipated in the damping material. The damper designs and high-power experimental results will be discussed in this paper.

  14. Status of the Short-Pulse X-ray Project (SPX) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, R; Berenc, G; Borland, M; Bromberek, D J; Chae, Y -C; Decker, G; Emery, L; Fuerst, J D; Grelick, A E; Horan, D; Lenkszus, F; Lill, R M; Sajaev, V; Smith, T L; Waldschmidt, G J; Wu, G; Yang, B X; Zholents, A; Byrd, J M; Doolittle, L R; Huang, G; Cheng, G; Ciovati, G; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Turlington, L; Wang, H

    2011-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project (APS-U) at Argonne includes implementation of Zholents’* deflecting cavity scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. This is a joint project between Argonne National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This paper describes performance characteristics of the proposed source and technical issues related to its realization. Ensuring stable APS storage ring operation requires reducing quality factors of these modes by many orders of magnitude. These challenges reduce to those of the design of a single-cell SC cavity that can achieve the desired operating deflecting fields while providing needed damping of all these modes. The project team is currently prototyping and testing several promising designs for single-cell cavities with the goal of deciding on a winning design in the near future. Here

  15. The Wakefield Effects of Pulsed Crab Cavities at the Advanced Photon Source for Short-X-ray Pulse Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Y.-C.; Waldschmidt, G.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    In recent years we have explored the application to the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Zholents' crab-cavity based scheme for production of short x-ray pulses. As a near-term project, the APS has elected to pursue a pulsed system using room-temperature cavities. The cavity design has been optimized to heavily damp parasitic modes while maintaining large shunt impedance for the deflecting dipole mode. We evaluated a system consisting of three crab cavities as an impedance source and determined their effect on the single- and multi-bunch instabilities. In the single-bunch instability we used the APS impedance model as the reference system in order to predict the overall performance of the ring when the crab cavities are installed in the future. For multi-bunch instabilities we used a realistic fill pattern, including hybrid-fill, and tracked multiple bunches where each bunch was treated as soft in distribution.

  16. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  17. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  18. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  19. Aerodynamics of a beetle in take-off flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the aerodynamics of a beetle in its take-off flights based on the three-dimensional kinematics of inner (hindwing) and outer (elytron) wings, and body postures, which are measured with three high-speed cameras at 2000 fps. To track the highly deformable wing motions, we distribute 21 morphological markers and use the modified direct linear transform algorithm for the reconstruction of measured wing motions. To realize different take-off conditions, we consider two types of take-off flights; that is, one is the take-off from a flat ground and the other is from a vertical rod mimicking a branch of a tree. It is first found that the elytron which is flapped passively due to the motion of hindwing also has non-negligible wing-kinematic parameters. With the ground, the flapping amplitude of elytron is reduced and the hindwing changes its flapping angular velocity during up and downstrokes. On the other hand, the angle of attack on the elytron and hindwing increases and decreases, respectively, due to the ground. These changes in the wing motion are critically related to the aerodynamic force generation, which will be discussed in detail. Supported by the grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration (UD130070ID).

  20. 14 CFR 29.1047 - Takeoff cooling test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... takeoff and subsequent climb as follows: (1) Each temperature must be stabilized while hovering in ground...; and (iii) The maximum weight. (2) After the temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be started at... must be changed to that used in meeting § 29.67(a)(2) and the climb must be continued for— (i)...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1047 - Takeoff cooling test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... takeoff and subsequent climb as follows: (1) Each temperature must be stabilized while hovering in ground...; and (iii) The maximum weight. (2) After the temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be started at... must be changed to that used in meeting § 29.67(a)(2) and the climb must be continued for— (i)...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1047 - Takeoff cooling test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... takeoff and subsequent climb as follows: (1) Each temperature must be stabilized while hovering in ground...; and (iii) The maximum weight. (2) After the temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be started at... must be changed to that used in meeting § 29.67(a)(2) and the climb must be continued for— (i)...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1047 - Takeoff cooling test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... takeoff and subsequent climb as follows: (1) Each temperature must be stabilized while hovering in ground...; and (iii) The maximum weight. (2) After the temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be started at... must be changed to that used in meeting § 29.67(a)(2) and the climb must be continued for— (i)...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1047 - Takeoff cooling test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... takeoff and subsequent climb as follows: (1) Each temperature must be stabilized while hovering in ground...; and (iii) The maximum weight. (2) After the temperatures have stabilized, a climb must be started at... must be changed to that used in meeting § 29.67(a)(2) and the climb must be continued for— (i)...

  5. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following additional information: (A) The placement of seat backs in an upright position before takeoff and... the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (4) The requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this... assisting the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (b) Each certificate holder must carry...

  6. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following additional information: (A) The placement of seat backs in an upright position before takeoff and... the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (4) The requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this... assisting the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (b) Each certificate holder must carry...

  7. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following additional information: (A) The placement of seat backs in an upright position before takeoff and... the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (4) The requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this... assisting the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (b) Each certificate holder must carry...

  8. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following additional information: (A) The placement of seat backs in an upright position before takeoff and... the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (4) The requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this... assisting the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (b) Each certificate holder must carry...

  9. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... following additional information: (A) The placement of seat backs in an upright position before takeoff and... the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (4) The requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this... assisting the person so as to prevent pain and further injury. (b) Each certificate holder must carry...

  10. Optical design of the Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, R.; Keavney, D. J.; Borland, M.; Young, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Short Pulse X-ray facility planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade will provide two sectors with photon beams having picosecond pulse duration. The Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (SPSXS) beamline will cover the 150–2000 eV energy range using an APS bending magnet. SPSXS is designed to take full advantage of this new timing capability in addition to providing circular polarized radiation. Since the correlation between time and electron momentum is in the vertical plane, the monochromator disperses in the horizontal plane. The beamline is designed to maximize flux and preserve the time resolution by minimizing the number of optical components. The optical design allows the pulse duration to be varied from 1.5 to 100 ps full width at half-maximum (FWHM) without affecting the energy resolution, and the resolution to be changed with minimal effect on the pulse duration. More than 109 photons s−1 will reach the sample with a resolving power of 2000 and a pulse duration of ∼2 ps for photon energies between 150 and 1750 eV. The spot size expected at the sample position will vary with pulse duration and exit slit opening. At 900 eV and at a resolving power of 2000 the spot will be ∼10 µm × 10 µm with a pulse duration of 2.3 ps FWHM. PMID:23765311

  11. Determination of optimal trajectories for an aircraft returning to the runway following a complete loss of thrust after takeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Craig A.

    This thesis examines the ability of a small, single-engine airplane to return to the runway following an engine failure shortly after takeoff. Two sets of trajectories are examined. One set of trajectories has the airplane fly a straight climb on the runway heading until engine failure. The other set of trajectories has the airplane perform a 90° turn at an altitude of 500 feet and continue until engine failure. Various combinations of wind speed, wind direction, and engine failure times are examined. The runway length required to complete the entire flight from the beginning of the takeoff roll to wheels stop following the return to the runway after engine failure is calculated for each case. The optimal trajectories following engine failure consist of three distinct segments: a turn back toward the runway using a large bank angle and angle of attack; a straight glide; and a reversal turn to align the airplane with the runway. The 90° turn results in much shorter required runway lengths at lower headwind speeds. At higher headwind speeds, both sets of trajectories are limited by the length of runway required for the landing rollout, but the straight climb cases generally require a lower angle of attack to complete the flight. The glide back to the runway is performed at an airspeed below the best glide speed of the airplane due to the need to conserve potential energy after the completion of the turn back toward the runway. The results are highly dependent on the rate of climb of the airplane during powered flight. The results of this study can aid the pilot in determining whether or not a return to the runway could be performed in the event of an engine failure given the specific wind conditions and runway length at the time of takeoff. The results can also guide the pilot in determining the takeoff profile that would offer the greatest advantage in returning to the runway.

  12. Power take-off analysis for diagonally connected MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y C; Doss, E D

    1980-01-01

    The electrical loading of the power take-off region of diagonally connected MHD channels is investigated by a two-dimensional model. The study examines the loading schemes typical of those proposed for the U-25 and U-25 Bypass channels. The model is applicable for the following four cases: (1) connection with diodes only, (2) connection with diodes and equal resistors, (3) connection with diodes and variable resistances to obtain a given current distribution, and (4) connection with diodes and variable resistors under changing load. The analysis is applicable for the power take-off regions of single or multiple-output systems. The general behaviors of the current and the potential distributions in all four cases are discussed. The analytical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found possible to design the electrical circuit of the channel in the take-off region so as to achieve a fairly even load current output under changing total load current.

  13. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  14. Effects of airplane characteristics and takeoff noise and field length constraints on engine cycle selection for a Mach 2.32 cruise application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Sideline noise and takeoff field length were varied for two types of Mach 2.32 cruise airplane to determine their effect on engine cycle selection. One of these airplanes was the NASA/Langley-LTV arrow wing while the other was a Boeing modified delta-plus-tail derived from the earlier 2707-300 concept. Advanced variable cycle engines were considered. A more conventional advanced low bypass turbofan engine was used as a baseline for comparison. Appropriate exhaust nozzle modifications were assumed, where needed, to allow all engines to receive either an inherent co-annular or annular jet noise suppression benefit. All the VCE's out-performed the baseline engine by substantial margins in a design range comparison, regardless of airplane choice or takeoff restrictions. The choice among the three VCE's considered, however, depends on the field length, noise level, and airplane selected.

  15. Behavior, fate, and mass loading of short chain chlorinated paraffins in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixi; Li, Huijuan; Wang, Thanh; Gao, Yan; Xiao, Ke; Du, Yuguo; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-15

    Sewage treatment plants (STP) are an important source of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) to the ambient environment through discharge of effluent and application of sludge. In this work, a field study was conducted to determine the behavior and possible removal of SCCPs during the sewage treatment process in an advanced municipal STP in Beijing, China. SCCPs were detected in all sewage water and sludge samples, and 97% of the initial mass loading in raw sewage was found to be associated with suspended matter. The total concentrations in raw influent, tertiary effluent, and dewatered sludge were 184 ± 19 ng/L, 27 ± 6 ng/L, and 15.6 ± 1.4 μg/g dry weight (d.w.), respectively. The dissolved concentrations of total SCCPs (∑SCCPs) significantly decreased during mechanical, biological, and chemical treatments. SCCP homologue profiles in aqueous phase were distinctly different from those in solid phase. Along the treatment process, the relative abundance of shorter chain and lower chlorinated congeners gradually increased in sewage water, but no obvious variations of homologue profiles were found in sludge. Mass flow analysis indicated, the removal efficiency in aqueous phase for ∑SCCPs was 82.2%, and the congener-specific removal efficiencies were positively related to their solid-water partition coefficients (K(d)). Mass balance results indicated that 0.8% and 72.6% of the initial SCCP mass loading were ultimately found in the effluents and dewatered sludge, respectively, while the remaining 26.6% was lost mainly due to biodegradation/biotransformation. It was suggested that the activated sludge system including basic anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic processes played an effective role in removing SCCPs from the wastewater, while the sorption to sludge by hydrophobic interactions was an important fate of SCCPs during the sewage treatment.

  16. Simulator evaluation of takeoff performance monitoring system displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari

    1988-01-01

    The development of head-up and head-down cockpit displays to convey symbolic status and advisory information to the pilot to aid him in his decision to continue or abort takeoff is described. It also describes a pilot-in-the-loop evaluation of the displays using the NASA Langley transport systems research vehicle fixed-base simulator. It was found that the head-up display was monitored with little effort and did not obstruct or distract from the runway scene.

  17. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  18. 76 FR 1355 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure.... SUMMARY: This rule establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... Takeoff Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center (APA-200),...

  19. 76 FR 64005 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ..., Rantoul Natl Avn Cntr-Frank Elliott Fld, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 1 Dodge City, KS, Dodge... and Obstacle DP, Orig Miles City, MT, Frank Wiley Field, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Miles City, MT, Frank Wiley Field, VOR RWY 4, Amdt 12 Miles City, MT, Frank Wiley Field, VOR/DME RWY 4,...

  20. 76 FR 52239 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... commerce, I find that notice and public procedures before adopting these SIAPS, Takeoff Minimums and ODPs... Executive, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 2B Red Hook, NY, Sky Park, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig, CANCELLED Red Hook, NY, Sky Park, VOR OR GPS RWY 1, Amdt 5, CANCELLED Gallipolis, OH, Gallia-Meigs Rgnl, VOR OR...

  1. 75 FR 39152 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ..., Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Homerville, GA, Homerville, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 4 McRae, GA, Telfair-Wheeler, RNAV (GPS) RWY 21, Amdt 1 McRae, GA, Telfair-Wheeler, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt...

  2. 14 CFR 121.637 - Takeoffs from unlisted and alternate airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.637 Section 121.637 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.637 Takeoffs from unlisted and alternate airports: Domestic and flag operations. (a) No pilot may takeoff an airplane from an airport that is not listed in the...

  3. 14 CFR 121.637 - Takeoffs from unlisted and alternate airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.637 Section 121.637 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.637 Takeoffs from unlisted and alternate airports: Domestic and flag operations. (a) No pilot may takeoff an airplane from an airport that is not listed in the...

  4. 75 FR 35629 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ..., Summerville, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 1 Big Spring, TX, Big Springs Mc Mahon-Wrinkle, RNAV (GPS) RWY 17, Amdt 1 Big Spring, TX, Big Springs Mc Mahon-Wrinkle, RNAV (GPS) RWY 35, Amdt 1 Big Spring, TX, Big Springs Mc Mahon-Wrinkle, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 2 Brenham, TX, Brenham Muni,...

  5. 14 CFR 125.381 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR... § 125.381 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) Regardless of any clearance from ATC, if the reported weather conditions are less than that specified in the certificate holder's...

  6. 14 CFR 125.381 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR... § 125.381 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) Regardless of any clearance from ATC, if the reported weather conditions are less than that specified in the certificate holder's...

  7. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  8. 14 CFR 125.381 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR... § 125.381 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) Regardless of any clearance from ATC, if the reported weather conditions are less than that specified in the certificate holder's...

  9. 14 CFR 125.381 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR... § 125.381 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) Regardless of any clearance from ATC, if the reported weather conditions are less than that specified in the certificate holder's...

  10. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  11. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  12. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  13. 14 CFR 125.381 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR... § 125.381 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: IFR. (a) Regardless of any clearance from ATC, if the reported weather conditions are less than that specified in the certificate holder's...

  14. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  15. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  16. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  17. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  18. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  19. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight greater than that listed in...

  20. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s)...

  1. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s)...

  2. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... automatically assumes; (b) The remaining engine(s) at takeoff power; (c) The landing gear extended, except that if the landing gear can be retracted in not more than seven seconds, the test may be conducted with the gear retracted; (d) The wing flaps in the takeoff position(s): (e) The wings level; and (f)...

  3. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automatically assumes; (b) The remaining engine(s) at takeoff power; (c) The landing gear extended, except that if the landing gear can be retracted in not more than seven seconds, the test may be conducted with the gear retracted; (d) The wing flaps in the takeoff position(s): (e) The wings level; and (f)...

  4. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of § 29.59(a) must be met; (2) While attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft... positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted. (b) The scheduled takeoff weight must be such that the climb requirements of § 29.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met. (c) Takeoff distance will...

  5. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. 23... Performance § 23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category... airplanes in the normal, utility, and acrobatic category, the steady gradient of climb or descent must...

  6. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of § 29.59(a) must be met; (2) While attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft... positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted. (b) The scheduled takeoff weight must be such that the climb requirements of § 29.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met. (c) Takeoff distance will...

  7. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. 23... Performance § 23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category... airplanes in the normal, utility, and acrobatic category, the steady gradient of climb or descent must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.66 - Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. 23... Performance § 23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category... airplanes in the normal, utility, and acrobatic category, the steady gradient of climb or descent must...

  9. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of § 29.59(a) must be met; (2) While attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft... positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted. (b) The scheduled takeoff weight must be such that the climb requirements of § 29.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met. (c) Takeoff distance will...

  10. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of § 29.59(a) must be met; (2) While attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft... positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted. (b) The scheduled takeoff weight must be such that the climb requirements of § 29.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met. (c) Takeoff distance will...

  11. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of § 29.59(a) must be met; (2) While attaining VTOSS and a positive rate of climb, the rotorcraft... positive rate of climb, the landing gear may be retracted. (b) The scheduled takeoff weight must be such that the climb requirements of § 29.67 (a)(1) and (a)(2) will be met. (c) Takeoff distance will...

  12. Effect of Accessory Power Take-off Variation on a Turbofan Engine Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-26

    EFFECT OF ACCESSORY POWER TAKE-OFF VARIATION ON A TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE THESIS...ACCESSORY POWER TAKE-OFF VARIATIONS ON A TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and...TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE Anis Faidi, BS 1st Lieutenant, TUNAF Approved

  13. The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the take-off of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the air-borne part of the take-off as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual take-off tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom take-offs under several loading and take-off speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated.

  14. Biomechanical and dynamic mechanism of locust take-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dian-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Mao; Chen, Ke-Wei; Li, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    The biomimetic locust robot hopping vehicle has promising applications in planet exploration and reconnaissance. This paper explores the bionic dynamics model of locust jumping by using high-speed video and force analysis. This paper applies hybrid rigid-flexible mechanisms to bionic locust hopping and studies its dynamics with emphasis laid on the relationship between force and jumping performance. The hybrid rigid-flexible model is introduced in the analysis of locust mechanism to address the principles of dynamics that govern locust joints and mechanisms during energy storage and take-off. The dynamic response of the biomimetic mechanism is studied by considering the flexibility according to the locust jumping dynamics mechanism. A multi-rigid-body dynamics model of locust jumping is established and analyzed based on Lagrange method; elastic knee and tarsus mechanisms that were proposed in previous works are analyzed alongside the original bionic joint configurations and their machinery principles. This work offers primary theories for take-off dynamics and establishes a theoretical basis for future studies and engineering applications.

  15. Whiteflies stabilize their take-off with closed wings.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Dafni, Eyal; Gerling, Dan

    2016-06-01

    The transition from ground to air in flying animals is often assisted by the legs pushing against the ground as the wings start to flap. Here, we show that when tiny whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, body length ca. 1 mm) perform take-off jumps with closed wings, the abrupt push against the ground sends the insect into the air rotating forward in the sagittal (pitch) plane. However, in the air, B. tabaci can recover from this rotation remarkably fast (less than 11 ms), even before spreading its wings and flapping. The timing of body rotation in air, a simplified biomechanical model and take-off in insects with removed wings all suggest that the wings, resting backwards alongside the body, stabilize motion through air to prevent somersaulting. The increased aerodynamic force at the posterior tip of the body results in a pitching moment that stops body rotation. Wing deployment increases the pitching moment further, returning the body to a suitable angle for flight. This inherent stabilizing mechanism is made possible by the wing shape and size, in which half of the wing area is located behind the posterior tip of the abdomen.

  16. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  17. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  18. Building advanced climatology of short-wave solar radiation over the global oceans using a new parameterization of short wave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, M.; Sinitsyn, A.; Gulev, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Short-wave (SW) radiation is one of the key air-sea flux components playing an important role in on the ocean heat balance. Global climatologies of SW radiation are now available from different satellite missions and reanalyses. However, satellite based products cover only the last few decades and in reanalyses SW radiation appears to be one of the most inaccurate diagnostic variables. An alternative way to produce long-term time series of SW radiation is to use Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data and bulk parameterizations of SW radiation. Nevertheless, during the last years there was a little of effort to improve existing parameterizations of SW radiation which are typically based on the radiative flux dependencies on the total cloud cover and solar altitude. We make use a full collection of VOS data from the International Comprehensive Data Set (ICOADS) and a new parameterization of SW radiation developed at the Sea Atmosphere Interaction And Climate Laboratory of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (SAIL) to produce a new generation global gridded data set for SW radiation for the period 1900-2008. The major feature of the SAIL parameterization is the use of the information about cloud types along with the routine information about total cloud cover. This approach allows for derivation of different dependencies of the atmospheric transmission functions onto cloud amount for different types of clouds. Relationships parameterizing these dependencies were developed using 4 years of highly accurate in-situ measurements in the Atlantic. This approach results in a critical improvement of the results for the situations close to complete overcast (6-8 oktas)..Using new parameterization and special approaches to avoid inhomogeneous sampling effect we developed a global monthly climatology of SW radiative fluxes over the global ocean at a 2-degree resolution. Special attention has been paid to the homogenization of fields in the Southern Ocean characterized by extremely

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  20. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  1. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  2. A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on short and long haul cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on Breguet cruise range and take-off distance for subsonic cruise aircraft showed significant differences between short- and long-haul aircraft designs. Large thrust lapse rates at high bypass ratios caused severe reductions in cruise range for short-haul aircraft because of increases in propulsion system weight. Long-haul aircraft, with a higher fuel fraction (ratio of propulsion weight plus total fuel weight to gross take-off weight), are less sensitive to propulsion-system weight and, accordingly, were not significantly affected by bypass-ratio variations. Both types of aircraft have shorter take-off distances at higher bypass ratios because of higher take-off thrust-weight ratios.

  3. Advanced prediction technique for the low speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Technical discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, T. D.; Worthey, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The V/STOL Aircraft Propulsive Effects (VAPE) computerized prediction method is evaluated. The program analyzes viscous effects, various jet, inlet, and Short TakeOff and Landing (STOL) models, and examines the aerodynamic configurations of V/STOL aircraft.

  4. Ascent performance issues of a vertical-takeoff rocket launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Naftel, J. C.; Cruz, Christopher I.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced manned launch systems studies under way at the NASA Langley Research Center are part of a broader effort that is examining options for the next manned space transportation system to be developed by the United States. One promising concept that uses near-term technologies is a fully reusable, two-stage vertical-takeoff rocket vehicle. This vehicle features parallel thrusting of the booster and orbiter with the booster cross-feeding the propellant to the orbiter until staging. In addition, after staging, the booster glides back unpowered to the launch site. This study concentrated on two issues that could affect the ascent performance of this vehicle. The first is the large gimbal angle range required for pitch trim until staging because of the propellant cross-feed. Results from this analysis show that if control is provided by gimballing of the rocket engines, they must gimbal greater than 20 deg, which is excessive when compared with current vehicles. However, this analysis also showed that this limit could be reduced to 10 deg if gimballing were augmented by throttling the booster engines. The second issue is the potential influence of off-nominal atmospheric conditions (density and winds) on the ascent performance. This study showed that a robust guidance algorithm could be developed that would insure accurate insertion, without prelaunch atmospheric knowledge.

  5. Far-field noise and internal modes from a ducted propeller at simulated aircraft takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The ducted propeller offers structural and acoustic benefits typical of conventional turbofan engines while retaining much of the aeroacoustic benefits of the unducted propeller. A model Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The ADP model was designed and manufactured by the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and propeller axis angles-of-attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe which identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 5 dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane sector, which may relate to inlet duct geometry. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by propeller axis angle-of-attack at rotor speeds of at least 96 percent design.

  6. Measured noise of a scale model high speed propeller at simulated takeoff/approach conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    A model high-speed advanced propeller, SR-7A, was tested in the NASA Lewis 9x15 foot anechoic wind tunnel at simulated takeoff/approach conditions of 0.2 Mach number. These tests were in support of the full-scale Propfan Text Assessment (PTA) flight program. Acoustic measurements were taken with fixed microphone arrays and with an axially translating microphone probe. Limited aerodynamic measurements were also taken to establish the propeller operating conditions. Tests were conducted with the propeller alone and with three down-stream wing configurations. The propeller was run over a range of blade setting angles from 32.0 deg. to 43.6 deg., tip speeds from 183 to 290 m/sec (600 to 950 ft/sec), and angles of attack from -10 deg. to +15 deg. The propeller alone BPF tone noise was found to increase 10 dB in the flyover plane at 15 deg. propeller axis angle of attack. The installation of the straight wing at minimum spacing of 0.54 wing chord increased the tone noise 5 dB under the wing of 10 deg. propeller axis angle of attack, while a similarly spaced inboard upswept wing only increased the tone noise 2 dB.

  7. Far-field noise and internal modes from a ducted propeller at simulated aircraft takeoff conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The ducted propeller offers structural and acoustic benefits typical of conventional turbofan engines while retaining much of the aeroacoustic benefits of the unducted propeller. A model Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The ADP model was designed and manufactured by the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and propeller axis angles-of-attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe which identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 5 dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane sector, which may relate to inlet propeller axis angle-of-attack at rotor speeds of at least 96 percent design.

  8. Far-field noise and internal modes from a ducted propeller at simulated aircraft takeoff conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    The ducted propeller offers structural and acoustic benefits typical of conventional turbofan engines while retaining much of the aeroacoustic benefits of the unducted propeller. A model Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The ADP model was designed and manufactured by the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and propeller axis angles-of-attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe which identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 5 dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane sector, which may relate to inlet duct geometry. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by propeller axis angle-of-attack at rotor speeds of at least 96 percent design.

  9. Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

  10. 75 FR 69331 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard Instrument Approach... Center (APA-200), FAA Headquarters Building, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591; or...

  11. 75 FR 8241 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Airpark, RNAV (GPS) RWY 9, Amdt 1 Atlanta, GA, Newman Coweta County, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 8 Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, VOR/DME RWY 36, Amdt 3 Greenville, IL, Greenville, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP,...

  12. 76 FR 25232 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ..., VOR/DME RWY 35, Orig-A, CANCELLED Lincoln Park, NJ, Lincoln Park, NDB RWY 1, Amdt 3, CANCELLED Clovis, NM, Clovis Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Lima, OH, Lima Allen County, VOR RWY 28,...

  13. Ground Effect on the Take-off and Landing of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Sueur, Maurice

    1935-01-01

    Theories of ground effect and interference are explored as well as experimental methods to record the phenomenon. The consequences of the phenomenon on the airplane at take-off and landing are discussed.

  14. 76 FR 55233 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    .... John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment Accordingly, pursuant to..., CANCELLED Ballinger, TX, Bruce Field, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Effective 20 OCT 2011...

  15. A model for nocturnal frost formation on a wing section: Aircraft takeoff performance penalties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietenberger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The nocturnal frost formation on a wing section, to explain the hazard associated with frost during takeoff was investigated. A model of nocturnal frost formation on a wing section which predicts when the nocturnal frost will form and also its thickness and density as a function of time was developed. The aerodynamic penalities as related to the nocturnal frost formation properties were analyzed to determine how much the takeoff performance would be degraded by a specific frost layer. With an aircraft takeoff assuming equations representing a steady climbing flight, it is determined that a reduction in the maximum gross weight or a partial frost clearance and a reduction in the takeoff angle of attack is needed to neutralize drag and life penalities which are due to frost. Atmospheric conditions which produce the most hazardous frost buildup are determined.

  16. 76 FR 8291 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ..., Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig French Lick, IN, French Lick Muni, GPS RWY 26, Orig-A, CANCELLED French Lick, IN, French Lick Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 8, Amdt 1 French Lick, IN, French Lick Muni, RNAV...

  17. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  18. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  19. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  20. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  1. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  2. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  3. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia load, corresponding to a load...

  4. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  5. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  6. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic wing lift is assumed to be zero; and (b) A downward inertia...

  7. 76 FR 77111 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., Takeoff Minimums or ODPs, but instead refer to their depiction on charts printed by publishers of..., OH, Lakefield, NDB RWY 8, Amdt 5, CANCELLED ] Wapakoneta, OH, Neil Armstrong, LOC RWY 26, Amdt...

  8. 76 FR 40600 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ..., Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 5 Napa, CA, Napa County, RNAV (GPS) Y RWY 36L, Amdt 2 Napa, CA, Napa County, RNAV (GPS) Z RWY 36L, Amdt 1 Orlando, FL, Orlando Sanford Intl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18,...

  9. 40 CFR 1037.525 - Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Modeling Procedures § 1037.525 Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off... additional restrictions, instrument the vehicle with pressure transducers at the outlet of the hydraulic...

  10. 78 FR 7650 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... and Obstacle DP, Amdt 7 Mount Olive, NC, Mount Olive Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 2 Mount Olive, NC, Mount Olive Muni, VOR-A, Amdt 2 Claremont, NH, Claremont Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 29,...

  11. 75 FR 42308 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Lexington, KY, Blue Grass, RNAV (GPS) RWY 9, Orig Lexington, KY, Blue Grass, RNAV (GPS) RWY 27, Orig Lexington, KY, Blue Grass, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 7 Stow, MA, Minute Man Airfield,...

  12. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  13. Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

  14. Induction Chemotherapy with Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil in Advanced Head and Neck Cancers: A Short Term Response Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra; Shenoy, Vijendra; Hegde, Mahesh Chandra; Prasad, Vishnu; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Background Considering the uprising number of Head and neck cancer in the state with limited options of medical and surgical treatment, the focus of this study involved on chemotherapy in advanced Head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of combination of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil (PF) as induction chemotherapy in patients in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of head and neck. Materials and Methods Forty four patients with previously untreated stage III -IV advanced and inoperable cases were included in this prospective study. Induction chemotherapy consisted of 3 cycles of Cisplatin 100mg/mt2 as infusion on day 1, 5-Fluorouracil of 750mg/mt2 on day 2, 5-Fluorouracil of 1000mg/mt2 as infusion on day 3 in an inpatient basis. Cycles were repeated with an interval of 21 days. Patients were evaluated within a period of 3 weeks at the end of completion of third cycle of chemotherapy. Post chemotherapy local therapy was individualized based on the response, site and stage of the tumour. Results Out of 44 eligible and evaluable patients, major dominance was noted in male group constituting 68%. After induction chemotherapy 58.8% of stage III experienced stable response, & 44% had partial response. In stage IV, 44% showed a stable response and 33.3% had partial response. But in comparison to primary tumour response and nodal response, which had a significant clinical response, the overall response of malignancy with respect to stage and site specificity was clinically insignificant. Moderate adverse reaction was noted in 47.6% and 42.1% had mild reactions. Majority of patients experienced grade 3 adverse events, of which anaemia in females and leucopenia in males pre-dominated. Conclusion With the use of cisplatin and 5-FU as induction chemotherapy agents in advanced and inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, a distinct benefit was seen in stabilizing the tumour from progression. But achieving a significant

  15. Preoperative Short-Course Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy Followed by Delayed Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Phase 2 Multicenter Study (KROG 10-01)

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Jong Hoon; Jang, Hong Seok; Kim, Jun-Gi; Lee, Myung Ah; Nam, Taek-Keun

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 2 multicenter trial was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative short-course concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer were enrolled. Radiation therapy of 25 Gy in 5 fractions was delivered over 5 consecutive days using helical tomotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered on the same 5 days with intravenous bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day). After 4 to 8 weeks, total mesorectal excision was performed. The primary endpoint was the pathologic downstaging (ypStage 0-I) rate, and secondary endpoints included tumor regression grade, tumor volume reduction rate, and toxicity. Results: Seventy-one patients completed the planned preoperative CRT and surgery. Downstaging occurred in 20 (28.2%) patients, including 1 (1.4%) with a pathologic complete response. Favorable tumor regression (grade 4-3) was observed in 4 (5.6%) patients, and the mean tumor volume reduction rate was 62.5 ± 21.3%. Severe (grade ≥3) treatment toxicities were reported in 27 (38%) patients from CRT until 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative short-course concurrent CRT followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer demonstrated poor pathologic responses compared with conventional long-course CRT, and it yielded considerable toxicities despite the use of an advanced radiation therapy technique.

  16. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenni, L.; Kery, M.

    2003-01-01

    As a response to increasing spring temperature in temperate regions in recent years, populations of many plant and animal species, including migratory birds, have advanced the seasonal start of their reproduction or growth. However, the effects of climate changes on subsequent events of the annual cycle remain poorly understood. We investigated long-term changes in the timing of autumn migration in birds, a key event in the annual cycle limiting the reproductive period. Using data spanning a 42-year period, we analysed long-term changes in the passage of 65 species of migratory birds through Western Europe. The autumn passage of migrants wintering south of the Sahara has advanced in recent years, presumably as a result of selection pressure to cross the Sahel before its seasonal dry period. In contrast, migrants wintering north of the Sahara have delayed autumn passage. In addition, species with a variable rather than a fixed number of broods per year have delayed passage, possibly because they are free to attempt more broods. Recent climate changes seem to have a simple unidirectional effect on the seasonal onset of reproduction, but complex and opposing effects on the timing of subsequent events in the annual cycle, depending on the ecology and life history of a species. This complicates predictions of overall effects of global warming on avian communities.

  17. Timing of autumn bird migration under climate change: advances in long-distance migrants, delays in short-distance migrants.

    PubMed Central

    Jenni, Lukas; Kéry, Marc

    2003-01-01

    As a response to increasing spring temperature in temperate regions in recent years, populations of many plant and animal species, including migratory birds, have advanced the seasonal start of their reproduction or growth. However, the effects of climate changes on subsequent events of the annual cycle remain poorly understood. We investigated long-term changes in the timing of autumn migration in birds, a key event in the annual cycle limiting the reproductive period. Using data spanning a 42-year period, we analysed long-term changes in the passage of 65 species of migratory birds through Western Europe. The autumn passage of migrants wintering south of the Sahara has advanced in recent years, presumably as a result of selection pressure to cross the Sahel before its seasonal dry period. In contrast, migrants wintering north of the Sahara have delayed autumn passage. In addition, species with a variable rather than a fixed number of broods per year have delayed passage, possibly because they are free to attempt more broods. Recent climate changes seem to have a simple unidirectional effect on the seasonal onset of reproduction, but complex and opposing effects on the timing of subsequent events in the annual cycle, depending on the ecology and life history of a species. This complicates predictions of overall effects of global warming on avian communities. PMID:12965011

  18. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing Regional Airliner: The Model 110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Airports throughout the United States are plagued with growing congestion. With the increase in air traffic predicted in the next few years, congestion will worsen. The accepted solution of building larger airplanes to carry more travelers is no longer a viable option, as airports are unable to accommodate larger aircraft without expensive infrastructure changes. Past NASA research has pointed to the need for a new approach, which can economically and safely utilize smaller airports. To study this option further, NASA requested the California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly/SLO) to design a baseline aircraft to be used for system studies. The requirements put forth by NASA are summarized. The design team was requested to create a demonstrator vehicle, which could be built without requiring enabling technology development. To this end, NASA requested that the tested and proven high-lift system of the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III be combined with the fuselage of the BAe-146. NASA also requested that Cal Poly determine the availability and usability of underutilized airports starting with California, then expanding if time and funds permitted to the U.S.

  19. V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Low Speed and Transition Equivalent Systems Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    had t9 adjust his piloting technique quickly. The pilots felt this was unacceptable, and even dangerous . 38 NADC-81 104-60 1.0 Rate Command .2 C...TR5 K8 ., -. 031 rad/cn PILOT A: Back on attitude type system, I think, I can’t really 6 tell. It is just too darn sluggish and this thing is dangerous ...can’t make this thing respond very fast. That can be dangerous in close confines. You really got to sneak up on the pad. So we are back to where I can’t

  20. The Calculated Effect of Various Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Factors on the Take-Off of a Large Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R.E.; Allison, J.M.

    1939-01-01

    Present designs for large flying boats are characterized by high wing loading, high aspect ratio, and low parasite drag. The high wing loading results in the universal use of flaps for reducing the takeoff and landing speeds. These factors have an effect on takeoff performance and influence to a certain extent the design of the hull. An investigation was made of the influence of various factors and design parameters on the takeoff performance of a hypothetical large flying boat by means of takeoff calculations. The parameters varied in the calculations were size of hull (load coefficient), wing setting, trim, deflection of flap, wing loading, aspect ratio, and parasite drag. The takeoff times and distances were calculated to the stalling speeds and the performance above these speeds was studied separately to determine piloting technique for optimum takeoff. The advantage of quick deflection of the flap at high water speeds is shown.

  1. The development of advanced automatic flare and decrab for powered lift short haul aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevaert, G.; Feinreich, B.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for future powered lift STOL aircraft using the NASA-C-8A augmentor wing vehicle as the aircraft model. The longitudinal control laws utilize the throttle for flight path control and use the direct lift augmentor flap chokes for flight path augmentation. The elevator is used to control airspeed during the approach phase and to enhance path control during the flare. The forward slip maneuver was selected over the flat decrab technique for runway alignment because it can effectively handle the large crab angles obtained at STOL approach speeds. Performance evaluation of selected system configurations were obtained over the total landing environment. Limitations were defined and critical failure modes assessed. Pilot display concepts are discussed.

  2. SR-71A/YF-12A takeoff and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The YF-12 'Blackbird' was an experimental fighter-interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12 aircraft. In Air Force flight tests on May 1, 1965, the YF-12 set a speed record of 2,070.101 miles per hour and an altitude record of 80,258 feet. First publicly displayed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1964, the YF-12 was never adopted by the military as an operational aircraft. It was, however, a precursor to the SR-71 Blackbird reconnaissance plane. Two YF-12 aircraft were flown in a joint Air Force-NASA research program at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center) between 1969 and 1979, although the second plane, piloted primarily by the Air Force, was lost to an inflight fire in 1971. The two YF-12 aircraft bore the serial numbers 60-6935 and 60-6936. This clip, which runs 36 seconds in length, begins with shots of the crew boarding and takeoff of an SR-71A (serial no. 61-7951) flown at NASA Dryden but designated as a YF-12C. The clip ends with air-to-air footage of a true YF-12A (serial no. 60-6935) identified by its distinctive radome that housed a powerful search and attack radar.

  3. The calculated effect of various hydrodynamic and aerodynamic factors on the take-off of a large flying boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R E; Allison, J M

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made to determine the influence of various factors on the take-off performance of a hypothetical large flying boat by means of take-off calculations. The factors varied in the calculations were size of hull (load coefficient), wing setting, trim, deflection of flap, wing loading, aspect ratio, and parasite drag. The take-off times and distances were calculated to the stalling speeds and the performance above these speeds was separately studied to determine piloting technique for optimum take-off.

  4. A short radiotherapy course for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): effective palliation and patients' convenience.

    PubMed

    Plataniotis, G A; Kouvaris, J R; Dardoufas, C; Kouloulias, V; Theofanopoulou, M A; Vlahos, L

    2002-02-01

    In order to facilitate patients with symptomatic locally advanced NSCLC, especially those coming from remote areas we have employed two palliative RT schedules. The first (S1) is the well known from Medical Research Council (MRC) randomized studies 2 x 8.5 Gy one week apart and the second (S2) is a two-day RT schedule: three fractions of 4.25 Gy are given on the first day and two fractions of 4.25 Gy on the second day. The records of 92 patients were reviewed (48 for S1 and 44 for S2). Patients, disease characteristics and results were similar for both groups; rates of symptom disappearance were for S1 and S2, respectively: cough 24 and 20%, hemoptysis 60 and 67%, chest pain 57 and 64% and dyspnoea 55 and 45% The overall condition improved in 39 and 36%, respectively. The median palliation time in days was in S1 and S2, respectively: cough 70 and 66, haemoptysis 133 and 139, chest pain 68 and 62 and dyspnoea 74 and 69 days. The median survival was 25 weeks in both S1 and S2 groups (P=0.89 log-rank test). At 52 weeks (one year), ten (21%) and seven (16%) of the patients were alive in S1 and S2 groups, respectively. At 104 weeks, the corresponding figures were two (4%) and two (4.7%) for S1 and S2. Our results are in accordance to those reported in literature regarding the safety and efficacy of palliative hypofractionated radiotherapy schemes. Their use in selected patients could be cost-effective and convenient for patients especially those coming from remote areas.

  5. Advanced supersonic cruise aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Driver, C.

    1977-01-01

    A multidiscipline approach is taken to the application of the latest technology to supersonic cruise aircraft concept definition, and current problem areas are identified. Particular attention is given to the performance of the AST-100 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle with emphasis on aerodynamic characteristics, noise and chemical emission, and mission analysis. A recently developed aircraft sizing and performance computer program was used to determine allowable wing loading and takeoff gross weight sensitivity to structural weight reduction.

  6. Optical design of the short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy time-angle correlated diffraction beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, R.; Dufresne, E. M.; Borland, M.; Beno, M. A.; Young, L.; Kim, K.-J.; Evans, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy beamline is one of the two x-ray beamlines that will take full advantage of the short pulse x-ray source in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade. A horizontally diffracting double crystal monochromator which includes a sagittally focusing second crystal will collect most of the photons generated when the chirped electron beam traverses the undulator. A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system after the monochromator will deliver to the sample a beam which has an approximately linear correlation between time and vertical beam angle. The correlation at the sample position has a slope of 0.052 ps/μrad extending over an angular range of 800 μrad for a cavity deflection voltage of 2 MV. The expected time resolution of the whole system is 2.6 ps. The total flux expected at the sample position at 10 keV with a 0.9 eV energy resolution is 5.7 × 1012 photons/s at a spot having horizontal and vertical full width at half maximum of 33 μm horizontal by 14 μm vertical. This new beamline will enable novel time-dispersed diffraction experiments on small samples using the full repetition rate of the APS.

  7. Advances on Sensitive Electron-injection based Cameras for Low-Flux, Short-Wave-Infrared Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, Vala; Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-08-01

    Short-wave infrared (SWIR) photon detection has become an essential technology in the modern world. Sensitive SWIR detector arrays with high pixel density, low noise levels and high signal-to-noise-ratios are highly desirable for a variety of applications including biophotonics, light detection and ranging, optical tomography, and astronomical imaging. As such many efforts in infrared detector research are directed towards improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. We review the history, principle of operation, present status and possible future developments of a sensitive SWIR detector technology, which has demonstrated to be one of the most promising paths to high pixel density focal plane arrays for low flux applications. The so-called electron-injection (EI) detector was demonstrated for the first time (in 2007). It offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement compared to the p-i-n diode due to a stable internal avalanche-free gain. The amplification method is inherently low noise, and devices exhibit an excess noise of unity. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. The stable detector characteristics, makes formation of high yield large-format, and high pixel density focal plane arrays less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. Detector is based on the mature InP material system (InP/InAlAs/GaAsSb/InGaAs), and has a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. It takes advantage of a unique three-dimensional geometry and combines the efficiency of a large absorbing volume with the sensitivity of a low-dimensional switch (injector) to sense and amplify signals. Current devices provide high-speed response ~ 5 ns rise time, and low jitter ~ 12 ps at room temperature. The internal dark current density is ~ 1 μA/cm2 at room temperature decreasing to 0.1 nA/cm2 at 160 K. EI detectors have been designed, fabricated, and tested during two

  8. Short-term and long-term efficacy of 7 targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Meng; Hong, Duo; Ma, Teng-Chuang; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Han, Jin-Hang; Sun, Jun; Xu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A variety of targeted drug therapies in clinical trials have been proven to be effective for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study aims to compare the short-term and long-term efficacies of different targeted drugs in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (AHCC) treatment using a network meta-analysis approach. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Ovid, EBSCO, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different targeted therapies implemented to patients with AHCC. And the retrieval resulted in 7 targeted drugs, namely, sorafenib, ramucirumab, everolimus, brivanib, tivantinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib+erlotinib. Direct and indirect evidence were combined to evaluate stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), complete response (CR), partial response (PR), disease control rate (DCR), overall response ratio (ORR), overall survival (OS), and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) of patients with AHCC. Results: A total of 11 RCTs were incorporated into our analysis, including 6594 patients with AHCC, among which 1619 patients received placebo treatment and 4975 cases had targeted therapies. The results revealed that in comparison with placebo, sorafenib, and ramucirumab displayed better short-term efficacy in terms of PR and ORR, and brivanib was better in ORR. Regarding long-term efficacy, sorafenib and sorafenib+erlotinib treatments exhibited longer OS. The data of cluster analysis showed that ramucirumab or sorafenib+erlotinib presented relatively better short-term efficacy for the treatment of AHCC. Conclusion: This network meta-analysis shows that ramucirumab and sorafenib+erlotinib may be the better targeted drugs for AHCC patients, and sorafenib+erlotinib achieved a better long-term efficacy. PMID:27930578

  9. A randomized preventive rehabilitation trial in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy: feasibility, compliance, and short-term effects.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Lisette; van Rossum, Maya A; Burkhead, Lori M; Smeele, Ludi E; Rasch, Coen R N; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of (preventive) rehabilitation on swallowing and mouth opening after concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Forty-nine patients with advanced oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx, or nasopharynx cancer treated with CCRT were randomized into a standard (S) or an experimental (E) preventive rehabilitation arm. Structured multidimensional assessment (i.e., videofluoroscopy, mouth-opening measurement, structured questionnaires) was performed before and 10 weeks after CCRT. In both S and E arms, feasibility was good (all patients could execute the exercises within a week) and compliance was satisfactory (mean days practiced per week was 4). Nevertheless, mouth opening, oral intake, and weight decreased significantly. Compared to similar CCRT studies at our institute, however, fewer patients were still tube-dependent after CCRT. Furthermore, some functional outcomes seemed less affected than those of studies in the literature that did not incorporate rehabilitation exercises. Patients in the E arm practiced significantly fewer days in total and per week, but they obtained results comparable to the S arm patients. Preventive rehabilitation (regardless of the approach, i.e., experimental or standard) in head and neck cancer patients, despite advanced stage and burdensome treatment, is feasible, and compared with historical controls, it seems helpful in reducing the extent and/or severity of various functional short-term effects of CCRT.

  10. Theseus on Take-off for First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft takes off for its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden

  11. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic-composite nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstrom, K. E.; Marsh, A. H.; Sargisson, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual studies were conducted to assess the impact of incorporating advanced technologies in the nacelles of a current wide-bodied transport and an advanced technology transport. The improvement possible in the areas of fuel consumption, flyover noise levels, airplane weight, manufacturing costs, and airplane operating cost were evaluated for short and long-duct nacelles. Use of composite structures for acoustic duct linings in the fan inlet and exhaust ducts was considered as well as for other nacelle components. For the wide-bodied transport, the use of a long-duct nacelle with an internal mixer nozzle in the primary exhaust showed significant improvement in installed specific fuel consumption and airplane direct operating costs compared to the current short-duct nacelle. The long-duct mixed-flow nacelle is expected to achieve significant reductions in jet noise during takeoff and in turbo-machinery noise during landing approach. Recommendations were made of the technology development needed to achieve the potential fuel conservation and noise reduction benefits.

  12. Neutral start circuit for a vehicle including a power take-off assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A. Jr.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a starting circuit adapted for use in a tractor having a transmission shiftable among Neutral and various GEAR conditions and a power take-off including a mechanically engaged, electrically held clutch. The circuit comprises: an ignition switch having separate first and second outputs and switching element movable among an OFF position, a START position for energizing both outputs and a RUN position for energizing only the first output; a start relay including a grounded start coil, a first relay input, a second relay input, a relay output and a relay switch element normally connecting the second relay input to the relay output and being responsive to energization of the relay coil for connecting the first relay input to the relay output; a power take-off switch connected between the first ignition switch output and the start coil and adapted for being closed only when the power take-off clutch is disengaged; a transmission switch connected between the second ignition switch output and the first start relay input and adapted to be closed only when the tractor transmission is in its Neutral condition; the output of the start relay being adapted for connection to a starter solenoid; and a power take-off engagement indicator lamp coupled directly to the first output of the ignition switch and the second input of the start relay and effecting, when lit, a drop in voltage sufficient to prevent energization of a starter embodying the starter solenoid adapted for connection to the start relay output. The start relay is operable to ensure that the relay output will receive sufficient voltage for effecting starting only if the power take-off and transmission switches are both closed while at the same time establishing a current path for energizing the lamp at all times when the power take-off switch is open.

  13. Measurement of Required Power with Human-Powered Aircraft in Take-off Ground Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke; Hori, Kotono; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hattori, Takashi; Sata, Kouta

    In this paper, we propose the method for the measurement of required power and the adjustment of optimum gear ratio in take-off ground running. To get the values of required power and speed, we measured torque of the left side and the right side of pedals, RPM of pedals, and speed of the cockpit frame. In order to improve the take-off speed, some drums were applied, and the optimum gear ratio of the front drum to the rear drum was determined.

  14. A Retrospective Analysis on Two-week Short-course Pre-operative Radiotherapy in Elderly Patients with Resectable Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chen; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaofan; Cai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    To validate that a two-week short-course pre-operative radiotherapy regimen is feasible, safe, and effective for the management of elderly patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), we retrospectively analyzed 99 radiotherapy-naive patients ≥70 years of age with LARC. Patients received pelvic radiation therapy (3D-CRT 30Gy/10f/2w) followed by TME surgery; some patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was OS, while the secondary endpoints were DFS, safety and response rate. The median follow-up time was 5.1 years. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 58.3% and 51.2%, respectively. The completion rate of radiotherapy (RT) was 99.0% (98 of 99). Grade 3 acute adverse events, which resulted from RT, occurred in only 1 patient (1.0%). In addition, no grade 4 acute adverse events induced by RT were observed. All 99 patients (100%) were able to undergo R0 surgical resection, and 68.6% of the patients received sphincter-sparing surgery. The rate of occurrence of clinically relevant post-operative complications was 12.1%. Three patients (3.0%) achieved pathologic complete responses, and forty-three patients (43.4%) achieved pathologic partial responses. The rates of T-downsizing and N-downstaging were 30.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Therefore, we believe that a two-week short-course pre-operative radiotherapy is feasible in elderly patients with resectable LARC. PMID:27886277

  15. Upfront Systemic Chemotherapy and Short-Course Radiotherapy with Delayed Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with Distant Metastases: Outcomes, Compliance, and Favorable Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Ahn, Joong Bae; Jung, Minkyu; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hoguen; Shin, Sang Joon; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) Optimal treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) with distant metastasis remains elusive. We aimed to evaluate upfront systemic chemotherapy and short-course radiotherapy (RT) followed by delayed surgery for such patients, and to identify favorable prognostic factors. Materials/Methods We retrospectively reviewed 50 LARC patients (cT4 or cT3, <2 mm from the mesorectal fascia) with synchronous metastatic disease. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were overall survival, treatment-related toxicity, and compliance. We considered P values <0.05 significant. Results At 22 months median follow-up, the median PFS time was 16 months and the 2-year PFS rate was 34.8%. Thirty-five patients who received radical surgery for primary and metastatic tumors were designated the curable group. Six patients with clinical complete response (ypCR) of metastases who underwent radical surgery for only the primary tumor were classified as potentially curable. Nine patients who received no radical surgery (3 received palliative surgery) were deemed the palliative group. The ypCR rate among surgery patients was 13.6%. PFS rates for the curable or potentially curable groups were significantly longer than that of the palliative group (P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, solitary organ metastasis and R0 status were independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that a strong possibility that upfront chemotherapy and short-course RT with delayed surgery are an effective alternative treatment for LARC with potentially resectable distant metastasis, owing to achievement of pathologic down-staging, R0 resection, and favorable compliance and toxicity, despite the long treatment duration. PMID:27536871

  16. A Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Carrier (S-CVX).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    and operation of the modem aircraft carrier, assuming availability of short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, employing gas turbine ship ... propulsion and providing significant capability to support humanitarian operations. In the design study reported here, the authors take a systems

  17. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 3: Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The airport siting, design, cost, operation, and implementation aspects of a short takeoff aircraft transportation system are analyzed. Problem areas are identified and alternative solutions or actions required to achieve system implementation by the early 1980's are recommended. Factors associated with the ultimate community acceptance of the STOL program, such as noise, emissions, and congestion, are given special emphasis.

  18. 75 FR 55963 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ..., Chester, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Fort Lauderdale, FL, Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Intl, ILS OR LOC RWY 9L, Amdt 21 Fort Lauderdale, FL, Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Intl, ILS OR LOC RWY 27R, Amdt 9 Fort Lauderdale, FL, Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Intl, LOC RWY 9R, Amdt 5 Fort Lauderdale, FL,...

  19. 75 FR 72940 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure.... SUMMARY: This rule establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center (APA-200), FAA...

  20. 76 FR 1354 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard... Center (APA-200), FAA Headquarters Building, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591; or...

  1. 78 FR 5253 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 97 Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard Instrument Approach... Minimums and ODP copies may be obtained from: 1. FAA Public Inquiry Center (APA-200), FAA...

  2. Simulator evaluation of a display for a Takeoff Performance Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) has been developed to provide the pilot with graphic and numeric information pertinent to his decision to continue or abort a takeoff. The TOPMS information display consists primarily of a runway graphic overlaid with symbolic status, situation, and advisory information including: (1) current position and airspeed; (2) predicted locations for reaching decision speed (V sub 1) and rotation speed (V sub R); (3) groundroll limit for reaching (V sub R); (4) predicted stop point for an aborted takeoff from current conditions; (5) engine-status flags; and (6) an overall situation advisory flag that recommends continuation or rejection of the takeoff. In this study, 32 experienced multi-engine pilots evaluated the TOPMS on the Langley B-737 real-time research simulator. They rated the system satisfactory - good and judged it to be suitable for implementation on an aircraft. The TOPMS, the TOPMS simulation, and the results of the simulator evaluation are described here. Appendices contain the pilot's prebriefing package (written explanation of the TOPMS--sent to the pilots prior to their visit), evaluation instructions, debriefing questions, and rating criteria (organized into a flow diagram similar to the Cooper-Harper diagram for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities).

  3. 77 FR 12452 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ..., Billings Logan Intl, ILS OR LOC RWY 10L, Amdt 25 Billings, MT, Billings Logan Intl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 10L, Amdt 2 Billings, MT, Billings Logan Intl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 28R, Amdt 2 Billings, MT, Billings Logan Intl, Takeoff Minimums & Obstacle DP, Amdt 6 Billings, MT, Billings Logan Intl, VOR-A, Amdt 2 Billings,...

  4. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.177 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations....

  6. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  7. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.177 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations....

  9. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  10. 75 FR 4488 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... RWY 33, Orig, CANCELLED Forest City, IA, Forest City Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 33, Orig Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, GPS RWY 18, Orig-A, CANCELLED Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Orig Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Orig Mapleton, IA, James G Whiting Memorial Field, Takeoff...

  11. 77 FR 1015 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 35, Amdt 2 Houston, TX, Sugar Land Rgnl, VOR/DME-A, Amdt 2 Marshall, TX, Harrison County, GPS RWY 33, Orig-F, CANCELLED Marshall, TX, Harrison County, RNAV (GPS) RWY 15, Orig Marshall, TX, Harrison County, RNAV (GPS) RWY 33, Orig Marshall, TX, Harrison County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  12. 76 FR 18379 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., NC, Clinton-Sampson County, RNAV (GPS) Z RWY 24, Orig ] Clinton, NC, Clinton-Sampson County, Takeoff... Obstacle DP, Amdt 1 Socorro, NM, Socorro Muni, RNAV (GPS) Z RWY 33, Orig, CANCELLED Portland, OR,...

  13. 77 FR 50012 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 20 September 2012 Reform, AL, North Pickens, RNAV (GPS) RWY 1, Orig Reform, AL, North Pickens, RNAV (GPS) RWY 19, Amdt 1 Lake Havasu City, AZ, Lake Havasu City, RNAV (GPS) RWY 14, Orig Ontario,...

  14. 77 FR 56764 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data.../Corning, NY, Elimira/Corning Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 6, Amdt 2 Elmira/Corning, NY, Elimira/Corning Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 24, Amdt 2 Effective 18 October 2012 Atmore, AL, Atmore Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Amdt...

  15. 78 FR 37454 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: * * * Effective 27 June 2013 Klawock, AK, Klawock, RNAV (GPS) RWY 2, Orig * * * Effective 25 July 2013 Mesa, AZ, Falcon Fld, RNAV (GPS) RWY 4R, Amdt 1A Ontario, CA, Ontario Intl, RNAV (GPS) Y RWY 8L, Amdt 1C...

  16. 76 FR 66179 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 17 NOV 2011 Troy, AL, Troy Muni, RADAR-1, Amdt 9 Show Low, AZ, Show Low Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 24..., Amdt 16 Teterboro, NJ, Teterboro, RNAV (GPS)-C, Orig, CANCELLED Teterboro, NJ, Teterboro, RNAV (GPS)...

  17. 78 FR 54564 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data... Rgnl (Dannelly Field), ILS Z RWY 28, Orig Montgomery, AL, Montgomery Rgnl (Dannelly Field), RNAV (GPS) RWY 10, Amdt 1A Montgomery, AL, Montgomery Rgnl (Dannelly Field), RNAV (GPS) RWY 28, Amdt 1A San...

  18. 78 FR 14010 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Takeoff Minimums and ] textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 4 April 2013 Miami, FL, Miami Intl, RNAV (GPS) Z RWY 26L, Amdt 1B Macon, GA, Macon Downtown..., Amdt 11 Connersville, IN, Mettel Field, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Amdt 1A Louisville, KY, Louisville...

  19. 77 FR 31180 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 31 MAY 2012 Forest, VA, New London, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Orig Forest, VA, New London, RNAV (GPS) RWY.../Eureka, CA, Arcata, ILS Y OR LOC/DME RWY 32, Amdt 2A Arcata/Eureka, CA, Arcata, RNAV (GPS) RWY 32,...

  20. 77 FR 15576 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data..., Bethel, ILS OR LOC/DME Z RWY 19R, Amdt 7 Bethel, AK, Bethel, RNAV (GPS) RWY 19R, Amdt 2 Jasper, AL, Walker County-Bevill Field, RNAV (GPS) RWY 9, Orig Scottsdale, AZ, Scottsdale, RNAV (GPS)-D, Amdt...

  1. 78 FR 64167 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 14 NOVEMBER 2013 Malvern, AR, Malvern Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 22, Orig-A Daggett, CA, Barstow-Daggett, RNAV (GPS) RWY 26, Amdt 2A Jacksonville, FL, Jacksonville Intl, RNAV (RNP) Y RWY 26, Amdt 1...

  2. Increasing Functional Variability in the Preparatory Phase of the Takeoff Improves Elite Springboard Diving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barris, Sian; Farrow, Damian; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrating that specific performance outcome goals can be achieved in different ways is functionally significant for springboard divers whose performance environment can vary extensively. This body of work raises questions about the traditional approach of balking (terminating the takeoff) by elite divers aiming to…

  3. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  4. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  5. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  6. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  7. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  8. 75 FR 32094 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... 1-Jul-10 SD GREGORY GREGORY MUNI, FLYNN 0/7020 5/7/10 TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND OBSTACLE DP, ORIG FIELD... WILLIAM T. PIPER 0/9245 5/12/10 RNAV (GPS)-1, ORIG MEMORIAL. 1-Jul-10 FL MILTON PETER PRINCE FLD.......

  9. 75 FR 19541 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...Arthur Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73169 or, 4. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For... Center, 6500 South MacArthur Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73169 (Mail Address: P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City..., Paul C. Miller-Sparta, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 2 Alexandria, MN, Chandler Field,...

  10. 77 FR 51894 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard A. Dunham III, Flight Procedure Standards Branch (AFS-420...), ILS RWY 20R (SA CAT II), Amdt 24 Fairbanks, AK, Fairbanks Intl, RNAV (GPS) Y RWY 2L, Orig-B Fairbanks...)-A, Orig Apopka, FL, Orlando Apopka, RNAV (GPS)-B, Orig Apopka, FL, Orlando Apopka, Takeoff...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Control System (ATTCS) I Appendix I to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a) This appendix specifies additional requirements for installation of an engine power control system...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Control System (ATTCS) I Appendix I to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a) This appendix specifies additional requirements for installation of an engine power control system...

  13. 75 FR 63712 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Continent, VOR RWY 14, Amdt 1D Boston, MA, General Edward Lawrence Logan Intl, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 13 Salisbury, MD, Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Rgnl, ILS OR LOC RWY 32, Amdt 8 Salisbury, MD, Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 5, Amdt 1 Salisbury, MD, Salisbury-Ocean...

  14. 77 FR 71495 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...-County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Mount Olive, NC, Mount Olive Muni, VOR-A, Amdt 2 Tioga, ND... Olive, NC, effective 15 November, 2012, is hereby rescinded in its entirety: Mount Olive, NC, Mount Olive Muni, VOR-A, Amdt 2 BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  15. 77 FR 71494 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ............ Edwards County...... 2/7908 10/24/12 RNAV (GPS) RWY 14, Orig. 13-Dec-12 CA Modesto Modesto City-Co- 2/8989 10/24/12 TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND (OBSTACLE) DP, Amdt 5. Harry Sham Fld. 13-Dec-12 FL West Palm...

  16. Feasibility study on linear-motor-assisted take-off (LMATO) of winged launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kyotani, Yoshihiro

    1987-11-01

    Application of technology of magnetically levitated transportation to horizontal take-off of an experimental space vehicle has been studied. An experimental system of linear-motor-assisted take-off (LMATO) consists of the HIMES space vehicle and a magnetically levitated and propelled sled which is a modified MLU model developed by the JNR. The original MLU model is a train of three cars which weighs 30 tons and is driven by a thrust of 15 tons. The maximum speed is 400 km/h. The highest speed of 517 km/h has been obtained by the first JNR linear motor car. Since the take-off speed of the HIMES vehicle with the initial mass of 14 tons is 470 km/h, the existing technology can be used for the LMATO of the vehicle. The concept of the HIMES/LMATO is to use the MLU vehicles to accelerate the HIMES vehicle at 0.33 g on a 5 km guide track until the speed reaches 300 km/h, when the rocket engines of the space vehicle are started to increase the acceleration up to 1 g. The total system will take the final checkout for take-off during the acceleration phase and the speed exceeds 470 km/h which is large enough to aerodynamically lift the space vehicle, then the fastening mechanism is unlocked to separate the vehicles. The experimental system can be applied for initial acceleration of a vehicle with air-breathing propulsion.

  17. 76 FR 35101 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ..., Eagle's Nest, RNAV (GPS) RWY 24, Orig Highgate, VT, Franklin County State, RNAV (GPS) RWY 1, Amdt 3 Highgate, VT, Franklin County State, RNAV (GPS) RWY 19, Amdt 1 Highgate, VT, Franklin County State, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 1 Highgate, VT, Franklin County State, VOR/DME RWY 19, Amdt 5...

  18. 76 FR 28171 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... 2011 Sioux City, IA, Sioux Gateway/Col. Bud Day Field, ILS OR LOC RWY 31, Amdt 25 Cheboygan, MI..., Amdt 2 Newport, VT, Newport State, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Effective 30 JUN 2011... 25, Amdt 1A Kodiak, AK, Kodiak, VOR Y RWY 25, Amdt 1A Point Lay, AK, Point Lay LRRS, NDB RWY 5,...

  19. 75 FR 32653 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Corners Rgnl, RNAV (GPS) RWY 25, Amdt 1 Farmington, NM, Four Corners Rgnl, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 1 Akron, NY, Akron, RNAV (GPS) RWY 7, Amdt 1 Akron, NY, Akron, RNAV (GPS) RWY 25, Amdt 1..., Beaufort County, RNAV (GPS) RWY 25, Amdt 1 Bennettsville, SC, Marlboro County Jetport-H E Avent Field,...

  20. 78 FR 75456 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...This rule establishes, amends, suspends, or revokes Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) and associated Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures for operations at certain airports. These regulatory actions are needed because of the adoption of new or revised criteria, or because of changes occurring in the National Airspace System, such as the commissioning of new......

  1. 76 FR 6053 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Francisco, CA, San Francisco Intl, VOR-B, Amdt 6 Washington, DC, Ronald Reagan Washington National, Takeoff... Caledonia, MN, Houston County, GPS RWY 31, Orig, CANCELLED Branson, MO, M. Graham Clark-Taney County, RNAV (GPS) RWY 12, Orig Branson, MO, M. Graham Clark-Taney County, RNAV (GPS) RWY 30, Orig Branson, MO,...

  2. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). 25.904 Section 25.904 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General §...

  3. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). 25.904 Section 25.904 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General §...

  4. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). 25.904 Section 25.904 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General §...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. I... airplane under existing ambient conditions); (b) That required to permit normal operation of all safety... in thrust or power up to the maximum takeoff thrust or power approved for the airplane under...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. I... airplane under existing ambient conditions); (b) That required to permit normal operation of all safety... in thrust or power up to the maximum takeoff thrust or power approved for the airplane under...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. I... airplane under existing ambient conditions); (b) That required to permit normal operation of all safety... in thrust or power up to the maximum takeoff thrust or power approved for the airplane under...

  8. Leg stiffness during phases of countermovement and take-off in vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Artur; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    With respect to cyclic movements such as human gait, running or hopping, leg stiffness is a little variable parameter. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in leg stiffness during the phase of countermovement and take-off when performing a single maximum counter-movement jump. Kistler force plates and a BTS SMART system for comprehensive motion analysis were employed in the study. The study covered a group of 12 athletes from university basketball teams. Leg stiffness was calculated in those parts of countermovement and take-off phases where its level is relatively constant and the relationship F(Δl) is similar to linear one. Mean total stiffness (±SD) in both legs in the countermovement phase amounted to 6.5 ± 1.5 kN/m, whereas during the take-off phase this value was 6.9 ± 1 kN/m. No statistically significant differences were found between leg stiffness during the countermovement phase and takeoff phase in the study group at the level of significance set at α = 0.05. This suggests that the leg stiffness in phase of countermovement and phase of take-off are much similar to each other, despite different function of both phases. Similar to cyclic movements, leg stiffness turned out relatively constant when performing a single vertical jump. There are also reported statistically significant correlations between body mass, body height, length of lower limbs and leg stiffness. The stiffness analysed by the authors should be understood as quasi-stiffness because the measurements of ΔF(Δl) were made during transient states where inertia and dumping forces are likely to affect the final result.

  9. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: Interspecific differences in take-off and landing.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Stephen M; Montuelle, Stephane J; Schmidt, André; Krause, Cornelia; Naylor, Emily; Essner, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing. Frogs with forelimb landing radiated into many forms, locomotor modes, habitats, and niches with controlled landing thought to improve escape behavior. While the biology of take-off behavior has seen considerable study, interspecific comparisons of take-off and landing behavior are limited. In order to understand the evolution of jumping and controlled landing in frogs, data are needed on the movements of the limbs and body across an array of taxa. Here, we present the first description and comparison of kinematics of the hindlimbs, forelimbs and body during take-off and landing in relation to ground reaction forces in four frog species spanning the frog phylogeny. The goal of this study is to understand what interspecific differences reveal about the evolution of take-off and controlled landing in frogs. We provide the first comparative description of the entire process of jumping in frogs. Statistical comparisons identify both homologous behaviors and significant differences among species that are used to map patterns of trait evolution and generate hypotheses regarding the functional evolution of take-off and landing in frogs.

  10. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  11. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  12. SR-71 Takeoff with Afterburner Showing Shock Diamonds in Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA

  13. SR-71A - in Flight from Below at Takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA 831 (B model), military serial 61-7956. From 1990 through 1994, Dryden also had another 'A' model, NASA 832, military serial 61-7971. This

  14. Feasibility of a responsive, hybrid propulsion augmented, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1996-03-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named HYP-SSTO, is presented in this paper. This launch vehicle system concept uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, with a hybrid auxiliary propulsion system which is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. By using a hybrid propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing, this launch system concept has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LOX/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. Because hybrid propulsion systems are relatively simple and inert by their nature, this concept has the potential to support short turnaround times between launches, be economical to develop, and be competitive in terms of overall system life-cycle cost. This paper provides a technical description of the novel, reusable HYP-SSTO launch system concept. Launch capability performance, as well as major design and operational system attributes, are identified and discussed.

  15. XCALIBUR: a Vertical Takeoff TSTO RLV Concept with a HEDM Upperstage and a Scram-Rocket Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J.

    2002-01-01

    A new 3rd generation, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle (RLV) has been designed. The Xcalibur concept represents a novel approach due to its integration method for the upperstage element of the system. The vertical-takeoff booster, which is powered by rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engines, carries the upperstage internally in the aft section of the airframe to a Mach 15 staging condition. The upperstage is released from the booster and carries the 6,820 kg of payload to low earth orbit (LEO) using its high energy density matter (HEDM) propulsion system. The booster element is capable of returning to the original launch site in a ramjet-cruise propulsion mode. Both the booster and the upperstage utilize advanced technologies including: graphite-epoxy tanks, metal-matrix composites, UHTC TPS materials, electro- mechanical actuators (EMAs), and lightweight subsystems (avionics, power distribution, etc.). The booster system is enabled main propulsion system which utilizes four RBCC engines. These engines operate in four distinct modes: air- augmented rocket (AAR), ramjet, scram-rocket, and all-rocket. The booster operates in AAR mode from takeoff to Mach 3, with ramjet mode operation from Mach 3 to Mach 6. The rocket re-ignition for scram-rocket mode occurs at Mach 6, with all-rocket mode from Mach 14 to the staging condition. The extended utilization of the scram-rocket mode greatly improves vehicle performance by providing superior vehicle acceleration when compared to the scramjet mode performance over the same flight region. Results indicate that the specific impulse penalty due to the scram-rocket mode operation is outweighed by the reduced flight time, smaller vehicle size due to increased mixture ratio, and lower allowable maximum dynamic pressure. A complete vehicle system life-cycle analysis was performed in an automated, multi-disciplinary design environment. Automated disciplinary performance analysis tools include: trajectory (POST

  16. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  17. NASA's Boeing 747 SCA with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top climbs out after takeoff from Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft with the Space Shuttle Endeavour on top climbs out after takeoff from Edwards Air Force Base on the first leg of its ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  18. The effect of trim angle on the take-off performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Dawson, John R

    1934-01-01

    Data obtained at the N.A.C.A. tank from tests on the models of three flying-boat hulls - N.A.C.A. models 11-A, 16, and 22 - are used to demonstrate the effect of trim angle on water resistance. A specific example is taken, and data from Model 11-A are used to show that the trim angle giving the minimum water resistance will give minimum total air-plus-water resistance. Total-resistance curves for best trimmed angles and other angles are compared for the same example. The effect of wind on best trim angles and upon the take-off and run is shown by the working of an example. The possibility of using tank data on trim angles as aid in piloting is discussed, and an instrument for use in determining the trim angle of seaplanes is described. The importance of maintaining the best trim angle throughout the take-off is indicated.

  19. Use of Internal Coolant as a Means of Permitting Increase in Engine Take-Off Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M

    1944-01-01

    Engine tests, together with estimates made at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, indicate that a 25-percent increase in take-off power can be obtained with present-day aircraft engines without increasing either the knock limit of the fuel or the external cooling requirements of the engine. This increase in power with present fuels and present external cooling is made possible through the use of an internal coolant inducted through the inlet manifold. Estimates on aircraft indicate that this 25-percent increase in power will permit an approximate usable increase of 8.5 percent in the take-off load of existing military airplanes. This increase in load is equivalent to an increase in the weight of gasoline normally carried of between 30 and 65 percent.

  20. Microphysical Properties of Warm Clouds During The Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Over Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Nicolae Vajaiac, Sorin; Boscornea, Andreea

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on airborne measurements of microphysical parameters into warm clouds when the aircraft penetrates the cloud, both during take-off and landing. The experiment was conducted during the aircraft flight between Bucharest and Craiova, in the southern part of Romania. The duration of the experimental flight was 2 hours and 35 minutes in October 7th, 2014, but the present study is dealing solely with the analysis of cloud microphysical properties at the beginning of the experiment (during the aircraft take-off) and at the end, when it got finalized by the aircraft landing procedure. The processing and interpretation of the measurements showed the differences between microphysical parameters, emphasizing that the type of cloud over Bucharest changed, as it was expected. In addition, the results showed that it is important to take into account both the synoptic context and the cloud perturbation due to the velocity of the aircraft, in such cases.

  1. Immunological evidence that non-carboxymethyllysine advanced glycation end-products are produced from short chain sugars and dicarbonyl compounds in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, M.; Makita, Z.; Bucala, R.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, T.; Kameda, Y.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Maillard reaction that leads to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of angiopathy in diabetic patients and in the aging process. Recently, it was proposed that AGE were not only created by glucose, but also by dicarbonyl compounds derived from the Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars and other metabolic pathways of glucose. In this study, we developed four types of non-carboxymethyllysine (CML) anti-AGE antibodies that recognized proteins modified by incubation with short chain sugars and dicarbonyl compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AGE-modified serum albumins were prepared by incubation of rabbit serum albumin with glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, methylglyoxal or glyoxal. After immunization of rabbits, four types of AGE-specific antisera were obtained that were specific for the AGE modification. To separate non-CML AGE antibodies (Ab) (non-CML AGE-Ab-2, -3, -4, and -5), these anti-AGE antisera were subjected to affinity chromatography on a matrix coupled with four kinds of AGE bovine serum albumin (BSA) or CML-BSA. These non-CML AGE antibodies were used to investigate the AGE content of serum obtained from diabetic patients on hemodialysis. RESULTS: Characterization of the four types of non-CML AGE antibodies obtained by immunoaffinity chromatography was performed by competitive ELISA and immunoblot analysis. Non-CML AGE-Ab-2 crossreacted with the protein modified by glyceraldehyde or glycolaldehyde. Non-CML AGE-Ab-3 and -Ab-4 specifically cross-reacted with protein modified by glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal, respectively. NonCML AGE-Ab-5 cross-reacted with protein modified with glyoxal as well as methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde. Three kinds of non-CML AGE (AGE-2, -4, and -5) were detected in diabetic serum as three peaks with apparent molecular weights of 200, 1.15, and 0.85 kD; whereas, AGE-3 was detected as two peaks with apparent molecular weights of 200 and 0.85 k

  2. The take-off of seaplanes, based on a new hydrodynamic reduction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, Paul

    1931-01-01

    The interpretation of the take-off resistance of seaplane floats by model test involves a problem in mechanics, the solution of which forms the basis of this report. The comparison of three float forms is confined to an angle = 5 degree trim run in order to preserve the clearness of the arrangement. But for complete comparison the corresponding curves for several trim runs should be included.

  3. 77 FR 9169 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... form documents which are incorporated by reference in this amendment under 5 U.S.C. 552(a), 1 CFR part 51, and 14 CFR part 97.20. The applicable FAA Forms are FAA Forms 8260-3, 8260-4, 8260-5, 8260-15A..., ILS OR LOC RWY 8, Amdt 5G Big Spring, TX, Big Spring McMahon-Wrinkle, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle...

  4. 78 FR 16606 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... (GPS) RWY 26, Amdt 1 Savannah, GA, Savannah/Hilton Head Intl, RNAV (RNP) Y RWY 28, Amdt 1 Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Amdt 1 Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Amdt 1 Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 2 Le Mars, IA, Le Mars Muni, VOR/DME RWY...

  5. 76 FR 70055 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 6 15-Dec-11 CQ Agana Guam Intl 1/0544 10/4/11 RNAV (RNP) Z RWY 24R, Orig-B 15-Dec-11 CQ Agana Guam Intl 1/0545 10/4/11 RNAV (RNP) Z RWY 6L, Orig-C 15-Dec-11 CQ Agana...

  6. 76 FR 70053 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Takeoff Minimums and textual ODP amendments may have been issued previously by the FAA in a Flight Data...: Effective 15 DEC 2011 McGrath, AK, McGrath, RNAV (GPS) RWY 16, Amdt 1 McGehee, AR, McGehee Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 18, Orig McGehee, AR, McGehee Muni, RNAV (GPS) RWY 36, Orig McGehee, AR, McGehee Muni,...

  7. Requirements report for SSTO vertical take-off and horizontal landing vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the detailed design requirements and design criteria to support Structures/TPS Technology development for SSTO winged vehicle configurations that use vertical take-off and horizontal landing and delivers 25,000 lb payloads to a 220 nm circular orbit at an inclination of 51.6 degrees or 40,000 lb payloads to a 150 nm circular orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination.

  8. Behind Start of Take-Off Roll Aircraft Sound Level Directivity Study - Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Michael C.; Roof, Christopher J.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Rapoza, Amanda S.; Boeker, Eric R.; McCurdy, David A.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Environmental Measurement and Modeling Division of the Department of Transportation's Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) conducted a noise measurement study to examine aircraft sound level directivity patterns behind the start-of-takeoff roll. The study was conducted at Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) from October 4 through 20, 2004.

  9. Computer programs for estimating aircraft takeoff performance in three dimensional space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    A set of computer programs has been developed to estimate the takeoff and initial climb-out maneuver of a given aircraft in three-dimensional space. The program is applicable to conventional, vectored lift and power-lift concept aircraft. The aircraft is treated as a point mass flying over a flat earth with no side slip, and the rotational dynamics have been neglected. The required input is described and a sample case presented.

  10. Simulator evaluation of displays for a revised takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr

    1992-01-01

    Cockpit displays for a Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) to provide pilots with graphic and alphanumeric information pertinent to their decision to continue or abort a takeoff are evaluated. Revised head-down and newly developed head-up displays were implemented on electronic screens in the real-time Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator for the Boeing 737 airplane at the Langley Research Center and evaluated by 17 NASA, U.S. Air Force, airline, and industry pilots. Both types of displays were in color, but they were not dependent upon it. The TOPMS head-down display is composed of a runway graphic overlaid with symbolic status and advisory information related to both the expected takeoff point and the predicted stop point (in the event an abort becomes necessary). In addition, an overall Situation Advisory Flag indicates a preferred course of action based on analysis of the various elements of airplane performance and system status. A simpler head-up display conveys most of this same information and relates it to the visual scene. The evaluation pilots found the displays to be credible, easy to monitor, and appropriate for the task. In particular, the pilots said the head-up display was monitored with very little effort and did not obstruct or distract them from monitoring the simulated out-the-window runway scene. This report augments NASA TP-2908, 1989.

  11. Generation of the pitch moment during the controlled flight after takeoff of fruitflies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao Wei; Wu, Jiang Hao; Sun, Mao

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, the controlled flight of fruitflies after voluntary takeoff is studied. Wing and body kinematics of the insects after takeoff are measured using high-speed video techniques, and the aerodynamic force and moment are calculated by the computational fluid dynamics method based on the measured data. How the control moments are generated is analyzed by correlating the computed moments with the wing kinematics. A fruit-fly has a large pitch-up angular velocity owing to the takeoff jump and the fly controls its body attitude by producing pitching moments. It is found that the pitching moment is produced by changes in both the aerodynamic force and the moment arm. The change in the aerodynamic force is mainly due to the change in angle of attack. The change in the moment arm is mainly due to the change in the mean stroke angle and deviation angle, and the deviation angle plays a more important role than the mean stroke angle in changing the moment arm (note that change in deviation angle implies variation in the position of the aerodynamic stroke plane with respect to the anatomical stroke plane). This is unlike the case of fruitflies correcting pitch perturbations in steady free flight, where they produce pitching moment mainly by changes in mean stroke angle. PMID:28296907

  12. Methods for predicting unsteady takeoff and landing trajectories of the aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A.; Pavlov, B.; Nachinkina, G.

    2017-01-01

    Informational and situational awareness of the aircrew greatly affects the probability of accidents, during takeoff and landing in particular. For the purpose of assessing the current and predicting the future states of an aircraft the energy approach to the flight control is used. Key energy balance equation is generalized to the ground phases. The equation describes the process of accumulating of the total energy of the aircraft along the entire trajectory, including the segment ahead. This segment length is defined by the required terminal energy state. For the takeoff phase the predict algorithm calculates the aircraft position on a runway after which it is possible to accelerate up to the speed of steady level flight and to reach the altitude sufficient for overcoming the high-rise obstacles. For the landing phase the braking distance length is determined. For increasing the likelihood of predicting the correction of the algorithm is introduced. The results of modeling many takeoffs and landings of passenger liner with different weights with the ahead obstacle and the engine failure are given. Working availability of the algorithm correction is shown.

  13. Calculated effect of various types of flap on take-off over obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1936-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not flaps could be expected to have any beneficial effect on take-off performance, the distances required to take off and climb to an altitude of 50 feet were calculated for hypothetical airplanes, corresponding to relatively high-speed types and equipped with several types of flap. The types considered are the Fowler wing, the Hall wing, the split flap, the balanced split flap, the plain flap, and the external-airfoil flap. The results indicate that substantial reductions in take-off distance are possible through the use of flaps, provided that the proper flap angle corresponding to a given set of conditions is used. The best flap angle for taking off varies inversely as power loading and, to a much smaller extent, varies inversely with wing loading. Apparently, the best take-off characteristics are provided by the type of device in which the flap forms an extension to the main wing as in the case of the Fowler wing and the external-airfoil flap.

  14. a Graphical Optimization of Take-Off Noise Abatement Procedures for Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgia, L.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a numerical approach to the simulation of noise contours generated during aircraft operations. Common features of many existing noise-contour programs make these procedures unsuitable for on-line piloted-simulator use. In fact, they usually require large computational tools and exhibit complex structure, so that they generally run quite slowly. The method proposed here is an attempt to overcome some of the above drawbacks. It works for arbitrarily complex take-off and landing paths, and reveals the influence of several quantitites on the shape and size of the contours. Besides, the calculations are simple enough to be implemented on a handheld programmable calculator. The method runs fast, and quickly provides contour shape, evaluates area and analyzes main characteristics of the end. The method has been used to optimize noise abatement procedures for subsonic aircraft; for every take-off procedure the model can generate an isofootprint on the ground which helps the operator to choose the best take-off solution.

  15. Airport take-off noise assessment aimed at identify responsible aircraft classes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Perez, Luis A; Sanchez-Fernandez, Luis P; Shaout, Adnan; Suarez-Guerra, Sergio

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of aircraft noise is an important task of nowadays airports in order to fight environmental noise pollution given the recent discoveries on the exposure negative effects on human health. Noise monitoring and estimation around airports mostly use aircraft noise signals only for computing statistical indicators and depends on additional data sources so as to determine required inputs such as the aircraft class responsible for noise pollution. In this sense, the noise monitoring and estimation systems have been tried to improve by creating methods for obtaining more information from aircraft noise signals, especially real-time aircraft class recognition. Consequently, this paper proposes a multilayer neural-fuzzy model for aircraft class recognition based on take-off noise signal segmentation. It uses a fuzzy inference system to build a final response for each class p based on the aggregation of K parallel neural networks outputs Op(k) with respect to Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) features extracted from K adjacent signal segments. Based on extensive experiments over two databases with real-time take-off noise measurements, the proposed model performs better than other methods in literature, particularly when aircraft classes are strongly correlated to each other. A new strictly cross-checked database is introduced including more complex classes and real-time take-off noise measurements from modern aircrafts. The new model is at least 5% more accurate with respect to previous database and successfully classifies 87% of measurements in the new database.

  16. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Single-rotating propeller configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to advanced turboprop (propfan) aircraft flyover noise. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics; and (2) compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and jets. A computer was used to produce realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. In the first experiment, subjects judged the annoyance of 45 advanced turboprop noises in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of five fundamental frequencies, three frequency envelope shapes, and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. Each noise was presented at three sound levels. In the second experiment, 18 advanced turboprop takeoffs, 5 conventional turboprop takeoffs, and 5 conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three sound pressure levels to subjects. Analysis indicated that frequency envelope shape did not significantly affect annoyance. The interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large and complex effect on annoyance. The advanced turboprop stimuli were slightly less annoying than the conventional stimuli.

  17. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  18. Short stature

    MedlinePlus

    Idiopathic short stature; Non-growth hormone deficient short stature ... syndrome Turner syndrome Williams syndrome Other reasons include: Growth hormone deficiency Infections of the developing baby before birth ...

  19. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) first flight takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this interaction. The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on one of NASA's SR-71s, which were at that time on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use the information gained from the LASRE and X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator Projects to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin were partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement. The goal of that program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote creation and delivery of new space services and activities to improve the United States's economic competitiveness. In March 2001, however, NASA cancelled the X-33 program.

  20. Stress-strain state of ice cover during aircraft takeoff and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelova, A. V.; Kozin, V. M.; Matyushina, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the linear unsteady motion of an IL-76TD aircraft on ice. Water is treated as an ideal incompressible liquid, and the liquid motion is considered potential. Ice cover is modeled by an initially unstressed uniform isotropic elastic plate, and the load exerted by the aircraft on the ice cover with consideration of the wing lift is modeled by regions of distributed pressure of variable intensity, arranged under the aircraft landing gear. The effect of the thickness and elastic modulus of the ice plate, takeoff and landing regimes on stress-strain state of the ice cover used as a runway.

  1. Data Link Development for the Archytas Vertical Takeoff and Landing Transitional Flight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-17

    which the Data Engine can cause to nearby electronic devices. The Data Engine card can be easily removed from the case. Modem attachments, power...DISCMode NONE DISCX COMMAND ECHO OFF ECHO ON Flow OFF F OFF FLOWR OFF FLOUR OFF FLONX OFF FLOWX OFF FRack 4 FR 2 Hid OFF HI OFF Leds OFF L ON MAkframe 7...problems caused by worn cables and connectors. 71 d. Automated Take Off and Landing System Design for a shipboard automated take-off and landing (ATOL

  2. Effects of visual and motion simulation cueing systems on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parris, B. L.; Cook, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of visual and motion during cueing on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures. Four groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The most basic of these systems was of the instrument-only type. Visual scene simulation and/or motion simulation was added to produce the other systems. Learning curves, mean performance, and subjective data are examined. The results show that the addition of visual cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance, but the combined use of visual and motion cueing results in far better performance.

  3. Dependence of ski jump length on the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off.

    PubMed

    Zanevskyy, Ihor; Banakh, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    A kinematical model of the ski jumper's body pose at the beginning of take-off was proposed. A method of measuring skier's body coordinates based on the results of video recordings and office information technologies was created. Kinematical parameters of the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off were determined using sport competition results of 33 ski jumpers. Five parameters of the pose which show statistically significant correlation (р < 0.03) with the jump length were determined. A part of variation of the model parameters in the total variation of the jump length is almost equal to 53%, and relative correlation is strong and significant (p < 0.005). Recommendations regarding optimization of the body pose at the beginning of take-off were formulated.

  4. Development of a takeoff performance monitoring system. Ph.D. Thesis. Contractor Report, Jan. 1984 - Jun. 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the development and testing of a real-time takeoff performance monitoring algorithm. The algorithm is made up of two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time imputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data for that takeoff. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data generated in the pretakeoff segment, runway length data, and measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. An important feature of this algorithm is the one-time estimation of the runway rolling friction coefficient. The algorithm was tested using a six-degree-of-freedom airplane model in a computer simulation. Results from a series of sensitivity analyses are also included.

  5. Investigation of the Characteristics of an Acceleration-Type Take-Off Indicator in a Large Jet Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolnick, Joseph J.; Rind, Emanuel

    1959-01-01

    The characteristics of a proposed acceleration-type take-off indicator were observed during take-off runs of a large jet airplane. The instrument performed its function satisfactorily. It showed an essentially constant reading, which agreed closely with the predicted value, throughout the take-off except for about the first 135 feet of the ground roll during which the starting windup of the indicator pointer occurred. Although oscillating longitudinal accelerations at the instrument location were as much as +/- 50 percent of the steady-state acceleration, the instrument showed only small excursions from the mean reading equivalent to not more than +/- 5 percent of the mean reading and was considered to be satisfactorily readable.

  6. Measurement of the Errors of Service Altimeter Installations During Landing-Approach and Take-Off Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William; Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Carpenter, Gene T.

    1960-01-01

    The overall errors of the service altimeter installations of a variety of civil transport, military, and general-aviation airplanes have been experimentally determined during normal landing-approach and take-off operations. The average height above the runway at which the data were obtained was about 280 feet for the landings and about 440 feet for the take-offs. An analysis of the data obtained from 196 airplanes during 415 landing approaches and from 70 airplanes during 152 take-offs showed that: 1. The overall error of the altimeter installations in the landing- approach condition had a probable value (50 percent probability) of +/- 36 feet and a maximum probable value (99.7 percent probability) of +/- 159 feet with a bias of +10 feet. 2. The overall error in the take-off condition had a probable value of +/- 47 feet and a maximum probable value of +/- 207 feet with a bias of -33 feet. 3. The overall errors of the military airplanes were generally larger than those of the civil transports in both the landing-approach and take-off conditions. In the landing-approach condition the probable error and the maximum probable error of the military airplanes were +/- 43 and +/- 189 feet, respectively, with a bias of +15 feet, whereas those for the civil transports were +/- 22 and +/- 96 feet, respectively, with a bias of +1 foot. 4. The bias values of the error distributions (+10 feet for the landings and -33 feet for the take-offs) appear to represent a measure of the hysteresis characteristics (after effect and recovery) and friction of the instrument and the pressure lag of the tubing-instrument system.

  7. A Mathematical Model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) Aircraft Simulation. Volume 1; Model Description Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model of a high performance airplane capable of vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) was developed. An off line digital simulation program incorporating this model was developed to provide trim conditions and dynamic check runs for the piloted simulation studies and support dynamic analyses of proposed VATOL configuration and flight control concepts. Development details for the various simulation component models and the application of the off line simulation program, Vertical Attitude Take-Off and Landing Simulation (VATLAS), to develop a baseline control system for the Vought SF-121 VATOL airplane concept are described.

  8. A mathematical model for Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) aircraft simulation. Volume 3: User's manual for VATOL simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenbaugh, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Instructions for using Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing Aircraft Simulation (VATLAS), the digital simulation program for application to vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) aircraft developed for installation on the NASA Ames CDC 7600 computer system are described. The framework for VATLAS is the Off-Line Simulation (OLSIM) routine. The OLSIM routine provides a flexible framework and standardized modules which facilitate the development of off-line aircraft simulations. OLSIM runs under the control of VTOLTH, the main program, which calls the proper modules for executing user specified options. These options include trim, stability derivative calculation, time history generation, and various input-output options.

  9. Research and application of a new kind of measurement technology of take-off and landing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunbao, Yang

    A video-based take-off and landing performance measurement system has been developed to aid in certification of the Y-12 aircraft. The system has high accuracy and is adaptable to computer analysis. Employing dual channel audio inputs, and the video system is capable of coordinating such synchronous signals as IRIG B time code and voice with flight data obtained using an airborne data acquisition system. Applications of the system include searching for the best take-off and landing flight path, the establishment of helicopter hovering capacity, and fly-over noise evaluation.

  10. Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

  11. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  12. Water Stress Affects Development Time but Not Takeoff Performance in the Butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Breuker, Casper J; Van Damme, Raoul

    Most organisms are limited in the amount and type of resources they are able to extract from the environment. The juvenile environment is particularly important in this regard, as conditions over ontogeny can influence the adult phenotype. Whole-organism performance traits, such as locomotion, are susceptible to such environmental effects, yet the specific biotic and abiotic factors driving performance plasticity have received little attention. We tested whether speckled wood Pararge aegeria L. butterflies reared under conditions of water stress exhibited poorer flight morphology and performance than control individuals. Despite large differences in mortality between treatments, we found no effects of water stress treatment on takeoff performance and only minor treatment effects on flight morphology. However, butterflies reared on water-stressed diets exhibited both significantly greater mortality and longer development times than did control individuals. Pararge aegeria larvae may compensate for this stress by prolonging development, resulting in similar realized performance capacities at least in takeoff performance in surviving adult butterflies; other measures of flight performance remain to be considered. Alternatively, the adult phenotype may be insulated from environmental effects at the larval stage in these insects.

  13. Testing of lift/cruise fan exhaust deflector. [for a tip turbine lift fan in short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A lift/cruise exhaust deflector system for the LF336/A tip turbine lift fan was designed, built, and tested to determine the design and performance characteristics of a large-scale, single swivel nozzle thrust vectoring system. The exhaust deflector static testing was performed at the Ames Research Center outside static test stand facilities. The test hardware was installed on a hydraulic lift platform to permit both in and out of ground effect testing. The exhaust flow of the LF336/A lift fan was vectored from 0 degrees through 130 degrees during selected fan speeds to obtain performance at different operating conditions. The system was operated with and without flow vanes installed in the small radius bends to evaluate the system performance based on a proposed method of improving the internal flow losses. The program also included testing at different ground heights, to the nozzle exhaust plane, to obtain ground effect data, and the testing of two methods of thrust spoiling using a duct bypass door system and nozzle flap system.

  14. Multivariable Output Control Law Design for the STOL (Short Takeoff and Landing) F-15 in Landing Configuration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    were instrumental in the success of this thesis. Finally, I wish to express my respect and apprecia- tion to the four fellow students who also studied ...enhancements to the computer aided design and simulation program MULTI (9). 1.4 overview A general description of the aircraft used for this study is...topics for future study . 4 Four appendices are included as supplementary material to augment the material presented in the body of the thesis. Appendix A

  15. Multivariable Control Law Design for Enhanced Air Combat Maneuvering. F-15/STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) Derivative Fighter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    controller matrix K(1 (alpha)K0.- 4. Irregular design: M = 0.3, 0 , OIT. 354 (LI -JJC H . -r G -~ -- J 5 -2. 8 c355 77F r - .- hzI...Integral Gain, 0 1(1=6.67*1( 0 (O.3M, FL200).............81 4.3b Direct Climb: High Integral Gain, 1(1=6.67*1( 0 (0.3M, FL200) ............ 81 4.4a Direct...Plant+Actuators (0.9M/FL200)..................115 0 5.27 Vertical Trans: Plant+Actuators+Delay - (0.9M/FL200)..................116.. 5.28 Vertical Trans

  16. Short-term pharyngeal airway changes after mandibular advancement surgery in adult Class II-Patients--a three-dimensional retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kochel, Janka; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Sickel, Franka; Lindorf, Helmut; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate volume changes in posterior airway space (PAS) after bilateral mandibular advancement surgery. Measurements were taken based on three-dimensional (3D) records available for a large and homogeneous cohort of patients. Pre- and postoperative CBCT scans of 102 adult patients with Class II dysgnathia were visualized and analyzed using 3D software (Mimics® Innovation Suite 14.1; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The PAS was divided into three segments by three planes parallel and one plane perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane. Total volume, partial volumes, and cross-sectional areas were calculated from the pre- and postoperative scans. Dahlberg coefficients were obtained to verify each parameter for the measurements' reliability. The statistical significance of the changes observed was analyzed by Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. Highly significant (p=0.000) increases in total posterior airway volume (+32.0%) were noted as an effect of mandibular advancement surgery, amounting to 45.6% in the lower PAS third compared to 38.8% in the middle and 12.5% in the upper PAS third. We also obtained highly significant (p=0.000) increases in all the cross-sectional areas investigated, amounting to 48.5% on the soft-palate level compared to 21.6% on the level of the epiglottis tip, and 14.6% on the hard-palate level. These results demonstrate that bilateral mandibular advancement surgery in Class II-Patients leads to significant increases in PAS volume and significant widening of the narrower sites inside the pharynx.

  17. The Investigation of Take-off and Landing Characteristics of Jet Shortened Take-off and Landing Aircraft (STOL) (K Voprosu Issledovaniya Vzletno-Posadochnykh Kharakteristik Reaktivnykh Samoletov Ukorochennogo Vzleta i Posadki (SUVP)),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-25

    including an analysis made from the viewpoint of take-off and landing and flight characteristics , as well as safety and economy is vital for this purpose...No. 16, l96~ . 8. A Manual on VTOL Aircraft. Trudy TsAGI , 1965. 9. W. Seibold. Untersuchungen uber die von Hubstrahlen an Senkrechstartern Erzeugen

  18. Virtually nonexistent correlation between the OH stretching frequency and the instantaneous geometry in the short hydrogen bond of sodium hydrogen bis(sulfate): advanced chemometrics analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirc, Gordana; Mavri, Janez; Novič, Marjana; Stare, Jernej

    2012-06-21

    We examined the correlation between the dynamically sampled anharmonic frequency of the OH stretching motion and the corresponding instantaneous geometric parameters associated with the structure of crystalline sodium hydrogen bis(sulfate), which is a benchmark system with an extremely short hydrogen bond. We analyzed the trajectory obtained by a conventional Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation, followed by an a posteriori quantization of the proton motion. For statistical analysis we applied the established methodologies of multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, principal component regression, and Kohonen neural networks. No simple correlation scheme between the OH stretching frequency and any particular geometry parameter (or their combination) was found. In comparison to the established correlation schemes (e.g., Mikenda and Novak) that consider a series of systems, our study provides a complementary insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding of a single system, in the sense that it considers the important aspects of fluctuations of the environment and the resulting broadening of the OH stretching band, which cannot be adequately assessed by experiment. The absence of appreciable correlations gives strong evidence of the extreme complexity of short hydrogen bonding.

  19. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability begining in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Also evaluated was the technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts and the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  20. Use of an individual mandibular advancement device for an?obstructive sleep apnoea patient with facial paralysis: a short-term follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, B; Sipahi, C; Köse, M; Karakoç, Ö; Şevketbeyoğlu, H; Ataç, G K

    2012-06-01

    This case report aimed to describe the fabrication procedure and treatment efficacy of an individual, one-piece, non-adjustable mandibular advancement device (MAD) for a moderate obstructive sleep apnoea patient with facial paralysis (FP). Mandibular advancement device was fabricated with autopolymerising acrylic resin. The intermaxillary relations were recorded such as to fix the mandible at a protruded position with increased vertical dimension. Initial evaluation of the MAD was made with axial magnetic resonance imaging and polysomnography on the first day of usage. Following evaluations were made on the third and sixth month. After a follow-up period of 6 months, Apnoea/Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly decreased from 26·7 to 3·0. However, the average oxygen saturation did not improve as expected initially. The MAD therapy decreased the AHI scores of a patient with FP. At the end of a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient did not report any serious complaint except temporary tooth pains.

  1. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) acoustic and aerodynamic tests on a scale model over-the-wing thrust reverser and forward thrust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic test program was conducted on a 1/6.25 scale model of the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) forward thrust over-the-wing (OTW) nozzle and OTW thrust reverser. In reverse thrust, the effect of reverser geometry was studied by parametric variations in blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. Forward thrust nozzle tests determined the jet noise levels of the cruise and takeoff nozzles, the effect of opening side doors to achieve takeoff thrust, and scrubbing noise of the cruise and takeoff jet on a simulated wing surface. Velocity profiles are presented for both forward and reverse thrust nozzles. An estimate of the reverse thrust was made utilizing the measured centerline turning angle.

  2. Wind as an abiotic factor of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) flight take-off activity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Mccarthy, P C; MacKinley, P D

    2010-10-01

    The flight take-off activity of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was significantly higher at a landscape-protected than at semiexposed and exposed sites in a 2-yr field study. In both years, mean daylight temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were generally similar at all sites, but wind speed was lower at the protected site than at the exposed sites. Results suggest that wind was the limiting abiotic factor for flight take-off at the exposed site. Caged beetles exposed to constant wind speeds of 3.4, 4.7, and 7.0 m/s showed a significant corresponding decrease in number of flight take-off. There was no cumulative effect of wind exposure on the readiness of the beetles to fly, suggesting that wind acts as a physical barrier to flight take-off. It should be possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle flight dispersal by selecting fields most exposed to wind over landscape-protected fields when rotating potato, Solanum tuberosum L., crops.

  3. Effects of an inclined board as a training tool on the take-off motion of the long jump.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroyuki; Muraki, Yuya; Ae, Michiyoshi

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of inclined and raised flat boards on the take-off motion of the long jump to determine the effectiveness of these boards as training tools. Eight male long jumpers were videotaped with two high-speed video cameras (250 Hz) set perpendicular to the runway. Four different jumps were performed with in four conditions, all with their medium length run-up: a long jump with their normal technique, long jumps on upward inclined boards of two different inclinations (2.5 and 5.0 degrees), and a long jump on a raised flat board (0 degrees, 50 mm). The raised flat board enhanced the pivot of the body over the take-off foot, and reduced flexion of the take-off leg knee. However, the inclined boards did not produce the same effects as the raised flat board. The use of the inclined boards increased the vertical velocity of the centre of mass of the body at toe-off, resulting in increased airborne time. These results suggest that the raised flat board and inclined boards would be effective in improving long jumpers' techniques during the take-off and airborne phases.

  4. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  5. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  6. Comparison of the short-term efficacy between docetaxel plus carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xing; Xia, Wei-Xiong; Ke, Liang-Ru; Yang, Jing; Qiu, Wen-Zhe; Yu, Ya-Hui; Liang, Hu; Huang, Xin-Jun; Liu, Guo-Yin; Zeng, Qi; Guo, Xiang; Xiang, Yan-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy is a standard treatment strategy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of inductive chemotherapy with docetaxel plus carboplatin (TC) or 5-fluorouracil plus carboplatin (FC) followed by concurrent radiation therapy in patients with NPC. Methods Patients (N=88) were randomized to receive TC or FC as inductive therapy followed by concurrent radiotherapy (60–70 Gy) with two cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve =5 mg·h/L). Patients were followed up for 8 years. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), toxicity, tumor response, distant metastasis-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival. Results At the end of the follow-up period, 31 patients died, 32 had disease progression, eleven had cancer recurrence, and 25 had distant metastasis. Overall, there was no difference between treatment groups with regard to response or survival. We found that following induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the majority of patients showed a complete response (~96%–98% for induction therapy and 82%–84% for comprehensive therapy) to both therapies. PFS and OS were also similar between groups. The rate of PFS was 63.6% for both FC and TC and that of OS was 65.9% and 63.5%, respectively. The overall incidence of grade 3–4 adverse events in the TC group (20.5%) was higher than in the FC group (10.7%). Neutropenia and leukopenia were the most common grade 3–4 adverse events in the TC group, and mucositis was the most common in the FC group. Conclusion These data indicate that TC and FC therapies have similar efficacy in treating locally advanced NPC and both are well tolerated. PMID:27574453

  7. Enhancing Discussion through Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sybil

    A teacher of English in a college-level intensive English language program describes a method for stimulating speech in high-intermediate and advanced students, using short stories. It is argued that in short stories, the themes are universal, and even shy students are willing to discuss this form of literature in class. Criteria for selecting…

  8. Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) powered spaceliner class vehicle can advantageously employ vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The subject is next generation orbital space transporation, taken to be fully reusable non-staged 'aircraft like' systems targeted for routine, affordable access to space. Specifically, the takeoff and landing approach to be selected for such systems is considered, mainly from a propulsion viewpoint. Conventional wisdom has it that any transatmospheric-class vehicle which uses high-speed airbreathing propulsion modes (e.g., scramjet) intrinsically must utilize horizontal takeoff and landing, HTOHL. Although this may be true for all-airbreathing propulsion (i.e., no rocket content as in turboramjet propulsion), that emerging class of powerplant which integrally combines airbreathing and rocket propulsion, referred to as rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion, is considerably more flexible with respect to selecting takeoff/landing modes. In fact, it is proposed that any of the modes of interest may potentially be selected: HTOHL, VTOHL, VTOVL. To illustrate this surmise, the case of a previously documented RBCC-powered 'Spaceliner' class space transport concept, which is designed for vertical takeoff and landing, is examined. The 'RBCC' and 'Spaceliner' categories are first described for background. Departing form an often presumed HTOHL baseline, the leading design and operational advantages of moving to VTOVL are then elucidated. Technical substantiation that the RBCC approach, in fact, enables this capability (but also that of HTOHL and VTOVL) is provided, with extensive reference to case-in-point supporting studies. The paper closes with a set of conditional surmises bearing on its set of conclusions, which point up the operational cost advantages associated with selecting the vertical takeoff and landing mode combination (VTOL), uniquely offered by RBCC propulsion.

  9. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  10. Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler Velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels.

  11. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-12-01

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments.

  12. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-im; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments. PMID:27924805

  13. Validation of a Flexible Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Analysis (FATOLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications to improve the analytical simulation capabilities of a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program are discussed. The FATOLA program was used to simulate the landing behavior of a stiff body X-24B reentry research vehicle and of a flexible body supersonic cruise YF-12A research airplane. The analytical results were compared with flight test data, and correlations of vehicle motions, attitudes, forces, and accelerations during the landing impact and rollout were good. For the YF-12A airplane, airframe flexibility was found to be important for nose gear loading. Based upon the correlation study presented, the versatility and validity of the FATOLA program for the study of landing dynamics of aircraft are confirmed.

  14. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

    2003-11-01

    Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

  15. Advanced supersonic technology and its implications for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program is presented. The SCR program has identified significant improvements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements tend to overcome most of the problems which led to the cancellation of the National SST program. They offer the promise of an advanced SST family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. The areas of technology addressed by the SCR program have direct application to advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft.

  16. Effect of posture on the aerodynamic characteristics during take-off in ski jumping.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Tsubokura, Makoto; Ikeda, Jun; Onishi, Keiji; Baleriola, Sophie

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23.23m/s in the CFD. The aerodynamic force, flow velocity, and vortexes for each model were compared between models. The total drag force acting upon jumper A was lower than that acting upon jumper B through the whole movement. Regarding the total lift force, although jumper A׳s total lift force was less in the in-run posture, it became greater than that of jumper B at the end of the movement. In the latter half of the movement, low air-speed domain expansion was observed at the model׳s back. This domain of jumper B was larger. There were two symmetric vortexes in the wake of jumper A, but the disordered vortexes were observed behind the jumper B. In the case of jumper A, these two distinct vortexes generated by the arms produced a downwash flow in the wake. It is considered that the positioning of the arms in a very low position strongly influences the flow structure.

  17. Eclipse project QF-106 and C-141A takeoff on first tethered flight December 20, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    TOW ROPE TAKEOFF - The Kelly Space & Technology (KST)/USAF Eclipse project's modified QF-106 and a USAF C-141A takeoff for the project's first tethered flight on December 20, 1997. The successful 18-minute-long flight reached an altitude of 10,000 feet. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the project, providing engineering and facility support as well as the project pilot. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  18. Analytical study of takeoff and landing performance for a jet STOL transport configuration with full-span, externally blown, triple-slotted flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, H. P.; Gibbons, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Takeoff and landing performance characteristics and field length requirements were determined analytically for a jet STOL transport configuration with full-span, externally blown, tripleslotted flaps. The configuration had a high wing, high T-tail, and four pod-mounted high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines located under and forward of the wing. One takeoff and three approach and landing flap settings were evaluated. The effects of wing loading, thrust-to-weight ratio, weight, ambient temperature, altitude on takeoff and landing field length requirements are discussed.

  19. Study of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Rowse, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Definitions of takeoff gross weight, performance, and direct operating cost for both a 30 and 50 passenger airplane were established. The results indicate that a potential direct operating cost benefit, resulting from advanced technologies, of approximately 20 percent would be achieved for the 1990 engines. Of the numerous design features that were evaluated, only maintenance-related items contributed to a significant decrease in direct operating cost. Recommendations are made to continue research and technology programs for advanced component and engine development.

  20. WAATS: A computer program for Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A historical weight estimating technique for advanced transportation systems is presented. The classical approach to weight estimation is discussed and sufficient data is presented to estimate weights for a large spectrum of flight vehicles including horizontal and vertical takeoff aircraft, boosters and reentry vehicles. A computer program, WAATS (Weights Analysis for Advanced Transportation Systems) embracing the techniques discussed has been written and user instructions are presented. The program was developed for use in the ODIN (Optimal Design Integration System) system.

  1. Vertical Jump Height is more Strongly Associated with Velocity and Work Performed Prior to Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. R.; Loehr, J. A.; DeWitt, J. K.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Nash, R. E.; Leach, M. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) height is commonly used as a measure of athletic capability in strength and power sports. Although VJ has been shown to be a predictor of athletic performance, it is not clear which kinetic ground reaction force (GRF) variables, such as peak force (PF), peak power (PP), peak velocity (PV), total work (TW) or impulse (Imp) are the best correlates. To determine which kinetic variables (PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp) best correlate with VJ height. Twenty subjects (14 males, 6 females) performed three maximal countermovement VJs on a force platform (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA). VJ jump height was calculated as the difference between standing reach and the highest reach point measured using a Vertec. PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp were calculated using the vertical GRF data sampled at 1000 Hz from the lowest point in the countermovement through the concentric portion until take-off. GRF data were normalized to body mass measured using a standard scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO, USA). Correlation coefficients were computed between each GRF variable and VJ height using a Pearson correlation. VJ height (43.4 plus or minus 9.1 cm) was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with PF (998 plus or minus 321 N; r=0.51), PP (1997 plus or minus 772 W; r=0.69), PV (2.66 plus or minus 0.40 m (raised dot) s(sup -1); r=0.85), TW (259 plus or minus 93.0 kJ; r=0.82), and Imp (204 plus or minus 51.1 N(raised dot)s; r=0.67). Although all variables were correlated to VJ height, PV and TW were more strongly correlated to VJ height than PF, PP, and Imp. Therefore, since TW is equal to force times displacement, the relative displacement of the center of mass along with the forces applied during the upward movement of the jump are critical determinants of VJ height. PV and TW are key determinants of VJ height, and therefore successful training programs to increase VJ height should focus on rapid movement (PV) and TW by increasing power over time rather

  2. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Cohen syndrome DiGeorge syndrome Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) Home Care ... short philtrum, you may want to note that diagnosis in your personal medical record. Images The face ...

  3. Take-off Stability Characteristics of a 1/13-scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane (TED No. NACA DE 338)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Coffee, Claude W.; Abrabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    The take-off stability characteristics of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane were determined in the Langley tank no. 2. Trim limits of stability, trim tracks, and elevator limits of stability are presented.

  4. Acoustic test and analyses of three advanced turboprop models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, B. M.; Metzger, F. B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of acoustic tests of three 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter models of the prop-fan (a small diameter, highly loaded. Multi-bladed variable pitch advanced turboprop) are presented. Results show that there is little difference in the noise produced by unswept and slightly swept designs. However, the model designed for noise reduction produces substantially less noise at test conditions simulating 0.8 Mach number cruise speed or at conditions simulating takeoff and landing. In the near field at cruise conditions the acoustically designed. In the far field at takeoff and landing conditions the acoustically designed model is 5 db quieter than unswept or slightly swept designs. Correlation between noise measurement and theoretical predictions as well as comparisons between measured and predicted acoustic pressure pulses generated by the prop-fan blades are discussed. The general characteristics of the pulses are predicted. Shadowgraph measurements were obtained which showed the location of bow and trailing waves.

  5. Feasibility study of air-breathing turbo-engines for horizontal take-off and landing space plane

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, M.; Sakata, K.; Tamaki, T.; Saitoh, T.; Yasuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    Various concepts of air-breathing engines (ABEs) that could be used for a horizontal take-off and landing SSTO vehicle are investigated. The performances (with respect to thrust and the specific fuel consumption) of turboengines based on various technologies, including a turbojet with and without afterburner (TJ), turboramjet, and air-turbo-ram jet engines are compared. The mission capabilities of these ABEs for SSTO and TSTO vehicles is examined in terms of the ratio of the effective remaining weight (i.e., the weight on the orbit) to the take-off gross weight, using two-dimensional flight analysis. It was found that the dry TJ with the turbine inlet temperature 2000 C is one of the most promising candidates for the propulsion system of the SSTO vehicle, because of its small weight and high specific impulse. 6 refs.

  6. Validation of a Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis /FATOLA/ computer program using flight landing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-degree-of-freedom takeoff and landing analysis, Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis computer program (FATOLA), was used to predict the landing behavior of a rigid-body X-24B reentry research vehicle and of a flexible-body modified-delta-wing supersonic YF-12 research aircraft. The analytical predictions were compared with flight test data for both research vehicles. Predicted time histories of vehicle motion and attitude, landing-gear strut stroke, and axial force transmitted from the landing gear to the airframe during the landing impact and rollout compared well with the actual time histories. Based on the comparisons presented, the versatility and validity of the FATOLA program for predicting landing dynamics of aircraft has been demonstrated.

  7. A new 3D Eikonal solver for accurate traveltimes, take-off angles and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Mark; Gesret, Alexandrine

    2013-04-01

    The finite-difference approximation to the eikonal equation was first introduced by J.Vidale in 1988 to propagate first-arrival times throughout a 2D or 3D gridded velocity model. Even today this method is still very attractive from a computational point of view when dealing with large datasets. Among many domains of application, the eikonal solver may be used for 2-D or 3-D depth migration, tomography or microseismicity data analysis. The original 3D method proposed by Vidale in 1990 did exhibit some degree of travel time error that may lead to poor image focusing in migration or inaccurate velocities estimated via tomographic inversion. The method even failed when large and sharp velocity contrasts were encountered. To try and overcome these limitations many authors proposed alternative algorithms, incorporating new finite-difference operators and/or new schemes of implementing the operators to propagate the travel times through the velocity model. If many recently published algorithms for resolving the 3D eikonal equation do yield fairly accurate travel times for most applications, the spatial derivatives of travel times remain very approximate and prevent reliable computation of auxiliary quantities such as take-off angle and amplitude. This limitation is due to the fact that the finite-difference operators locally assume that the wavefront is flat (plane wave). This assumption is in particularly wrong when close to the source where a spherical approximation would be more suitable. To overcome this singularity at the source, some authors proposed an adaptive method that reduces inaccuracies, however, the cost is more algorithmic complexity. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient simple 3D eikonal solver that is able to: overcome the problem of the source singularity, handle velocity models that exhibit strong vertical and horizontal velocity variations, use different grid spacing in x, y and z axis of model. The final goal is of course to

  8. Hunting archer fish match their take-off speed to distance from the future point of catch.

    PubMed

    Wöhl, Saskia; Schuster, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Archer fish can shoot down insect prey with a sharp jet of water. Fish usually fire from positions that are not directly below their target so that a dislodged insect falls ballistically with a horizontal velocity component. Only 100 ms after the insect is on its path both the shooter and other school members can initiate a rapid turn and then head straight in the direction of the later point of impact of their falling prey. The quick turn and subsequent take-off are performed ;open-loop', based on the initial values of the falling insect's motion. We report here that archer fish can not only take off in the direction of the later point of impact but also predict its distance. Distance information allows the fish to adjust their take-off speed so that they would arrive within a narrow time slot slightly (about 50 ms) after their prey's impact, despite large differences in the size of the aligning turn and in the distance to be covered. Selecting a constant speed program with matched speed and catching the insect on the move minimizes frictional losses. The initial speed of starting fish is slightly but systematically too slow and is increased later so that the fish arrive 20 ms earlier than expected and often make the catch on a higher than take-off speed. The variability of later speed changes suggests a systematic ;error' in the take-off, as if the fish underestimated distance. However, this apparent deficiency seems well adapted to the fish catching their prey at a high speed: if later the fish had no possibility to correct an initial error then it is better to start slightly too slow in order to minimize the risk of overshooting the point of catch.

  9. Experimental results of the UTSI coal-fired MHD generator and investigations of various power take-off schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanga, F. L.; Lineberry, J. T.; Wu, Y. C. L.; Scott, M. H.; Baucum, W. E.; Clemons, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Energy Conversion Division, in support of technology development of coal-fired MHD generator systems. The primary objectives of the test series were to evaluate the overall electrical performance of the 60 deg DCW generator with vitiation heated oxidizer, to study the thermal behavior of capped versus solid frame electrodes, and to investigate various power take-off schemes. Results from the above-mentioned areas of investigation are presented and discussed.

  10. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  11. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  12. Probabilistic model, analysis and computer code for take-off and landing related aircraft crashes into a structure

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.

    1996-02-06

    A methodology is presented that allows the calculation of the probability that any of a particular collection of structures will be hit by an aircraft in a take-off or landing related accident during a specified window of time with a velocity exceeding a given critical value. A probabilistic model is developed that incorporates the location of each structure relative to airport runways in the vicinity; the size of the structure; the sizes, types, and frequency of use of commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft which take-off and land at these runways; the relative frequency of take-off and landing related accidents by aircraft type; the stochastic properties of off-runway crashes, namely impact location, impact angle, impact velocity, and the heading, deceleration, and skid distance after impact; and the stochastic properties of runway overruns and runoffs, namely the position at which the aircraft exits the runway, its exit velocity, and the heading and deceleration after exiting. Relevant probability distributions are fitted from extensive commercial, military, and general aviation accident report data bases. The computer source code for implementation of the calculation is provided.

  13. Performance of arrays of direct-driven wave energy converters under optimal power take-off damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liguo; Engström, Jens; Leijon, Mats; Isberg, Jan

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the total power converted by a wave energy farm is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between wave energy converters, especially when they are close to each other. Therefore, to improve the performance of a wave energy farm, the hydrodynamic interaction between converters must be considered, which can be influenced by the power take-off damping of individual converters. In this paper, the performance of arrays of wave energy converters under optimal hydrodynamic interaction and power take-off damping is investigated. This is achieved by coordinating the power take-off damping of individual converters, resulting in optimal hydrodynamic interaction as well as higher production of time-averaged power converted by the farm. Physical constraints on motion amplitudes are considered in the solution, which is required for the practical implementation of wave energy converters. Results indicate that the natural frequency of a wave energy converter under optimal damping will not vary with sea states, but the production performance of a wave energy farm can be improved significantly while satisfying the motion constraints.

  14. Potential missions for advanced airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, D. T.; Joner, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    The freight commodity transport and the intercity passenger travel markets in the U.S. for 1967 and 1972 are analyzed, along with 1985 estimates, in order to establish the size, speed and cost enabling use of the airship in these markets. Items examined include frozen meat, confectionary, drugs, electrical equipment, mechanical parts, clothing and plastic products. A 50 ton/500 passenger payload capacity, a cruise speed of 100 kt and a VTOL capability or at minimum short take-off and vertical landing capability are needed to make an LTA vehicle viable in the transport market if it had a direct operating cost of $500 to $800 per hour for freight carrying and $1100 to $2700 an hour in passenger service with utilizations between 2000 hours and 4000 hours a year.

  15. Sequential PET/CT with [18F]-FDG Predicts Pathological Tumor Response to Preoperative Short Course Radiotherapy with Delayed Surgery in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Using Logistic Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pecori, Biagio; Lastoria, Secondo; Caracò, Corradina; Celentani, Marco; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Avallone, Antonio; Rega, Daniela; De Palma, Giampaolo; Mormile, Maria; Budillon, Alfredo; Muto, Paolo; Bianco, Francesco; Aloj, Luigi; Petrillo, Antonella; Delrio, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that FDG PET/CT may predict pathological response in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Aim of the current study is evaluate if pathological response can be similarly predicted in LARC patients after short course radiation therapy alone. Methods: Thirty-three patients with cT2-3, N0-2, M0 rectal adenocarcinoma treated with hypo fractionated short course neoadjuvant RT (5x5 Gy) with delayed surgery (SCRTDS) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies at baseline, 10 days from RT end (early), and 53 days from RT end (delayed). Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor were measured and recorded at each PET/CT study. We use logistic regression analysis to aggregate different measures of metabolic response to predict the pathological response in the course of SCRTDS. Results: We provide straightforward formulas to classify response and estimate the probability of being a major responder (TRG1-2) or a complete responder (TRG1) for each individual. The formulas are based on the level of TLG at the early PET and on the overall proportional reduction of TLG between baseline and delayed PET studies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that in the course of SCRTDS it is possible to estimate the probabilities of pathological tumor responses on the basis of PET/CT with FDG. Our formulas make it possible to assess the risks associated to LARC borne by a patient in the course of SCRTDS. These risk assessments can be balanced against other health risks associated with further treatments and can therefore be used to make informed therapy adjustments during SCRTDS. PMID:28060889

  16. The FM-007: An advanced jet commuter for HUB to spoke transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blouke, Peter Scott; Engel, George Bryan; Fordham, Kari Suzanne; Layne, Steven James; Moore, Joel David; Shaver, Frederick Martin; Thornton, Douglas Hershal, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the increasing need for new commuter aircraft, the FM-007 is proposed, a technologically advanced jet propelled short takeoff and landing (STOL) airplane. The proposed commuter is designed for hub to spoke air travel. In order to reduce drag, natural laminar flow technology is integrated into the design using the natural laminar flow airfoil section for the wing. A three lifting surface configuration provides for more efficient cruise flight. This unique design includes a small forward wing (canard), a rear mounted high aspect ratio main wing, and a small horizontal stabilizer high atop the vertical tail. These three surfaces act together to reduce drag by minimizing the downward force the horizontal stabilizer has to account for due to the nose down pitching moment. Commuter aircraft must also incorporate passenger comfort. This is achieved by providing a spacious pressurized cabin with a large galley and reduced cabin noise due to incorporation of noise reduction gear. A basic oval design is adopted, as opposed to a circular design in order to allow for the seating of five passengers abreast. To get STOL capability, an over the wing blown flap is used using a Rolls Royce Tay series engine.

  17. Feedback Control of a Morphing Chevron for Takeoff and Cruise Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Mabe, James H.; Ruggeri, Robert T.; Butler, G. W.

    2004-01-01

    Noise from commercial high-bypass ratio turbofan engines is generated by turbulent mixing of the hot jet exhaust, fan stream, and ambient air. Serrated aerodynamic devices, known as chevrons, along the trailing edges of a jet engine primary and secondary exhaust nozzle have been shown to reduce jet noise at takeoff and shock-cell noise at cruise conditions. Their optimum shape is a finely tuned compromise between noise-benefit and thrust-loss. The design of a full scale Variable Geometry Chevron (VGC) fan-nozzle incorporating Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators is described in a companion paper. This paper describes the development and testing of a proportional-integral control system that regulates the heating of the SMA actuators to control the VGC s tip immersion. The VGC and control system were tested under representative flow conditions in Boeing s Nozzle Test Facility (NTF). Results from the NTF test which demonstrate controllable immersion of the VGC are described. The paper also describes the correlation between strains and temperatures on the chevron with a photogrammetric measurement of the chevron's tip immersion.

  18. Composition and morphology of particle emissions from in-use aircraft during takeoff and landing.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Bostrom, Thor E; Johnson, Graham R; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    In order to provide realistic data for air pollution inventories and source apportionment at airports, the morphology and composition of ultrafine particles (UFP) in aircraft engine exhaust were measured and characterized. For this purpose, two independent measurement techniques were employed to collect emissions during normal takeoff and landing operations at Brisbane Airport, Australia. PM1 emissions in the airfield were collected on filters and analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Morphological and compositional analyses of individual ultrafine particles in aircraft plumes were performed on silicon nitride membrane grids using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). TEM results showed that the deposited particles were in the range of 5-100 nm in diameter, had semisolid spherical shapes and were dominant in the nucleation mode (18-20 nm). The EDX analysis showed the main elements in the nucleation particles were C, O, S, and Cl. The PIXE analysis of the airfield samples was generally in agreement with the EDX in detecting S, Cl, K, Fe, and Si in the particles. The results of this study provide important scientific information on the toxicity of aircraft exhaust and their impact on local air quality.

  19. Unsteady blade pressures on a propfan at takeoff: Euler analysis and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.

    1991-01-01

    The unsteady blade pressures due to the operation of the propfan at an angle to the direction of the mean flow are obtained by solving the unsteady three dimensional Euler equations. The configuration considered is the eight bladed SR7L propfan at takeoff conditions and the inflow angles considered are 6.3 deg, 8.3 deg, 11.3 deg. The predicted blade pressure waveforms are compared with inflight measurements. At the inboard radial station (r/R = 0.68) the phase of the predicted waveforms show reasonable agreement with the measurements while the amplitudes are over predicted in the leading edge region of the blade. At the outboard radial station (r/R = 0.95), the predicted amplitudes of the waveforms on the pressure surface are in good agreement with flight data for all inflow angles. The measured (installed propfan) waveforms show a relative phase lag compared to the computed (propfan alone) waveforms. The phase lag depends on the axial location of the transducer and the surface of the blade. On the suction surface, in addition to the relative phase lag, the measurements show distortion (widening and steepening) of the waveforms. The extent of distortion increases with increase in inflow angle. This distortion seems to be due to viscous separation effects which depend on the azimuthal location of the blade and the axial location of the transducer.

  20. Mathematical model for takeoff simulation of a wing in proximity to the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinaci, Omer Kemal

    2016-06-01

    Aircraft flying close to the ground benefit from enhanced efficiency owing to decreased induced drag and increased lift. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the takeoff of a wing near the ground using an Iterative Boundary Element Method (IBEM) and the finite difference scheme. Two stand-alone sub-codes and a mother code, which enables communication between the sub-codes, are developed to solve for the self-excitation of the Wing-In-Ground (WIG) effect. The aerodynamic force exerted on the wing is calculated by the first sub-code using the IBEM, and the vertical displacement of the wing is calculated by the second sub-code using the finite difference scheme. The mother code commands the two sub-codes and can solve for the aerodynamics of the wing and operating height within seconds. The developed code system is used to solve for the force, velocity, and displacement of an NACA6409 wing at a 4° Angle of Attack (AoA) which has various numerical and experimental studies in the literature. The effects of thickness and AoA are then investigated and conclusions were drawn with respect to generated results. The proposed model provides a practical method for understanding the flight dynamics and it is specifically beneficial at the pre-design stages of a WIG effect craft.

  1. Contingency Power Study for Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Wait, John

    2003-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines (AE) defined a number of concepts that significantly increased the horsepower of a turboshaft engine to accommodate the loss of an engine and enable the safe landing of a twin-engined, 40-passenger, short haul civil tiltrotor. From these concepts, "Water/Methanol Injection," a "Better Power Turbine Than Required," and a "Secondary Combustor For Interturbine Reheat" were chosen, based on system safety and economics, for more detailed examination. Engine performance, mission, and cost analysis of these systems indicated contingency power levels of 26 to 70 percent greater than normal rated takeoff could be attained for short durations, thus enabling direct operating cost savings between 2 and 6 percent.

  2. Advanced Electrochemical Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; McCloy, John S.; Matyas, Josef

    2011-12-01

    This is a brief description of PNNL's efforts in FY2011 towards developing advanced electrochemical waste forms. This is a short section that will become part of a larger document being put together by INL.

  3. Comparison of advanced turboprop and conventional jet and propeller aircraft flyover noise annoyance: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the flyover noise annoyance of proposed advanced turboprop aircraft with that of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. The effects of fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio on advanced turboprop annoyance were also examined. A computer synthesis system is used to generate 18 realistic, time varying simulations of propeller aircraft takeoff noise in which the harmonic content is systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of six fundamental frequencies ranging from 67.5 Hz to 292.5 Hz and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios of 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs are presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 32 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in harmonic content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  4. Comparison of advanced turboprop and conventional jet and propeller aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the flyover noise annoyance of proposed advanced turboprop aircraft with that of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. The effects of fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio on advanced turboprop annoyance were also examined. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 18 realistic, time varyring simulations of propeller aircraft takeoff noise in which the harmonic content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of six fundamental frequencies ranging from 67.5 Hz to 292.5 Hz and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios of 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 32 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in harmonic content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  5. Takeoff/approach noise for a model counterrotation propeller with a forward-swept upstream rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hall, David G.; Podboy, Gary G.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A scale model of a counterrotating propeller with forward-swept blades in the forward rotor and aft-swept blades in the aft rotor (designated F39/A31) has been tested in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. This paper presents aeroacoustic results at a takeoff/approach condition of Mach 0.20. Laser Doppler velocimeter results taken in a plane between the two rotors are also included to quantify the interaction flow field. The intention of the forward-swept design is to reduce the magnitude of the forward rotor tip vortex and/or wakes which impinge on the aft rotor, thus lowering the interaction tone levels. A reference model propeller (designated F31/A31), having aft-swept blades in both rotors, was also tested. Aeroelastic performance of the F39/A31 propeller was disappointing. The forward rotor tip region tended to untwist toward higher effective blade angles under load. The forward rotor also exhibited steady state blade flutter at speeds and loadings well below the design condition. The noise results, based on sideline acoustic data, show that the interaction tone levels were up to 8 dB higher with the forward-swept design compared to those for the reference propeller at similar operating conditions, with these tone level differences extending down to lower propeller speeds where flutter did not occur. These acoustic results are for a poorly-performing forward-swept propeller. It is quite possible that a properly-designed forward-swept propeller would exhibit substantial interaction tone level reductions.

  6. Particle and gaseous emissions from commercial aircraft at each stage of the landing and takeoff cycle.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, M; Johnson, G R; Morawska, L

    2009-01-15

    A novel technique was used to measure emission factors for commonly used commercial aircraft including a range of Boeing and Airbus airframes under real world conditions. Engine exhaust emission factors for particles in terms of particle number and mass (PM2.5), along with those for CO2 and NOx, were measured for over 280 individual aircraft during the various modes of landing/takeoff (LTO) cycle. Results from this study show that particle number, and NOx emission factors are dependent on aircraft engine thrust level. Minimum and maximum emissions factors for particle number, PM2.5, and NOx emissions were found to be in the range of 4.16 x 10(15)-5.42 x 10(16) kg(-1), 0.03-0.72 g.kg(-1), and 3.25-37.94 g.kg(-1), respectively, for all measured airframes and LTO cycle modes. Number size distributions of emitted particles for the naturally diluted aircraft plumes in each mode of LTO cycle showed that particles were predominantly in the range of 4-100 nm in diameter in all cases. In general, size distributions exhibit similar modality during all phases of the LTO cycle. A very distinct nucleation mode was observed in all particle size distributions, except for taxiing and landing of A320 aircraft. Accumulation modes were also observed in all particle size distributions. Analysis of aircraft engine emissions during LTO cycle showed that aircraft thrust level is considerably higher during taxiing than idling suggesting that International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards need to be modified as the thrust levels for taxi and idle are considered to be the same (7% of total thrust) (Environmental Protection, Annex 16, Vol. II, Aircraft Engine Emissions, 2nd ed.; ICAO--International Civil Aviation Organization: Montreal, 1993).

  7. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  8. The First Test Flight of the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) is a single-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff / vertical landing launch vehicle concept, whose development was geared to significantly reduce launch cost and provided a test bed for NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology. This photograph shows the descending vehicle landing during the first successful test flight at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The program was discontinued in 2003.

  9. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G P; Doroshenko, M; Cullen, D A; Burrows, M

    2016-07-15

    Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration -: limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy.

  10. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Doroshenko, M.; Cullen, D. A.; Burrows, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration-limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy. PMID:27284067

  11. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare; Cunningham, David; Tait, Diana; Giralt, Jordi; Glimelius, Bengt; Keränen, Susana Roselló; Bateman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; Tabernero, Josep; Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  12. The Rolling Friction of Several Airplane Wheels and Tires and the Effect of Rolling Friction on Take-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of test made to determine the rolling friction of airplane wheels and tires under various conditions of wheel loading, tire inflation pressure, and ground surface. The effect of wheel-bearing type was also investigated. Six pairs of wheels and tires were tested including two sizes of each of the types designated as standard (high pressure), low pressure, and extra low pressure. The results of calculations intended to show the effect of variations in rolling friction on take-off are also presented.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of a Translating Cowl Technique for Improving Take-off Performance of a Sharp-lip Supersonic Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, Edgar M , Jr

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted in quiescent air on a translating cowl technique for improving the take-off performance of a sharp-lip supersonic diffuser. The technique consists of cutting the cowling in a plane normal to its axis and then translating the forepart of the cowling in the forward direction. The leading edge of the fixed portion of the cowling is rounded. Appreciable improved inlet performance was obtained with a cowling translation corresponding to a gap of only 1/4 inlet radius.

  14. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  15. Far-Field Acoustic Power Level and Performance Analyses of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Scaled Takeoff, Nominal Takeoff, and Approach Conditions: Technical Report I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Far-field acoustic power level and performance analyses of open rotor model F31/A31 have been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated scaled takeoff, nominal takeoff, and approach flight conditions. The nonproprietary parts of the data obtained from experiments in 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9?15 LSWT) tests were provided by NASA Glenn Research Center to perform the analyses. The tone and broadband noise components have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, angle of attack, thrust, and input shaft power have been presented and discussed. The effect of an upstream pylon on the noise levels of the model has been addressed. Empirical equations relating model's acoustic power level, thrust, and input shaft power have been developed. The far-field acoustic efficiency of the model is also determined for various simulated flight conditions. It is intended that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  16. Short, T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    The majority of the area occupied by the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point campus is covered with impervious surfaces. The volume of stormwater runoff that is discharged to surface waters is directly related to the percentage of land area covered with impervious surfaces. This runoff will result in an increase of sediment, nutrient and thermal pollution in surface waters such as trout streams, rivers, lakes and ponds. Bioretention basins which incorporate a variety of plants are thought to be effective bio-filters to increase infiltration associated with stormwater and thus decreasing runoff. To evaluate the effectiveness of bioretention to increase infiltration, two bioretention basins were constructed on the UW - Stevens Point campus. One basin was planted with cool season turf grasses and the other planted with native vegetation. The basins are 15 cm (6 in) deep and collect runoff from two source areas of 70.3 m2 (757 ft2). The objective of this study is to compare vegetation effects on the surplus runoff water at different depths in the soil profile. We hypothesize that the native prairie vegetation will exhibit a greater infiltration rate than the turf grass. Results from this study will advance our understanding of the composition of plants required to create effective storm water collection basins.

  17. Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A

    1986-12-01

    The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Cowl Lip Adjustments for a Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Inlet in Takeoff Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Liu, Xiaowei; He, Guoqiang; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Yang, Bing; Wu, Lele

    2016-09-01

    Numerical integration simulations were performed on a ready-made central strut-based rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) engine operating in the ejector mode during the takeoff regime. The effective principles of various cowl lip positions and shapes on the inlet operation and the overall performance of the entire engine were investigated in detail. Under the static condition, reverse cowl lip rotation in a certain range was found to contribute comprehensive improvement to the RBCC inlet and the entire engine. However, the reverse rotation of the cowl lip contributed very little enhancement of the RBCC inlet under the low subsonic flight regime and induced extremely negative impacts in the high subsonic flight regime, especially in terms of a significant increase in the drag of the inlet. Changes to the cowl lip shape provided little improvement to the overall performance of the RBCC engine, merely shifting the location of the leeward area inside the RBCC inlet, as well as the flow separation and eddy, but not relieving or eliminating those phenomena. The results of this study indicate that proper cowl lip rotation offers an efficient variable geometry scheme for a RBCC inlet in the takeoff regime.

  19. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  20. The Effect of Compressibility on Eight Full-Scale Propellers Operating in the Take-Off and Climbing Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Tests were made of eight full-scale propellers of different shape at various tip speeds up to about 1,000 feet per second. The range of blade-angle settings investigated was from 10 degrees to 30 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The results indicate that a loss in propulsive efficiency occurred at tip speeds from 0.5 to 0.7 the velocity of sound for the take-off and climbing conditions. As the tip speed increased beyond these critical values, the loss rapidly increased and amounted, in some instances, to more than 20 percent of the thrust power for tip-speed values of 0.8 the speed of sound. In general, as the blade-angle setting was increased, the loss started to occur at lower tip speeds. The maximum loss for a given tip speed occurred at a blade-angle setting of about 20 degrees for the take-off and 25 degrees for the climbing condition. A simplified method for correcting propellers for the effect of compressibility is given in an appendix.

  1. Take-off activity and orientation of triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in relation to the presence of artificial lights.

    PubMed

    Minoli, Sebastián A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2006-03-01

    We analysed the flying activity of Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus when confronted to artificial lights of different spectral quality. We found that the presence of light sources (white or ultraviolet) did not affect their spontaneous take-off rate. The comparison between species showed that R. prolixus was more prone to fly than T. infestans. Females of T. infestans initiated flight more frequently than males of the same species. Although the same tendency was observed in R. prolixus, no significant differences were assessed between sexes. Concerning the orienting behaviour of triatomines at take-off in relation to the position of the light source, T. infestans showed a significant tendency to fly towards white light, but a non-oriented response when confronted to UV light or in the absence of a light source. R. prolixus also preferred to fly towards a source of white light and exhibited a non-oriented response with no light. However, when the UV light was presented, these bugs exhibited a bimodal attraction/repellence-behaviour. Our results support true attraction by white light rather than menotaxis or arrival by chance. These findings are discussed in relation to the colonization of human dwellings by Chagas disease vectors.

  2. Genetic Evaluation of Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Genetics plays a major role in determining an individual's height. Although there are many monogenic disorders that lead to perturbations in growth and result in short stature, there is still no consensus as to the role that genetic diagnostics should play in the evaluation of a child with short stature. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed was performed, focusing on the genetic diagnosis of short stature as well as on specific diagnostic subgroups included in this article. Consensus guidelines were reviewed. Evidence Synthesis: There are a multitude of rare genetic causes of severe short stature. There is no high-quality evidence to define the optimal approach to the genetic evaluation of short stature. We review genetic etiologies of a number of diagnostic subgroups and propose an algorithm for genetic testing based on these subgroups. Conclusion: Advances in genomic technologies are revolutionizing the diagnostic approach to short stature. Endocrinologists must become facile with the use of genetic testing in order to identify the various monogenic disorders that present with short stature. PMID:24915122

  3. Fatigue Growth and Closure of Short Cracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-03

    stLdy has been carried out to investigate the growth and closure behavior of shortýýcracks in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy and four different conditions of...that short cracks show lessclosure behavior than longcracks. The estimates of initlal.crack lengths based on linearelastic data were made. tThese...anomalous behavior of short cracks. Advances in small crack growth have enabled increasingly quantitative studies that affect initi- ation and growth at

  4. 31 CFR 585.208 - Prohibited overflights, takeoffs and landings of aircraft en route to or from the FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... landings of aircraft en route to or from the FRY (S&M). 585.208 Section 585.208 Money and Finance: Treasury..., takeoffs and landings of aircraft en route to or from the FRY (S&M). Except as otherwise authorized, no... off from the territory of the FRY (S&M). See also: Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) No....

  5. Preliminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of advanced turboprops (operational about 1985) was calculated and compared with that of an advanced turbofan for use in an advanced subsonic transport. At the design point, altitude 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, turbine-inlet temperature was fixed at 1590 K while overall pressure ratio was varied from 25 to 50. The regenerative turboprop had a pressure ratio of only 10 and an 85 percent effective rotary heat exchanger. Variable camber propellers were used with an efficiency of 85 percent. The study indicated a fuel savings of 33 percent, a takeoff gross weight reduction of 15 percent, and a direct operating cost reduction of 18 percent was possible when turboprops were used instead of the reference turbofan at a range of 10 200 km. These reductions were 28, 11, and 14 percent, respectively, at a range of 5500 km. Increasing overall pressure ratio from 25 to 50 saved little fuel and slightly increased takeoff gross weight.

  6. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  7. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

  8. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  9. Optimization of engines for a commercial Mach 0.98 transport using advanced turbine cooling methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of an advanced technology airplane using supercritical aerodynamics. Cruise Mach number was 0.98 at 40,000 feet altitude with a payload of 60,000 pounds and a range of 3000 nautical miles. Separate-flow turbofans were examined parametrically to determine the effect of sea-level-static design turbine-inlet-temperature and noise on takeoff gross weight (TOGW) assuming full-film turbine cooling. The optimum turbine inlet temperature was 2650 F. Two-stage-fan engines, with cruise fan pressure ratio of 2.25, achieved a noise goal of 103.5 EPNdB with todays noise technology while one-stage-fan engines, achieved a noise goal of 98 EPNdB. The take-off gross weight penalty to use the one-stage fan was 6.2 percent.

  10. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  11. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Annoyance to counter-rotating-propeller configurations with an equal number of blades on each rotor, preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.

    1988-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to the flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter-rotating propellers (CRP) having an equal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were: to determine the effects of total content on annoyance; and compare annoyance to n x n CRP advanced turboprop aircraft with annoyance to conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 27 realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of nine fundamental frequencies and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three D-weighted sound pressure levels to 64 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three aircraft types and examined the effects of the differences in tonal content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise metrics is also examined.

  12. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Annoyance to counter-rotating-propeller configurations with an equal number of blades on each rotor, preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to the flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter-rotating propellers (CRP) having an equal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were: to determine the effects of total content on annoyance; and compare annoyance to n x n CRP advanced turboprop aircraft with annoyance to conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 27 realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of nine fundamental frequencies and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three D-weighted sound pressure levels to 64 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three aircraft types and examined the effects of the differences in tonal content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise metrics is also examined.

  13. The Effect of Spray Strips on the Take-off Performance of a Model of a Flying-Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr

    1935-01-01

    The effect on the take-off performance of a model of the hull of a typical flying boat, Navy PH-1, of fitting spray strips of four different widths, each at three different angles, was determined by model tests in the NACA Tank. Spray strips of widths up to 3 percent of the beam improve the general performance at speeds near the hump and reduce the spray thrown. A downward angle of 30 degrees to 45 degrees in the neighborhood of the step seems most favorable for the reduction of the spray. The spray strips have a large effect in reducing the trimming moments at speeds near the hump speed, but have little effect on them at high speeds.

  14. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  15. A comparison of jump height, takeoff velocities, and blocking coverage in the swing and traditional volleyball blocking techniques.

    PubMed

    Ficklin, Travis; Lund, Robin; Schipper, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare traditional and swing blocking techniques on center of mass (COM) projectile motion and effective blocking area in nine healthy Division I female volleyball players. Two high-definition (1080 p) video cameras (60 Hz) were used to collect two-dimensional variables from two separate views. One was placed perpendicular to the plane of the net and the other was directed along the top of the net, and were used to estimate COM locations and blocking area in a plane parallel to the net and hand penetration through the plane of the net respectively. Video of both the traditional and swing techniques were digitized and kinematic variables were calculated. Paired samples t-tests indicated that the swing technique resulted in greater (p < 0.05) vertical and horizontal takeoff velocities (vy and vx), jump height (H), duration of the block (tBLOCK), blocking coverage during the block (C) as well as hand penetration above and through the net's plane (YPEN, ZPEN). The traditional technique had significantly greater approach time (tAPP). The results of this study suggest that the swing technique results in both greater jump height and effective blocking area. However, the shorter tAPP that occurs with swing is associated with longer times in the air during the block which may reduce the ability of the athlete to make adjustments to attacks designed to misdirect the defense. Key PointsSwing blocking technique has greater jump height, effective blocking area, hand penetration, horizontal and vertical takeoff velocity, and has a shorter time of approach.Despite these advantages, there may be more potential for mistiming blocks and having erratic deflections of the ball after contact when using the swing technique.Coaches should take more than simple jump height and hand penetration into account when deciding which technique to employ.

  16. Maximizing Height, Distance or Rotation from Real-Time Analysis Visualisation of Take-Off Angles and Speed

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Studies to optimise take off angles for height or distance have usually involved either a time-consuming invasive approach of placing markers on the body in a laboratory setting or using even less efficient manual frame-by-frame joint angle calculations with one of the many sport science video analysis software tools available. This research introduces a computer-vision based, marker-free, real-time biomechanical analysis approach to optimise take-off angles based on speed, base of support and dynamically calculated joint angles and mass of body segments. The goal of a jump is usually for height, distance or rotation with consequent dependencies on speed and phase of joint angles, centre of mass COM) and base of support. First and second derivatives of joint angles and body part COMs are derived from a Continuous Human Movement Recognition (CHMR) system for kinematical and what-if calculations. Motion is automatically segmented using hierarchical Hidden Markov Models and 3D tracking is further stabilized by estimating the joint angles for the next frame using a forward smoothing Particle filter. The results from a study of jumps, leaps and summersaults supporting regular knowledge of results feedback during training sessions indicate that this approach is useful for optimising the height, distance or rotation of skills. Key Points Computer-vision based marker-free tracking. Real-time biomechanical analysis. Improve tracking using a forward smoothing Particle filter. Automatically segment using hierarchical Hidden Markov Models. Recognize skills using segmented motion. Optimize take-off angles using speed, base of support, joint angles and mass of body segments. Optimize height, distance or rotation of skills. PMID:24357954

  17. Hydrodynamic Tests in the N.A.C.A. Tank of a Model of the Hull of the Short Calcutta Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1937-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a model of the hull of the Short Calcutta (N.A.C.A. Model 47) are presented in non-dimensional form. This model represents one of a series of hulls of successful foreign and domestic flying boats the characteristics of which are being obtained under similar test conditions in the N.A.C.A. tank. The take-off distance and time for a flying boat having the hull of the Calcutta are compared at two values of the gross load with the corresponding distances and times for the same flying boat having hulls of two representative American types, the Sikorsky S-40 and the N.A.C.A. 11-A. This comparison indicates that for hulls of the widely different forms compared, the differences in take-off time and distance are negligible.

  18. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  19. The performance evaluation of a jet flap on an advanced supersonic harrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipera, L. D.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The performance concept of a supersonic vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter, model 279-3, modified to utilize a jet flap was evaluated. Replacing the rear nozzles of the 279-3 with the jet flap favorably alters the pressure distribution over the airfoil and dramatically increases lift. The result is a significant decrease in takeoff distance, an increase in payload, and an improvement in combat performance. To investigate the benefit in increased payload, the 279-3 and the jet flapped 279-3JF were modeled on the NASA Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer code and flown on a 250 feet takeoff distance interdiction mission. The increase in payload weight that the 279-3JF could carry was converted into fuel in one case, and in another, converted to bomb load. When the fuel was increased, the 279-3JF penetrated into enemy territory almost four times the distance of 279-3, and therefore increased mission capability. When the bomb load was increased, the 279-3JF carried 14 bombs the same distance the 279-3 carried four. The increase in mission performance and improvements in turning rates was realized with only a small penalty in increased empty weight.

  20. Field-of-View Requirements for Approach and Landing of V/STOL (Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing) Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    orthogonal) coordinate of a point of regard in the field of view defined with respect to the point where the aircraft longitudinal body reference...and 1i except that the origin of FOVi , FOVui in the picture plane is where the aircraft longitudinal body reference axis inter- cepts the picture