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Sample records for advanced sludge treatment

  1. Sludge treatment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Dillow, T.A.; Bush, S.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    Solid formation in filtered leachates and wash solutions was seen in five of the six sludges treated by Enhanced Sludge Washing. Solid formation in process solutions takes a variety of forms: very fine particles, larger particulate solids, solids floating in solution like egg whites, gels, crystals, and coatings on sample containers. A gel-like material that formed in a filtered leachate from Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford T-104 sludge was identified as natrophosphate, Na{sub 7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O. A particulate material that formed in a filtered caustic leachate from Hanford SX-113 sludge contained sodium and silicon. This could be any of a host of sodium silicates in the NaOH-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system. Acidic treatment of Hanford B-202 sludge with 1 M, 3 M, and 6 M HNO{sub 3} sequential leaching resulted in complete dissolution at 75 C, but not at ambient temperature. This treatment resulted in the formation of solids in filtered leachates. Analyses of the solids revealed that a gel material contained silica with some potassium, calcium, iron, and manganese. Two phases were embedded in the gel. One was barium sulfate. The other could not be identified, but it was determined that the only metal it contained was bismuth.

  2. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  3. Investigation into cyclic utilization of carbon source in an advanced sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER) wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously reduce sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The ability to recover organic substance from excess sludge to enhance nutrient removal (especially nitrogen) and its performance as a C-source were evaluated in this study. The chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) and volatile fatty acids/total phosphorus (VFA/TP) ratios for the supernatant of the alkaline-treated sludge were 3.1 times and 2.7 times those of the influent, respectively. The biodegradability of the supernatant was much better than that of the influent. The system COD was increased by 91 mg/L, and nitrogen removal was improved by 19.6% (the removal rate for TN reached 80.4%) after the return of the alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source. The C-source recovered from the excess sludge was successfully used to enhance nitrogen removal. The internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source, and the cyclic utilization of the system C-source was achieved by recirculation of alkaline-treated sludge in the sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery (SIPER) process.

  4. Investigation into cyclic utilization of carbon source in an advanced sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER) wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Shen, Yu; Fang, Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously reduce sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The ability to recover organic substance from excess sludge to enhance nutrient removal (especially nitrogen) and its performance as a C-source were evaluated in this study. The chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) and volatile fatty acids/total phosphorus (VFA/TP) ratios for the supernatant of the alkaline-treated sludge were 3.1 times and 2.7 times those of the influent, respectively. The biodegradability of the supernatant was much better than that of the influent. The system COD was increased by 91 mg/L, and nitrogen removal was improved by 19.6% (the removal rate for TN reached 80.4%) after the return of the alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source. The C-source recovered from the excess sludge was successfully used to enhance nitrogen removal. The internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source, and the cyclic utilization of the system C-source was achieved by recirculation of alkaline-treated sludge in the sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery (SIPER) process. PMID:26524455

  5. Sludge Treatment, Utilization, and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Richard I.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers such areas: (1) industrial and hazardous sludges; (2) chemical sludges; (3) stabilization and combustion; (4) ocean disposal; and (5) land application. A list of 411 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS.

  7. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

  8. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal by an advanced simultaneous sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Chen, You-Peng; Ji, Fang-Ying; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Wen-juan

    2015-05-01

    An advanced wastewater treatment process (SIPER) was developed to simultaneously decrease sludge production, prevent the accumulation of inorganic solids, recover phosphorus, and enhance nutrient removal. The feasibility of simultaneous enhanced nutrient removal along with sludge reduction as well as the potential for enhanced nutrient removal via this process were further evaluated. The results showed that the denitrification potential of the supernatant of alkaline-treated sludge was higher than that of the influent. The system COD and VFA were increased by 23.0% and 68.2%, respectively, after the return of alkaline-treated sludge as an internal C-source, and the internal C-source contributed 24.1% of the total C-source. A total of 74.5% of phosphorus from wastewater was recovered as a usable chemical crystalline product. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal were improved by 19.6% and 23.6%, respectively, after incorporation of the side-stream system. Sludge minimization and excellent nutrient removal were successfully coupled in the SIPER process.

  9. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  10. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  11. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  12. Treatment of dredged sludge by mechanical dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Maekawa, T.

    1992-03-01

    Sludge deposits in the water area damage the ecosystems and environments; their elimination has always been an urgent task for human communities. Generally, sludge deposits are dredged out of the bottom of the water area, transported to, and discharged at a large disposal area on land. Recently, however, it has become increasingly difficult to secure disposal areas and routes of speedy transportation for disposal of dredged sludge. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to reduce both the volume of dredged sludge and the size of the disposal area. This mechanical method is different from the conventional engineering dehydration by loading, consolidation, and drainage in that the dredged sludge is separated into sludge cakes and clean water that can be returned to the water area through mechanical centrifugal dehydration. Sludge deposits are distributed thin and wide on the bottom of the water area, and a pump dredge has been proved effective in many cases for dredging the upper layers of sludge deposits accurately and without creating turbidity in water. This mechanical sludge treatment technique can be most efficient when used in combination with a pump dredge. This method offers the following advantages: (a) It requires smaller space for treatment and disposal of dredged sludge than the conventional method. (b) Facilities and costs for transportation can be reduced. (c) Various systems can be adopted for transportation of sludge cakes. (d) This system is transportable and compact and can be constructed anywhere either on land or on water.

  13. Pilot-scale test of an advanced, integrated wastewater treatment process with sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER).

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fangying; Wang, Jing; Fan, Jianping; Guan, Wei; Chen, Qingkong

    2013-08-01

    Sludge reduction technologies are increasingly important in wastewater treatment, but have some defects. In order to remedy them, a novel, integrated process including sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal was developed. The pilot-scale system was operated steadily at a treatment scale of 10 m(3)/d for 90 days. The results showed excellent nutrient removal, with average removal efficiencies for NH4(+)-N, TN, TP, and COD reaching 98.2 ± 1.34%, 75.5 ± 3.46%, 95.3 ± 1.65%, and 92.7 ± 2.49%, respectively. The ratio of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the system gradually increased, from 0.33 to 0.52. The process effectively prevented the accumulation of inert or inorganic solids in activated sludge. Phosphorus was recovered as a crystalline product with aluminum ion from wastewater. The observed sludge yield Yobs of the system was 0.103 gVSS/g COD, demonstrating that the system's sludge reduction potential is excellent.

  14. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  15. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

  16. HANFORD K BASINS SLUDGE RETREIVAL & TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    VASQUEZ, D.A.

    2005-07-05

    This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the US and the UK to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, thus removing the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout encapsulation processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. The grout process to produce the final waste form is backed by BNG America's 20 years experience of grouting radioactive waste at Sellafield and elsewhere. The use of transportable and re-usable equipment is emphasized and its role noted in avoiding new plant build that itself will require cleanup. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup worldwide.

  17. Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1998-11-30

    This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

  18. Revised sampling campaigns to provide sludge for treatment process testing

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN, C.A.

    1999-02-18

    The purpose of this document is to review the impact to the sludge sampling campaigns planned for FY 1999 given the recent decision to delete any further sludge sampling in the K West Basin. Requirements for Sludge sample material for Sludge treatment process testing are reviewed. Options are discussed for obtaining the volume sample material required and an optimized plan for obtaining this sludge is summarized.

  19. Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeld, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment has to be treated efficiently in order to reduce impacts on the environment and on public health. In Germany and many countries, large quantities of sludge are reused in agriculture in order to recycle nutrients and organic material. In order to quantify the effect of different ambient temperatures on conventional and advanced sludge treatment technologies as well as on disinfection efficiency, a comprehensive research study was performed at Braunschweig Institute of Technology. The detailed results show that ambient temperature has a strong effect on biological liquid sludge stabilization and on natural dewatering and drying technologies, although microbiological quality of treated sludge, indicated by Escherichia coli concentration, does not meet the requirements for unrestricted reuse in agriculture. Composting and lime treatment of sludge are most efficient on reducing E. coli, as high temperatures and high pH values arise in the material respectively. PMID:24434963

  20. Effect of ambient temperatures on disinfection efficiency of various sludge treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeld, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge produced during municipal wastewater treatment has to be treated efficiently in order to reduce impacts on the environment and on public health. In Germany and many countries, large quantities of sludge are reused in agriculture in order to recycle nutrients and organic material. In order to quantify the effect of different ambient temperatures on conventional and advanced sludge treatment technologies as well as on disinfection efficiency, a comprehensive research study was performed at Braunschweig Institute of Technology. The detailed results show that ambient temperature has a strong effect on biological liquid sludge stabilization and on natural dewatering and drying technologies, although microbiological quality of treated sludge, indicated by Escherichia coli concentration, does not meet the requirements for unrestricted reuse in agriculture. Composting and lime treatment of sludge are most efficient on reducing E. coli, as high temperatures and high pH values arise in the material respectively.

  1. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  2. Radiofrequency-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Young, Chris; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2015-12-01

    A novel thermal-chemical treatment technology using radiofrequency heating and oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone and a combination of both) was used for the treatment of sewage sludge. This was to evaluate the process effectiveness on cell disintegration and nutrient release of sludge, physical property changes such as particle size distribution, dewaterability and settleability, and their inter-relationships. The effectiveness of treatment processes was in the following order, from the most to least: thermal-oxidation process, oxidation process and thermal process. The thermal-oxidation process greatly increased cell disintegration and nutrient release, improved settleability, and decreased particle sizes. The treatment scheme involving ozone addition followed by hydrogen peroxide and radiofrequency heating yielded the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, ammonia and metals, while proffering the shortest capillary suction time and excellent settling properties. PMID:26233925

  3. Ultrasonically Induced Enhancement in Treatment of Livestock Waste Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiho; Kim, Young Uk; Lee, Jong-Sub; Wang, Mian Chen

    2009-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the total mass, dewaterability, turbidity, and coliform counts of livestock waste sludge were investigated. The study involved laboratory tests and a pilot plant experiment under various test conditions including treatment time, ultrasonic energy level, and sludge volume. Laboratory test results showed that ultrasound caused the decreases in sludge particle size, capillary suction time, and coliform counts. The results of the pilot plant experiment proved that ultrasonic treatment significantly enhances the dewaterability, volume, mass, and water content of sludge.

  4. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  5. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants.

  6. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.).

  7. Priority and emerging pollutants in sewage sludge and fate during sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims at characterizing the quality of different treated sludges from Paris conurbation in terms of micropollutants and assessing their fate during different sludge treatment processes (STP). To achieve this, a large panel of priority and emerging pollutants (n=117) have been monitored in different STPs from Parisian wastewater treatment plants including anaerobic digestion, thermal drying, centrifugation and a sludge cake production unit. Considering the quality of treated sludges, comparable micropollutant patterns are found for the different sludges investigated (in mg/kg DM - dry matter). 35 compounds were detected in treated sludges. Some compounds (metals, organotins, alkylphenols, DEHP) are found in every kinds of sludge while pesticides or VOCs are never detected. Sludge cake is the most contaminated sludge, resulting from concentration phenomenon during different treatments. As regards treatments, both centrifugation and thermal drying have broadly no important impact on sludge contamination for metals and organic compounds, even if a slight removal seems to be possible with thermal drying for several compounds by abiotic transfers. Three different behaviors can be highlighted in anaerobic digestion: (i) no removal (metals), (ii) removal following dry matter (DM) elimination (organotins and NP) and iii) removal higher than DM (alkylphenols - except NP - BDE 209 and DEHP). Thus, this process allows a clear removal of biodegradable micropollutants which could be potentially significantly improved by increasing DM removal through operational parameters modifications (retention time, temperature, pre-treatment, etc.). PMID:24797622

  8. LAND APPLICATION AND SLUDGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal matter potentially containing pathogenic microorganisms and chemical contaminants enters community wastewater collection systems from hospitals, funeral homes, animal slaughtering operations, and dwellings. While these wastewaters are cleansed in the wastewater treatment p...

  9. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples. PMID:24903249

  10. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act. PMID:17208779

  11. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act.

  12. Potential fertilizing properties of sewage sludge treated in the sludge treatment reed beds (STRB).

    PubMed

    Kołecka, Katarzyna; Obarska-Pempkowiak, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    In previous research the fertilizer value of sludge from reed beds was evaluated based on the sampling sludge on different depths from four Danish sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) after long periods of stabilization. The dewatering efficiency of sewage sludge in the STRB is comparable to mechanical dewatering. The long-term stabilization of sewage sludge progressively decreases the concentration of organic matter due to the process of humification. The aim of the work was to determine the changes of organic matter concentration, nutrients concentrations as well as speciation of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in vertical profile of the sewage sludge stabilized in the STRB for 7-15 years. The analyzed sewage sludge was collected from the STRB treating sludge from four municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Denmark serving from 9,000 to 40,000 person equivalent. Analyzed heavy metals (except for Zn) were mostly bound with the most stable - residual - fraction. The most stable metals were Pb and Cr, where the share of the residual fraction exceeded 80.0%. The most mobile metal was Zn, where the share of the mobile fractions (calculated as the sum of I, II and III fractions) exceeded 85.0%. The high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus is the decisive factor in the high valuation of sludge stabilized in the STRB as fertilizer.

  13. Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L J; Felmy, A R; Ding, E R

    1993-01-01

    This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

  14. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  15. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented. PMID:12870645

  16. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  17. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Hendrickx, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  19. Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5 W/ml for 30 min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590 kWh/kg TS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1 W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5 W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density.

  20. Advanced Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.117.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers design and operation…

  1. Dewatering of floated oily sludge by treatment with rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Han, Li; Meng, Qin

    2013-09-01

    Oily sludge dewatering is practically needed prior to sludge treatments. However, the conventional use of physical treatments with or without chemical conditionings presented poor feasibility in industrial applications due to either poor cost-efficiency or lacking environmental friendliness. In this paper, biosurfactant rhamnolipid was for the first time applied for dewatering of oily sludge. Rhamnolipid treatments under the concentration of 300-1000 mg/L, pH of 5-7 and temperature of 10-60 °C could directly separate 50-80% of water from the stable oily sludge. And both mono-rhamnolipid and di-rhamnolipid were identified to be of equivalent dewatering ability, which is closely related to their equivalent performance in breaking the emulsified oil droplets. Demulsification was found to be involved in settling water from oily sludge. Furthermore, the effectiveness of rhamnolipid was further demonstrated at pilot scale (1000 L) treatment of oily sludge. After pilot treatment, the settled water with residual oil of 10 mg/L and soluble COD of about 800 mg/L could be directly effluxed into the biotreatment system while the concentrated oil sludge with a reduced volume by 60-80% can be pumped into coking tower, achieving completely harmless treatment. It seems that rhamnolipid as dewatering agent was of great prospects in the industrial dewatering of oily sludge.

  2. Dewatering of floated oily sludge by treatment with rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Han, Li; Meng, Qin

    2013-09-01

    Oily sludge dewatering is practically needed prior to sludge treatments. However, the conventional use of physical treatments with or without chemical conditionings presented poor feasibility in industrial applications due to either poor cost-efficiency or lacking environmental friendliness. In this paper, biosurfactant rhamnolipid was for the first time applied for dewatering of oily sludge. Rhamnolipid treatments under the concentration of 300-1000 mg/L, pH of 5-7 and temperature of 10-60 °C could directly separate 50-80% of water from the stable oily sludge. And both mono-rhamnolipid and di-rhamnolipid were identified to be of equivalent dewatering ability, which is closely related to their equivalent performance in breaking the emulsified oil droplets. Demulsification was found to be involved in settling water from oily sludge. Furthermore, the effectiveness of rhamnolipid was further demonstrated at pilot scale (1000 L) treatment of oily sludge. After pilot treatment, the settled water with residual oil of 10 mg/L and soluble COD of about 800 mg/L could be directly effluxed into the biotreatment system while the concentrated oil sludge with a reduced volume by 60-80% can be pumped into coking tower, achieving completely harmless treatment. It seems that rhamnolipid as dewatering agent was of great prospects in the industrial dewatering of oily sludge. PMID:23764581

  3. [Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants and sludge disposal in Chinese coastal areas].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Chen, Hong; Yu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Han, Jian-Bo; Tao, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Thirteen sludge samples from Guangzhou, Shanghai and Dalian were collected and analysed for heavy metals to investigate the distribution and variation trend of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chinese coastal areas. The results showed that contents of heavy metals in sludge varied significantly, and the average contents exhibited an order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Additionally, contents of Cr, Cu and As exceeded their corresponding standard levels. Compared with contents of heavy metals in 2006 and 2001, content of Zn in sludge increased while contents of Cr, Cu and As decreased. Results also indicated that the industrial sludge was more seriously polluted than domestic sludge in terms of Zn, Cu and As. Only 23% sludge samples exceeded the standards for fertilization of sludge, suggesting that most of the sludge could be disposed by land application. These results also provide further information about the establishment of ocean disposal assessment for sludge.

  4. The thermal treatment of galvanic sludges for environmental compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Andre M.; Bohlinger, Isrun; Wuth, Wolfgang

    1996-03-01

    Eleven galvanic sludges were investigated on a laboratory scale at the Institute of Metallurgy, Technical University of Berlin. Rotary, flash, and arc-furnace techniques were used to pyrometallurgically treat and melt the sludges. The waste material was leached before and after thermal treatment. Concentrations of metals in the eluates were compared with drinking water as well as land filling (dumping) standards. The results show that the slag, obtained after melting the galvanic sludge, is the only environmentally agreeable product. Drying, glowing, or roasting the sludge deteriorated the environmental compatibility. Alloys were produced by flash smelting (Cu-Ni) and arcfurnace processing (Fe-Si-Cr), but they do not satisfy quality standards.

  5. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management

    SciTech Connect

    Danny M. McDonald; John A. Webb; Jeff Taylor

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by {approximately} 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is {approximately}2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, {approximately}4.5, {approximately}5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Chemical stability of acid rock drainage treatment sludge and implications for sludge management.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Danny M; Webb, John A; Taylor, Jeff

    2006-03-15

    To assess the chemical stability of sludges generated by neutralizing acid rock drainage (ARD) with alkaline reagents, synthetic ARD was treated with hydrated lime (batch and high-density sludge process), limestone, and two proprietary reagents (KB-1 and Bauxsol). The amorphous metal hydroxide sludge produced was leached using deionized water, U.S. EPA methods (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and the new strong acid leach test (SALT), which leaches the sludge with a series of sulfuric acid extractant solutions; the pH decreases by approximately 1 pH unit with each test, until the final pH is approximately 2. Sludges precipitated by all reagents had very similar leachabilities except for KB-1 and Bauxsol, which released more aluminum. SALT showed that lowering the pH of the leaching solution mobilized more metals from the sludges. Iron, aluminum, copper, and zinc began to leach at pH 2.5-3, approximately 4.5, approximately 5.5, and 6-6.5, respectively. The leachability of ARD treatment sludges is determined by the final pH of the leachate. A higher neutralization potential (e.g., a greater content of unreacted neutralizing agent) makes sludges inherently more chemically stable. Thus, when ARD or any acidic metalliferous wastewater is treated, a choice must be made between efficient reagent use and resistance to acid attack. PMID:16570625

  7. Numerical and experimental evaluation of continuous ultrasonic sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cuihong; Huang, Xintong; Jin, Yanping; Li, Ge

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic disintegration is a very promising sludge pretreatment method that leverages the cavitation effect to produce extreme physical environments characterized by high temperatures and high pressures. This process disintegrates sludge structure features, promotes sludge dewatering, and aides resource recovery. This paper presents a newly designed continuous ultrasonic sludge treatment device. The characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagated in the activated sludge were simulated, with the results showing that at lower frequencies, the acoustic pressure energy distribution exhibits more local concentrations, whereas at 80kHz, the energy distribution is relatively uniform as a result of the interference of standing waves. Subsequently, activated sludge was ultrasonically treated with different exposure times and frequencies. The sludge's capillary suction time, particle size, and moisture content were measured. The results showed different trends for each of the investigated parameters. The dewatering performance was best when the exposure time was 5-10s. Finally, different substances were added to the ultrasonically treated sludge to analyze the effects of ultrasonic treatment on anaerobic digestion. The gas production rate was higher when glucose was the added substance than it was for yeast. The highest total concentration of produced gas, including both hydrogen and methane, was 34% for an ultrasonic input power of 200W at a 25kHz frequency, an exposure time of 20s, and with 30g of added glucose. The gas production rate was found to be higher at the lower frequency when frequency was the only variable. These experiments demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment can change the structure of sludge particles and the moisture content of the sludge, improving sludge dewatering performance. Furthermore, after ultrasonic treatment can improve gas production. PMID:27344606

  8. A parametric study of alum recovery from water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mohamed; Abdelfattah, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Alum recovery from water treatment sludge is a promising technique applied to decrease usage of fresh coagulants in the water treatment industry. In addition, alum recovery reduces sludge volume for easy handling. The undertaken work investigated the parametric conditions for alum recovery procedure by acidification. The results show that alum recovery reaches up to 69.03%, and the reduction of sludge volume reaches its highest level at 90%. Moreover, results of the parametric investigation reveal that the mixing time of 60 minutes and mixing intensity of 150 rpm are the optimum conditions of mixing for alum recovery from water treatment sludge. The optimum pH level is 1.50 for alum recovery as indicated by maximum aluminum releasing, maximum reduction of sludge volume, and reasonable dosages of added sulfuric acid. PMID:27438258

  9. Effect of Ultrasound on Sludge from Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young U.; Ha, Junsoo; Yoon, Ki Yong; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ultrasound on the reduction in the amount of heavy metals and the dewaterability of sludge from a water treatment plant. The investigation involved laboratory experiments, which were conducted under different conditions, including the energy levels of ultrasonic waves and treatment time. Results of the study show that ultrasound reduces the amount of heavy metals and enhances the dewaterability of sludge significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with ultrasonic energy and treatment time.

  10. Prospects and problems of sludge pre-treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Müller, J A

    2001-01-01

    Pre-treatment processes have been developed in order to improve subsequent sludge treatment and disposal. Disintegration of sludge solids in the aqueous phase changes the sludge structure and solubilizes organic matter. This paper provides an overview of the applications of wet disintegration in wastewater and sludge treatment. Applied disintegration techniques such as mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological methods are briefly described. The methods are compared regarding energy consumption, operational reliability and stage of development for application on wastewater treatment plants. Mechanical and thermal methods appear to be most suitable at this stage. The effects of pre-treatment on subsequent sludge treatment processes and the wastewater treatment are described. The performance of various methods is assessed. For the improvement of stabilization, mechanical and ozone treatment as well as thermal treatment perform best. Dewatering can be enhanced by thermal and freeze/thaw treatment. All methods show positive effects in the reduction of the number of pathogens. Pre-treatment leads to secondary effects like the generation of recalcitrant compounds and odor, which is mainly a problem of thermal and ozone treatment. The evaluation of capital and operational costs is difficult, because of the lack of full-scale experience. Especially thermal, freeze/thaw and biological treatments can be realized at low costs if the conditions are appropriate. Nevertheless, the economic efficiency has to be investigated critically for each individual application.

  11. Solar chemical process for sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, M.

    1980-03-04

    A solar chemical process for converting sewer sludge from a gelatinous mass into a manageable product suitable for fertilizer includes the manufacture of a carbonaceous product by treating cellulose waste such as newspaper with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture until the cellulose product becomes substantially black. The black product is mixed with sludge in a ratio to produce a grainy product that can be chlorinated for sterility and spread as fertilizer. In a modified version of the process, coal ash is added to the sludge with the carbonaceous product for its nutrient value, and sand may be added with the coal ash to aid in aeration of the soil.

  12. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  13. Somatic coliphages as surrogates for enteroviruses in sludge hygienization treatments.

    PubMed

    Martín-Díaz, Julia; Casas-Mangas, Raquel; García-Aljaro, Cristina; Blanch, Anicet R; Lucena, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bacterial indicators present serious drawbacks giving information about viral pathogens persistence during sludge hygienization treatments. This calls for the search of alternative viral indicators. Somatic coliphages' (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. SOMCPH, infectious enteroviruses and genome copies of enteroviruses were monitored. Only one of these groups, the bacteriophages, was present in the sludge at concentrations that allowed the evaluation of treatment's performance. An indicator/pathogen relationship of 4 log10 (PFU/g dw) was found between SOMCPH and infective enteroviruses and their detection accuracy was assessed. The obtained results and the existence of rapid and standardized methods encourage the inclusion of SOMCPH quantification in future sludge directives. In addition, an existing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for enteroviruses was adapted and applied.

  14. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    set by Directive 91/271/EC, a temporary increase of sludge amounts that are disposed in landfills is expected during the following years in EU-12 countries. Beside the above, sludge reuse in land and sludge incineration seem to be the main practices further adopted in EU-27 (all Member States) up to 2020. The reinforcement of these disposal practices will probably result to adoption of advanced sludge treatment technologies in order to achieve higher pathogens removal, odors control and removal of toxic compounds and ensure human health and environmental protection. PMID:22336390

  15. Economic assessment of sludge handling and environmental impact of sludge treatment in a reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    The effect on the environment of the establishment and operation of a sludge treatment reed bed system (STRB) is quite limited compared to mechanical sludge dewatering, with its accompanying use of energy and chemicals. The assessment presented here of the investment, operation and maintenance costs of a typical STRB, and of the related environmental impact, is based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRB in Denmark. There are differences in the environmental perspectives and costs involved in mechanical sludge dewatering and disposal on agricultural land compared to STRB. The two treatment methods were considered for comparison based on a treatment capacity of 550 tons of dry solids per year and with land application of the biosolids in Denmark. The initial capital cost for STRB is higher than a conventional mechanical system; however, an STRB would provide significant power and operating-cost savings, with a significant saving in the overall cost of the plant over 20-30 years. The assessment focuses on the use of chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions and includes emptying, sludge residue quality and recycling. STRB with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario and has the lowest environmental impact. A sludge strategy consisting of an STRB will be approximately DKK 536,894-647,636 cheaper per year than the option consisting of a new screw press or decanter.

  16. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Molist, Jordi; García, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) emerge as a promising sustainable technology with low energy requirements and operational costs. In this study, technical, economic and environmental aspects of STW are investigated and compared with other alternatives for sludge management in small communities (<2000 population equivalent). The performance of full-scale STW was characterised during 2 years. Sludge dewatering increased total solids (TS) concentration by 25%, while sludge biodegradation lead to volatile solids around 45% TS and DRI(24h) between 1.1 and 1.4 gO(2)/kgTS h, suggesting a partial stabilisation of biosolids. In the economic and environmental assessment, four scenarios were considered for comparison: 1) STW with direct land application of biosolids, 2) STW with compost post-treatment, 3) centrifuge with compost post-treatment and 4) sludge transport to an intensive wastewater treatment plant. According to the results, STW with direct land application is the most cost-effective scenario, which is also characterised by the lowest environmental impact. The life cycle assessment highlights that global warming is a significant impact category in all scenarios, which is attributed to fossil fuel and electricity consumption; while greenhouse gas emissions from STW are insignificant. As a conclusion, STW are the most appropriate alternative for decentralised sludge management in small communities. PMID:20932543

  17. Advanced steady-state model for the fate of hydrophobic and volatile compounds in activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.C.; Rittmann, B.E.; Shi, J.; McAvoy, D.

    1998-09-01

    A steady-state, advanced, general fate model developed to study the fate of organic compounds in primary and activated-sludge systems. This model considers adsorption, biodegradation from the dissolved and adsorbed phases, bubble volatilization, and surface volatilization as removal mechanisms. A series of modeling experiments was performed to identify the key trends of these removal mechanisms for compounds with a range of molecular properties. With typical municipal wastewater treatment conditions, the results from the modeling experiments show that co-metabolic and primary utilization mechanisms give very different trends in biodegradation for the compounds tested. For co-metabolism, the effluent concentration increases when the influent concentration increases, while the effluent concentration remains unchanged when primary utilization occurs. For a highly hydrophobic compound, the fraction of compound removed from adsorption onto primary sludge can be very important, and the direct biodegradation of compound sorbed to the activated sludge greatly increases its biodegradation and reduces its discharge with the waste activated sludge. Volatilization from the surface of the primary and secondary systems is important for compounds with moderate to high volatilities, especially when these compounds are not biodegradable. Finally, bubble volatilization can be a major removal mechanism for highly volatile compounds even when they are highly biodegradable.

  18. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1.

  19. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. PMID:26086084

  20. Land disposal of water treatment plant sludge -- A feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viraraghavan, T.; Multon, L.M.; Wasylenchuk, E.J.

    1998-07-01

    In this study, the following alternative disposal methods for the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Sludge were evaluated: landfilling, discharge into sanitary sewers, long-term lagooning, use in manufacturing, co-composting, alum recovery and land application. Land application was chosen at the best disposal alternative. Preliminary design resulted in a 1% dry alum sludge loading rate (25 tonnes/ha), requiring 35 ha over a nine-year period and a phosphorus fertilizer supplement of about 50kg/ha.

  1. [Impacts of alkaline thermal treatment on characteristics of sludge from sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Dong; Chen, Xia; Liu, Cao; Xiao, Ben-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkaline thermal treatment is an important pretreatment method for sewage sludge. In this paper, in order to optimize the alkaline thermal treatment conditions for sludge pretreatment, four pretreatment parameters ( sludge concentration, pH, temperature and treatment time) were investigated through orthogonal experiments to determine their effects on the sludge disintegration, sludge concentration and sludge morphology of sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the significance of the four factors on sludge characteristics was in the order of pH > temperature > treatment time > sludge concentration. Additionally, the optimal conditions of the four factors for the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of unit sludge and decrease of sludge concentration were as follows: 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.45, 175 degrees C and 60 min. While the optimal conditions for the decrease of particle size and fractal dimension were 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.5, 175 degrees C and 45 min. PMID:26031091

  2. Reed bed systems for sludge treatment: case studies in Italy.

    PubMed

    Masciandaro, G; Iannelli, R; Chiarugi, M; Peruzzi, E

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, reed bed systems (RBSs) have been widely considered as a valid technology for sludge treatment. In this study are presented results about sludge stabilization occurring within beds in four RBSs, situated in Tuscany (Italy). The results showed that stabilization of the sludge over time occurred in all RBSs, as shown by the low content of water-soluble carbon and dehydrogenase activity, which measures indirectly the overall microbial metabolism, and by the re-synthesis of humic-like matter highlighted by the pyrolytic indices of mineralization and humification. Results about heavy metal fractionation, an appropriate technique to estimate the heavy metal bioavailability and sludge biotoxicity, showed that the process of sludge stabilization occurring in RBSs retains metals in fractions related to the stabilized organic matter, making metals less bioavailable. Moreover, the concentrations of various toxic organic compounds were below the limit of concentration suggested by the European Union's Working Document on Sludge, for land application. The effectiveness of the stabilization processes in RBs was hence clearly proven by the results that measured mineralization and humification processes, and by the low levels of bioavailable heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in stabilized sludges.

  3. Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, David

    1992-01-01

    Cites a recycling success story involving sludge production from wastewater and transformation into an effective plant fertilizer. Discusses related concerns such as dealing with pollutants like heavy metals and PCBs often found in sludge. Provides an example of an application of sludge produced in Chicago to an area reclamation site. (MCO)

  4. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  5. Flocculation and dewaterability of chemically enhanced primary treatment sludge by bioaugmentation with filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    In this study, filamentous fungal strains isolated from sewage sludge bioleached with iron-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated their effectiveness in improving the flocculation and dewaterability of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge. Augmentation of the pre-grown mycelial biomass in the CEPT sludge had no significant changes in sludge pH but, improved sludge dewaterability, as evidenced from the decrease in capillary suction time. Improvement on sludge flocculation and dewaterability depended on the fungal strains, and a pellet forming Penicillium sp. was more effective than the fungal isolates producing filamentous form of mycelial biomass due to entrapment of sludge solids onto mycelial pellets. Fungal treatment also reduced the chemical oxygen demand of the CEPT sludge by 35-76%. Supplementation metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+)) to fungal pre-augmented sludge rapidly improved the sludge dewaterability. This study indicates that augmentation of selective fungal biomass can be a potential method for CEPT sludge flocculation and dewaterability.

  6. Heat Treatment. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Herb; Broste, Dale

    This lesson was developed for a course in sludge treatment and disposal. The lesson describes the Porteous heat treatment method of sludge conditioning and compares that system to the Zimpro wet air oxidation process. The theory of heat treatment, system of components and functions, and concepts of operation are addressed in the lesson. The…

  7. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants. PMID:27423372

  8. Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ahad, Abdul; Alam, Mehtab

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process results in the generation of large volume of waste or residue, known as water treatment sludge (WTS), in the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Sustainable management of the inevitable waste requires careful attention from the plant operators and sludge managers. In this study, WTS produced with the optimum alum dose of 30 ml/L at the laboratory scale has been treated with sulphuric acid to bring forth a product known as sludge reagent product (SRP). The performance of SRP is evaluated for its efficiency in removing the colloidal suspensions from the Yamuna river water over wide pH range of 2-13. 1% sludge acidified with sulphuric acid of normality 2.5 at the rate of 0.05 ml/ml sludge has been observed as the optimum condition for preparing SRP from WTS. The percentage turbidity removal is greater at higher pH value and increases with increasing the dosage of SRP. The optimum SRP dosage of 8 ml/L in the pH range of 6-8 performed well in removing the colloidal suspension and other impurities from the Yamuna water. The quality of treated water met the prescribed standards for most of the quality parameters. Thus, SRP has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants partially or completely in the water treatment process, depending on the quality needed at the users end. PMID:27544647

  9. Phytoremediation of oilfield sludge after prepared bed bioremediation treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wuxing; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Li, Zhen'gao

    2010-03-01

    A field-scale experiment was carried out to compare the effectiveness of five plant species in the remediation of oily sludge. Alfalfa, tall fescue, and soybean substantially increased the removal rate of oil and grease (O&G) after 120 days of remediation. Of these, soybean treatment showed the highest removal rate of 34.2% compared with only 13.7% in the unplanted control plot. In addition to assisting with phytoremediation, soybean can also be used for energy production, for example in the production of biodiesel. Furthermore, microbial counts and community level physiological profiling using Biolog sole carbon source utilization tests were used to investigate the effect of plants on the microbial community of oily sludge. Plants selectively increased microbial counts in the rhizosphere and O&G concentrations of the sludge were negatively correlated with counts of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) degraders. The acute biotoxicity of the sludge was also tested by the bacterial luminescence method and alfalfa treatments decreased the biological toxicity of the sludge compared with the unplanted control.

  10. Solar-thermic sewage sludge treatment in extreme alpine environments.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Schoen, M A; Wett, B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for environmental protection conducted by the German mountaineers' club (DAV) problems emerging from residual solids accumulating in on-site wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges were investigated. To handle these problems in an ecologically and economically reasonable way two devices for solar-supported treatment of sludge and bio-solids have been developed. These units support gravity-filtration and evaporation of liquid sludge as well as thermal acceleration of composting processes. Two solar sludge dryers were installed and operated without external energy supply at alpine refuges treating primary and secondary sludge, respectively. Batch-filling during the season could increase load capacity and a total solids concentration of up to 40% could be achieved before discharge at the beginning of the next season. The promising results from the solar sludge dryer encouraged for the development of a solar composter. The period of temperature levels suitable for composting biosolids in mountain areas can be extended considerably by application of this technology--measured temperature distribution indicated no freezing at all. PMID:18057635

  11. Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ahad, Abdul; Alam, Mehtab

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process results in the generation of large volume of waste or residue, known as water treatment sludge (WTS), in the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Sustainable management of the inevitable waste requires careful attention from the plant operators and sludge managers. In this study, WTS produced with the optimum alum dose of 30 ml/L at the laboratory scale has been treated with sulphuric acid to bring forth a product known as sludge reagent product (SRP). The performance of SRP is evaluated for its efficiency in removing the colloidal suspensions from the Yamuna river water over wide pH range of 2-13. 1% sludge acidified with sulphuric acid of normality 2.5 at the rate of 0.05 ml/ml sludge has been observed as the optimum condition for preparing SRP from WTS. The percentage turbidity removal is greater at higher pH value and increases with increasing the dosage of SRP. The optimum SRP dosage of 8 ml/L in the pH range of 6-8 performed well in removing the colloidal suspension and other impurities from the Yamuna water. The quality of treated water met the prescribed standards for most of the quality parameters. Thus, SRP has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants partially or completely in the water treatment process, depending on the quality needed at the users end.

  12. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  13. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BASIC EXTRACTIVE SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, in cooperation with EPA Region 5, the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) planned and executed a pilot-scla e evaluation of the Basic Extyractive Sludge Treatment (B...

  14. Toluene in sewage and sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a compound that often occurs in municipal wastewater ranging from detectable levels up to 237 μg/L. Before the year 2000, the presence of the aromatic hydrocarbons was assigned only to external sources. The Enhanced Biological Nutrients Removal Processes (EBNRP) work according to many different schemes and technologies. For high-efficiency biological denitrification and dephosphatation processes, the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in sewage is required. VFAs are the main product of organic matter hydrolysis from sewage sludge. However, no attention has been given to other products of the process. It has been found that in parallel to VFA production, toluene formation occurred. The formation of toluene in municipal anaerobic sludge digestion processes was investigated. Experiments were performed on a laboratory scale using sludge from primary and secondary settling tanks of municipal treatment plants. The concentration of toluene in the digested sludge from primary settling tanks was found to be about 42,000 μg/L. The digested sludge supernatant liquor returned to the biological dephosphatation and denitrification processes for sewage enrichment can contain up to 16,500 μg/L of toluene.

  15. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions. PMID:25851807

  16. Aerobic sludge granulation at high temperatures for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ab Halim, Mohd Hakim; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Azmi, Siti Izaidah; Jamal, Nur Syahida Abdul; Wahab, Norhaliza Abdul; Ujang, Zaini; Shraim, Amjad; Bob, Mustafa M

    2015-06-01

    With inoculum sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with synthetic wastewater were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50±1°C) to study the formation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal with a complete cycle time of 3h. The AGS were successfully cultivated with influent loading rate of 1.6CODg(Ld)(-1). The COD/N ratio of the influent wastewater was 8. The results revealed that granules developed at 50°C have the highest average diameter, (3.36mm) with 98.17%, 94.45% and 72.46% removal efficiency observed in the system for COD, ammonia and phosphate, respectively. This study also demonstrated the capabilities of AGS formation at high temperatures which is suitable to be applied for hot climate conditions.

  17. Treatment of 14 sludge types from wastewater treatment plants using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wei; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 types of sludge from household sewage, mixture of domestic and industrial wastewater, and industrial and oil wastewater treatment plants were selected to evaluate the effectiveness and adaptability of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Organic solubilization, dewatering improvement, volume reduction, high-strength filtrate biodegradation, and dewatered sludge incineration were investigated using bench and pilot thermal hydrolysis experiments (170 °C/60 min). Results showed that sludge types significantly affected the treatment effects. Organic content has a primary influence on thermal effects. The relationship between suspended solid (SS) solubilization and raw sludge organic content was linear with an R(2) of 0.73. The relationship between raw sludge organic content and treated sludge dewatering was linear with an R(2) of 0.86 and 0.65 for pilot and bench pre-treatments, respectively. Household and oil sludge possessed incineration possibilities with high heat value. Industrial and oil sludge filtrate was unsuitable for digestion to recover bioenergy.

  18. Energy recovery from thermal treatment of dewatered sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingfeng; Dussan, Karla; Monaghan, Rory F D; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generated from municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This study examines the conversion of sludge via energy recovery from gasification/combustion for thermal treatment of dewatered sludge. The present analysis is based on a chemical equilibrium model of thermal conversion of previously dewatered sludge with moisture content of 60-80%. Prior to combustion/gasification, sludge is dried to a moisture content of 25-55% by two processes: (1) heat recovered from syngas/flue gas cooling and (2) heat recovered from syngas combustion. The electricity recovered from the combined heat and power process can be reused in syngas cleaning and in the WWT plant. Gas temperature, total heat and electricity recoverable are evaluated using the model. Results show that generation of electricity from dewatered sludge with low moisture content (≤ 70%) is feasible within a self-sufficient sludge treatment process. Optimal conditions for gasification correspond to an equivalence ratio of 2.3 and dried sludge moisture content of 25%. Net electricity generated from syngas combustion can account for 0.071 kWh/m(3) of wastewater treated, which is up to 25.4-28.4% of the WWT plant's total energy consumption. PMID:27508372

  19. Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

    2013-11-01

    Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion.

  20. Partitioning of nutrients and micropollutants along the sludge treatment line: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mascolo, G; Mininni, G

    2013-09-01

    A 2-year sampling campaign was conducted in three wastewater treatment plants of various sizes in the Rome area to assess the occurrence of nutrients and micropollutants among primary, secondary and digested sludge. The primary purpose was to evaluate the quality of different sludge types and their suitability for agricultural use. Primary sludge was consistently more polluted than secondary in terms of organic micropollutants, whereas heavy metals partitioned equally among the sludge types. In digested sludge, the heavy metal concentrations were always below limit values proposed for agricultural utilisation. In contrast, organic micropollutants concentrated during anaerobic digestion and affected the quality of the digested sludge. Secondary sludge resulted less polluted and richer in nitrogen and phosphorus (up to three times) than primary sludge and is hence more suitable for agricultural use. Separate processing of primary and secondary sludge might therefore be an innovative option for sludge management that could maximise the possibilities of agricultural use of secondary sludge and limit disposal problems only to primary sludge. In fact, primary sludge could be easily treated and disposed of by conventional processes including thickening, anaerobic digestion, centrifugation and incineration, whereas the difficult digestibility of secondary sludge could be improved by disintegration pre-treatment before stabilisation. PMID:23589264

  1. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  2. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  3. Stabilization of simulated lead sludge with iron sludge via formation of PbFe₁₂O₁₉ by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Cui, Hao; An, Hao; Wang, Bing; Zhai, Jianping; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Qin

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of stabilizing lead sludge by reaction with iron sludge via the formation of PbFe12O19 through a thermal treatment process. Lead hydroxide was used to simulate lead-laden sludge and the sintering procedure was performed by firing a mixture of this simulated sludge together with iron sludge at a Fe/Pb molar ratio of 12 over the temperature range from 650 to 1400 °C. The accompanying phase transformations as well as the surface characteristic of sintered samples were observed by XRD and SEM, while the leaching behavior of the stabilized sludge in an acidic environment was evaluated by a modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The results confirmed that PbFe12O19 acts as a stabilization phase for lead, and showed that the formation of a PbFe12O19 phase began at 750 °C with the lead completely incorporated into the PbFe12O19 phase at 1050 °C. Above 1100 °C, the PbFe12O19 phase began to decompose, accompanied by the reappearance of Fe2O3. The volumes of compressed sludge samples were reduced significantly after thermal treatment, with accompanying volume reductions of 40% at 1050 °C. This study compared the leaching of lead from PbO and sintered sludge samples using a prolonged TCLP test, and the data showed that the PbFe12O19 phase was superior to the PbO and that the sintered sludge sample exhibited very high stability under acidic environments. These results suggest a promising and reliable method of reducing lead sludge mobility and toxicity has been identified. PMID:25461943

  4. Stabilization of simulated lead sludge with iron sludge via formation of PbFe₁₂O₁₉ by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Cui, Hao; An, Hao; Wang, Bing; Zhai, Jianping; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Qin

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of stabilizing lead sludge by reaction with iron sludge via the formation of PbFe12O19 through a thermal treatment process. Lead hydroxide was used to simulate lead-laden sludge and the sintering procedure was performed by firing a mixture of this simulated sludge together with iron sludge at a Fe/Pb molar ratio of 12 over the temperature range from 650 to 1400 °C. The accompanying phase transformations as well as the surface characteristic of sintered samples were observed by XRD and SEM, while the leaching behavior of the stabilized sludge in an acidic environment was evaluated by a modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The results confirmed that PbFe12O19 acts as a stabilization phase for lead, and showed that the formation of a PbFe12O19 phase began at 750 °C with the lead completely incorporated into the PbFe12O19 phase at 1050 °C. Above 1100 °C, the PbFe12O19 phase began to decompose, accompanied by the reappearance of Fe2O3. The volumes of compressed sludge samples were reduced significantly after thermal treatment, with accompanying volume reductions of 40% at 1050 °C. This study compared the leaching of lead from PbO and sintered sludge samples using a prolonged TCLP test, and the data showed that the PbFe12O19 phase was superior to the PbO and that the sintered sludge sample exhibited very high stability under acidic environments. These results suggest a promising and reliable method of reducing lead sludge mobility and toxicity has been identified.

  5. Role of mixing on microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process in treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2008-10-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the disintegration of suspended solids from both anaerobic sludge and aerobic sludge. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mixing on the performance of the process, in terms of soluble ammonia, orthophosphate and soluble chemical oxygen demands. Experiments were conducted on sludge samples with various total solids concentrations (1.1-3.7%) and hydrogen peroxide dosage (1% per 1% of total solids) at 80 degrees C of microwave temperature and five minutes of heating time. The results indicated that mixing affected solids disintegration and nutrient solubilization of sewage sludge, regardless of the sludge used, anaerobic or aerobic. However, the effects of mixing on the MW/H2O2-AOP were dependent on the total solids concentration of the sludge. A paired t-test was performed on data for aerobic sludge: at 2.9% of total solids (TS), the difference for solubilization of nutrients and solids disintegration was statistically significant at a 95% confidence level between mixing and non-mixing samples. At a lower TS of 1.7% only soluble chemical oxygen demand showed significant difference between mixing and non-mixing. The results suggest that, for sludge with higher solids content, the MW/H2O2-AOP can be more effective if a mixing device is implemented.

  6. Alkaline treatment of high-solids sludge and its application to anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenchen; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao

    2015-01-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion is a promising new process for sludge reduction and bioenergy recovery, requiring smaller digestion tanks and less energy for heating, but a longer digestion time, than traditional low-solids anaerobic digestion. To accelerate this process, alkaline sludge disintegration was tested as a pretreatment method for anaerobic digestion of high-solids sludge. The results showed that alkaline treatment effectively disintegrated both low-solids sludge and high-solids sludge, and treatment duration of 30 min was the most efficient. The relation between sludge disintegration degree and NaOH dose can be described by a transmutative power function model. At NaOH dose lower than 0.2 mol/L, sludge disintegration degree remained virtually unchanged when sludge total solids (TS) content increased from 2.0 to 11.0%, and decreased only slightly when sludge TS increased to 14.2%. Although high-solids sludge required a slightly higher molarity of NaOH to reach the same disintegration level of low-solids sludge, the required mass of NaOH actually decreased due to sludge thickening. From the view of NaOH consumption, sludge TS of 8-12% and a NaOH dose of 0.05 mol/L were optimum conditions for alkaline pretreatment, which resulted in a slight increase in accumulative biogas yield, but a decrease by 24-29% in digestion time during the subsequent anaerobic digestion.

  7. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. PMID:23317554

  8. Evaluation of thickening and dewatering characteristics of SRC-I wastewater treatment sludges. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky, will generate several different sludges as a result of providing extensive wastewater treatment. Because construction of this plant has been postponed indefinitely, there has been an opportunity to generate additional data pertinent to waste treatment. Accordingly, this report presents the results of a study on the thickening and dewatering characteristics of several of the wastewater treatment sludges. The study included: evaluation of chemical conditioning agents; aerobic digestion of biological sludges; gravity thickening; and the relative effectiveness of dewatering by centrifuge, vacuum filter, belt filter, and pressure filter. Sludges were tested individually and in combination. The results indicated that the biological sludge could be best dewatered by pressure filtration. The chemical sludges should be combined prior to dewatering, which should be provided by a belt filter. The tar acid sludge will be kept separate, due to its low pH, and ultimate disposal will be by incineration. The tar acid sludge was more concentrated than had been expected. As a result, thickening, rather than centrifuging, is the recommended treatment for this sludge. All sludges were tested for leachate toxicity by the extraction procedure method. The results were negative, indicating the sludges are non-hazardous in heavy metal concentrations, according to RCRA classification. The test results have identified design changes for the proposed wastewater treatment facilities.

  9. Minimization of excess sludge production by in-situ activated sludge treatment processes--a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Shan-Shan; Xiang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2013-12-01

    The widespread application of conventional activated sludge treatment process has been employed to deal with a variety of municipal and industrial sewage. While the generation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was considerably huge, the management and disposal expenses were substantially costly. A promising process aimed for WAS reduction during the operation process is urgently needed. Thus, increasing attentions emphasizing on the improved or novel sludge reduction processes should be intensively recommended in the future. This review presents the current and emerging technologies for excess sludge minimization within the process of sewage treatment. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to guide or inspire researchers who are seeking feasible and promising technologies (or processes) to tackle the severe WAS problem.

  10. Sequential sludge digestion after diverse pre-treatment conditions: sludge removal, methane production and microbial community changes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-06-01

    A lab-scale sequential sludge digestion process which consists of a mesophilic anaerobic digester (MAD) and a thermophilic aerobic digester (TAD) was developed. Thermal, thermal-alkaline and long-term alkaline pre-treatments were applied to the feed sludge to examine their effects on sludge removal and methane production. Especially after thermal-alkaline pre-treatment, high COD removal was maintained; methane production rate was also drastically increased by improving the hydrolysis step of sludge degradation. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis indicated that bacterial communities were represented by three phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) and that Clostridium straminisolvens was the major bacterial species in MAD. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that Methanosaeta concilli was the major archaeal species in MAD, and that Ureibacillus sp. was the most abundant bacterial species in TAD.

  11. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Lind, Saara E; Martikainen, Pertti J; Ferrer, Ivet

    2012-04-15

    Constructed wetlands are nowadays successfully employed as an alternative technology for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. In these systems organic matter and nutrients are transformed and removed by a variety of microbial reaction and gaseous compounds such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) may be released to the atmosphere. The aim of this work is to introduce a method to determine greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment wetlands (STW) and use the method in a full-scale system. Sampling and analysing techniques used to determine greenhouse gas emissions from croplands and natural wetlands were successfully adapted to the quantification of CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from an STW. Gas emissions were measured using the static chamber technique in 9 points of the STW during 13 days. The spatial variation in the emission along the wetland did not follow some specific pattern found for the temporal variation in the fluxes. Emissions ranged from 10 to 5400 mg CH(4)/m(2)d and from 20 to 950 mgN(2)O/m(2)d, depending on the feeding events. The comparison between the CH(4) and N(2)O emissions of different sludge management options shows that STW have the lowest atmospheric impact in terms of CO(2) equivalent emissions (Global warming potential with time horizon of 100 years): 17 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for STW, 36 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for centrifuge and 162 kg CO(2) eq/PE y for untreated sludge transport, PE means Population Equivalent.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from sludge treatment reed beds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubo; Zhang, Shunli; Chen, Zhaobo; Chen, Rui; Deng, Xinnan

    2015-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed systems (STRBs) are considered as an alternative technology for surplus sludge treatment. Organic matter is decomposed by various microbial reactions, resulting in gases such as CO₂and CH₄emitting into the atmosphere. The aim of this study is to investigate gas emission from STRBs. The static transparent chamber was adopted to measure gas emission; it allows sunlight to enter and plants to photosynthesise. The comparison of total solids and volatile solids showed STRBs have a higher efficiency in dewatering and mineralization than a conventional unplanted sludge drying bed (USDB). The CO₂emission ranged from 28.68 to 100.42 g CO₂m⁻² d(-1) in USDB, from 16.48 to 65.18 g CO₂m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs; CH₄emission ranged from 0.26 to 0.99 g CH₄ m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB, from 0.43 to 1.95 g CH₄m⁻² d⁻¹ in STRBs. Both gas fluxes decreased towards the end of vegetation and reached the highest rates during the hot and dry summer. After the system was loaded by sludge, the fluxes of CO₂and CH₄significantly decreased in the USDB, whereas they increased in STRBs. In terms of CO₂equivalent, the global warming potential of CH₄was 13.13 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ and 15.02 g CO₂eq m⁻² d⁻¹ in USDB and STRBs, respectively.

  13. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen. PMID:25192669

  14. Integrated treatment of municipal sewage sludge by deep dewatering and anaerobic fermentation for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Yu, Yang; Jiang, Wentian; Wei, Huangzhao; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-02-01

    The increasing sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants poses a threat to the environment. Based on the traditional processes, sludge dewatered by usual methods was further dewatered by hydraulic compression and the filtrate released was treated by anaerobic fermentation. The difficulties in sludge dewatering were associated with the existence of sludge flocs or colloidal materials. A suitable CaO dosage of 125 mg/g dry sludge (DS) could further decrease the moisture content of sludge from 82.4 to 50.9 %. The filtrate from the dewatering procedure was a potential substrate for biohydrogen production. Adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the anaerobic system improved the biohydrogen yield by 20 %, and the COD removal rate was lifted by 10 % as well. Meanwhile, the sludge morphology and microbial community were altered. The novel method could greatly reduce the sludge volume and successfully treated filtrate along with the conversion of organics into biohydrogen.

  15. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: sewage characteristics;…

  16. Recent advances and future perspectives of nanosized zero- valent iron for extraction of heavy elements from metallurgical sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Levina, V. V.; Kolesnikov, E. A.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Gusev, A. A.; Godymchuk, A. Yu; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes with nanosized zero-valent iron have presented great potential in wastewater treatment technology and now experience both increasing popularity and reliable technical improvements. Besides wastewater treatment, there is another promising application for an emerging technology of iron nanoparticles - as Fenton-like catalyst for extraction of valuable elements from poor and secondary raw materials such as metallurgical sludges. In present research, we carried out a set of experiments with emphasis on the physicochemical mechanisms and their relationship to the performance. In particular, we examined complex acidic - hydrogen peroxide leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge with nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like catalyst. Results of the experiments showed promising potential for subsequent application in extraction of heavy and rare-earth elements.

  17. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  18. Sludge quality after 10-20 years of treatment in reed bed systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen; Bruun, Esben Wilson

    2015-09-01

    The effect on the environment of the operation of sludge treatment in reed beds (STRB) system is seen as quite limited compared to traditional sludge treatment systems such as mechanical dewatering, drying and incineration with their accompanying use of chemicals and energy consumption. There are several STRB systems in Denmark receiving sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Stabilization and mineralization of the sludge in the STRB systems occur during a period between 10 and 20 years, where after the basins are emptied and the sludge residue typically is spread on agricultural land. In the present study, the sludge residue quality after treatment periods of 10-20 years from four Danish STRBs is presented. After reduction, dewatering and mineralization of the feed sludge (dry solid content of 0.5-3 %) in the STRB systems, the sludge residue achieved up to 26 % dry solid, depending on the sludge quality and dimensioning of the STRB system. The concentration of heavy metals and hazardous organic compounds in the sludge residue that are listed in the Danish and EU legislation for farmland application of sludge was below the limit values. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as an average in the sludge residue were 28 and 36 g/kg dry solid (DS), respectively. In addition, mineralization on average across the four STRB systems removed up to 27 % of the organic solids in the sludge. The investigation showed that the sludge residue qualities of the four STRBs after a full treatment period all complied with the Danish and European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal.

  19. Sludge quality after 10-20 years of treatment in reed bed systems.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Steen; Bruun, Esben Wilson

    2015-09-01

    The effect on the environment of the operation of sludge treatment in reed beds (STRB) system is seen as quite limited compared to traditional sludge treatment systems such as mechanical dewatering, drying and incineration with their accompanying use of chemicals and energy consumption. There are several STRB systems in Denmark receiving sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Stabilization and mineralization of the sludge in the STRB systems occur during a period between 10 and 20 years, where after the basins are emptied and the sludge residue typically is spread on agricultural land. In the present study, the sludge residue quality after treatment periods of 10-20 years from four Danish STRBs is presented. After reduction, dewatering and mineralization of the feed sludge (dry solid content of 0.5-3 %) in the STRB systems, the sludge residue achieved up to 26 % dry solid, depending on the sludge quality and dimensioning of the STRB system. The concentration of heavy metals and hazardous organic compounds in the sludge residue that are listed in the Danish and EU legislation for farmland application of sludge was below the limit values. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations as an average in the sludge residue were 28 and 36 g/kg dry solid (DS), respectively. In addition, mineralization on average across the four STRB systems removed up to 27 % of the organic solids in the sludge. The investigation showed that the sludge residue qualities of the four STRBs after a full treatment period all complied with the Danish and European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. PMID:25422113

  20. Extracellular protein analysis of activated sludge and their functions in wastewater treatment plant by shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Li, Chun; Wang, Han; Chen, You-Peng; Yan, Peng; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, proteins in extracellular polymeric substances extracted from anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic sludges of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were analyzed to probe their origins and functions. Extracellular proteins in WWTP sludges were identified using shotgun proteomics, and 130, 108 and 114 proteins in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic samples were classified, respectively. Most proteins originated from cell and cell part, and their most major molecular functions were catalytic activity and binding activity. The results exhibited that the main roles of extracellular proteins in activated sludges were multivalence cations and organic molecules binding, as well as in catalysis and degradation. The catalytic activity proteins were more widespread in anaerobic sludge compared with those in anoxic and aerobic sludges. The structure difference between anaerobic and aerobic sludges could be associated with their catalytic activities proteins. The results also put forward a relation between the macro characteristics of activated sludges and micro functions of extracellular proteins in biological wastewater treatment process. PMID:26160685

  1. Extending the use of dewatered alum sludge as a P-trapping material in effluent purification: Study on two separate water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Yang, Y

    2010-08-01

    The generation of alum sludge from drinking water purification process remains inevitable when aluminium sulphate is used as primary coagulant for raw water coagulation. Sustainable managing such the sludge becomes an increasing concern in water industry. Its beneficial reuse is therefore highly desirable and has attracted considerable research efforts. In view of the novel development of alum sludge as a value-added raw material for beneficial reuse for wastewater treatment, this study examined the maximum phosphorus-adsorption capacity of two dewatered alum sludges sampled from two largest water treatment works in Dublin, Ireland. The objective lies in clarifying the change of alum sludge characteristics and its P-adsorption capacity over the location of the alum sludge produced and the raw water being treated. Experiments have demonstrated that the two alum sludges have the similar P adsorption capacity (14.3 mg P/g sludge for Ballymore-Eustace sludge and 13.1 mg P/g sludge for Leixlip sludge at pH 7.0). However, the study supports that alum sludge beneficial reuse as a low cost adsorbent for P immobilization should study its P-adsorption capacity before any decision of large application is made since the raw water quality will affect the sludge characteristics and therefore influence its adsorption ability.

  2. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Feng, Sha; Bai, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jingchan; Xia, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.

  3. A review of wet air oxidation and Thermal Hydrolysis technologies in sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Hii, Kevin; Baroutian, Saeid; Parthasarathy, Raj; Gapes, Daniel J; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2014-03-01

    With rapid world population growth and strict environmental regulations, increasingly large volumes of sludge are being produced in today's wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with limited disposal routes. Sludge treatment has become an essential process in WWTP, representing 50% of operational costs. Sludge destruction and resource recovery technologies are therefore of great ongoing interest. Hydrothermal processing uses unique characteristics of water at elevated temperatures and pressures to deconstruct organic and inorganic components of sludge. It can be broadly categorized into wet oxidation (oxidative) and thermal hydrolysis (non-oxidative). While wet air oxidation (WAO) can be used for the final sludge destruction and also potentially producing industrially useful by-products such as acetic acid, thermal hydrolysis (TH) is mainly used as a pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion. This paper reviews current hydrothermal technologies, roles of wet air oxidation and thermal hydrolysis in sludge treatment, and challenges faced by these technologies.

  4. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  5. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology. PMID:26539712

  6. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  7. Current state of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Hongchen

    2015-07-01

    Large amount of sludge has been a great trouble and raised significant concerns in China. This paper reviewed the current situation of sludge production, management, treatment and disposal in China. Total sludge production in China had an average annual growth of 13% from 2007 to 2013, and 6.25 million tons dry solids was produced in 2013. Per Capita sludge production in China is lower than that in developed countries. However, sludge management is poor in China. Administrative agents of sludge are not in accordance with each other. Laws and regulations of sludge management are incomplete and sometimes unrealistic. As to sludge treatment and disposal, many technical routes have been applied in China. Thickening, conditioning, and dewatering are three most used treatment methods, while application ratios of stabilization and drying are low in China. More than 80% of sludge is disposed by improper dumping in China. Regarding proper disposal, sanitary landfill is the commonest, followed by land application, incineration and building materials. According to the overall situation of China, "thickening-anaerobic digestion-dewatering-land application" is the priority technical route of sludge treatment and disposal. Good changes, current challenges and future perspectives of this technical route in China were analyzed and discussed in details.

  8. Predicting the drying properties of sludge based on hydrothermal treatment under subcritical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Fraikin, Laurent; Léonard, Angélique; Benavente, Verónica; Fullana, Andrés

    2016-03-15

    The effects of hydrothermal treatment on the drying properties of sludge were determined. Sludge was hydrothermally treated at 180-260 °C for 0.5-5 h using NaOH and HCl as additives to influence reaction conditions. Untreated sludge and attained hydrochar samples were then dried under identical conditions with a laboratory microdryer and an X-ray microtomograph was used to follow changes in sample dimensions. The effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar samples were determined and the effect of process conditions on respective mean diffusivities evaluated using multiple linear regression. Based on the results the drying time of untreated sludge decreased from approximately 80 min to 37-59 min for sludge hydrochar. Drying of untreated sludge was governed by the falling rate period where drying flux decreased continuously as a function of sludge moisture content due to heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage. Hydrothermal treatment increased the drying flux of sludge hydrochar and decreased the effect of internal heat and mass transfer limitations and sample shrinkage especially at higher treatment temperatures. The determined effective moisture diffusivities of sludge and hydrochar increased as a function of decreasing moisture content and the mean diffusivity of untreated sludge (8.56·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) and sludge hydrochar (12.7-27.5·10(-9) m(2) s(-1)) were found statistically different. The attained regression model indicated that treatment temperature governed the mean diffusivity of hydrochar, as the effects of NaOH and HCl were statistically insignificant. The attained results enabled prediction of sludge drying properties through mean moisture diffusivity based on hydrothermal treatment conditions. PMID:26773481

  9. [Biliary sludge: diagnosis and treatment at an outpatient's clinic].

    PubMed

    Manushkin, O N; Burdina, E G; Novozhenova, E V; Vasil'chenko, S A; Gurova, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study--to develop a diagnostic and management tactics for patients with biliary sludge (BS) in an outpatient setting. The study included 115 patients who, according to the ultrasound revealed a BS. Own methodological approach used by ultrasound scan of the gall bladder and the interpretation of ultrasonographic BS types: Type 1 (suspension echo-positive particles) was set at 59.1%, type 2 (low level of mobile like putty echo-positive bile)--23.5%, 3 type (like putty bile in the form of mobile and/or fixed clots)--17.4%. For the treatment of BS used drugs ursodeoxycholic acid. The daily dosage depends upon the type BS. For the treatment of type 1 requires a minimum of 1 month, 2 types--not less than 3 months. Sludge was the most resistant type 3, which is the duration of treatment was 6-12 months or more. Allocation of risk factors forming the BS is the basis for the formation of risk groups and prevention activities (including pharmacotherapeutic).

  10. Synergistic cooperation between wastewater-born algae and activated sludge for wastewater treatment: influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanyan; Mennerich, Artur; Urban, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    An algal-bacterial culture, composed of wastewater-born algae and activated sludge, was cultivated to treat domestic wastewater and accumulate biomass simultaneously. The influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios on the treatment efficiency and the settleability of the accumulated biomass were investigated. There was no significant effect of the inoculation ratios on the chemical oxygen demand removal. Comparatively, the nutrients removal and related mechanism were varied with different inoculation ratios. The highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were observed with 5:1 (algae/sludge) culture (91.0±7.0% and 93.5±2.5%, respectively) within 10 days, which was 5-40% higher and 2-4 days faster than those with other inoculation ratios. The biomass settleability was improved with the assistance of sludge, and the 1:5 (algae/sludge) culture showed the best settleability. Furthermore, 16S rDNA gene analysis showed that the bacterial communities were varying with different algae and sludge inoculation ratios and some specific bacteria were enriched during operation.

  11. Ubiquity of activated sludge ferricyanide-mediated BOD methods: a comparison of sludge seeds across wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have described alternatives to the BOD5 standard method, with substantial decreases in incubation time observed. However, most of these have not maintained the features that make the BOD5 assay so relevant - a high level of substrate bio-oxidation and use of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge as the biocatalyst. Two recently described ferricyanide-mediated (FM)-BOD assays, one for trade wastes and one for WWTP influents and treated effluents, satisfy these criteria and were investigated further here for their suitability for use with diverse biocatalysts. Both FM-BOD assays responded proportionately to increasing substrate concentration with sludges from 11 different WWTPs and temporally (months to years) using sludges from a single WWTP, confirming the broad applicability of both assays. Sludges from four WWTPs were selected as biocatalysts for each FM-BOD assay to compare FM-BOD equivalent values with BOD5 (three different sludge seeds) measurements for 12 real wastewater samples (six per assay). Strong and significant relationships were established for both FM-BOD assays. This study has demonstrated that sludge sourced from many WWTPs may be used as the biocatalyst in either FM-BOD assay, as it is in the BOD5 assay. The industry potential of these findings is substantial given the widespread use of the BOD5 assay, the dramatically decreased incubation period (3-6h) and the superior analytical range of both assays compared to the standard BOD5 assay.

  12. Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.

    PubMed

    Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge.

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  14. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  15. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Carlos J; Reeve, Petra J; Sawade, Emma; Voldoire, Camille F; Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti; Collingnon, Lea; Dreyfus, Jennifer; Hobson, Peter; Gaget, Virginie; Newcombe, Gayle

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. PMID:27265732

  16. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge.

    PubMed

    Pestana, Carlos J; Reeve, Petra J; Sawade, Emma; Voldoire, Camille F; Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti; Collingnon, Lea; Dreyfus, Jennifer; Hobson, Peter; Gaget, Virginie; Newcombe, Gayle

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge.

  17. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

  18. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained.

  19. Thermal hydrolysis of waste activated sludge at Hengelo Wastewater Treatment Plant, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Mathijs; Ringoot, Davy; Hendriks, Alexander; Roeleveld, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is a sludge treatment technique which affects anaerobic biodegradability, viscosity and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS). In 2011 a THP-pilot plant was operated, connected to laboratory-scale digesters, at the water board Regge en Dinkel and in cooperation with Cambi A.S. and MWH Global. Thermal hydrolysis of WAS resulted in a 62% greater volatile solids (VS) reduction compared to non-hydrolysed sludge. Furthermore, the pilot digesters could be operated at a 2.3 times higher solids loading rate compared to conventional sludge digesters. By application of thermal sludge hydrolysis, the overall efficiency of the sludge treatment process can be improved. PMID:25026572

  20. Orthophosphate removal from aqueous solutions using drinking-water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Piaskowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS) is a by-product generated during the production of drinking water where iron hydroxides are the main component of the sludge. The aim of the study presented here was to determine the effectiveness of using ferric sludge from two underground water treatment stations to remove orthophosphates from a model solution. The analyses were performed in static conditions. The sludge was dosed in a dry and suspended form. Using sludge dried at room temperature and preparing the suspension again proved to be much less effective in orthophosphate removal than using a suspension brought directly from the station. An increase in process effectiveness with a decreasing pH was observed for all the analysed sludge. Due to the low cost and high capability, DWTS has the potential to be utilised for cost-effective removal of phosphate from wastewater.

  1. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Monsalvo, V M; Mohedano, A F; Sanz, J L; Rodriguez, J J

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2g TCODL(-1)day(-1)). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  2. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  3. Bacterial Diversity of Active Sludge in Wastewater Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin; Ma, Mingchao; Li, Jun; Lu, Anhuai; Zhong, Zuoshen

    A bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed to analyze the bacterial diversity of active sludge in Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beijing. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of active sludge was very high, and the clones could be divided into 5 different groups. The dominant bacterial community was proteobacteria, which accounted for 76.7%. The dominant succession of bacterial community were as follows: the β-proteobacteria (39.8%), the uncultured bacteria (22.33%), the γ-proteobacteria (20.15%), the α-proteobacteria (6.79%), and the σ-proteobacteria (4.85%). Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrospira-like bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas sp. (1.94%) and uncultured Nitrospirae bacterium (11.65%) were also detected, which have played important roles in ammonia and nitrite oxidisers in the system. However, they were only a little amount because of their slow growth and less competitive advantage than heterotrophic bacteria. Denitrifying bacteria like Thauera sp. was at a high percentage, which implies a strong denitrification ability; Roseomonas sp. was also detected in the clone library, which could be related to the degradation of organophosphorus pesticide.

  4. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. PMID:25398411

  5. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  6. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  7. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal.

  8. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  9. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the bioleaching treatment of sewage sludges contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Renoux, A.Y.; Tyagi, R.D.; Paquette, L.; Samson, R.

    1995-12-31

    A new decontamination technology of sewage sludge, the bioleaching of heavy metals, was assessed using ecotoxicity bioassays. Sewage sludges, treated or non-treated, were mixed with a non-contaminated soil used as a negative control at a rate of 1 to 100 g per liter of soil. Aqueous elutriates (TCLP) of the sludges were used for the aqueous bioassays. The bioleaching of metals reduced the toxic effects associated with sludge for most of the bioassays, although the sludge after treatment exhibited an inherent level of toxicity at high loading rates. With respect to seed germination, bioleached sludge was less toxic (EC50 barley: 53 g/L; lettuce: 13.6) than the non-treated (72; 16.8 g/L). The treated sludge stimulated the barley growth at > 5 6 g/L. The non-treated causes an inhibition at 100 g/L. Earthworms survived in up to 56 g/L of bioleached sludge, compared to 32 g/L of the non-treated. The Microtox{reg_sign} EC50s were 4.0% and 8.4% for nontreated and treated sludges respectively. No genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest) in the sludge elutriates was detected, and no significant treatment effects were noticeable using the lettuce root elongation bioassay. The Daphnia magna mortality of the elutriate was increased with sludge treatment. However, the lettuce root elongation and D. magna mortality bioassay results were difficult to interpret due to variability in standard deviations. This study demonstrated that the ecotoxicological battery of bioassays, and particularly direct contact bioassays, can be used to assess sewage sludge remediation technologies.

  10. Comparative study of ground water treatment plants sludges to remove phosphorous from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bal Krishna, K C; Aryal, Ashok; Jansen, Troy

    2016-09-15

    Alum- and iron-based sludge obtained from water treatment plant produced during a unit treatment process (coagulation and flocculation) have been widely tested as a low-cost adsorbent to remove phosphorous (P) from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of iron-based sludge generated from the oxidation of iron which naturally occurs in the ground water has not been investigated. Moreover, influences of dominant metals ions comprised in the treatment plants sludges on P adsorption capacity and rate from wastewater are not yet known. This study, therefore, employed four different groundwater treatment plants sludges iron-based (from the oxidation of iron) and alum-based (from coagulation and flocculation process) to determine their P adsorption capacities and adsorption rates from the synthetic wastewater (SWW) and secondary effluent wastewater (SEWW). Although metals ions concentrations were the highest in the iron-based sludge amongst the sludge used in this study, it appeared to have the lowest P adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. A good correlation between aluminium to iron mass ratio and adsorption capacity for both types of waters were noted. However, a poor relation between aluminium to iron mass ratio and adsorption rates for the SEWW was observed. Further, the tested sludges were found to have a better P removal efficiency and adsorption capacity from the SEWW than from the SWW. Thus, this study demonstrates the ground water treatment plants sludges could be a low cost and effective adsorbent in removing P from wastewater. PMID:27192387

  11. Comparative study of ground water treatment plants sludges to remove phosphorous from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bal Krishna, K C; Aryal, Ashok; Jansen, Troy

    2016-09-15

    Alum- and iron-based sludge obtained from water treatment plant produced during a unit treatment process (coagulation and flocculation) have been widely tested as a low-cost adsorbent to remove phosphorous (P) from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of iron-based sludge generated from the oxidation of iron which naturally occurs in the ground water has not been investigated. Moreover, influences of dominant metals ions comprised in the treatment plants sludges on P adsorption capacity and rate from wastewater are not yet known. This study, therefore, employed four different groundwater treatment plants sludges iron-based (from the oxidation of iron) and alum-based (from coagulation and flocculation process) to determine their P adsorption capacities and adsorption rates from the synthetic wastewater (SWW) and secondary effluent wastewater (SEWW). Although metals ions concentrations were the highest in the iron-based sludge amongst the sludge used in this study, it appeared to have the lowest P adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. A good correlation between aluminium to iron mass ratio and adsorption capacity for both types of waters were noted. However, a poor relation between aluminium to iron mass ratio and adsorption rates for the SEWW was observed. Further, the tested sludges were found to have a better P removal efficiency and adsorption capacity from the SEWW than from the SWW. Thus, this study demonstrates the ground water treatment plants sludges could be a low cost and effective adsorbent in removing P from wastewater.

  12. Kinetics and advanced digester design for anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth and primary sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Dolenc, D.A.; Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Jerger, D.E.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    A research program centered around a facility located at Walt Disney World (WDW) is in progress to evaluate the use of water hyacinth (WH) for secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment, to optimize growth of WH under these conditions, and to convert the resultant primary sludge (PS) and WH to methane via anaerobic digestion. This article describes the status of the biogasification component of this program, which includes baseline and advanced digestion experiments with individual feeds and blends and the design of an experimental test unit (ETU) to be installed at WDW. Experiments with several blends demonstrated that methane yields can be predicted from the fractional content and methane yield of each component. The process was found to adhere to the Monod kinetic model for microbial growth, and associated kinetic parameters were developed for various feed combinations. A novel upflow digester is achieving significantly higher conversion than a stirred-tank digester. Of several pretreatment techniques used, only alkaline treatment resulted in increased biodegradability. A larger scale (4.5 m/sup 3/) experimental test unit is being designed for installation at WDW in 1982. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge.

    PubMed

    Mawioo, Peter M; Rweyemamu, Audax; Garcia, Hector A; Hooijmans, Christine M; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-04-01

    A laboratory-scale microwave (MW) unit was applied to treat fresh blackwater sludge that represented fecal sludge (FS) produced at heavily used toilet facilities. The sludge was exposed to MW irradiation at different power levels and for various durations. Variables such as sludge volume and pathogen reduction were observed. The results demonstrated that the MW is a rapid and efficient technology that can reduce the sludge volume by over 70% in these experimental conditions. The concentration of bacterial pathogenic indicator E. coli also decreased to below the analytical detection levels. Furthermore, the results indicated that the MW operational conditions including radiation power and contact time can be varied to achieve the desired sludge volume and pathogen reduction. MW technology can be further explored for the potential scaling-up as an option for rapid treatment of FS from intensively used sanitation facilities such as in emergency situations. PMID:26799809

  14. Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge

    PubMed Central

    Mawioo, Peter M.; Rweyemamu, Audax; Garcia, Hector A.; Hooijmans, Christine M.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-scale microwave (MW) unit was applied to treat fresh blackwater sludge that represented fecal sludge (FS) produced at heavily used toilet facilities. The sludge was exposed to MW irradiation at different power levels and for various durations. Variables such as sludge volume and pathogen reduction were observed. The results demonstrated that the MW is a rapid and efficient technology that can reduce the sludge volume by over 70% in these experimental conditions. The concentration of bacterial pathogenic indicator E. coli also decreased to below the analytical detection levels. Furthermore, the results indicated that the MW operational conditions including radiation power and contact time can be varied to achieve the desired sludge volume and pathogen reduction. MW technology can be further explored for the potential scaling-up as an option for rapid treatment of FS from intensively used sanitation facilities such as in emergency situations. PMID:26799809

  15. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  16. Electro-coagulation treatment of oily wastewater with sludge analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dhorgham Skban; Sakthipriya, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to treat the oily effluent by electro-coagulation. The influence of operating parameters such as applied current, type of electrode and electrolysis time on electro-coagulation efficiency has been critically examined. The maximum percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 94% under optimum experimental conditions of pH 6.7, current density 6 mA/cm², electrolysis time 40 min, and using mild steel as anode. The remaining sludge in the reactor was analyzed by energy disperse analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The analysis confirms that the oily pollutant was removed by electroflotation and adsorption of the oily particles of precipitate during the electro-coagulation process. Electro-coagulation can be used as an efficient treatment technique for oily wastewater. PMID:23109567

  17. Electro-coagulation treatment of oily wastewater with sludge analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Dhorgham Skban; Sakthipriya, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to treat the oily effluent by electro-coagulation. The influence of operating parameters such as applied current, type of electrode and electrolysis time on electro-coagulation efficiency has been critically examined. The maximum percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 94% under optimum experimental conditions of pH 6.7, current density 6 mA/cm², electrolysis time 40 min, and using mild steel as anode. The remaining sludge in the reactor was analyzed by energy disperse analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The analysis confirms that the oily pollutant was removed by electroflotation and adsorption of the oily particles of precipitate during the electro-coagulation process. Electro-coagulation can be used as an efficient treatment technique for oily wastewater.

  18. Characterization and dewaterability of raw and stabilized sludge using different treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Moeller, G; Chávez; Ramírez Camperos, E; Cardaso Vigueros, L

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics and stabilization potential of the four most used sludge treatment systems in Mexico was made. A pilot plant constituted by separate systems for anaerobic and aerobic digestion, lime stabilization, conditioning and dewatering, was built and operated during four months in one of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Acapulco, Mexico. Composting of sludge was also made. An aerobic static pile was built using bulking materials available in the region. A turbine centrifuge was used for dewatering the stabilized sludge and results showed good performance of the device. The main problem for the beneficial use of treated sludge was its pathogenicity. The composting process allowed us to obtain a product with approximately 20 fecal coliform density (MPN/g); with lime stabilization, the sludge produced had a fecal coliform density of 2 MPN/g. From these results, it is concluded that both the composting process and the alkaline stabilization with lime produce a well stabilized sludge, bacteriologically safe that accomplishes the requirements for its use on soil without restrictions. Related to parasitological removal, the best helminth egg removals were obtained also using these two processes. Ascaris sp. densities in raw sludge (309-430 eggs/g) were reduced to a final density of 3-14 eggs/g in the aerobic composting process and to 4-18 eggs/g in the lime stabilized sludge. Removal is not high enough to reach the recommended level for unrestricted use of stabilized sludge. PMID:12479461

  19. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15 month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:22784022

  20. Sludge reduction in a small wastewater treatment plant by electro-kinetic disintegration.

    PubMed

    Chiavola, Agostina; Ridolfi, Alessandra; D'Amato, Emilio; Bongirolami, Simona; Cima, Ennio; Sirini, Piero; Gavasci, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Sludge reduction in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has recently become a key issue for the managing companies, due to the increasing constraints on the disposal alternatives. Therefore, all the solutions proposed with the aim of minimizing sludge production are receiving increasing attention and are tested either at laboratory or full-scale to evaluate their real effectiveness. In the present paper, electro-kinetic disintegration has been applied at full-scale in the recycle loop of the sludge drawn from the secondary settlement tank of a small WWTP for domestic sewage. After the disintegration stage, the treated sludge was returned to the biological reactor. Three different percentages (50, 75 and 100%) of the return sludge flow rate were subjected to disintegration and the effects on the sludge production and the WWTP operation efficiency evaluated. The long-term observations showed that the electro-kinetic disintegration was able to drastically reduce the amount of biological sludge produced by the plant, without affecting its treatment efficiency. The highest reduction was achieved when 100% return sludge flow rate was subjected to the disintegration process. The reduced sludge production gave rise to a considerable net cost saving for the company which manages the plant. PMID:26204067

  1. Belt Filtration. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broste, Dale

    This lesson, an introduction to belt management, was developed for a course in sludge treatment and disposal. Fundamental principles of belt filter operation are described. Chemical conditioning and the effect on sludge characteristics are discussed, and a detailed description of the different zones of dewatering is presented. Information on…

  2. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE BASIC EXTRACTIVE SLUDGE TREATMENT (B.E.S.T.) RESOURCES CONSERVATION COMPANY (RCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment (B.E.S.T.®) process is a solvent extraction system that separates organic contaminants from sludges, soils, and sediments. The primary distinguishing feature of the process is the extraction agent, triethylamine. The key to the success of tri...

  4. Fate of heavy metals and major nutrients in a sludge-soil-plant-leachate system during the sludge phyto-treatment process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianfen; Qiu, Jinrong; Wu, Qi-Tang; Guo, Xiaofang; Wei, Zebin; Xie, Fangwen; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2013-01-01

    Land application of sewage sludge usually leads to increased levels of heavy metals in soil, plants and groundwater. Pre-treatment using plants has been proposed to reduce the contents of heavy metals and water in sludge prior to land application. This study quantified the transfer of Zn, Cd, Pb and major nutrients in a sludge-soil-plant-leachate system during the treatment of sewage sludge. To accomplish this, a two year pot experiment was carried out to collect leachate, mono- and co-cropping of Sedum alfredii and feed crops was conducted in sludge with an under-layer soil support. Sludge phyto-treatment increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the under-layer soil, but not Pb. Specifically, 70%, 70% and 80% of the original Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively, remained in the sludge, while about 40%, 70% and 60% of the original N, P and K remained. Only 3% to 5% of Cd and Zn and < 1% of Pb were transferred into the under-layer soils or leachates, while more than 12% of the N and P were transferred. Co-planting S. alfredii and feed crops led to a significant reduction of heavy metals in leachates when compared with sludge without planting. Overall, sludge leachate is more appropriate than whole sludge for recycling in agriculture since it reduces the chance of heavy metal contamination in the agro-ecosystem; therefore, co-cropping phytotreatment of sludge can be coupled with sludge leachate recycling for crop production and re-collection of the sludge residue for landfilling.

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected

  6. Arsenic in an Alkaline AMD Treatment Sludge: Characterization and Stability Under Prolonged Anoxic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, S.; Fiset, J; Poirier, G; Ablett, J

    2010-01-01

    Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg{sup -1}. In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N{sub 2}, 100%N{sub 2} + glucose, 95%N{sub 2}:5%H{sub 2}). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Dissolved Mn concentration in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants

  7. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial wastewater sludge by ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo-Yeon; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic treatment for sludge reduction in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can substantially affect the fate of trace pollutants. However, their fates in the different phases of sludge and mass balances have rarely been reported. In this study, wastewater sludge samples were ultrasonicated at 600W for 0-30min. Then, the leaching of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the sludge solids (sediment) to the liquid phase (supernatant) was investigated. The total concentration of PAHs (∑16 PAHs) in the sludge sediment (2.10μg/g) was comparable with those of previous worldwide studies. Among the 16 PAHs, naphthalene and acenaphthylene were dominant. The total concentrations of PAHs in the supernatant generally increased with sonication time, indicating that PAHs associated with sludge materials, such as microorganisms, were released into the supernatant. Lighter and more water soluble PAHs were released preferentially into the supernatant in dissolved form, whereas heavier and more hydrophobic PAHs were strongly bound to particles. According to mass balance calculations, 21% of the PAHs in the sludge sediment moved to the supernatant without discernible sonodegradation. An additional experiment for degradation of PAHs supported this interpretation, and several reasons for the no significant sonodegradation were discussed. This result suggests that leaching trace pollutants may significantly contaminate the sludge filtrate after ultrasonic treatment, and therefore their fates should be investigated. PMID:27245957

  8. Anaerobic digestion of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge and the microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Wang, Yubo; Lau, Frankie T K; Fung, W C; Huang, Danping; Xia, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness and treatment conditions of FeCl3- and AlCl3-coagulated municipal sewage sludge from chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) using anaerobic digestion (AD) and the structure of microbial community were investigated. The results based on 297 measurements under different operational conditions demonstrate good average AD performance of CEPT sludge, that is, percent volatile solid reduction of 58 %, specific biogas production (or biogas yield) of 0.92 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS) destroyed, and methane content of 65.4 %. FeCl3 dosing, organic loading rate, temperature, and hydraulic retention time all significantly affected AD performance. FeCl3 dosing greatly improved specific methane production (methane yield) by 38-54 % and significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content in biogas (from up to 13,250 to <200 ppm), contributing to higher methane recovery and simplified biogas cleaning for power generation. Metagenomic analysis suggested that anaerobic digesters of both CEPT sludge and combined primary and secondary sludge were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Thermotogae, and Chloroflexi. However, Methanomicrobia methanogens were better enriched in the anaerobic digesters of CEPT sludge than in the combined sludge. Further, different sources of CEPT sludge with various chemical properties nurtured shared and unique microbial community composition. Combined, this study supports AD as an efficient technology for CEPT sludge treatment and poses first insights into the microbial community structure. PMID:27464827

  9. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03].

  10. Optimization of diclofenac quantification from wastewater treatment plant sludge by ultrasonication assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem

    2014-05-01

    A rapid quantification method of diclofenac from sludge samples through ultrasonication assisted extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed and used for the quantification of diclofenac concentrations in sludge samples with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the concentration of diclofenac in sludge samples taken from different units of wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul was below the limit of quantification (LOQ; 5ng/g), an optimized method for sludge samples along with the total mass balances in a wastewater treatment plant can be used to determine the phase with which diclofenac is mostly associated. Hence, the results will provide information on fate and transport of diclofenac, as well as on the necessity of alternative removal processes. In addition, since the optimization procedure is provided in detail, it is possible for other researchers to use this procedure as a starting point for the determination of other emerging pollutants in wastewater sludge samples. PMID:24704687

  11. New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Xinrun; Zhang, Qingrui; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Wen; Gao, Faming

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adsorption on the biological treatment process of wastewater. In the absence of substrate in the water, activated sludge developed well in the first hour, indicating that the growth of microorganism was not directly related to substrate concentration and the dissolved organic matter in the water assays were performed, no organic matter was detected out, revealing that there was no desorption in the activated sludge adsorption process. Activated sludge batch growth experiments in the presence of different adsorption capacities indicated that specific growth rate increased as specific adsorption capacity increased. The experiment on the relationship of adsorption capacity and substrate concentration or sludge concentration was also carried out. Specific adsorption capacity increased as sludge load increased, presenting linear correlation. The experiment results showed that adsorption should be taken into account in the study of the biological treatment process of wastewater.

  12. Sludge minimization using aerobic/anoxic treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Kalch, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate through a bench-scale study that using an aerobic/anoxic sequence to treat wastewater and biosolids could significantly reduce the production of biosolids (sludge). A bench-scale activated sludge reactor and anoxic digester were operated for approximately three months. The process train consisted of a completely-mixed aerobic reactor with wasting of biosolids to an anoxic digester for stabilization. The system was operated such that biomass produced in the aerobic activated sludge process was wasted to the anoxic digester; and biomass produced in the anoxic digester was wasted back to the activated sludge process. A synthetic wastewater consisting of bacto-peptone nutrient broth was fed to the liquid process train. Influent and effluent to the aerobic biological process train were analytically tested, as were the contents of mixed liquor in the aerobic reactor and anoxic digester. Overall removal efficiencies for the activated sludge process with regard to COD, TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, and alkalinity averaged 91, 89, 98, and 38%, respectively. The overall average sludge production for the aerobic/anoxic process was 24% less than the overall average sludge production from a conventional activated sludge bench-scale system fed the same substrate and operated under similar mean cell residence times.

  13. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions.

  14. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  15. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of dye wastes.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Yilmaz, T; Kayranli, B; Yuceer, A; Forster, C F

    2002-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of reactive, direct, disperse, acidic, and basic dyestuffs by coagulation and sorption has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and removed colour with excellent removal efficiencies being obtained for basic, disperse and direct dyes. The optimum conditions were a pH value of 5 and a sludge dose of 2000 mg l(-1). Mediocre results were obtained for acidic and reactive dyes. The efficiency of the sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the same group of dyes. The sludge was also used as a coagulant to treat the wastewater from a textile factory. At doses of 2000-4000 mg l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing COD. Sorption tests showed that the disperse and reactive dyes did not bind to the sludge. Langmuir and Freundlich constants were determined for the other three types of dye. Rate constants for the adsorption were determined using the Lagergren equation. PMID:11999996

  16. Recent development in the treatment of oily sludge from petroleum industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-10-15

    Oily sludge is one of the most significant solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. It is a complex emulsion of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), water, heavy metals, and solid particles. Due to its hazardous nature and increased generation quantities around the world, the effective treatment of oily sludge has attracted widespread attention. In this review, the origin, characteristics, and environmental impacts of oily sludge were introduced. Many methods have been investigated for dealing with PHCs in oily sludge either through oil recovery or sludge disposal, but little attention has been paid to handle its various heavy metals. These methods were discussed by dividing them into oil recovery and sludge disposal approaches. It was recognized that no single specific process can be considered as a panacea since each method is associated with different advantages and limitations. Future efforts should focus on the improvement of current technologies and the combination of oil recovery with sludge disposal in order to comply with both resource reuse recommendations and environmental regulations. The comprehensive examination of oily sludge treatment methods will help researchers and practitioners to have a good understanding of both recent developments and future research directions. PMID:23978722

  17. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  18. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China.

  19. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. PMID:23410857

  20. Use of alum water treatment sludge to stabilize C and immobilize P and metals in composts.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    Alum water treatment sludge is composed of amorphous hydroxyl-Al, which has variable charge surfaces with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (103 m(-2) g(-1)) capable of specific adsorption of organic matter molecules, phosphate, and heavy metals. The effects of adding dried, ground, alum water treatment sludge (10% w/w) to the feedstock for composting municipal green waste alone, green waste plus poultry manure, or green waste plus biosolids were determined. Addition of water treatment sludge reduced water soluble C, microbial biomass C, CO2 evolution, extractable P, and extractable heavy metals during composting. The decrease in CO2 evolution (i.e., C sequestration) was greatest for poultry manure and least for biosolid composts. The effects of addition of water treatment sludge to mature green waste-based poultry manure and biosolid composts were also determined in a 24-week incubation experiment. The composts were either incubated alone or after addition to a soil. Extractable P and heavy metal concentrations were decreased by additions of water treatment sludge in all treatments, and CO2 evolution was also reduced from the poultry manure compost over the first 16-18 weeks. However, for biosolid compost, addition of water treatment sludge increased microbial biomass C and CO2 evolution rate over the entire 24-week incubation period. This was attributed to the greatly reduced extractable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) present following addition of water treatment sludge, and thus increased microbial activity. It was concluded that addition of water treatment sludge reduces concentrations of extractable P and heavy metals in composts and that its effect on organic matter stabilization is much greater during the composting process than for mature compost because levels of easily decomposable organic matter are initially much higher in the feedstock than those in matured composts.

  1. Use of alum water treatment sludge to stabilize C and immobilize P and metals in composts.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-09-01

    Alum water treatment sludge is composed of amorphous hydroxyl-Al, which has variable charge surfaces with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (103 m(-2) g(-1)) capable of specific adsorption of organic matter molecules, phosphate, and heavy metals. The effects of adding dried, ground, alum water treatment sludge (10% w/w) to the feedstock for composting municipal green waste alone, green waste plus poultry manure, or green waste plus biosolids were determined. Addition of water treatment sludge reduced water soluble C, microbial biomass C, CO2 evolution, extractable P, and extractable heavy metals during composting. The decrease in CO2 evolution (i.e., C sequestration) was greatest for poultry manure and least for biosolid composts. The effects of addition of water treatment sludge to mature green waste-based poultry manure and biosolid composts were also determined in a 24-week incubation experiment. The composts were either incubated alone or after addition to a soil. Extractable P and heavy metal concentrations were decreased by additions of water treatment sludge in all treatments, and CO2 evolution was also reduced from the poultry manure compost over the first 16-18 weeks. However, for biosolid compost, addition of water treatment sludge increased microbial biomass C and CO2 evolution rate over the entire 24-week incubation period. This was attributed to the greatly reduced extractable heavy metal concentrations (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) present following addition of water treatment sludge, and thus increased microbial activity. It was concluded that addition of water treatment sludge reduces concentrations of extractable P and heavy metals in composts and that its effect on organic matter stabilization is much greater during the composting process than for mature compost because levels of easily decomposable organic matter are initially much higher in the feedstock than those in matured composts. PMID:25948380

  2. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  3. Biodegradation of 14C-dicofol in wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jaime L da M; Silva, Denise P; Martins, Edir M; Langenbach, Tomaz; Dezotti, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Organic micropollutants are often found in domestic and industrial effluents. Thus, it is important to learn their fate, the metabolites generated and their sorption during biological treatment processes. This work investigated the biodegradation of 14C-dicofol organochloride during wastewater aerobic treatment and sludge anaerobic biodigestion. The performance of these processes was evaluated by physical-chemical parameters. Radioactivity levels were monitored in both treatments, and residues of dicofol (DCF) and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were quantified by HPLC/UV. The efficiency of the aerobic and anaerobic processes was slightly reduced in the presence of DCF and DBP. After aerobic treatment, only 0.1% of DCF was mineralized, and 57% of radioactivity remained sorbed on biological sludge as DBP. After 18 days of anaerobiosis, only 3% of DCF and 5% of DBP were detected in the sludge. However, 70% of radioactivity remained in the sludge, probably as other metabolites. Dicofol was biodegraded in the investigated process, but not mineralized. PMID:22629645

  4. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  5. Sludge Conditioning. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    This lesson is an introduction to sludge conditioning. Topics covered include a brief explanation of colloidal systems, theory of chemical and heat conditioning, and conditioning aids. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a description of the lesson, estimated presentation time,…

  6. Energy recovery from secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge and sewage sludge with supercritical water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale

    2010-04-01

    Secondary pulp/paper-mill sludge (SPP) and sewage sludges (primary, secondary, and digested sewage sludges) were treated in supercritical water at temperatures ranging between 400 degrees Celsius and 550 degrees Celsius over 20-120 min for energy recovery. Low temperature and short reaction time favored the formation of heavy oil (HO) products, which were mainly composed of a variety of phenol and phenolic compounds, as well as some nitrogen-containing compounds, long-chain alkenes and alcohols, etc., with high gross calorific values (>36 MJ/kg). By contrast, the formation of synthetic gases, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and other light hydrocarbons, were not significantly affected by reaction time but greatly enhanced with increasing temperature. The highest gas yield was obtained at 550 degrees Celsius, where 37.7 wt.% of the SPP (on dry basis) was converted into gases, with hydrogen yields as high as 14.5 mol H(2)/kg SPP (on a dry basis). In comparison to sewage sludges, SPP exhibited a greater capability for the production of HO and gases owing to its higher contents of volatiles and alkali metals, indicating a prospective utilization potential for SPP as a source of bio-energy.

  7. Sludge Incineration. Multiple Hearth. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson introduces the basics of sludge incineration and focuses on the multiple hearth furnace in accomplishing this task. Attention is given to component identification and function process control fundamentals, theory of incineration, safety, and other responsibilites of furnace operation. The material is rather technical and assumes an…

  8. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  9. A modified anaerobic digestion process with chemical sludge pre-treatment and its modelling.

    PubMed

    Hai, N M; Sakamoto, S; Le, V C; Kim, H S; Goel, R; Terashima, M; Yasui, H

    2014-01-01

    Activated Sludge Models (ASMs) assume an unbiodegradable organic particulate fraction in the activated sludge, which is derived from the decay of active microorganisms in the sludge and/or introduced from wastewater. In this study, a seasonal change of such activated sludge constituents in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was monitored for 1.5 years. The chemical oxygen demand ratio of the unbiodegradable particulates to the sludge showed a sinusoidal pattern ranging from 40 to 65% along with the change of water temperature in the plant that affected the decay rate. The biogas production in a laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) process was also affected by the unbiodegradable fraction in the activated sludge fed. Based on the results a chemical pre-treatment using H2O2 was conducted on the digestate to convert the unbiodegradable fraction to a biodegradable one. Once the pre-treated digestate was returned to the digester, the methane conversion increased up to 80% which was about 2.4 times as much as that of the conventional AD process, whilst 96% of volatile solids in the activated sludge was digested. From the experiment, the additional route of the organic conversion processes for the inert fraction at the pre-treatment stage was modelled on the ASM platform with reasonable simulation accuracy.

  10. Ferric coagulant recovered from coagulation sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, N; Li, G B

    2009-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of ferric coagulant recovery from chemical sludge and its recycle in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) to make the process more cost-effective, as well as reduce sludge volume. The optimum conditions and efficiency of the acidification for ferric coagulant recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated. Experimental results showed that the recovered coagulants can be used in CEPT and the pollutants removal efficiency is similar to that of fresh coagulant, and for some aspects the effect of recovered coagulants is better than that of fresh ones, such as turbidity removal. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on treated wastewater quality. Acidification condition also had significant influence on reduction of sludge volume. The efficiency of coagulant recovery had a linear relationship with sludge reduction. Experiments verify that it would be a sustainable and cost-effective way to recover ferric coagulant from coagulation sludge in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and then recycle it to CEPT, as well as reduce sludge volume.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of sludge from a nitrification-denitrification landfill leachate plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E. . E-mail: emara@uniovi.es; Castrillon, L.; Fernandez, Y.; Fernandez, E.

    2006-07-01

    The viability of anaerobic digestion of sludge from a MSW landfill leachate treatment plant, with COD values ranging between 15,000 and 19,400 mg O{sub 2} dm{sup -3}, in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. The reactor employed had a useful capacity of 9 l, operating at mesophilic temperature. Start-up of the reactor was carried out in different steps, beginning with diluted sludge and progressively increasing the amount of sludge fed into the reactor. The study was carried out over a period of 7 months. Different amounts of methanol were added to the feed, ranging between 6.75 and 1 cm{sup 3} dm{sup -3} of feed in order to favour the growth of methanogenic flora. The achieved biodegradation of the sludge using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket Reactor was very high for an HRT of 9 days, obtaining decreases in COD of 84-87% by the end of the process. Purging of the digested sludge represented {approx}16% of the volume of the treated sludge.

  12. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  13. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-05-24

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers.

  14. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate

  15. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate

  16. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    SciTech Connect

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  17. Long term in-line sludge storage in wastewater treatment plants: the potential for phosphorus release.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Erik; Eikum, Arild Schanke; Krogstad, Tore

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment plants is normally obtained by chemical precipitation. Aluminium-based chemicals are the favoured coagulants as they are not affected by redox potential. On-site wastewater treatment package plants do not have separate sludge treatment facilities, and sludge is normally collected on an annual basis. This can potentially increase the risk of phosphorus release into the water phase, subsequently reducing treatment efficiency. This study aimed to detect release of phosphorus as a result of chemical and biological processes. Variables in the study were time, aluminium dosage and pH. Wastewater sludge was monitored for 46 weeks to investigate the different mechanisms of phosphorus release and the longevity of the aluminium treatment involving varying aluminium dosages. Phosphorus compounds were analysed based on a modified Psenner sequential fractionation method. Both pH and aluminium dosage affect the longevity of the phosphorus retention of chemically precipitated wastewater sludge, where sufficient longevity is obtained with pH control and increased aluminium dosages. Chemical dosages similar to what is considered normal levels are sufficient to retain the phosphorus in the sludge for annual sludge collection intervals. Release of soluble phosphorus was attributed to microbial activity and crystallization of Al-hydroxide complexes. PMID:23437673

  18. Electrodialytic treatment for metal removal from sewage sludge ash from fluidized bed combustion.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M; Kirkelund, G M; Ottosen, L M

    2010-04-15

    Sewage sludge contains several potentially hazardous compounds such as heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, etc. However, elements with high agricultural value (P, K or Ca) are also present. During the last years, the fluidized bed sludge combustor (FBSC) is considered an effective and novel alternative to treat sewage sludge. By its use, the high amount of sludge is reduced to a small quantity of ash and thermal destruction of toxic organic constituents is obtained. Conversely, heavy metals are retained in the ash. In this work the possibility for electrodialytic metal removal for sewage sludge ash from FBSC was studied. A detailed characterization of the sewage sludge ash was done initially, determining that, with the exception of Cd, the other heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) were under the limiting levels of Danish legislation for the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. After 14 days of electrodialytic treatment, the Cd concentration was reduced to values below the limiting concentration. In all experiments the concentrations of other metals were under limiting values of the Danish legislation. It can be concluded that the electrodialytic treatment is an adequate alternative to reduce the Cd concentration in FBSC ash prior to use as fertilizer. PMID:20034740

  19. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Activated-sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

  4. Anaerobic treatment of sludge: focusing on reduction of LAS concentration in sludge.

    PubMed

    Haggensen, F; Mogensen, A S; Angelidaki, I; Ahring, B K

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) was tested in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). LAS12 was used as a model compound and was spiked on sewage sludge. The experiments clearly showed that transformation of LAS12 occurred under anaerobic conditions. The degree oftransformation varied between 14% and 25%. HPLC analysis showed that disappearance of LAS12 was followed by the formation of a metabolite. The experiments indicated that there is a clear correlation between degradation of organic matter contained in sludge and transformation of LAS 12. When the reduction degree of the organic matter increased from 22% to 28%, the transformation degree of LAS12 also increased, from 14% to 20%. Decreasing the total solids concentration of the influent sludge or increasing the spiked concentration of LAS12 did not alter the degree of LAS12 transformation significantly. A clear correlation between transformed and bioavailable LAS12 was found, indicating that it is merely the bioavailable fraction of LAS12 that is transformed by anaerobic digestion. The results from the present study are promising and indicate that a great potential for biological degradation of LAS is possible even at anaerobic conditions.

  5. Optimization of co-digestion of various industrial sludges for biogas production and sludge treatment: methane production potential experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Mahanty, Biswanath; Zafar, Mohd; Han, Man Jae; Park, Hung-Suck

    2014-06-01

    Optimal biogas production and sludge treatment were studied by co-digestion experiments and modeling using five different wastewater sludges generated from paper, chemical, petrochemical, automobile, and food processing industries situated in Ulsan Industrial Complex, Ulsan, South Korea. The biomethane production potential test was conducted in simplex-centroid mixture design, fitted to regression equation, and some optimal co-digestion scenarios were given by combined desirability function based multi-objective optimization technique for both methane yield and the quantity of sludge digested. The co-digestion model incorporating main and interaction effects among sludges were utilized to predict the maximum possible methane yield. The optimization routine for methane production with different industrial sludges in batches were repeated with the left-over sludge of earlier cycle, till all sludges have been completely treated. Among the possible scenarios, a maximum methane yield of 1161.53 m(3) is anticipated in three batches followed by 1130.33 m(3) and 1045.65 m(3) in five and two batches, respectively. This study shows a scientific approach to find a practical solution to utilize diverse industrial sludges in both treatment and biogas production perspectives.

  6. Rheology Measurements for Online Monitoring of Solids in Activated Sludge Reactors of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Papo, Adriano; Goi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Rheological behaviour of recycled sludge from a secondary clarifier of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was studied by using the rate controlled coaxial cylinder viscometer Rotovisko-Haake 20, system M5-osc., measuring device NV. The tests (hysteresis cycles) were performed under continuous flow conditions and following an ad hoc measurement protocol. Sludge shear stress versus shear rate curves were fitted very satisfactorily by rheological models. An experimental equation correlating the solid concentration of sludge to relative viscosity and fitting satisfactorily flow curves at different Total Suspended Solids (TTS%) was obtained. Application of the empirical correlation should allow the monitoring of the proper functioning of a wastewater treatment plant measuring viscosity of sludge. PMID:24550715

  7. A study on sludge minimization during the treatment of pickling effluent.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anupam; Tewari, V K; Prakash, Satya

    2006-04-01

    In pickling industries, a lot of sludge is generated during the treatment of pickling effluent and there is severe problem of its disposal. Disposal of this sludge as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 is not easy. Its transportation and construction of lined disposal sites pose very severe problems. In the normal practice, the sludge is being disposed of at the sides of roads and railway tracks to fill low lying areas. This may cause serious health hazards. Considering these problems, a study has been undertaken to minimize the sludge generation during the treatment of pickling effluent by neutralizing it with lime, sodium hydroxide and combination of both. An attempt has been made to do an economic evaluation of the above process. PMID:17913186

  8. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  9. Development of granular sludge for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Muda, Khalida; Aris, Azmi; Salim, Mohd Razman; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Yahya, Adibah; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Ahmad, Azlan; Nawahwi, Mohd Zaini

    2010-08-01

    Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.

  10. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  11. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E

    2016-07-15

    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. PMID:27107391

  12. Influence of the organic compounds on the ecotoxicity in the treatment of foundry sludge and olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Coz, Alberto; Mantzavinos, Dionisis; Karageorgos, Petros; Kalogerakis, Nikolas; Andrés, Ana; Viguri, Javier R; Irabien, Angel

    2006-01-01

    The study of the ecotoxicity in two industrial waste materials and the relationships with the organic parameters has been conducted. Foundry sludge and olive mill waste have been used as industrial waste materials with organic or mixed character. Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) and advanced oxidation (AOP) processes have been carried out in order to treat both foundry sludge and olive mill waste. Analysis of ecotoxicity, total organic carbon, COD and phenol index have been evaluated in the untreated waste and end-products. The results of the treated samples allow obtaining the best formulations in both processes. The best formulations in the immobilisation process have been obtained with Portland cement and black carbon, activated carbon or foundry sand ashes. In the AOP process, ozone concentrations above 35 mg/l and reaction times equal to 120 minutes have been the optimal variables. The relationships between the organic parameters and the ecotoxicity of the samples have been studied in this paper. Furthermore, the global organic parameters have been studied in relation to the phenolic compounds. Lineal and logarithmic expressions have been obtained between the total organic carbon and phenol index and the ecotoxicity of the samples related to the organic parameters, respectively. Ecotoxicity of the samples with Vibrio fischeri is recommended as a very promising biotest for the study of the characterisation and the evaluation of the treatment of organic and mixed character waste and total organic carbon is recommended as global organic parameter in the treatment of foundry sludge. PMID:17172203

  13. Aerobic granular sludge formation for high strength agro-based wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Ujang, Zaini; Yahya, Adibah

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment. PMID:21524907

  14. Petroleum refinery stripped sour water treatment using the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Rion; Gerhardt, Matthew B; Burlingham, Fran; De Las Casas, Carla; Gill, Everett; Flippin, T Houston

    2011-11-01

    A pilot study was performed over 91 days to determine if the activated sludge process could treat a segregated stripped sour water (SSW) stream from a petroleum refinery. The study was performed in two periods. The first period was terminated after 19 days, as a result of excessive sludge bulking. The elimination of sludge bulking during the 70-day second period is attributed to operational changes, which included aerating the influent to oxidize reduced sulfur, adjusting the influent pH, and adding micronutrients to satisfy biological requirements. The pilot plant provided a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of up to 93%. Nitrification was achieved, with effluent ammonia values < 1 mg-N/L. These results indicate that direct treatment of SSW with the activated sludge process is possible and has direct application to full-scale petroleum refinery wastewater plant upgrades.

  15. Effect of water treatment sludge on growth and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, H.A.; Singer, L.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The impact of a water treatment sludge on the fertility of a silt loam soil was assessed by monitoring the yield and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots in a greenhouse study. Application of sludge at rates from 2-10% (air dry weight basis) raised the soil pH from 5.3 to 8.0 which enhanced plant growth. A substantial reduction in metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) uptake was observed with sludge amendments, even at the highest rates. The alkaline nature of this sludge (pH=9.3, calcium carbonate equivalence=53%) suggest its potential use as a liming material for agricultural soils. Overly alkaline conditions should be avoided however, as high application rates combined with ammonia fertilization had an antagonistic effect on plant growth, possibly from P deficiency induced by struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}) formation.

  16. Effects of microwave, ultrasonic and enzymatic treatment on chemical and physical properties of waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wei G; Lo, Kwang V; Mavinic, Donald S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation, microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP), ultrasonic and/or protease enzymatic treatments on chemical and physical properties of waste-activated sludge were studied. The different treatment mechanisms resulted in various degrees of biomass cell destruction and nutrient release, as evidenced by transformation of chemical constituents, particle size distribution, and scanning electron microscopic imaging. The microwave irradiation and the MW/H2O2-AOP resulted in higher soluble protein concentrations, but lower amino acids. High concentrations of soluble polysaccharide and deoxyribonucleic acid were also obtained in solution. The particle size distribution profile, after treatments, remained similar to that of waste-activated sludge; however, the distribution shifted toward smaller particle sizes. Ultrasonic treatment resulted in a high concentration of amino acids and overall protein disintegration/hydrolysis. Protease enzymatic treatment, after ultrasonic disintegration, further enhanced protein degradation. The particle size distribution profile for ultrasonic treatment was altered to a further nonuniform distribution. The ultrasonic plus protease treatment yielded the best results, in terms of cell wall destruction.

  17. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  18. Image analysis of sludge aggregates obtained at preliminary treatment of sewage.

    PubMed

    Smoczyński, L; Ratnaweera, H; Kosobucka, M; Kvaal, K; Smoczyński, M

    2014-01-01

    The results of wastewater treatment by Al and Fe salts and by electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes are discussed and interpreted. Those processes used alone or combined with biological treatment, were analyzed for 50 and 90% removal of phosphates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the resulting sludge from three coagulation processes defined the perimeter P and area A of 129-142 differently sized objects in each contrast-enhanced image. Plots of lg A against lg P revealed that the analyzed sludge samples were made of self-similar aggregates-flocs with fractal characteristics. The slope of 'log plots' was used to determine surface fractal dimension Da, which was extrapolated to volumetric fractal dimension Dv. Dv was applied in a quantitative description of sludge aggregates-flocs. Aggregates-flocs of sludge obtained by Al ions (pre-polymerized Al and electrocoagulation) were characterized by higher values of Dv in comparison with sludge obtained by iron salts. The structure of {Al(OH)(3)} and {Fe(OH)(3)} aggregate-flocs was graphically simulated to determine the effect of size distribution and Dv on sweep flocculation and sludge separation and dehydration. Phosphate removal efficiency of 50% occurred at low ratios of Al:P and Fe:P. Adsorption-charge neutralization was suggested during coagulation with pre-polymerized coagulants, and sweep flow mechanism during electrocoagulation. PMID:25259494

  19. Engineering properties of water/wastewater-treatment sludge modified by hydrated lime, fly ash and loess.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungjin; Jeon, Wangi; Lee, Jaebok; Lee, Kwanho; Kim, Namho

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to present engineering properties of modified sludge from water/wastewater treatment by modifiers such as hydrated lime, loess, and fly ash. The proper mixing ratio was determined to hold the pH of the modified sludge above 12.0 for 2 h. Laboratory tests carried out in this research included particle analysis, compaction and CBR, SEM and X-ray diffraction, unconfined compression test, permeability test, and TCLP test. The main role of lime was to sterilize microorganisms in the sludge. The unconfined strength of the modified sludge by fly ash and loess satisfied the criteria for construction materials, which was above 100 kPa. The permeability of all the mixtures was around 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/s. Extraction tests for hazardous components in modified sludge revealed below the regulated criteria, especially for cadmium, copper, and lead. The present study suggested that the use of lime, fly ash, and loess be an another alternative to modify or stabilize water/wastewater treatment sludge as construction materials in civil engineering. PMID:12420922

  20. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge.

  1. Engineering properties of water/wastewater-treatment sludge modified by hydrated lime, fly ash and loess.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungjin; Jeon, Wangi; Lee, Jaebok; Lee, Kwanho; Kim, Namho

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to present engineering properties of modified sludge from water/wastewater treatment by modifiers such as hydrated lime, loess, and fly ash. The proper mixing ratio was determined to hold the pH of the modified sludge above 12.0 for 2 h. Laboratory tests carried out in this research included particle analysis, compaction and CBR, SEM and X-ray diffraction, unconfined compression test, permeability test, and TCLP test. The main role of lime was to sterilize microorganisms in the sludge. The unconfined strength of the modified sludge by fly ash and loess satisfied the criteria for construction materials, which was above 100 kPa. The permeability of all the mixtures was around 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/s. Extraction tests for hazardous components in modified sludge revealed below the regulated criteria, especially for cadmium, copper, and lead. The present study suggested that the use of lime, fly ash, and loess be an another alternative to modify or stabilize water/wastewater treatment sludge as construction materials in civil engineering.

  2. Surgical treatment of advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hussussian, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Primary surgical treatment should be considered for patients with metastatic melanoma. Because of the poor response of melanoma to chemotherapy or radiation therapy, surgery can be the best approach to quickly eliminate detectable disease and return the patient to normal activities. In properly selected patients, surgery can lead to significant palliation and prolongation of survival. This article reviews the principles of patient selection and the potential benefits of surgical management of melanoma metastatic to various sites. Novel adjuvant therapies are being developed to augment the benefits of surgical treatment of advanced melanoma in the future.

  3. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  4. [Performance and Factors Analysis of Sludge Dewatering in Different Wastewater Treatment Processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Li, Ya-ming; Lü, Jian; Wei, Yuan-song; Yang, Min; Yu, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Sludge dewatering is one of the keys for sludge disposal and treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the sludge dewaterability, flocculant consumption and costs of sludge dewatering for different wastewater treatment processes including A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes were analyzed, as well as the factors of sludge dewatering were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA) method, based on the data of one municipal wastewater treatment plant of Beijing in 2013. Results showed that both sludge dewaterability and flocculant consumption presented the seasonal variation, which means sludge dewatering was harder and coupled with higher flocculant consumption in the winter. Although the lower moisture content of dewatered sludge was obtained in the A2/O-MBR process (81.92% ± 1.64% ) compared with that in the A2/O process (82.56% ± 1.35%), the consumptions of flocculant [ (8.70 ± 7.25) kg x t(-1) DS] and electric energy (331.82 kW x h x t(-1) DS) in the A2/O-MBR process were higher than those in the A2/O process [(7.42 ± 2.96) kg x t(-1) DS, 121.57 kW x h x t(-1) DS for flocculant consumption and electric energy respectively], resulting in higher operation costs (RMB 204.76 yuan x t(-1) DS of flocculant consumption and RMB 231.61 yuan x t(-1) DS of energy consumption for the A2/O-MBR, RMB 175.00 yuan x t(-1) DS of flocculant consumption and RMB 84.86 yuan x t(-1) DS of energy consumption for the A2/O, respectively). Results of RDA showed that the seasonal variation of sludge dewaterability mainly depended on the content of organic matter in sludge which was related to the seasonal factors such as temperature, and was also impacted by the operating parameters such as SRT in wastewater treatment.

  5. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment of supernatant of cow manure by thermal pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Y; Nishii, A; Nishimoto, M; Yamada, N; Suzuki, T

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) methane fermentation treatment of cow manure that was subjected to screw pressing, thermal treatment and subsequent solid-liquid separation was studied. Conducting batch scale tests at temperatures between 140 and 180 degrees C, the optimal temperature for sludge settling and the color suppression was found to be between 160-170 degrees C. UASB treatment was carried out with a supernatant obtained from the thermal treatment at the optimal conditions (170 degrees C for 30 minutes) and polymer-dosed solid-liquid separation. In the UASB treatment with a COD(Cr) loading of 11.7 kg/m3/d and water temperature of 32.2 degrees C, the COD(Cr) level dropped from 16,360 mg/L in raw water to 3,940 mg/L in treated water (COD(Cr), removal rate of 75.9%), and the methane production rate per COD(Cr) was 0.187 Nm3/kg. Using wastewater thermal-treated at the optimal conditions, also a methane fermentation treatment with a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was conducted (COD(Cr) in raw water: 38,000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT): 20 days, 35 degrees C). At the COD(Cr) loading of 1.9 kg/m3/d, the methane production rate per COD(Cr), was 0.153 Nm3/kg. This result shows that UASB treatment using thermal pre-treatment provides a COD(Cr), loading of four times or more and a methane production rate of 1.3 times higher than the CSTR treatment.

  6. Psychoactive pharmaceuticals in sludge and their emission from wastewater treatment facilities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-01-01

    Concern over the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in the environment is mounting due to the potential adverse effects on nontarget organisms. This study draws upon a nationwide survey of psychoactive pharmaceuticals (i.e., antischizophrenics, anxiolytics, and antidepressants) in sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic, industrial, or mixed (domestic plus industrial) wastewaters in Korea. A total of 16 psychoactive pharmaceuticals (0.12-460 ng/g dry weight) and nine of their metabolites (0.97-276 ng/g dry weight) were determined in sludge. The median concentrations of psychoactive drugs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 1.2-3.2 times higher than the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the psychoactive drugs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of alprazolam (APZ) and carbamazepine (CBZ) through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be ≥ 15.5 μg/capita/day, followed by quetiapine (QTP; 8.51 μg/capita/day), citalopram (CLP; 5.45 μg/capita/day), and venlafaxine (VLF; 3.59 μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of some of the metabolites of psychoactive drugs through WWTP discharges were higher than those calculated for parent compounds. Significant correlations (ρ = 0.432-0.780, p < 0.05) were found between the concentrations of typically coprescribed antischizophrenics and antidepressants in sludge. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of drugs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, composition of wastewater (domestic versus industrial), and hydraulic retention time can affect the concentrations of psychoactive drugs in sludge.

  7. Adsorption of textile reactive dyestuffs by treatment sludges of inorganic nature.

    PubMed

    Tünay, Olcay; Metin, Emine; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Kabdaşli, Işik

    2012-01-01

    Colour removal from industrial effluents, particularly from the textile industry, has become an important requirement as the adverse effects ofdyestuffs, such as toxicity, on the environment have been proven. Adsorption is a commonly used treatment method for colour removal. Although activated carbon is very effective for this purpose, a number of natural materials and waste materials, such as waste sludges generated from treatment systems, have been tested to reduce the cost of the process. In this paper, sludges arising from the operation of an electrocoagulation process that used stainless steel or aluminium electrodes were investigated as adsorbents for decolorization of reactive dyestuffs. Electrocoagulation waste sludges produced with the use of stainless steel electrodes provided higher than 90% or complete decolorization of Crimson HEXL, Yellow HE4R and RB5 dyestuffs. The sludge produced with aluminium electrodes yielded colour adsorption between 95% and 100% at a 1 g/L dose and pH 8.5-9.1 for two of the dyestuffs; the removal of RB5 did not exceed 60% up to a 4.76 g/L dose. FeCl3 coagulation and adsorption using freshly precipitated coagulation sludge resulted in poor colour removals of 10% for all three dyestuffs. The superior colour adsorption performance of electrocoagulation waste sludges was attributed to modification of the surface properties of the sludges during the electrocoagulation operation. A batch-wise kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of RB5 on to electrocoagulation waste sludges was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting the intra-particle diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process.

  8. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2101 - Advanced treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advanced treatment. 35.2101 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2101 Advanced treatment. Projects proposing advanced treatment shall be awarded grant assistance only after the project has...

  13. Identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors (Blrs) with anaerobic granular sludge and residual activated sludge for brewery wastewater treatment and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu; Huang, Zhenxing; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-10-01

    Two identical full-scale biogas-lift reactors treating brewery wastewater were inoculated with different types of sludge to compare their operational conditions, sludge characteristics, and kinetic models at a mesophilic temperature. One reactor (R1) started up with anaerobic granular sludge in 12 weeks and obtained a continuously average organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.4 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 80%, and effluent COD of 450 mg/L. The other reactor (R2) started up with residual activated sludge in 30 weeks and granulation accomplished when the reactor reached an average OLR of 8.3 kg COD/(m3 x day), COD removal efficiency of 90%, and effluent COD of 240 mg/L. Differences in sludge characteristics, biogas compositions, and biogas-lift processes may be accounted for the superior efficiency of the treatment performance of R2 over R1. Grau second-order and modified StoverKincannon models based on influent and effluent concentrations as well as hydraulic retention time were successfully used to develop kinetic parameters of the experimental data with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.95), which further showed that R2 had higher treatment performance than R1. These results demonstrated that residual activated sludge could be used effectively instead of anaerobic granular sludge despite the need for a longer time.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-26

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility`s (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid.

  15. Atomized sludges via spray-drying at low temperatures: an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Joan A; Cremades, Lázaro V

    2012-08-30

    Removal of sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) represents a serious worldwide environmental problem for which alternatives other than their simple incineration are investigated. In this work the treatment of raw sludge from urban WWTP by means of a minimization process through spray-drying is analyzed as well as some proposals for revaluating the resulting dry product. Analysis is supported by some experimental results obtained with a laboratory spray dryer. The experimental procedure at laboratory scale is extrapolated to an industrial plant scale. An economic analysis of the proposal in relation to other possible sludge treatments is presented, taking into account in this case the comparison between the costs of the processes of sludge thickening, stabilization and dehydratation and the costs of spray-drying (especially power consumption), minimization of the final waste and reuse options. Finally, an environmental balance of the process is presented. In contrast with the classical treatment line, this alternative allows transforming sludges, i.e., a waste, into a valuable product with several applications. PMID:22525834

  16. Overview of current biological and thermo-chemical treatment technologies for sustainable sludge management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linghong; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Champagne, Pascale; Mabee, Warren

    2014-07-01

    Sludge is a semi-solid residue produced from wastewater treatment processes. It contains biodegradable and recalcitrant organic compounds, as well as pathogens, heavy metals, and other inorganic constituents. Sludge can also be considered a source of nutrients and energy, which could be recovered using economically viable approaches. In the present paper, several commonly used sludge treatment processes including land application, composting, landfilling, anaerobic digestion, and combustion are reviewed, along with their potentials for energy and product recovery. In addition, some innovative thermo-chemical techniques in pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, and wet oxidation are briefly introduced. Finally, a brief summary of selected published works on the life cycle assessment of a variety of sludge treatment and end-use scenarios is presented in order to better understand the overall energy balance and environmental burdens associated with each sludge treatment pathway. In all scenarios investigated, the reuse of bioenergy and by-products has been shown to be of crucial importance in enhancing the overall energy efficiency and reducing the carbon footprint. PMID:24980032

  17. Removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in activated sludge treatment works.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A C; Sumpter, J P

    2001-12-15

    The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals into the aquatic environment has raised the awareness of the central role played by sewage treatment in lowland water quality. This review focuses on the activated sludge process, which is commonly used to treat sewage in large towns and cities and which successfully removes the bulk of the organic compounds that enter the works. However, not all compounds are completely broken down or converted to biomass. For example, the estrogenic alkylphenols and steroid estrogens found in effluent are the breakdown products of incomplete breakdown of their respective parent compounds. Batch microcosm studies have indicated that estrone, ethinylestradiol, and alkylphenols will not be completely eliminated in activated sludge over typical treatment times. Field data suggest that the activated sludge treatment process can consistently remove over 85% of estradiol, estriol, and ethinylestradiol. The removal performance for estrone appears to be less and is more variable. Because of its relatively high hydrophobicity, the accumulation of alkylphenol in sludge has been observed. Although it has not been examined, accumulation of ethinylestradiol in sludge is a possibility due to its recalcitrance and hydrophobicity. A comparison between the concentrations of some of the major endocrine-active chemicals in effluents and their biological potencies has been made, to direct attention to the chemicals of most concern. While water purification techniques such as UV or activated charcoal could significantly remove these microorganic contaminants, the high costs involved suggest that research into the potential for treatment optimization should receive more attention. PMID:11775141

  18. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined.

  19. Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

  20. Bioavailable and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen in activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was carried out to understand the fate of biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) and bioavailable dissolved organic nitrogen (ABDON) along the treatment trains of a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) equipped with an activated sludge (AS) system and a WWTF equipped with a two-stag...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636 Section 721.10636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater...

  3. Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the combination of ultrasonic and thermal treatment of sewage sludge (SS). The combination involved ultrasonicating a fraction of the sludge and thermal treatment at various temperatures and this resulted in solubilization of proteins and carbohydrates, and so contributing to increased COD solubilization. During the treatment, SCOD, soluble proteins and carbohydrates increased from 760 mg L(-1) to 10,200 mg L(-1), 110 mg L(-1) to 2,900 mg L(-1) and 60 mg L(-1) to 630 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found ultrasonication of only a fraction of the sludge (>20%) followed by thermal treatment led to significant improvement compared to thermal and ULS treatments applied on their own. At 65°C, the kinetic of solubilization was improved and the hyper-thermophilic treatment time could be reduced to a few hours when ultrasonication was used first. A linear correlation (R(2) = 95%) was found between the SCOD obtained after ultrasonication pre-treatment and anaerobic biodegradability. The combined treatment resulted in 20% increase in biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of the pre-treated sludge.

  4. Engineering evaluation of neutralization and precipitation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1998-08-25

    Engineering evaluations have been performed to determine likely unit operations and methods required to support the removal, storage, treatment and disposal of solids/sludges present in the K Basins at the Hanford Site. This evaluation was initiated to select a neutralization process for dissolver product solution resulting from nitric acid treatment of about 50 m{sup 3} of Hanford Site K Basins sludge. Neutralization is required to meet Tank Waste Remediation Waste System acceptance criteria for storage of the waste in the double shell tanks after neutralization, the supernate and precipitate will be transferred to the high level waste storage tanks in 200E Area. Non transuranic (TRU) solids residue will be transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This report presents an overview of neutralization and precipitation methods previously used and tested. This report also recommends a neutralization process to be used as part of the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project and identifies additional operations requiring further evaluation.

  5. Characteristics of PAHs adsorption on inorganic particles and activated sludge in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, J J; Wang, X C; Fan, B

    2011-05-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated in a 1 year period. In order to understand how PAHs were removed at different stages of the treatment process, adsorption experiments were conducted using quartz sand, kaolinite, and natural clay as inorganic adsorbents and activated sludge as organic adsorbent for adsorbing naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. As a result, the adsorption of PAHs by the inorganic adsorbents well followed the Langmuir isotherm while that by the activated sludge well followed the Freundlich isotherm. By bridging equilibrium partitioning coefficient with the parameters of adsorption isotherm, a set of mathematical models were developed. Under an assumption that in the primary settler PAHs removal was by adsorption onto inorganic particles and in the biological treatment unit it was by adsorption onto activated sludge, the model calculation results fairly reflected the practical condition in the WWTP.

  6. The migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jun; Yuan, Xing-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Various hydrothermal treatment methods, including hydrothermal carbonization, liquefaction and sub/super-critical water gasification, have been applied to the disposal of sewage sludge for producing bio-materials or bio-fuels. It has become a research hotspot whether the heavy metals contained in sewage sludge can be well treated/stabilized after the hydrothermal treatments. This review firstly summarized the methods of assessing heavy metals' contamination level/risk and then discussed the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals from the following aspects: the effect of reaction temperature, the effect of additives (catalysts and other biomass), the effect of the type of solvent and the effect of reaction time. This review can provide an important reference for the further study of the migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge. PMID:26577578

  7. Sludge valorization from wastewater treatment plant to its application on the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, C; Eliche-Quesada, D; Pérez-Villarejo, L; Iglesias-Godino, F J; Corpas-Iglesias, F A

    2012-03-01

    The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of incorporating waste sludge on the properties and microstructure of clay used for bricks manufacturing. Wastewater treatment plants produce annually a great volume of sludge. Replacing clay in a ceramic body with different proportions of sludge can reduce the cost due to the utilization of waste and, at the same time, it can help to solve an environmental problem. Compositions were prepared with additions of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% wt% waste sludge in body clay. In order to determine the technological properties, such as bulk density, linear shrinkage, water suction, water absorption and compressive strength, press-moulded bodies were fired at 950 °C for coherently bonding particles in order to enhance the strength and the other engineering properties of the compacted particles. Thermal heating destroys organic remainder and stabilizes inorganic materials and metals by incorporating oxides from the elemental constituent into a ceramic-like material. Results have shown that incorporating up to 5 wt% of sludge is beneficial for clay bricks. By contrast, the incorporation of sludge amounts over 5 wt% causes deterioration on the mechanical properties, therefore producing low-quality bricks.

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Xiao, Ke; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were nominated as persistent organic pollutants candidate in the Stockholm Convention in 2011. In this study, the profiles, concentrations and spatial distributions of PCNs were analyzed in 30 sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Concentrations of Σ75PCNs in sludge samples were in the range of 1.05-10.9 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 3.98 ng/g dw. The predominant homologues in the sludge were mono- to tetra-CNs, accounting for approximately 85% of total PCNs. The total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of dioxin-like PCN congeners ranged from 0.04 to 2.28 pg/g dw with a mean value of 0.36 pg/g dw, which were lower than the maximum permissible TEQ concentrations in sludge for land application in China. Levels of PCNs and TEQs in sludge were relatively higher in samples from highly industrialized and developed cities in eastern China, implying a possible link between PCN contamination and the local economic development, but more studies are warranted to corroborate this. Industrial sources might be important contributors of PCNs to sewage sludge in China. PMID:24880545

  9. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated.

  10. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  11. Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

  12. Analysis of metals and EOX in sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    PubMed

    Goi, Daniele; Tubaro, Franco; Dolcetti, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring of extractable organic halogen (EOX) and heavy metal contents in sludge coming from 10 different municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTP) located in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) is reported. In this work, sludge samples drawn from sludge treatment units have been digested and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metal evaluation. Samples were also extracted and analyzed by microcoulometric titrations, following modified DIN 38414 T17 standard, for EOX analysis. Analytical results showed a slight enrichment of the contents of certain metals (Cd< 2mg/kg, Cr< 51.5mg/kg, Cu<105.8 mg/kg, Hg<1.4 mg/kg, Ni<35.9 mg/kg, Pb<58.7 mg/kg, Zn<410.1 mg/kg, Ba<317.1 mg/kg, Co<1 mg/kg, Mo< 5 mg/kg, Mn<106.7 mg/kg), so almost all of the sludge would be suitable for agricultural use following Italian and European regulations. The evaluation of EOX was carried out by using hexane and ethyl acetate as extraction solvents, and a measurable organic halogen content (ranging from 0.31 to 39.5 mg Cl/kg DM) was clearly detected in the sludge. The lowest concentrations of EOX were found in sludge coming from the smallest MWWTPs, which is to be considered more suitable for agricultural use. Additionally, analytical assays on composts, peat and soils were performed to compare EOX concentrations between these matrices and sludge.

  13. Disintegration of excess sludge enhanced by a combined treatment of gamma irradiation and modified coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yulin; Wang, Lipeng; Jiao, Yurong

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the disintegration performance and accelerate the disintegration rate of excess sludge, the individual and combined influences of γ-ray irradiation and modified coal fly ash treatment on the disintegration of excess sludge were investigated based on physicochemical properties of excess sludge. The changes in constituents of excess sludge were examined by means of UV/vis spectra and SEM images. The results showed that the disintegration performance of excess sludge was effectively improved by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of modified coal fly ash. A new band from 250 nm to 290 nm appeared on all irradiated sludge samples. The SEM images illustrated the cells surfaces of the sludge by the combined treatment were disfigured. The SCOD, soluble carbohydrate and protein from sludge supernatant increased obviously with increasing modified CFA dosage from 0 to 0.2 g ml-1 and dose from 0 to 10 kGy. The sludge SRF and filter cake moisture declined significantly, and the filtration speed was faster. In conclusion, γ-ray irradiation-modified coal fly ash pretreatment is an effective method to disintegrate excess sludge.

  14. Identifying energy and carbon footprint optimization potentials of a sludge treatment line with Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Lesjean, B; Waschnewski, J

    2013-01-01

    This study exemplifies the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to quantify the environmental impacts of processes for wastewater treatment. In a case study, the sludge treatment line of a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is analysed in terms of cumulative energy demand and the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon footprint). Sludge treatment consists of anaerobic digestion, dewatering, drying, and disposal of stabilized sludge in mono- or co-incineration in power plants or cement kilns. All relevant forms of energy demand (electricity, heat, chemicals, fossil fuels, transport) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) are accounted in the assessment, including the treatment of return liquor from dewatering in the WWTP. Results show that the existing process is positive in energy balance (-162 MJ/PE(COD) * a) and carbon footprint (-11.6 kg CO(2)-eq/PE(COD) * a) by supplying secondary products such as electricity from biogas production or mono-incineration and substituting fossil fuels in co-incineration. However, disposal routes for stabilized sludge differ considerably in their energy and greenhouse gas profiles. In total, LCA proves to be a suitable tool to support future investment decisions with information of environmental relevance on the impact of wastewater treatment, but also urban water systems in general.

  15. Aluminium Salts Hydrolysis Products from Industrial Anodising Sludges in Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambino, Teresa; Correia, Anabela; Barany, Sandor

    The wastewaters resulting from industrial aluminium anodising processes must be treated in a wastewater treatment plant usually involving the main operations of neutralisation, flocculation, settling and filtration with a press-filter. In Portugal the annual quantity of sludges, resulting from these wastewaters treatment, is estimated in 15 000 t/year (2002) and in the EU a large quantity is also involved. No use has been found for these sludges and they are sent to landfills or disposed of in uncontrolled places. Recycling is an economical and environmentally friendly way to handle hazardous wastes, reducing the amounts disposed in landfills. So the effect of the anodising sludge as flocculant of municipal wastewaters instead of inorganic salts commonly used was studied.

  16. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation. PMID:23500587

  17. Microwave and thermal pretreatment as methods for increasing the biogas potential of secondary sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the sludge was pretreated with microwave irradiation and low-temperature thermal method, both conducted under the same temperature range (30-100°C). Microwave pretreatment was found to be superior over the thermal treatment with respect to sludge solubilization and biogas production. Taking into account the specific energy demand of solubilization, the sludge pre-treated at 60-70°C by microwaves of 900 W was chosen for further experiments in continuous mode, which was more energetically sustainable compared to lower value (700 W) and thermal treatment. Continuous biogas reactor experiments indicated that pre-treated sludge (microwave irradiation: 900 W, temperature: 60-70°C) gave 35% more methane, compared to untreated sludge. Moreover, the results of this study clearly demonstrated that microwave pretreated sludge showed better degree of sanitation.

  18. From pre-treatment toward inter-treatment. Getting some clues from sewage sludge biomethanation.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martinez, Eduardo; Sapkaite, Ieva; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Donoso-Bravo, Andres

    2016-07-01

    The conventional application of thermal pretreatment of sewage sludge has been to apply it prior to the anaerobic digestion. In this study, the thermal treatment of the digestate was assessed at lab-scale under several temperature and time conditions. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were set up to evaluate the methane production kinetic by using the Gompertz modified and the first order equation. A full-scale digester evaluation was done by using the ADM1 model under different scenarios and by using the parameters drawn from the BMP tests. The best results were obtained at 180°C and 200°C both at 30min where an improvement of 50% in the methane yield in regards to raw digestate. Full-scale simulations show that a scenario with two anaerobic reactors with thermal inter-treatment would improve the methane production by 45% and 20% compared to conventional anaerobic digestion and pretreatments followed by anaerobic digestion, respectively.

  19. Speciation Dynamics of Phosphorus during (Hydro)Thermal Treatments of Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rixiang; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2015-12-15

    (Hydro)thermal treatments of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment process can significantly reduce waste volume and transform sludge into valuable products such as pyrochar and hydrochar. Given the global concern with phosphorus (P) resource depletion, P recycling/reclamation from or direct soil application of the derived chars can be potential P recycling practices. In order to evaluate P recyclability as well as the selection and optimization of treatment techniques, it is critical to understand the effects of different treatment techniques and conditions on P speciation and distribution. In the present study, we systematically characterized P speciation in chars derived from thermal (i.e., pyrolysis) and hydrothermal treatments of municipal sewage sludge using complementary chemical extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods. P species in the raw activated sludge was dominated by orthophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates, whereas increased amounts of pyrophosphate and short-chain polyphosphates formed after pyrolysis at 250-600 °C. In contrast, hydrothermal treatments resulted in the production of only inorganic orthophosphate in the hydrochar. In addition to the change of molecular speciation, thermal treatments also altered the physical state and extractability of different P species in the pyrochars from pyrolysis, with both total P and polyphosphate being less extractable with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Results from this study suggest that P speciation and availability in sludge-derived chars are tunable by varying treatment techniques and conditions, and provide fundamental knowledge basis for the design and selection of waste management strategies for better nutrient (re)cycling and reclamation.

  20. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, B Aylin; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21 L CH4/g VS added, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VS added. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30 min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46 L/g VS added and 0.32 L CH4/g VS added, respectively.

  1. Co-treatment of gypsum sludge and Pb/Zn smelting slag for the solidification of sludge containing arsenic and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liyang, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge from a primary lead-zinc smelter is characterized as hazardous waste and requires treatment prior to disposal due to its significant arsenic and heavy metals contents. This study presents a method for the stabilization of arsenic sludge that uses a slag based curing agent composed of smelting slag, cement clinker and limestone. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test, the China Standard Leaching Test (CSLT), and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedures (TCLP) were used to physically and chemically characterize the solidified sludge. The binder ratio was determined according to the UCS and optimal experiments, and the optimal mass ratio of m (smelting slag): m (cement clinker): m (gypsum sludge): m (limestone) was 70:13:12:5. When the binder was mixed with arsenic sludge using a mass ratio of 1:1 and then maintained at 25 °C for 28 d, the UCS reached 9.30 MPa. The results indicated that the leached arsenic content was always less than 5 mg/L, which is a safe level, and does not contribute to recontamination of the environment. The arsenic sludge from the Zn/Pb metallurgy plant can be blended with cement clinker and smelting slag materials for manufacturing bricks and can be recycled as construction materials.

  2. Co-treatment of gypsum sludge and Pb/Zn smelting slag for the solidification of sludge containing arsenic and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Cheng; Min, Xiao-Bo; Chai, Li-Yuan; Shi, Mei-Qing; Tang, Chong-Jian; Wang, Qing-Wei; Liang, Yan-Jie; Lei, Jie; Liyang, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge from a primary lead-zinc smelter is characterized as hazardous waste and requires treatment prior to disposal due to its significant arsenic and heavy metals contents. This study presents a method for the stabilization of arsenic sludge that uses a slag based curing agent composed of smelting slag, cement clinker and limestone. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) test, the China Standard Leaching Test (CSLT), and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedures (TCLP) were used to physically and chemically characterize the solidified sludge. The binder ratio was determined according to the UCS and optimal experiments, and the optimal mass ratio of m (smelting slag): m (cement clinker): m (gypsum sludge): m (limestone) was 70:13:12:5. When the binder was mixed with arsenic sludge using a mass ratio of 1:1 and then maintained at 25 °C for 28 d, the UCS reached 9.30 MPa. The results indicated that the leached arsenic content was always less than 5 mg/L, which is a safe level, and does not contribute to recontamination of the environment. The arsenic sludge from the Zn/Pb metallurgy plant can be blended with cement clinker and smelting slag materials for manufacturing bricks and can be recycled as construction materials. PMID:27449964

  3. [Research on the treatment of wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process].

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Qiong; Huang, Cheng-Lan; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying

    2012-11-01

    The wastewater containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was characterized with poor biodegradability, and was difficult to remove. In order to find an economically reasonable and practical technology, the research on the removal efficiency of different concentration wastewater containing PVA by ozonation-activated sludge process was studied, and the result was compared with the traditional activated sludge process. The results showed that the ozonation-activated sludge process was not suitable for treating influent with COD below 500 mg x L(-1) and the wastewater PVA concentration was 10-30 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was between 500-800 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 15-60 mg x L(-1), the system had advantages on dealing with this kind of wastewater, and the average removal efficiency of COD and PVA were 92.8% and 57.4%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 4.1% and 15.2% respectively. In addition, the effluent concentrations of COD could keep between 30-60 mg x L(-1). When the influent COD was 1 000-1 200 mg x L(-1) and the PVA concentration was 20-70 mg x L(-1), the average removal efficiencies of COD and PVA were 90.9% and 45.3%, which were better than the traditional activated sludge process 12.8% and 12.1% respectively, but the effluent should to be further treated. Compared with the traditional activated sludge process, ozonation-activated sludge process had high treatment efficiency, stable running effect, and effectively in dealing with industrial wastewater containing PVA. PMID:23323416

  4. Lab Procedures. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, John W.

    Laboratory tests used to determine status and to evaluate and/or maintain process control of the various sludge treatment processes are introduced in this lesson. Neither detailed test procedures nor explanations of how the tests should be applied to every unit are explained; this information is provided in other modules. The instructor's manual…

  5. Composting. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasmith, E. E.

    Composting is a lesson developed for a sludge treatment and disposal course. The lesson discusses the basic theory of composting and the basic operation, in a step-by-step sequence, of the two typical composting procedures: windrow and forced air static pile. The lesson then covers basic monitoring and operational procedures. The instructor's…

  6. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Sludge dewatering: Sewage treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning dewatering techniques and equipment for sewage treatment. Sewage sludge dewatering design, development, and evaluation are discussed. Essential types of dewatering equipment such as centrifuges, filters, presses, and drums are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. RECYCLING OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE VIA LAND APPLICATION: ASSESSMENT OF RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment sludges (WTS) offer potential benefits when applied to soil and recycling of the waste stream via land application has been proposed as a management option. Recycling of WTS to the land helps conserve landfill disposal capacity and natural resources, but potential...

  9. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    The management of sewage sludge is becoming a more and more important issue, both at national and international level, in particular due to the uncertain recovery/disposal future options. Therefore, it is clear that the development of new technologies that can mitigate the problem at the source by reducing sludge production is necessary, such as the European Directive 2008/98/EC prescribes. This work shows the results obtained with a thermophilic membrane reactor, for processing a biological sludge derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats urban and industrial wastewater. Sewage sludge was treated in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), at pilot-scale (1 m(3) volume), with alternate aeration cycles. The experimentation was divided into two phases: a "startup phase" during which, starting with a psychrophilic/mesophilic biomass, thermophilic conditions were progressively reached, while feeding a highly biodegradable substrate; the obtained thermophilic biomass was then used, in the "regime phase", to digest biological sludge which was fed to the plant. Good removal yields were observed: 64% and 57% for volatile solids (VS) and total COD (CODtot), respectively, with an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to 20 d, an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 1.4-1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and aeration/non aeration cycles alternated every 4 h.

  10. Design of Upelow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor for treatment of organic wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Ghangrekar, M M; Kahalekar, U J; Takalkar, S V

    2003-04-01

    The Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor is widely applied anaerobic wastewater treatment method all over the world. Uniform distribution of wastewater at reactor bottom is necessary to establish proper contact between sludge and wastewater. In addition, proper functioning of Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) separator is crucial to ensure maximum sludge retention in the reactor and to achieve maximum COD removal rate in the reactor. Hence, proper design of reactor is necessary for appropriate functioning of various components for a given wastewater flow rate and COD concentration. The design procedure for UASB reactor taking due consideration to the GLS design and design of inlet arrangement is discussed in this paper for various wastewater strength and flow rates. A software is developed to make economical design of UASB reactor for different type of wastewater by adopting maximum loading conditions, based on literature recommendations, and at the same time to satisfy all design recommendation, as far as possible. PMID:15270344

  11. Waste form development for use with ORNL waste treatment facility sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-05-01

    A sludge that simulates Water Softening Sludge number 5 (WSS number 5 filtercake) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared and evaluated for its thermal behavior, volume reduction, stabilization, surface area and compressive strength properties. Compaction of the surrogate waste and the calcium oxide (produced by calcination) in the presence of paraffin resulted in cylindrical molds with various degrees of stability. This work has demonstrated that surrogate WSS number 5 at ORNL can be successfully stabilized by blending it with about 35 percent paraffin and compacting the mixture at 8000 psi. This compressive strength of the waste form is sufficient for temporary storage of the waste while long-term storage waste forms are developed. Considering the remarkable similarity between the surrogate and the actual filtercake, the findings of this project should be useful for treating the sludge generated by the waste treatment facility at ORNL.

  12. IASON - Intelligent Activated Sludge Operated by Nanotechnology - Hydrogel Microcarriers in Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleit, E.; Melicz, Z.; Sándor, D.; Zrínyi, M.; Filipcsei, G.; László, K.; Dékány, I.; Király, Z.

    Performance of biological wastewater treatment depends to a large extent on mechanical strength, size distribution, permeability and other textural properties of the activated sludge flocs. A novel approach was developed in applying synthetic polymer materials to organize floc architecture instead of spontaneously formed activated sludge floc. Developed microcarrier polymer materials were used in our experiments to mitigate technological goals. Preliminary results suggest that the PVA-PAA (polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid copolymer) is a feasible choice for skeleton material replacing "traditional" activated sludge floc. Use of PVA-PAA hydrogel material as microreactors and methods for biofilm formation of wastewater bacteria on the carrier material are described. Laboratory scale experimental results with microscopic size bioreactors and their potential application for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification are presented.

  13. Multimedia sampling for dioxin at a strip mine reclaimed with sludge from bleached kraft wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C. ); Proctor, J.L. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that mead conducted a two-year dioxin testing program on strip-mined land being reclaimed with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of its bleached kraft mill. Many different samples were analyzed for both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (or dioxin) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (or furan). The study included biodiversity studies to determine the total environmental impact. The results indicate that the sludge is an excellent reclamation material that improves the biodiversity at the site. The tracer dioxin in the sludge does not exhibit any significant migration or bioavailability when used for reclaiming strip mines. These findings differ from assumptions sometimes used in assessing the environmental risks of dioxin.

  14. [The application of sinusoidal modulated currents for the treatment of biliary sludge in an outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Filimonov, R M; Korotkova, D Iu; Buslavskaia, I O; Filimonova, T R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate therapeutic effects of sinusoidal modulated currents (SMC) applied for the treatment of patients at different stages of biliary sludge (BS) under conditions of an outpatient clinic. Biliary sludge is currently considered to be a precursor of cholelithiasis known to be a leading pathology of the digestive system responsible for the high surgery rate. It was shown that the introduction of the technique based on sinusoidal modulated currents into the clinical practice of an outpatient clinic increases the efficacy of management of the patients presenting with stage 1 and 2 biliary sludge and showing neither well-apparent clinical symptoms nor signs of metabolic disorders that imply the necessity of more thorough examination and combined application of sinusoidal modulated currents and mediacmental therapy.

  15. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  16. Efficient Phosphorus Cycling in Food Production: Predicting the Phosphorus Fertilization Effect of Sludge from Chemical Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Falk Øgaard, Anne; Brod, Eva

    2016-06-22

    This study examined the P fertilization effects of 11 sewage sludges obtained from sewage treated with Al and/or Fe salts to remove P by a pot experiment with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a nutrient-deficient sand-peat mixture. Also it investigated whether fertilization effects could be predicted by chemical sludge characteristics and/or by P extraction. The mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) value varied significantly but was low for all sludges. MFE was best predicted by a negative correlation with ox-Al and ox-Fe in sludge, or by a positive correlation with P extracted with 2% citric acid. Ox-Al had a greater negative impact on MFE than ox-Fe, indicating that Fe salts are preferable as a coagulant when aiming to increase the plant availability of P in sludge. The results also indicate that sludge liming after chemical wastewater treatment with Al and/or Fe salts increases the P fertilization effect.

  17. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  18. Coagulation efficiency and flocs characteristics of recycling sludge during treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Gao, Wei; Liang, Heng; Li, Guibai

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water treatment sludge, characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic and inorganic matter, is produced in large quantities during the coagulation process. The proper disposal, regeneration or reuse of sludge is, therefore, a significant environmental issue. Reused sludge at low temperatures is an alternative method to enhance traditional coagulation efficiency. In the present study, the recycling mass of mixed sludge and properties of raw water (such as pH and turbidity) were systematically investigated to optimize coagulation efficiency. We determined that the appropriate dosage of mixed sludge was 60 mL/L, effective initial turbidity ranges were below 45.0 NTU, and optimal pH for DOMs and turbidity removal was 6.5-7.0 and 8.0, respectively. Furthermore, by comparing the flocs characteristics with and without recycling sludge, we found that floc structures with sludge were more irregular with average size growth to 64.7 microm from 48.1 microm. Recycling sludge was a feasible and successful method for enhancing pollutants removal, and the more irregular flocs structure after recycling might be caused by breakage of reused flocs and incorporation of powdered activated carbon into larger flocs structure. Applied during the coagulation process, recycling sludge could be significant for the treatment of low temperature and micro-polluted source water. PMID:23505868

  19. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  20. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  1. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions following anaerobic digestion of sludge in Japanese sewage treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Okumura, Takuya; Takaoka, Masaki; Fujimori, Takashi; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf

    2014-11-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials (expressed in terms of CO2-equivalents) of 28 and 265, respectively. When emitted to the atmosphere, they significantly contribute to climate change. It was previously suggested that in wastewater treatment facilities that apply anaerobic sludge digestion, CH4 continues to be emitted from digested sludge after leaving the anaerobic digester. This paper studies the CH4 and N2O emissions from anaerobically digested sludge in the subsequent sludge treatment steps. Two full-scale treatment plants were monitored over a 1-year period. Average emissions of CH4 and N2O were 509±72 mg/m(3)-influent (wastewater) and 7.1±2.6 mg/m(3)-influent, respectively. These values accounted for 22.4±3.8% of the indirect reduction in CO2-emissions when electricity was generated using biogas. They are considered to be significant.

  2. Presence of radionuclides in sludge from conventional drinking water treatment plants. A review.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, E; Nieto, A; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of sludge samples generated during water treatment processes show that different radioisotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, among others can accumulate in that kind of samples, even the good removal rates obtained in the aqueous phase (by comparison of influent and effluent water concentrations). Inconsequence, drinking water treatment plants are included in the group of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. The accumulation of radionuclides can be a serious problem especially when this sludge is going to be reused, so more exhaustive information is required to prevent the possible radiological impact of these samples in the environment and also on the people. The main aim of this review is to outline the current situation regarding the different studies reported in the literature up to date focused on the analysis of the radiological content of these sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants. In this sense, special attention is given to the recent approaches for their determination. Another important aim is to discuss about the final disposal of these samples and in this regard, sludge reuse (including for example direct agricultural application or also as building materials) are together with landfilling the main reported strategies.

  3. Presence of radionuclides in sludge from conventional drinking water treatment plants. A review.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, E; Nieto, A; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of sludge samples generated during water treatment processes show that different radioisotopes of uranium, thorium and radium, among others can accumulate in that kind of samples, even the good removal rates obtained in the aqueous phase (by comparison of influent and effluent water concentrations). Inconsequence, drinking water treatment plants are included in the group of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries. The accumulation of radionuclides can be a serious problem especially when this sludge is going to be reused, so more exhaustive information is required to prevent the possible radiological impact of these samples in the environment and also on the people. The main aim of this review is to outline the current situation regarding the different studies reported in the literature up to date focused on the analysis of the radiological content of these sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants. In this sense, special attention is given to the recent approaches for their determination. Another important aim is to discuss about the final disposal of these samples and in this regard, sludge reuse (including for example direct agricultural application or also as building materials) are together with landfilling the main reported strategies. PMID:25500063

  4. High-frequency ultrasound treatment of sludge: combined effect of surfactants removal and floc disintegration.

    PubMed

    Gallipoli, A; Braguglia, C M

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasounds represent an effective technology in many research fields. In sewage sludge treatment, low-frequency ultrasound, particularly at 20 kHz, are widely used for sludge disintegration before the anaerobic digestion, while in the last years novel application of high-frequency ultrasound regards the decontamination of water and wastewater through sonochemical reactions. The innovative approach presented in this paper is the treatment of sewage sludge with ultrasound at 200 kHz for obtaining efficient sludge disintegration and the removal of the linear alkylbenzenesulphonates (LAS) at the same time. Results of the sonolysis experiments showed that native LAS degradation up to 40% can be achieved with low power input in less than 1h. The degradation pattern was different for each LAS homologue (from C10 to C13), because of their physical-chemical properties, in particular as regards the alkyl chain length. This high-frequency ultrasound irradiation resulted effective also in terms of floc disintegration and soluble organic matter release, in particular for energy inputs higher than 30,000 kJ/kg TS. The disrupting effect of the 200 kHz treatment was also evaluated by microscope analyses and determination of the extracellular polymeric substances release in the liquid phase.

  5. Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-03-01

    This work provides insights on the solubilization products after a simultaneous combination of alkaline and ultrasonic (ALK+ULS) pre-treatment of sewage sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased from 1200 to 11,000 mg/L after such treatment. Organics with molecular weight around 5.6 kDa were solubilized because of the synergistic effect of ultrasound and alkali. Organics with molecular weight larger than 300 kDa increased from 7.8% to 60%, 16% and 42.3% after ULS, ALK and ALK+ULS treatment, respectively. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis identified soluble microbial product-like and humic acid-like matters as the main solubilization products. Sludge anaerobic biodegradability was significantly enhanced with the simultaneous application of ALK+ULS pre-treatment. ALK+ULS pre-treatment resulted in 37.8% biodegradability increase compared to the untreated sludge. This value was higher compared to the biodegradability increase induced by individual ALK pre-treatment (5.7%) or individual ULS pre-treatment (20.7%) under the same conditions applied. PMID:25766017

  6. A comprehensive substance flow analysis of a municipal wastewater and sludge treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Christensen, T H; Guildal, T; Scheutz, C

    2015-11-01

    The fate of total organic carbon, 32 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) and 4 groups of organic pollutants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in a conventional wastewater treatment plant were assessed. Mass balances showed reasonable closures for most of the elements. However, gaseous emissions were accompanied by large uncertainties and show the limitation of mass balance based substance flow analysis. Based on the assessment, it is evident that both inorganic and organic elements accumulated in the sewage sludge, with the exception of elements that are highly soluble or degradable by wastewater and sludge treatment processes. The majority of metals and metalloids were further accumulated in the incineration ash, while the organic pollutants were effectively destroyed by both biological and thermal processes. Side streams from the sludge treatment process (dewatering and incineration) back to the wastewater treatment represented less than 1% of the total volume entering the wastewater treatment processes, but represented significant substance flows. In contrast, the contribution by spent water from the flue gas treatment process was almost negligible. Screening of human and eco-toxicity by applying the consensus-based environmental impact assessment method USEtox addressing 15 inorganic constituents showed that removal of inorganic constituents by the wastewater treatment plant reduced the toxic impact potential by 87-92%.

  7. Metaproteomics Applied to Activated Sludge for Industrial Wastewater Treatment Revealed a Dominant Methylotrophic Metabolism of Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carlo; Benndorf, Dirk; Kluge, Sabine; Palese, Luigi Leonardo; Reichl, Udo; Pollice, Alfieri

    2016-07-01

    In biological wastewater treatments, microbial populations of the so-called activated sludge work together in the abatement of pollutants. In this work, the metabolic behavior of the biomass of a lab-scale plant treating industrial pharmaceutical wastewater was investigated through a metaproteomic approach. The complete treatment process included a membrane biological reactor (MBR) coupled with an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for partial breakdown of non-biodegradable molecules. Proteins from biomass samples collected pre- and post-AOP application were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), mass spectrometry (MS), and finally identified by database search. Results showed that most proteins remained constant between pre- and post-AOP. Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) belonging to Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii appeared as the most constantly expressed protein in the studied consortium. Other identified proteins belonging to Hyphomicrobium spp. revealed a predominant methylotrophic metabolism, and H. zavarzinii appeared as a key actor in the studied microbial community. PMID:27090901

  8. Mass and energy balances of sludge processing in reference and upgraded wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mininni, G; Laera, G; Bertanza, G; Canato, M; Sbrilli, A

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary assessment of a platform of innovative upgrading solutions aimed at improving sludge management and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants. The effectiveness of the upgrading solutions and the impacts of their integration in model reference plants have been evaluated by means of mass and energy balances on the whole treatment plant. Attention has been also paid to the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludge processing and to their recycle back to the water line. Most of the upgrading options resulted in reduced production of dewatered sludge, which decreased from 45 to 56 g SS/(PE × day) in reference plants to 14-49 g SS/(PE × day) in the upgraded ones, with reduction up to 79% when wet oxidation was applied to the whole sludge production. The innovative upgrades generally entail an increased demand of electric energy from the grid, but energy recovery from biogas allowed to minimize the net energy consumption below 10 kWh/(PE × year) in the two most efficient solutions. In all other cases the net energy consumption was in the range of -11% and +28% of the reference scenarios.

  9. Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design for treatment of oil sludge containing high concentration of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, G; Roldán-Carrillo, T; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Quej-Aké, L; Marín-Cruz, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2009-12-01

    Microcosm assays and Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the biodegradation of an oil sludge produced by a gas processing unit. The study showed that the biodegradation of the sludge sample is feasible despite the high level of pollutants and complexity involved in the sludge. The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the sludge revealed a high concentration of hydrocarbons (334,766+/-7001 mg kg(-1) dry matter, d.m.) containing a variety of compounds between 6 and 73 carbon atoms in their structure, whereas the concentration of Fe was 60,000 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 26,800 mg kg(-1) d.m. of sulfide. A Taguchi L(9) experimental design comprising 4 variables and 3 levels moisture, nitrogen source, surfactant concentration and oxidant agent was performed, proving that moisture and nitrogen source are the major variables that affect CO(2) production and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation. The best experimental treatment yielded a TPH removal of 56,092 mg kg(-1) d.m. The treatment was carried out under the following conditions: 70% moisture, no oxidant agent, 0.5% of surfactant and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source.

  10. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method.

  11. Effect of K2FeO4/US treatment on textile dyeing sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-an; Feng, Yinfang; Wu, Junji; Chen, Changmin; Wang, Yujie; Sun, Jian; Chang, Kenlin; Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Zuoyi; Liu, Jingyong

    2015-10-01

    The effect of potassium ferrate/ultrasonic (K2FeO4/US) treatment on the physicochemical features of textile dyeing sludge was studied. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), sludge volume index (SVI), sludge viscosity, capillary suction time (CST) and particle size were measured to understand the observed changes in the sludge physicochemical features. The results showed that the combined K2FeO4/US treatment presented great advantages for disrupting the sludge floc structure over K2FeO4 or ultrasonic treatments alone. The optimal parameters of sludge disintegration were found to be a K2FeO4 treatment time of 60 min, a K2FeO4 dosage of 0.5936 g/g SS, an ultrasonic time of 15 min and an ultrasonic intensity of 0.72 W/mL. The initial median diameter of the sludge particles was 15.24 μm, and this value decreased by 35.89%. The CST was initially 59.6 s and increased by 231%, whereas the SVI was 97.78 mL/g and decreased by 25.89%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images indicated that the sludge surface was irregular and loose with a large amount of channels or voids during K2FeO4/US treatment. K2FeO4/US treatment synergistically enhanced the sludge solubilization and reached 668.67 mg/L SCOD, which is 31.81% greater than the additive value obtained with K2FeO4 treatment alone (215.95 mg/L) or with ultrasonic treatment alone (240 mg/L).

  12. Enhancement of the performance of a combined microalgae-activated sludge system for the treatment of high strength molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Deligiannis, Andreas; Samaras, Petros

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of molasses wastewater, by a combined microalgae-activated sludge process, for the simultaneous organics and total nitrogen reduction, was examined. Further enhancement of the performance of the combined process was accomplished, by means of biofilm carriers or electrocoagulation. A LED light tube was immersed into the reactor tank aiming to enhance the growth of photosynthetic microalgae, while in a similar unit, biofilm carriers were added to the system, representing a moving bed bioreactor. Exposure of the activated sludge biocommunity to light source, resulted in the growth of microalgae and photoreactors exhibited higher removal rates of total nitrogen and nitrates. However, operation at longer times resulted in low effluent quality due to the presence of microalgae cells as a result of high growth rates, and potential light shading effect. Nevertheless, the moving bed system was more beneficial than the single photoreactor, as biofilm carriers provided a self cleaning capacity of the light source, reducing the effect of microalgae deposition. Advanced treatment of the biological effluents, by electrocoagulation, increased even more the process efficiency: the combined photobioreactor and electrocoagulation process resulted in about 78% COD removal and more than 35% total nitrogen removal in the effluent, where nitrates represented almost the single form of total nitrogen. PMID:27589919

  13. K-Basins Sludge Treatment and Packaging at the Hanford Site - 13585

    SciTech Connect

    Fogwell, Thomas W.; Honeyman, James O.; Stegen, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Highly radioactive sludge resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel has been consolidated in Engineered Containers (ECs) in the 105-K West Storage Basin located on the Hanford site near the Columbia River in Washington State. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is proceeding with a project to retrieve the sludge, place it in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and store those filled containers within the T Plant Canyon facility on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (Phase 1). Retrieval and transfer of the sludge material will enable removal of the 105-K West Basin and allow remediation of the subsurface contamination plumes under the basin. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to treat and dispose of this K Basins sludge (Phase 2) as Remote Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in New Mexico. The K Basin sludge currently contains uranium metal which reacts with water present in the stored slurry, generating hydrogen and other byproducts. The established transportation and disposal requirements require the transformation of the K Basins sludge to a chemically stable, liquid-free, packaged waste form. The Treatment and Packaging Project includes removal of the containerised sludge from T Plant, the treatment of the sludge as required, and packaging of all the sludge into a form that is certifiable for transportation to and disposal at WIPP. Completion of this scope will require construction and operation of a Sludge Treatment and Packaging Facility (STPF), which could be either a completely new facility or a modification of an existing Hanford Site facility. A Technology Evaluation and Alternatives Analysis (TEAA) for the STP Phase 2 was completed in 2011. A Request for Technology Information (RFI) had been issued in October 2009 to solicit candidate technologies for use in Phase 2. The RFI also included a preliminary definition of Phase 2 functions and requirements. Potentially

  14. Essence of disposing the excess sludge and optimizing the operation of wastewater treatment: rheological behavior and microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Zhang, Zi

    2014-06-01

    Proper disposal of excess sludge and steady maintenance of the high bioactivity of activated sludge in bioreactors are essential for the successful operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since sludge is a non-Newtonian fluid, the rheological behavior of sludge can therefore have a significant impact on various processes in a WWTP, such as fluid transportation, mixing, oxygen diffusion, mass transfer, anaerobic digestion, chemical conditioning and mechanical dewatering. These are key factors affecting the operation efficiency and the energy consumption of the entire process. In the past decade-due to the production of large quantities of excess sludge associated with the extensive construction of WWTPs and the emergence of some newly-developed techniques for wastewater purification characterized by high biomass concentrations-investigations into the rheology of sludge are increasingly important and this topic has aroused considerable interests. We reviewed a number of investigations into the rheology of sludge, with the purpose of providing systematic and detailed analyses on the related aspects of the rheological behavior of sludge. It is clear that, even though considerable research has focused on the rheology of sludge over a long time period, there is still a need for further thorough investigation into this field. Due to the complex process of bio-treatment in all WWTPs, biological factors have a major influence on the properties of sludge. These influences are however still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the mechanisms involved and magnitude of such impacts. When taking note of the conspicuous biological characteristics of sludge, it becomes important that biological factors, such as the species composition and relative abundance of various microorganisms, as well as the microbial community characteristics that affect relevant operating processes, should be considered. PMID:24462086

  15. Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban During Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heidler, Jochen; Sapkota, Amir; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The topical antiseptic agent triclocarban (TCC) is a common additive in many antimicrobial household consumables, including soaps and other personal care products. Long-term usage of the mass-produced compound and a lack of understanding of its fate during sewage treatment motivated the present mass balance analysis conducted at a typical U.S. activated sludge wastewater treatment plant featuring a design capacity of 680 million liters per day. Using automated samplers and grab sampling, the mass of TCC contained in influent, effluent and digested sludge was monitored by isotope dilution liquid chromatography (tandem) mass spectrometry. The average mass of TCC (mean ± standard deviation) entering and exiting the plant in influent (6.1 ± 2.0 μg/L) and effluent (0.17 ± 0.03 μg/L) was 3,737 ± 694 and 127 ± 6 g/d, respectively, indicating an aqueous-phase removal efficiency of 97 ± 1%. Tertiary treatment by chlorination and sand filtration provided no detectable benefit to the overall removal. Due to strong sorption of TCC to wastewater particulate matter (78 ± 11% sorbed), the majority of the TCC mass was sequestered into sludge in the primary and secondary clarifiers of the plant. Anaerobic digestion for 19 days did not promote TCC transformation, resulting in an accumulation of the antiseptic compound in dewatered, digested municipal sludge to levels of 51 ± 15 mg/kg dry weight (2,815 ± 917 g/d). In addition to the biocide mass passing through the plant contained in the effluent (3 ± 1%), 76 ± 30% of the TCC input entering the plant underwent no net transformation and instead partitioned into and accumulated in municipal sludge. Based on the rate of beneficial reuse of sludge produced by this facility (95%), which exceeds the national average (63%), study results suggest that approximately three quarters of the mass of TCC disposed of by consumers in the catchment area of the plant ultimately is released into the environment by application of municipal

  16. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  17. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-08-17

    This test plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with Fluor Hanford (FH). The test plan describes the scope and conditions to be used to perform laboratory-scale testing of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) hydrothermal treatment of K Basin sludge. The STP, managed for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) by FH, was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from the sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by using high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. The proposed testing builds on the approach and laboratory test findings for both K Basin sludge and simulated sludge garnered during prior testing from September 2006 to March 2007. The outlined testing in this plan is designed to yield further understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions, the effects of compositional and process variations and the effectiveness of various strategies to mitigate the observed high shear strength phenomenon observed during the prior testing. These tests are designed to provide process validation and refinement vs. process development and design input. The expected outcome is to establish a level of understanding of the chemistry such that successful operating strategies and parameters can be implemented within the confines of the existing STP corrosion vessel design. In July 2007, the DOE provided direction to FH regarding significant changes to the scope of the overall STP. As a result of the changes, FH directed PNNL to stop work on most of the planned activities covered in this test plan. Therefore, it is unlikely the testing described here will be performed. However, to preserve the test strategy and details developed to date, the test plan has been published.

  18. The fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Yang, Juan; Chen, Shaoyi

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the fate of a nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella oxytoca NBA-1, which was isolated from a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment facility. The 90-day survivability of strain NBA-1 after exposure to sludge under anaerobic and aerobic conditions was investigated. The bacterium was inoculated into sludge amended with glucose and p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to compare the bacterial community variations between the modified sludge and nitrobenzene amendment. The results showed that glucose had no obvious effect on nitrobenzene biodegradation in the co-metabolism process, regardless of the presence/absence of oxygen. When p-CNB was added under anaerobic conditions, the biodegradation rate of nitrobenzene remained unchanged although p-CNB inhibited the production of aniline. The diversity of the microbial community increased and NBA-1 continued to be one of the dominant strains. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation rate of both nitrobenzene and p-CNB was only 20% of that under anaerobic conditions. p-CNB had a toxic effect on the microorganisms in the sludge so that most of the DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) bands, including that of NBA-1, began to disappear under aerobic conditions after 90days of exposure. These data show that the bacterial community was stable under anaerobic conditions and the microorganisms, including NBA-1, were more resistant to the adverse environment. PMID:26086561

  19. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    PubMed

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  20. Application of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants in road's embankments.

    PubMed

    De Oña, J; Osorio, F

    2006-04-17

    While different kinds of compost have been tested for highway revegetation, sewage sludge has only been used for agricultural purposes. In this work, its application for helping vegetation establishment on roads embankments is studied. Testing areas measuring 4x5m were constructed on a new highway embankment in an arid location. Several variables are analyzed: side slope (2); sludge dosage (4); vegetative species (4). Results are presented on growth, survival rate and germination of the plants; colonization of other species; cover crop for the plots; estimation of the erosion. The species planted manually showed satisfactory results although any variable was specially significant in this case. However, in relation to the species planted using hydroseeding, 2:1 side slope presented better results than 3:2 side slope. Using hydroseeding, the performance of different species was significantly different, thyme did not grow if sludge was not applied and the cover crop was higher in plots with 3:2 side slope than in plots with 2:1 side slope, essentially due to the presence of colonizing species. Finally, the costs of the proposed treatments are figured out, being concluded that, so much from the technical as the economic point of view, it is a viable proposal for sewage sludge management.

  1. Application of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants in road's embankments.

    PubMed

    De Oña, J; Osorio, F

    2006-04-17

    While different kinds of compost have been tested for highway revegetation, sewage sludge has only been used for agricultural purposes. In this work, its application for helping vegetation establishment on roads embankments is studied. Testing areas measuring 4x5m were constructed on a new highway embankment in an arid location. Several variables are analyzed: side slope (2); sludge dosage (4); vegetative species (4). Results are presented on growth, survival rate and germination of the plants; colonization of other species; cover crop for the plots; estimation of the erosion. The species planted manually showed satisfactory results although any variable was specially significant in this case. However, in relation to the species planted using hydroseeding, 2:1 side slope presented better results than 3:2 side slope. Using hydroseeding, the performance of different species was significantly different, thyme did not grow if sludge was not applied and the cover crop was higher in plots with 3:2 side slope than in plots with 2:1 side slope, essentially due to the presence of colonizing species. Finally, the costs of the proposed treatments are figured out, being concluded that, so much from the technical as the economic point of view, it is a viable proposal for sewage sludge management. PMID:16233951

  2. Comparison of sludge treatment by O3 and O3/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yuxin, Zhao; Liang, Wang; Helong, Yu; Baojun, Jiang; Jinming, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the comparison of sludge decomposition caused by ozone (O3) alone and by ozone/hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2). The content of carbonaceous organic materials, nitrogenous compounds and phosphoric substances in sludge supernatant were measured. The release of soluble chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) caused by O3/H2O2 treatment were more than by O3 alone. As a result, it can be concluded that the efficiency of sludge breakup in O3/H2O2 was better than that in O3 alone. However, a peak appeared in both systems for the biodegradable substances such as carbohydrate. Carbohydrate could be used as the carbon source for denitrification, and the releasing of TN and TP may become an additional burden for a subsequent biological system. So, it was of benefit for the enhancement of cryptic growth and cost reduction by raising and maintaining the content of biodegradable substance and reducing the concentrations of the nitrogenous and phosphoric substances as far as possible. Therefore, sludge treated by O3/H2O2 with lower O3 dose would be more suitable than O3 alone. PMID:25026588

  3. Anaerobic digestion and gasification coupling for wastewater sludge treatment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Nicolas; Rousse, Daniel R; Hausler, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Sewage sludge management is an energy intensive process. Anaerobic digestion contributes to energy efficiency improvement but is limited by the biological process. A review has been conducted prior to experimentation in order to evaluate the mass and energy balances on anaerobic digestion followed by gasification of digested sludge. The purpose was to improve energy recovery and reuse. Calculations were based on design parameters and tests that are conducted with the anaerobic digester of a local wastewater treatment plant and a small commercial gasification system. Results showed a very significant potential of energy recovery. More than 90% of the energy content from sludge was extracted. Also, approximately the same amount of energy would be transferred in both directions between the digester (biogas) and the gasifier (thermal energy). This extraction resulted in the same use of biogas as the reference scenario but final product was a totally dry biochar, which represented a fraction of the initial mass. Phosphorus was concentrated and significantly preserved. This analysis suggests that anaerobic digestion followed by dehydration, drying and gasification could be a promising and viable option for energy and nutrient recovery from municipal sludge in replacement of conventional paths.

  4. From pre-treatment toward inter-treatment. Getting some clues from sewage sludge biomethanation.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martinez, Eduardo; Sapkaite, Ieva; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Donoso-Bravo, Andres

    2016-07-01

    The conventional application of thermal pretreatment of sewage sludge has been to apply it prior to the anaerobic digestion. In this study, the thermal treatment of the digestate was assessed at lab-scale under several temperature and time conditions. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were set up to evaluate the methane production kinetic by using the Gompertz modified and the first order equation. A full-scale digester evaluation was done by using the ADM1 model under different scenarios and by using the parameters drawn from the BMP tests. The best results were obtained at 180°C and 200°C both at 30min where an improvement of 50% in the methane yield in regards to raw digestate. Full-scale simulations show that a scenario with two anaerobic reactors with thermal inter-treatment would improve the methane production by 45% and 20% compared to conventional anaerobic digestion and pretreatments followed by anaerobic digestion, respectively. PMID:27107339

  5. Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge in the United States: Regulatory Considerations for Risk Reduction and Determining Treatment Process Equivalency

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, municipal wastewater includes discharges from households, commercial businesses and various industries. Microorganisms associated with these wastes can be concentrated in the solids (sludge) which are removed during treatment operations. Beneficial reuse a...

  6. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  7. Toxicologic studies associated with the agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge and health effects among sewage treatment plant workers.

    PubMed

    Babish, J G; Stoewsand, G S; Kranz, J M; Boyd, J N; Ahrens, V D; Lisk, D J

    1984-09-01

    The proposed use of municipal sewage sludges as soil amendments on agricultural land involves potential health risks. Sludges may contain toxic heavy metals, synthetic organics, and pathogens. Studies of animals inhabiting sludge-amended soils, or foraging on crops grown on such soils, have shown an increased deposition of cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls in animal tissues, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, altered blood profiles, appearance of mutagens in blood and excreta, and lowered feed intake, feed efficiency, and milk production. Epidemiologic evidence of possible adverse health effects among sewage plant workers exposed to aerosolized pathogens or synthetic organic vapors during wastewater treatment or land spreading of sludge is still inconclusive. Other possible deleterious environmental effects include pollution of groundwater and toxicity to birds consuming worms or insects inhabiting sludge-treated soils.

  8. Examination of the operator and compensator tank role in urban wastewater treatment using activated sludge method.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari Azar, Akbar; Ghadirpour Jelogir, Ali; Nabi Bidhendi, Gholam Reza; Zaredar, Narges

    2011-04-01

    No doubt, operator is one of the main fundaments in wastewater treatment plants. By identifying the inadequacies, the operator could be considered as an important key in treatment plant. Several methods are used for wastewater treatment that requires spending a lot of cost. However, all investments of treatment facilities are usable when the expected efficiency of the treatment plant was obtained. Using experienced operator, this goal is more easily accessible. In this research, the wastewater of an urban community contaminated with moderated, diluted and highly concentrated pollution has been treated using surface and deep aeration treatment method. Sampling of these pilots was performed during winter 2008 to summer 2009. The results indicate that all analyzed parameters were eliminated using activated sludge and surface aeration methods. However, in activated sludge and deep aeration methods in combination with suitable function of operator, more pollutants could be eliminated. Hence, existence of operator in wastewater treatment plants is the basic principle to achieve considered efficiency. Wastewater treatment system is not intelligent itself and that is the operator who can organize even an inefficient system by its continuous presence. The converse of this fact is also real. Despite the various units and appropriate design of wastewater treatment plant, without an operator, the studied process cannot be expected highly efficient. In places frequently affected by the shock of organic and hydraulic loads, the compensator tank is important to offset the wastewater treatment process. Finally, in regard to microbial parameters, existence of disinfection unit is very useful. PMID:20571882

  9. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  10. Activated sludge treatment. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the activated sludge process in treating industrial and domestic waste. Apparatus design, parameters for effectiveness, and organisms utilized in the various processes are among the topics discussed. Performance evaluations and applications of treatment processes for the purification and removal of unwanted substances from sewage and waste water are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms - Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, L; Engwall, M

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:21944874

  12. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms - Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, L; Engwall, M

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  13. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  14. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment.

  15. Concentrations and distribution of synthetic musks and siloxanes in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nannan; Shi, Yali; Li, Wenhui; Xu, Lin; Cai, Yaqi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the occurrence and distribution patterns of seven synthetic musks (SMs) and 17 siloxanes in anaerobic digested sludge samples collected at the dewatering process from 42 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. SMs in sludge from different WWTPs exhibited similar composition profiles, and their total concentrations ranged from 47.3 ng/g to 68.2 μg/g dry weight (dw). On average, galaxolide (HHCB, 63.8%) and tonalide (AHTN, 31.7%) accounted for 95.5% of ∑SMs. The total concentrations of cyclic siloxanes ranged from sludge indicated that both of them were widely used in China. Among the sludge samples from 42 WWTPs, the concentrations of both ∑SMs and ∑siloxanes had considerable variations. We investigated the influence of potential factors (wastewater and sludge characteristics, the treatment capacity, serving population, and the treatment techniques of WWTPs) on the levels of target compounds in sludge, and found that SMs were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) of the sludge and the serving population of WWTP. There were also strong correlations (p<0.05) between the treatment capacity of WWTPs and cyclic siloxanes, as well as between the TOC of the sludge and linear siloxanes. In addition, the ecological risks of SMs and siloxanes in sewage sludge addressed to land application were assessed, which suggested that there was a low risk to the soil environment.

  16. Treatment of sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds in reed-bed mesocosms - Water, BOD, carbon and nutrient removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, L.; Engwall, M.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One method is dewatering and biodegradation of compounds in constructed wetlands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters after treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plants improve degradation and Phragmites australis is tolerant to xenobiotics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%. - Abstract: Since the mid-1970s, Sweden has been depositing 1 million ton d.w sludge/year, produced at waste water treatment plants. Due to recent legislation this practice is no longer a viable method of waste management. It is necessary to improve existing and develop new sludge management techniques and one promising alternative is the dewatering and treatment of sludge in constructed wetlands. The aim of this study was to follow reduction of organic carbon, BOD and nutrients in an industrial sludge containing nitro-aromatic compounds passing through constructed small-scale wetlands, and to investigate any toxic effect such as growth inhibition of the common reed Phragmites australis. The result showed high reduction of all tested parameters in all the outgoing water samples, which shows that constructed wetlands are suitable for carbon and nutrient removal. The results also showed that P. australis is tolerant to xenobiotics and did not appear to be affected by the toxic compounds in the sludge. The sludge residual on the top of the beds contained low levels of organic carbon and is considered non-organic and could therefore be landfilled. Using this type of secondary treatment method, the amount of sludge could be reduced by 50-70%, mainly by dewatering and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  17. Bacterial response to a shock load of nanosilver in an activated sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhihua; Das, Atreyee; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2010-10-01

    The growing release of nanosilver into sewage systems has increased the concerns on the potential adverse impacts of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in wastewater treatment plants. The inhibitory effects of nanosilver on wastewater treatment and the response of activated sludge bacteria to the shock loading of AgNPs were evaluated in a Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) activated sludge treatment system. Before shock-loading experiments, batch extant respirometric assays determined that at 1mg/L of total Ag, nitrification inhibitions by AgNPs (average size=1-29 nm) and Ag(+) ions were 41.4% and 13.5%, respectively, indicating that nanosilver was more toxic to nitrifying bacteria in activated sludge than silver ions. After a 12-h period of nanosilver shock loading to reach a final peak silver concentration of 0.75 mg/L in the MLE system, the total silver concentration in the mixed liquor decreased exponentially. A continuous flow-through model predicted that the silver in the activated sludge system would be washed out 25 days after the shock loading. Meanwhile, a prolonged period of nitrification inhibition (>1 month, the highest degree of inhibition=46.5%) and increase of ammonia/nitrite concentration in wastewater effluent were observed. However, nanosilver exposure did not affect the growth of heterotrophs responsible for organic matter removal. Microbial community structure analysis indicated that the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrospira, had experienced population decrease while Nitrobacter was washed out after the shock loading.

  18. Bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant employing conventional activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kurumi; Matsuda, Masami; Inoue, Daisuke; Ike, Michihiko

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the relatedness among bacterial communities in the influent, effluent and sludge, the structure and metabolic ability of the bacterial community throughout a full-scale WWTP employing a conventional activated sludge process was investigated during a period of 10 months. The bacterial community structure was analyzed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting eubacterial 16S rRNA genes, while a Biolog assay was applied to assess the metabolic ability of the activated sludge. Influent bacterial community structure was generally stable. In contrast, the bacterial community structure in the effluent was similar to that in the influent in some cases, while in other cases it was unique and differed greatly from that in the influent and sludge. These results suggest that temporal variations of the effluent bacterial community may be useful to predict the wastewater treatment performance and settleability of activated sludge. The bacterial community structure in the sludge was relatively stable and was rarely impacted by the influent populations. Biolog assay also revealed that activated sludge maintained a remarkably similar metabolic potential of organic compounds over time due to functional redundancy, in which the minor populations played a significant role.

  19. Occurrence and risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge from different conventional treatment processes.

    PubMed

    González, M M; Martín, J; Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the concentrations of the organic pollutants nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO, respectively) in primary, secondary, mixed, aerobically-digested, anaerobically-digested, dehydrated, compost and lagoon sludge samples from different sludge treatments have been evaluated. Toxicological risk assessment of these compounds in sludge and sludge-amended soil has also been reported. NP, NP1EO and NP2EO were monitored in sludge samples obtained from treatment plants located in Andalusia (south of Spain) based on anaerobic treatments (11 anaerobic-digestion wastewater treatment plants and 3 anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds) or on aerobic treatments (3 aerobic-digestion wastewater treatment plants, 1 dehydration treatment plant and 2 composting plants). The sum of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO (NPE) concentrations has been evaluated in relation to the limit value of 50 mg/kg set by the European Union Sludge Directive draft published in April 2000 (Working Document on Sludge). In most of the samples, NP was present at higher concentration levels (mean value 88.0 mg/kg dm) than NP1EO (mean value 33.8 mg/kg dm) and NP2EO (mean value 14.0 mg/kg dm). The most contaminated samples were compost, anaerobically-digested sludge, lagoon sludge and aerobically-digested sludge samples, which contained NPE concentrations in the ranges 44-962 mg/kg dm, 8-669 mg/kg dm, 27-319 mg/kg dm and 61-282 mg/kg dm, respectively. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratios between environmental concentrations and the predicted no-effect concentrations, were higher than 1 for NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the 99%, 92% and 36% of the studied samples, respectively; and higher than 1 in the 86%, 6% and 2%, respectively, after sludge application to soil, leading to a significant ecotoxicological risk mainly due to the presence of NP. PMID:19896162

  20. Optimization of the preparation conditions of ceramic products using drinking water treatment sludges.

    PubMed

    Zamora, R M Ramirez; Ayala, F Espesel; Garcia, L Chavez; Moreno, A Duran; Schouwenaars, R

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize, via Response Surface Methodology, the values of the main process parameters for the production of ceramic products using sludges obtained from drinking water treatment in order to valorise them. In the first experimental stage, sludges were collected from a drinking water treatment plant for characterization. In the second stage, trials were carried out to elaborate thin cross-section specimens and fired bricks following an orthogonal central composite design of experiments with three factors (sludge composition, grain size and firing temperature) and five levels. The optimization parameters (Y(1)=shrinking by firing (%), Y(2)=water absorption (%), Y(3)=density (g/cm(3)) and Y(4)=compressive strength (kg/cm(2))) were determined according to standardized analytical methods. Two distinct physicochemical processes were active during firing at different conditions in the experimental design, preventing the determination of a full response surface, which would allow direct optimization of production parameters. Nevertheless, the temperature range for the production of classical red brick was closely delimitated by the results; above this temperature, a lightweight ceramic with surprisingly high strength was produced, opening possibilities for the valorisation of a product with considerably higher added value than what was originally envisioned.

  1. Effect of aluminium and sulphate on anaerobic digestion of sludge from wastewater enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabirol, N; Barragán, E J; Durán, A; Noyola, A

    2003-01-01

    The combined and individual effects of aluminium and sulphate at concentrations of 1,000 mg/l as Al(OH)3, and 150 mgSO4(2-)/L as K2SO4, respectively, on the anaerobic digestion of sludge from enhanced primary treatment (EPT) were evaluated in 1 L capacity semi continuous reactors. It was found that at 59 days, aluminium inhibits the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria resulting in a 50% to 72% decrease. Sulphate also inhibits (48% to 65%) the SMA of the same type of bacteria. Methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria were able to adapt, to a different extent, to the assayed concentrations of aluminium and sulphate. However, the combination of aluminium and sulphate resulted in a higher inhibition, especially of the hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria. Indeed, this effect remained during the time of the experiment, maintaining an inhibition of 44% at 114 days. Feeding with EPT sludge led to a bigger decrease in SMA of each bacterial group, with respect to the other treatments with time. It is concluded that the acidification of anaerobic reactors fed with EPT sludge is due, among other causes, to the concurrent presence of aluminium and sulphate.

  2. Fate of selected pharmaceuticals and synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during wastewater treatment and sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Vasilios G; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Mamais, Daniel; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2013-01-15

    The concentrations of nine emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (ibuprofen, IBF; naproxen, NPX; diclofenac, DCF; ketoprofen, KFN) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (triclosan, TCS; bisphenol, BPA; nonylphenol, NP; nonylphenol monoethoxylate, NP1EO; nonylphenol diethoxylate, NP2EO), were determined in wastewater and sludge samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Greece. Average concentrations in raw and treated wastewater ranged from 0.39 (KFN) to 12.52 μg L(-1) (NP) and from treatment ranged between 39% (DCF) and 100% (IBF). Except of DCF and BPA, similar removal efficiencies were observed in both WWTPs and no effect of WWTP's size and operational conditions was noticed. Use of mass balances showed that accumulation on sludge was a significant removal mechanism for NPs and TCS, while biodegradation/biotransformation was the major mechanism for the other compounds. Sampling of raw and digested sludge demonstrated that IBF and NPX are significantly removed (>80%) during anaerobic digestion, whereas removal of EDCs was lower, ranging up to 55% for NP1EO. PMID:23257325

  3. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

  4. Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Xing, Meiyan; Lu, Zhibo; Yan, Qiong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization.

  5. Treatment of mixed municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process: a case study.

    PubMed

    Brucculeri, M; Bolzonella, D; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of co-treating municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process was studied at full scale. The wastewater treatment plant considered in this paper operated an extended-oxidation process during vintage (four month per year) and a pre-denitrification/ oxidation process during the rest of the year. The experimentation showed that good performances, in terms of COD and nitrogen removal, could be obtained in both cases: 90% and 60%, for COD and nitrogen removal, respectively. Thanks to the high solid retention times applied to the system (up to 48 days) the waste activated sludge production was low (0.20 kgMLVSS/kgCODremoved) and respiration was the main process for carbon removal. Nitrification was always satisfactory while the behaviour of the denitrification process during vintage was not totally understood and further studies are going on. PMID:15771103

  6. Toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to ciliated protozoa Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Beata; Fyda, Janusz; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba, Wioleta; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Sobczyk, Mateusz

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the toxicity of ammonia ions to Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus (Protozoa) isolated from activated sludge taken from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in southern Poland. Stentor coeruleus is a rarely occurring species in activated sludge, unlike the widespread Coleps hirtus. The mean LC50 values (concentration causing 50 % mortality) calculated for the 24 h tests differed hugely between the tested species: 43.03 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Stentor coeruleus and 441.12 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Coleps hirtus. The ammonia ion concentration apparently is an important factor in the occurrence of these protozoan species in activated sludge. PMID:22976439

  7. An energy- and resource-saving technology for utilizing the sludge from thermal power station water treatment facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Khusaenova, A. Z.

    2014-05-01

    A method for utilizing production wastes is considered, and a process circuit arrangement is proposed for utilizing a mixture of activated silt and sludge from chemical water treatment by incinerating it with possible heat recovery. The sorption capacity of the products from combusting a mixture of activated silt and sludge with respect to gaseous emissions is experimentally determined. A periodic-duty adsorber charged with a fixed bed of sludge is calculated, and the heat-recovery boiler efficiency is estimated together with the technical-economic indicators of the proposed utilization process circuit arrangement.

  8. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 μg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 μg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 μg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1).

  9. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop. Second Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. The body of the text provides content information, procedure outlines,…

  10. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production. PMID:25690681

  11. Removal of Cu(II) ions by biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) prior to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit: a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing Cu(II) ions was realized in an activated sludge unit with pre-adsorption of Cu(II) onto powdered waste sludge (PWS). Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate Cu(II), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions. The independent variables were the solids retention time (SRT, 5-30 d), hydraulic residence time (HRT, 5-25 h), feed Cu(II) concentration (0-50 mg L(-1)) and PWS loading rate (0-4 g h(-1)) while percent Cu(II), COD, toxicity (TOX) removals and the sludge volume index (SVI) were the objective functions. The data were correlated with a quadratic response function (R2=0.99). Cu(II), COD and toxicity removals increased with increasing PWS loading rate and SRT while decreasing with the increasing feed Cu(II) concentration and HRT. Optimum conditions resulting in maximum Cu(II), COD, toxicity removals and SVI values were found to be SRT of 30 d, HRT 15 h, PWS loading rate 3 g h(-1) and feed Cu(II) concentration of less than 30 mg L(-1).

  12. Fate and removal of permethrin by conventional activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Reif, R; Hillis, P; Judd, S J

    2011-01-01

    The fate and removal of permethrin during conventional wastewater treatment were evaluated at pilot-plant scale at different concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and, hence, different solids retention times (SRT). At feed concentrations of 0.26-0.86 microg L(-1), the permethrin was removed by primary treatment at an efficiency rate of 37%, similar to previously reported data, and from 40% to 83% for secondary treatment, decreasing with decreasing SRT. Comparable ranges, from 37% up to 98%, have been reported for micropollutants with similar physicochemical properties to permethrin, such as galaxolide and tonalide. Little difference in removal was noted between the medium and low MLSS concentrations trials, the main difference in treated effluent permethrin concentration arising on changing from high to medium MLSS levels. This was attributed to the limited acclimatization period employed in these two trials, leading to higher levels of soluble organic matter in the treated water, with which the permethrin appeared to be associated. PMID:21970178

  13. Characteristic of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plants near Varna city and possibilities for use in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marinova-Garvanska, S

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years numerous stations were built for purification of wastewaters in the country. Such a station was opened in Varna town on the Black sea cost. At purification of wastewaters a huge amount of sludge is received. The sludge is accumulated in the WWTP premises, thus hampering its functioning and polluting the environment. The aim of this investigation was to determine the chemical characteristics of the sludge from this station, considering the different modes of treatment: the sludge compactor and the drying beds after some stay. With the sludge from Varna Purification station a pot experiment was set to determine at what levels of loading with sludge the soils differ from each other by the biomass yield and heavy metals content. During the experiment two crops were grown: rape-fodder and rye-grass harvested in two cuts to follow the effects of the sludge use and the post effect in controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out on four soil units: Calcareous Chernozem, Leached Smolnitsa, Leached Cinnamonic Forest soil and Grey Forest soil (Calcic Chernozem, Haplic Vertisol, and two Chromic Luvisols from South and North Bulgaria, respectively).

  14. [Effects of Hydrothermal Treatment Time on the Transformations of N, P, K and Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-dong; Lin, Jing-jiang; Li, Zhi-wei; Chao, Huan-ping; Yu, Guang-wei; Wang, Yin

    2016-03-15

    Hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of sewage sludge was conducted, focusing on the influence of HTT time on the dewaterability of sludge and transformations of elements N, P, K and heavy metals. The results showed that at a hydrotherma temperature of 160°C, with HTT time increasing from 30 to 120 min, the sludge dewatering performance was significantly improved. The transfer rate of N element in the sludge transferring to aqueous product increased gradually. Almost all of P element remained in the solid phase, and most of K element (57%-62%) was still in the solid phase although it was more easily transferred to the liquid phase than P element. The transferring behavior of heavy metals during the HTT related to their own properties, and their transferring behaviors were different with the increase of HTT time. Compared with the raw sludge, the contents of Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb in the dewatered sludge increased significantly, As increased slowly, while Ni and Cd were first lower than those in raw sludge, and then increased with the prolonging HTT time. PMID:27337899

  15. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Høibye, L; Clauson-Kaas, J; Wenzel, H; Larsen, H F; Jacobsen, B N; Dalgaard, O

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals.

  16. Coagulant selection and sludge conditioning in a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, N Z; Hamoda, M F; Al-Ghusain, I

    2004-11-01

    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of polymer addition to the aeration tank effluent prior to sludge flotation as practiced in a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. The plant currently uses 10 mg/l of polymer prior to sludge flotation, but alternative, less-expensive, chemicals such as alum could be equally effective. Therefore, experiments were conducted using the Standard Jar test to determine the performance of both alum (Al2SO4.6H2O) and organic polymer. The dosages used for alum ranged between 0 and 1000 mg/l, whereas polymer dosages varied between 0 and 90 mg/l. The (optimal) removal efficiency for suspended solids in the mixed liquor was obtained at 400 mg/l for alum and 30 mg/l for polymer. It is evident that addition of alum or polymer results in significant removal of suspended solids reaching up to 99% for alum and 96% for polymer but alum produced a more compacted sludge. Removal of filterable COD was much lower in both cases since the chemicals used target the colloidal and suspended portion of the COD rather than the soluble (filterable) part of the COD. PMID:15246434

  17. Evaluation of granular sludge for secondary treatment of saline municipal sewage.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Ben; Reid, Katherine; Middlemiss, Kyra; Krampe, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the impact of chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on the stability and performance of granular sludge treating high saline municipal sewage. Under high DO concentrations of 4.0-7.0 mg/L, and COD loading rates of 0.98 and 1.55 kg/m(3)/d, rapid settling granules were established within four weeks of start-up. Under the highest COD load, a reduction in DO lead to the rapid deterioration of the sludge volume index (SVI) and washout of granules due to prolific growth of the filament Thiothrix Type 021N. Conversely, when operated under a lower COD load, a reduction in DO concentration had no adverse impact on the stability of SVI and granules. A decrease in DO also improved nitrogen removal performance, where simultaneous removal of ammonium (98%), total nitrogen (86%) and BOD5 (98%) were achieved when median DO concentrations were between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L. Phosphate removal was lower than expected, however the level of biological phosphate removal activity observed appeared sufficient to maintain granule stability, even under low DO concentrations. Nitrous oxide emissions were also characterised, which ranged between 2.3 and 6.8% of the total nitrogen load. Our results confirmed that granular sludge is a viable option for the treatment of saline sewage.

  18. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendram, William

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW) with sewage sludge (SS), that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP) increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284 ± 9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS. PMID:27689091

  19. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendram, William

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW) with sewage sludge (SS), that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP) increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284 ± 9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS.

  20. Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A

    2015-04-01

    A pilot-scale process was operated over 22 months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55 °C) produced centrate (6-9.4 gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42 °C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39 gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5 gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities.

  1. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, E; Arnell, M; Flores-Alsina, X; Stenström, F; Gustavsson, D J I; Yang, J; Jeppsson, U

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O production by both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In addition, mass transfer equations are implemented to characterize the dynamics of N2O in the water and the gas phases. The biochemical model is simulated and validated for two hydraulic patterns: (1) a sequencing batch reactor; and (2) a moving-bed biofilm reactor. Results show that the calibrated model is partly capable of reproducing the behaviour of N2O as well as the nitritation/nitrification/denitrification dynamics. However, the results emphasize that additional work is required before N2O emissions from sludge liquor treatment plants can be generally predicted with high certainty by simulations. Continued efforts should focus on determining the switching conditions for different N2O formation pathways and, if full-scale data are used, more detailed modelling of the measurement devices might improve the conclusions that can be drawn.

  2. Cost-effective treatment of organic sludges in a high rate bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dhuldhoya, N.; Lemen, J.; Martin, B.; Myers, J.

    1996-12-31

    The design and pilot testing of a deep fixed bed/attached growth high rate bioreactor (HRB) for treatment and disposal of refinery oily sludges and biosolids are described. The HRB technology is being jointly developed by Texaco Inc. and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation to allow for the processing of refinery oily sludges, biosolids, and contaminated soils. A key feature of the technology is its integral combination of dewatering, landfarming, and digestion operations. In essence, the technology operates as a combination of landfarm, aerobic digester, and trickling filter for semi-solids/sludges. The system provides biological degradation of wastes, and features optimal air, water and/or solids recycling, and easy of maintenance. The technology is covered by three separate patents and is particularly applicable at facilities where regulations, climatic conditions, and/or land availability limit the use of conventional land-based units. This paper reviews current and proposed regulations pertaining to {open_quotes}land-banned{close_quotes} wastes, and presents our experience with regard to design and operation of the prototype unit. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Hybrid life-cycle environmental and cost inventory of sewage sludge treatment and end-use scenarios: a case study from China.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ashley; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2008-05-01

    Sewage sludge management poses environmental, economic, and political challenges for wastewater treatment plants and municipalities around the globe. To facilitate more informed and sustainable decision making, this study used life-cycle inventory (LCI) to expand upon previous process-based LCIs of sewage sludge treatmenttechnologies. Additionally, the study evaluated an array of productive end-use options for treated sewage sludge, such as fertilizer and as an input into construction materials, to determine how the sustainability of traditional manufacturing processes changes with sludge as a replacement for other raw inputs. The inclusion of the life-cycle of necessary inputs (such as lime) used in sludge treatment significantly impacts the sustainability profiles of different treatment and end-use schemes. Overall, anaerobic digestion is generally the optimal treatment technology whereas incineration, particularly if coal-fired, is the most environmentally and economically costly. With respect to sludge end use, offsets are greatest for the use of sludge as fertilizer, but all of the productive uses of sludge can improve the sustainability of conventional manufacturing practices. The results are intended to help inform and guide decisions about sludge handling for existing wastewater treatment plants and those that are still in the planning phase in cities around the world. Although additional factors must be considered when selecting a sludge treatment and end-use scheme, this study highlights how a systems approach to planning can contribute significantly to improving overall environmental sustainability.

  4. Continuous flow aerobic granular sludge reactor for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bumbac, C; Ionescu, I A; Tiron, O; Badescu, V R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the treatment performance and granule progression over time within a continuous flow reactor. A continuous flow airlift reactor was seeded with aerobic granules from a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and fed with dairy wastewater. Stereomicroscopic investigations showed that the granules maintained their integrity during the experimental period. Laser diffraction investigation showed proof of new granules formation with 100-500 μm diameter after only 2 weeks of operation. The treatment performances were satisfactory and more or less similar to the ones obtained from the SBR. Thus, removal efficiencies of 81-93% and 85-94% were observed for chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, respectively. The N-NH(+)(4) was nitrified with removal efficiencies of 83-99% while the nitrate produced was simultaneously denitrified - highest nitrate concentration determined in the effluent was 4.2 mg/L. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen was between 52 and 80% depending on influent nitrogen load (39.3-76.2 mg/L). Phosphate removal efficiencies ranged between 65 and above 99% depending on the influent phosphate concentration, which varied between 11.2 and 28.3 mg/L.

  5. Continuous flow aerobic granular sludge reactor for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bumbac, C; Ionescu, I A; Tiron, O; Badescu, V R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to assess the treatment performance and granule progression over time within a continuous flow reactor. A continuous flow airlift reactor was seeded with aerobic granules from a laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and fed with dairy wastewater. Stereomicroscopic investigations showed that the granules maintained their integrity during the experimental period. Laser diffraction investigation showed proof of new granules formation with 100-500 μm diameter after only 2 weeks of operation. The treatment performances were satisfactory and more or less similar to the ones obtained from the SBR. Thus, removal efficiencies of 81-93% and 85-94% were observed for chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, respectively. The N-NH(+)(4) was nitrified with removal efficiencies of 83-99% while the nitrate produced was simultaneously denitrified - highest nitrate concentration determined in the effluent was 4.2 mg/L. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen was between 52 and 80% depending on influent nitrogen load (39.3-76.2 mg/L). Phosphate removal efficiencies ranged between 65 and above 99% depending on the influent phosphate concentration, which varied between 11.2 and 28.3 mg/L. PMID:25714645

  6. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) regulation of nutrient removal in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Bishop, P

    2002-01-01

    Redox potential (ORP) regulation of nutrient removal in aeration tanks was tested for one year in three activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in Cincinnati, OH. The experiment results show a good relationship between ORP values and nutrient removal. Macro-biodegradation and sorption of substrate by activated sludge can significantly increase wastewater ORP, indicating the improvement of redox status of the bulk liquor. DO higher than 1.0 mg/L is necessary for good biodegradation and the improvement of liquid redox status. ORP values at higher temperatures (Twater = 20-26 degrees C) were lower than ORP values at lower temperatures (Twater = 14-19 degrees C), caused by the lower oxygen saturation capacity in wastewater and the more rapid oxygen consumption by microorganism under warmer conditions. Nitrification occurred at higher ORP values (380 mV) than did organic substrate oxidation (250 mV). This verifies that different metabolic processes dominate in different ORP ranges. The pilot-scale experiment results demonstrate that the wastewater ORP values continued to increase throughout the whole 6-hour cycle when the influent COD was higher than 1,000 mg/L. For influent with low COD (40-120 mg/L), the wastewater ORP values did not increase in the second 3 hours of the cycle, during which time the microbial-biodegradation within the activated sludge floc dominated. High DO concentrations (6-8 mg/L) did not help improve the redox status. In fully-aerated wastewater, oxygen deeply penetrated into the activated sludge flocs, and microorganisms biodegraded the substrates within the flocs. Endogenous metabolism predominated.

  7. Behaviour of pathogenic and indicator bacteria during urban wastewater treatment and sludge composting, as revealed by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wéry, Nathalie; Lhoutellier, Claire; Ducray, Florence; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Two enteric pathogens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni, and two bacteria commonly used as indicators, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, were monitored using quantitative real-time PCR during municipal wastewater treatment and sludge composting. The results were compared with those obtained using standard culture methods. A reduction of all bacteria was observed during wastewater treatment and during the thermophilic phase of composting. However, the bacterial groups studied behaved differently during the process, and the main differences were observed during biological treatment in activated sludge basins. In particular, Salmonella spp. and C. jejuni survived better during activated sludge treatment than E. coli. C. jejuni was the most resistant to wastewater treatment among the four bacterial groups. Overall, differences in survival were observed for all bacteria studied, when submitted to the same environmental pressure. This holds both for differences between indicators and pathogenic bacteria and between pathogenic bacteria. These results show the difficulty in defining reliable indicators.

  8. A study for the thermal treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge with gas-agitated double screw type dryer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hey-Suk; Shin, Mi-Soo; Jang, Dong-Soon; Na, Eun-Soo

    2005-01-01

    A specially designed dryer has been developed for the thermal treatment of dehydrated, highly viscous sewage sludge with moisture content more than 80 wt.% by an gas-agitated, double-screw type dryer system. The treatment capacity of sludge dryer was about 100 kg/h. It consists of burner, feeding hopper, hot gas supplying ducts with double screw conveyor, damper and outlets of drying gas and dried material. The sewage sludge was transported by the revolution of the cylinder conveyor together with the tumbling and mixing action of the screw and lifters. The heating of the sludge was made efficient by the combination action of conduction and convection modes together with the gas-agitation process. The conduction occurred across the surface of the combustor cylinder, the convection was made by the flue gas interaction over the sludge and the agitation action through holes of conveyor cylinder into the bottom of the sludge. The number and location of gas-agitation holes and thereby the fraction of drying gas into the agitation holes were evaluated by numerical calculation of turbulent reacting flow. To evaluate the performance of the dryer developed in this study, a series of parametric experiments were performed in terms of important variables. In general drying process occurred successfully even for the highly agglomerating municipal sewage sludge through the first lumped plastic phase to a fine granulate state when the heat and mass balance was matched by adjusting rpm of the conveyor, burner capacity, and the fraction of gas-agitation. Further the avoidance of initial sludge agglomeration was considered to be important by the combination action of screw and lifter. The weight of the sludge was reduced approximately by 60% and therefore the volume of sludge was decreased to approximately 75% of initial volume with the water content of 10-20%. Energy efficiency of dryer was evaluated in the range of 70-75% at the sludge feed rate, 100 kg/h. The results obtained show

  9. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered.

  10. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

  11. Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens. [Treatment of sewage sludge for land application

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges.

  12. Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Song, Geum-Ju; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Studies on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative brominated flame retardants in the environment are scarce. In this study, PBDEs and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were measured in sludge collected from three types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) in sludge ranged from 298 to 48,000 (mean: 3240) ng/g dry weight. Among 10 NBFRs analyzed, DBDPE and BTBPE were the only ones detected in sludge samples. Concentrations of DBDPE and BTBPE ranged from sludge were higher than those reported in other countries. The highest concentrations of ∑PBDE and DBDPE were found in sludge samples originated from industrial-WWTPs (I-WWTPs), suggesting that industrial activities are a major source of these contaminants. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that congener profiles of PBDEs in sludge are dependent on the types of WWTPs. Almost all sludge samples contained a low ratio (mean: 0.18) of DBDPE/BDE 209, indicating an on-going contamination by PBDEs in Korea. However, the high ratios (>1) of DBDPE/BDE 209 were found in sludge from I-WWTPs, reflecting a shift in the usage pattern of BFRs by the Korean industry. The nationwide annual emission fluxes of ∑PBDE, DBDPE and BTBPE via WWTPs to the environment were estimated to be 7400, 480, and 3.7 kg/year, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from Korea.

  13. Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Song, Geum-Ju; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Studies on the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other alternative brominated flame retardants in the environment are scarce. In this study, PBDEs and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), were measured in sludge collected from three types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) in sludge ranged from 298 to 48,000 (mean: 3240) ng/g dry weight. Among 10 NBFRs analyzed, DBDPE and BTBPE were the only ones detected in sludge samples. Concentrations of DBDPE and BTBPE ranged from sludge were higher than those reported in other countries. The highest concentrations of ∑PBDE and DBDPE were found in sludge samples originated from industrial-WWTPs (I-WWTPs), suggesting that industrial activities are a major source of these contaminants. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that congener profiles of PBDEs in sludge are dependent on the types of WWTPs. Almost all sludge samples contained a low ratio (mean: 0.18) of DBDPE/BDE 209, indicating an on-going contamination by PBDEs in Korea. However, the high ratios (>1) of DBDPE/BDE 209 were found in sludge from I-WWTPs, reflecting a shift in the usage pattern of BFRs by the Korean industry. The nationwide annual emission fluxes of ∑PBDE, DBDPE and BTBPE via WWTPs to the environment were estimated to be 7400, 480, and 3.7 kg/year, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from Korea. PMID:23993837

  14. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  15. Fate of cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in municipal wastewater during activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rivera, Francisco; Field, James A; Brown, Dustin; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the fate of nano-CeO(2) during municipal wastewater treatment using a laboratory-scale activated sludge (A/S) system fed with primarily-treated municipal wastewater and nano-CeO(2) (55.0 mg Ce/L). Nano-CeO(2) was highly removed during A/S treatment (96.6% total Ce). Extensive removal of CeO(2) <200 nm was also attained and the concentration escaping treatment was only 0.11 mg Ce/L. Elimination occurred mainly by aggregation and settling of CeO(2) particles, promoted by circumneutral pH values and by nanoparticle interactions with organic and/or inorganic wastewater constituents. Biosorption also contributed to CeO(2) removal as shown by sludge analysis and batch adsorption studies. Batch bioassays demonstrated that nano-CeO(2) only exerted inhibition of O(2) uptake by A/S at concentrations exceeding those in the bioreactor feed (50% inhibition at 950 mg CeO(2)/L). These findings indicate that A/S treatment is expected to provide extensive removal of nano-CeO(2) in municipal wastewaters.

  16. A review of the technological solutions for the treatment of oily sludges from petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Leonardo Jordão; Alves, Flávia Chaves; de França, Francisca Pessôa

    2012-10-01

    The activities of the oil industry have several impacts on the environment due to the large amounts of oily wastes that are generated. The oily sludges are a semi-solid material composed by a mixture of clay, silica and iron oxides contaminated with oil, produced water and the chemicals used in the production of oil. Nowadays both the treatment and management of these waste materials is essential to promote sustainable management of exploration and exploitation of natural resources. Biological, physical and chemical processes can be used to reduce environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons to acceptable levels. The choice of treatment method depends on the physical and chemical properties of the waste as well as the availability of facilities to process these wastes. Literature provides some operations for treatment of oily sludges, such as landfilling, incineration, co-processing in clinkerization furnaces, microwave liquefaction, centrifugation, destructive distillation, thermal plasma, low-temperature conversion, incorporation in ceramic materials, development of impermeable materials, encapsulation and biodegradation in land farming, biopiles and bioreactors. The management of the technology to be applied for the treatment of oily wastes is essential to promote proper environmental management, and provide alternative methods to reduce, reuse and recycle the wastes.

  17. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge: effect of sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels; Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    A complete characterization of sewage sludge collected from five biological waste water treatment plants was done to determine physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and alkylphenols, making special emphasis on sampling, homogenization, and sample pre-treatment. Ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatrography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the effect of sample pre-treatment (untreated sample, freeze-drying, drying at 40 degrees C or drying at 100 degrees C) on the concentration of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP1EO, NP2EO). Untreated samples and samples dried at 100 degrees C gave concentration levels up to 62% and 89% lower, respectively, than freeze-dried samples. In 50% of cases, freeze-dried samples led to significantly higher concentrations than those obtained by drying at 40 degrees C. Thus, freeze-drying is the recommended sample pre-treatment to prevent possible losses of OP, NP, and NP1EO. Using this methodology, concentrations detected were from 3.2 to 199 mg kg(-1) being NP followed by NP1EO found in highest concentration. The total concentration of NP and NP1EO exceeded the limit of 50 mg kg(-1) proposed by the draft European directive on sewage sludge in three out of five samples studied. Contrarily, heavy metals were below the legislated values. PMID:19305980

  18. Stepwise calibration of the activated sludge model no. 1 at a partially denitrifying large wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Fall, C; Espinosa-Rodriguez, M A; Flores-Alamo, N; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Hooijmans, C M

    2011-11-01

    Activated sludge modeling technology is maturing; however, currently, there exists a great need to increase its use in daily engineering practice worldwide. A good way for building the capacities of the practitioners is to promote good modeling practices and standardize the protocols. In this study, a systematic procedure was proposed to calibrate the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) at a large wastewater treatment plant, by which the model adequately predicted the quality of the effluent and the sludge quantities. A hydraulics model was set up and validated through a tracer test. The Vesilind settling constants were measured and combined with the default value of the flocculent zone settling parameter, to calibrate the clarifiers. A virtual anoxic tank was installed in the return activated sludge to mimic the denitrification occurring in the settlers. In ASM1, the calibrated parameters were only two influent chemical oxygen demand fractions and one kinetic constant (oxygen half-saturation coefficient).

  19. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow. PMID:23073101

  20. Understanding the distribution, degradation and fate of organophosphate esters in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant based on mass flow and mass balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kang; Liu, Jingfu

    2016-02-15

    Although organophosphate esters (OPEs) in the ambient environment are from sewage treatment plants due to the discharge of effluent and application of sludge, the distribution, degradation and fate of OPEs in advanced municipal sewage treatment plants remain unclear. This work focused on the use of mass flow and mass balance analysis to understand the behaviors and fate of 14 OPEs in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant. OPEs were detected in all sewage water and sludge samples with total OPEs (ΣOPEs) concentrations of 1399 ± 263 ng/L in raw sewage aqueous phase, 833 ± 175 ng/L in tertiary effluent aqueous phase, and 315 ± 89 ng/g dry weight in dewatered sludge. The dissolved concentrations of ΣOPEs significantly decreased during biological treatment, whereas negligible decrease was observed in mechanical and physical-chemical treatments. For individual OPE, the chlorinated tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) did not decrease but increased during both biological treatment and physical-chemical treatment. Mass flow analysis indicated the total removal efficiency of ΣOPEs in aqueous phase was 40.5%, and the polarity-specific removal efficiencies for individual OPE were positively related to their solid-water partition coefficients (Kd). Furthermore, mass balance results showed that 53.1% and 6.3% of the initial OPE mass flow were eventually transferred to the effluents and dewatered sludge, respectively, while the remaining 39.9% and 0.7% were lost due to biodegradation and physical-chemical treatment, respectively. It was indicated that the activated sludge treatment system with anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic bioreactors was a major factor in the removal of OPEs from the raw sewage, while transfer to dewatered sludge governed by hydrophobic interactions was limited during the sewage treatment. Meanwhile, the degradation difference of OPEs in activated sludge treatment was more related with their molecular

  1. Understanding the distribution, degradation and fate of organophosphate esters in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant based on mass flow and mass balance analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kang; Liu, Jingfu

    2016-02-15

    Although organophosphate esters (OPEs) in the ambient environment are from sewage treatment plants due to the discharge of effluent and application of sludge, the distribution, degradation and fate of OPEs in advanced municipal sewage treatment plants remain unclear. This work focused on the use of mass flow and mass balance analysis to understand the behaviors and fate of 14 OPEs in an advanced municipal sewage treatment plant. OPEs were detected in all sewage water and sludge samples with total OPEs (ΣOPEs) concentrations of 1399 ± 263 ng/L in raw sewage aqueous phase, 833 ± 175 ng/L in tertiary effluent aqueous phase, and 315 ± 89 ng/g dry weight in dewatered sludge. The dissolved concentrations of ΣOPEs significantly decreased during biological treatment, whereas negligible decrease was observed in mechanical and physical-chemical treatments. For individual OPE, the chlorinated tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) did not decrease but increased during both biological treatment and physical-chemical treatment. Mass flow analysis indicated the total removal efficiency of ΣOPEs in aqueous phase was 40.5%, and the polarity-specific removal efficiencies for individual OPE were positively related to their solid-water partition coefficients (Kd). Furthermore, mass balance results showed that 53.1% and 6.3% of the initial OPE mass flow were eventually transferred to the effluents and dewatered sludge, respectively, while the remaining 39.9% and 0.7% were lost due to biodegradation and physical-chemical treatment, respectively. It was indicated that the activated sludge treatment system with anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic bioreactors was a major factor in the removal of OPEs from the raw sewage, while transfer to dewatered sludge governed by hydrophobic interactions was limited during the sewage treatment. Meanwhile, the degradation difference of OPEs in activated sludge treatment was more related with their molecular

  2. Production of porous carbonaceous adsorbent from physical activation of sewage sludge: application to wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rio, S; Le Coq, L; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2006-01-01

    With an objective of production of carbonaceous sorbent for industrial effluent treatment, physical activation by steam of biological sludge collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Nantes (France) was studied and optimised using experimental design. Thus, this activation process consists of a carbonisation under N2 atmosphere at 600 degrees C for 1 h, followed by a thermal oxidation using steam (760 degrees C, 0.5 h, 2.5 L/Umin). The global mass yield of the process is equal to 38%. The thermal treatment allows a specific surface area of up to 225 m2/g to be reached, the porous structure being composed of both micropores and mesopores. The content of acidic surface groups is 0.71 mEq/g whereas that of basic surface groups is 0.55 mEq/g. The adsorption properties of the sorbent made from sludge are estimated with regard to various pollutants representative of industrial pollution of wastewaters and compared with those of commercial activated carbon. Whereas the adsorption capacities of organic micropollutants are quite low because of proportionality to the microporosity, the important mesoporosity of the sorbent leads to interesting properties for macromolecules removal from aqueous solutions, such as dyes (q(m) = 175-200 mg/g). Furthermore, the surface functional groups and Ca2+ ions within the materials allow high copper ion adsorption capacities of 140 mg/g to be obtained. Finally, a techno-economic approach shows that the sludge activation process seems to be economically competitive with regard to incineration.

  3. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge.

  5. Integrated fungal biomass and activated sludge treatment for textile wastewaters bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Spina, Federica; Romagnolo, Alice; Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2012-11-01

    A combined biological process was investigated for effective textile wastewater treatment. The process consisted of a first step performed by selected fungal biomasses, mainly devoted to the effluent decolourisation, and of a subsequent stage by means of activated sludge, in order to reduce the remaining COD and toxicity. In particular, the treatment with Trametes pubescens MUT 2400, selected over nine strains, achieved very good results in respect to all parameters. The final scale-up phase in a moving bed bioreactor with the supported biomass of the fungus allowed to verify the effectiveness of the treatment with high volumes. Despite promising results, further steps must be taken in order to optimize the use of these biomasses for a full exploitation of their oxidative potential in textile wastewater treatment.

  6. Improved azo dye decolorization in an advanced integrated system of bioelectrochemical module with surrounding electrode deployment and anaerobic sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanying; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    A new integrated system, embedding a modular bioelectrochemical system (BES) with surrounding electrode deployment into an anaerobic sludge reactor (ASR), was developed to improve azo dye decolorization. Results demonstrated that the AO7 decolorization and COD removal can be improved without co-substrate in such system. The kinetic rate of decolorization (0.54h(-1)) in integrated system was 1.4-fold and 54.0-fold higher than that in biocathode BES (0.39h(-1)) and ASR (0.01h(-1)), respectively. COD can be removed after cleavage of azo bond, different from biocathode BES. The combined advantages of this integrated system were achieved by the cooperation of biocathode in modular BES and sludge in ASR. Biocathode was a predominant factor in AO7 decolorization, and anaerobic sludge contributed negligibly to AO7 reduction decolorization but mostly in the COD removal. These results demonstrated the great potential of integrating a BES module with anaerobic treatment process for azo dye treatment.

  7. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Changxiu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an

    2015-11-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO4(3-) concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U+F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better.

  8. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements.

  9. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants optimisation to face pollution overloads during grape harvest periods.

    PubMed

    Beck, C; Prades, G; Sadowski, A G

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of our study was to optimise a municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to face high organic flows due to viticulture effluents inputs. Treatment file optimization consisted in testing different treatment lines, changing the number and volume of biological basins and clarifiers, with or without a buffer basin upstream, with a view to achieving a better reduction of COD. The actual WWTP biological stage is composed of two aerated basins whose total volume is 1365 m3. The studied cases are successively, the installation of a single basin of 1365 m3, then of several basins whose total volume remains constant and equal to 1365 m3. Another case was also considered, that of an aerated basin followed by a first clarifier and then, by another aerated basin and a second clarifier. All scenarios presented below were evaluated, for standard dry weather conditions and for high organic load conditions, as encountered during the grape harvest period. The method used was to carry out various simulations, using numerical modelling, and to compare the impact of different process line scenarios and management strategies on the activated sludge WWTP efficiencies.

  10. Releasing characteristics of phosphorus and other substances during thermal treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tao; Huang, Xia

    2007-01-01

    The releasing characteristics of phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations during thermal treatment of excess sludge were investigated. It was found that during heating not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen compounds, organics, and some metal cations could be released in abundance. The maximum orthophosphate (ortho-P) release of about 90 mg/L in concentration was observed at 50 degrees C in 1 h. Except for volatile fatty acids (VFAs), comparatively little total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and metal cations were released at the same time. Such results might favor further process of phosphorus recovery. VFAs were considerably released only at 50 degrees C. Acetic, butyric, and propionic acid were the most abundant components in turn and their releasing profiles exhibited good linear relationship with time (R2 = 0.9977, 0.9624, and 0.8908, respectively). The concentrations of Mg2+ and K+ increased with time and temperature during thermal treatment, but Ca2+ decreased. The release of Mg2+ and K+ agreed well with TP release (R2 = 0.9892 and 0.9476, respectively). Temperature in the experimental range had very little impact on the linear relationships, especially of Mg2+. Moreover, the parameter of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was found to be an important factor for thermal sludge treatment as the released ortho-P and total phosphorus (TP) at 50 degrees C increased more than one-fold when MLSS was increased from 4000 to 8000 mg/L.

  11. Feasibility study of the applicability of the activated sludge process to treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Akio; Nishimaki, Kenzo

    1997-12-31

    The authors used an activated sludge process to treat radioactive organic liquid waste. Organic liquid waste is difficult to treat by conventional radioactive liquid treatment processes, but in order to reduce long-term irradiation of the public the removal of radionuclides from such waste is preferable to dilution. Activated sludge processes are widely used for the biological treatment of sewage and are considered appropriate means for treating radioactive organic liquid waste. In this process, the fate of radionuclides eluted by treated water or immobilized by activated sludge, is extremely important for public safety and for the treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste. The authors performed uptake and desorption behavior experiments on the three short half-life radionuclides {sup 134}Cs, {sup 57}Co and {sup 85}Sr, and used three nutritive types of artificial sewage as the feed solution. On the basis of the results, they discuss the uptake-desorption behavior of these radionuclides in an activated sludge process. The authors conclude that treatment of radioactive organic liquid waste by an activated sludge process is possible, but improvements must be made in the process if it is to be more effective.

  12. Solar assisted sludge and energy recycling disposal system utilizing the old Princeton sewage treatment and solid waste incineration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Slaby, S.M.

    1980-12-01

    Princeton, New Jersey, a town of 30,000 people is in a unique position to utilize solid waste and sewage sludge as supplementary energy sources. The Stony Brook Sewage Authority recently constructed a new twenty million dollar sewage treatment plant next to the old sewage treatment plant which served the community of Princeton for forty years. On the site of the old plant is an abandoned incinerator plant which presently is being used as a transfer station. The new sewage treatment plant is disposing of its sludge by burning it in multiple hearth furnaces using sixty gallons of precious oil to do this. The proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center is designed to be retrofitted with solar sludge dryers to dry the sewage sludge which would be transported by conveyer to the old incinerator plant where it would be mixed with garbage and be burned in rehabilitated furnaces which would be retrofitted for steam generators, a steam engine driven electric generator and air pollution control equipment. It is estimated that the proposed energy recycling center would fulfill all electrical needs of the new sewage treatment plant in addition to solving the solid waste and sludge disposal problems of the Princeton community. The paper presents a detailed discussion on the proposed Princeton Energy Recycling Center.

  13. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment.

  14. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:23880131

  15. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge. PMID:27054741

  16. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  17. Anaerobic treatment of activated sludge from Swedish pulp and paper mills--biogas production potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna; Truong, Xu-Bin; Gustavsson, Jenny; Svensson, Bo H; Nilsson, Fredrik; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2011-10-01

    The methane potential of activated sludge from six Swedish pulp and paper mills was evaluated. The methane production potential of sludge samples ranged from 100-200 NmL CH4 g(-1) volatile solids (VS) and for four of the six sludge samples the potential exceeded 170 NmL CH4 g(-1) VS. The effects of sludge age and dewatering on the methane production potential were evaluated. The effects of enzymatic and ultrasonic pre-treatment on the digestibility of sludge were also investigated, but energy or enzyme inputs in viable ranges did not exert a detectable, positive effect. Long-term, semi-continuous trials with sludge from two of the mills were also conducted in attempts to develop stable biogas production at loading rates up to 4 g VS L(-1). Cobalt addition (0.5 mg L(-1)) was here found to positively affect the turnover of acetate. High viscosity was a problem in all the experimental reactors and this limited the organic loading rate.

  18. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  19. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  20. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time.

  1. Application of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for treatment of complex wastewaters at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, I.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for the treatment of potato starch wastewater at low ambient temperatures was demonstrated by operating two 5.65 l reactors at 14 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. The organic space loading rates achieved in these laboratory-scale reactors were 3 kg COD/cubic m/day at 14 degrees C and 4-5 kg COD/cubic m/day at 20 degrees C. The corresponding sludge loading rates were 0.12 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 14 degrees C and 0.16-0.18 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 20 degrees C. These findings are of considerable practical importance because application of anaerobic treatment at low ambient temperatures will lead to considerable savings in energy needed for operating the process. As compared with various other anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, a granular sludge upflow process represents one of the best options developed so far. Although the overall sludge yield under psychrophilic conditions is slightly higher than under optimal mesophilic conditions, this doesn't seriously hamper the operation of the process. The extra sludge yield, due to accumulation of slowly hydrolyzing substrate ingredients, was 4.75% of the COD input at 14 degrees C and 1.22% of the COD input at 20 degrees C. 26 references.

  2. A novel conversion of the groundwater treatment sludge to magnetic particles for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suiyi; Fang, Shuai; Huo, Mingxin; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yu; Yang, Xia; Geng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Hongliang

    2015-07-15

    Iron sludge, produced from filtration and backwash of groundwater treatment plant, has long been considered as a waste for landfill. In this study, iron sludge was reused to synthesize Fe3O4 magnetic particles (MPs) by using a novel solvothermal process. Iron sludge contained abundant amounts of silicon, iron, and aluminum and did not exhibit magnetic properties. After treatment for 4h, the amorphous Fe in iron sludge was transformed into magnetite Fe3O4, which could be easily separated from aqueous solution with a magnet. The prepared particles demonstrated the intrinsic properties of soft magnetic materials and could aggregate into a size of 1 μm. MPs treated for 10h exhibited excellent magnetic properties and a saturation magnetization value of 9 emu/g. The obtained particles presented the optimal adsorption of methylene blue under mild conditions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 99.4 mg/g, which was higher than that of granular active carbon. The simple solvothermal method can be used to prepare Fe3O4 MPs from iron sludge, and the products could be applied to treatment of dyeing wastewater.

  3. Treatment and disposal of a mixed F006 plating line sludge at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Musall, J.C.; Martin, H.L.

    1993-05-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is implementing a program to treat and stabilize approximately 750,000 gallons of an F006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) plating line wastewater sludge. The uraniun contaminated sludge resulted from nickel plating of depleted uranium targets, which were subsequently irradiated to produce plutonium for the weapons program. With the end of the ``cold war,`` no virgin plutonium weapons production is forecast, and only the currant SRS inventory of stored mixed plating line waste must be treated and disposed. A Life Cycle Cost analysis was used by WSRC to determine that the most cost effective approach was to treat the waste by a hazardous waste management sub-contractor, in a one time campaign. The analysis indicated that {approximately}$40 million could be saved by this approach, vs. the original plan to construct a permanent SRS treatment facility. The sub-contractor will mobilize treatment equipment will be disposed to on-site SRS disposal vaults. This new approach also required a re-negotiation of a federal facility compliance agreement between the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  4. Treatment and disposal of a mixed F006 plating line sludge at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Musall, J.C.; Martin, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is implementing a program to treat and stabilize approximately 750,000 gallons of an F006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) plating line wastewater sludge. The uraniun contaminated sludge resulted from nickel plating of depleted uranium targets, which were subsequently irradiated to produce plutonium for the weapons program. With the end of the cold war,'' no virgin plutonium weapons production is forecast, and only the currant SRS inventory of stored mixed plating line waste must be treated and disposed. A Life Cycle Cost analysis was used by WSRC to determine that the most cost effective approach was to treat the waste by a hazardous waste management sub-contractor, in a one time campaign. The analysis indicated that [approximately]$40 million could be saved by this approach, vs. the original plan to construct a permanent SRS treatment facility. The sub-contractor will mobilize treatment equipment will be disposed to on-site SRS disposal vaults. This new approach also required a re-negotiation of a federal facility compliance agreement between the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  6. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment.

  7. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized. PMID:26340564

  8. Characterization and biofiltration of a real odorous emission from wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Rangel, M Gabriela L; Muñoz, Raúl

    2013-02-15

    Biofilters have been widely employed for the treatment of malodorous emissions from sludge handling activities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), although their optimized design has been usually hindered by the lack of information about the dynamics of odorant formation. Besides, the odour abatement efficiency of biofilters has been rarely assessed on an individual odorant elimination basis. In this context, the characterization of odours from WWTP sludge in this study revealed the occurrence of a wide range of chemicals, including reduced sulphur compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a dynamic concentration profile. The abatement of these odorants was evaluated in a compost-based biofilter at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs). Removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 99% were recorded for limonene, ketones and benzene, while toluene and DMTS REs exceeded 80% at an EBRT of 60 s. A stable biofilter performance was recorded despite the inlet odorant concentration fluctuations. Conversely, DMS and acetic acid were poorly removed due to their likely formation within the biofilter packing material. No correlation between the odorant elimination efficiency and their individual partition coefficients was herein observed.

  9. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized. PMID:26340564

  10. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. PMID:26439861

  11. Design and performance of a porous pot bioreactor for assessing biodegradation in activated sludge treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, A.M.; McCormick, T.P.; Russell, G.L.; Filler, P.A.; Britton, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    It is useful to be able to predict biodegradation rates and extents of consumer chemicals in activated sludge (AS), municipal waste treatment units. This study describes an apparatus based on the porous pot concept developed in the United Kingdom. The benchtop apparatus is a single vessel and is constructed of glass that houses a porous, polypropylene ``candle`` to facilitate the control of the sludge retention time (SRT). Hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the fixed-volume vessel is controlled by the feed rate using low-volume pumps. At a typical volatile suspended solids concentration of 2,000 2,500 mg/L, the apparatus achieved 90--92% COD removal and 96--98% BOD removal from municipal sewage when operated at 6 hrs. HRT and 10 days SRT. Biodegradation of test compounds can be followed using specific analytical chemistry techniques or radiolabel recovery from {sup 14}C-substrates. {sup 14}C-benzene ring labelled linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and four other radiolabeled surfactant compounds were used to determine the utility of the apparatus to follow biodegradation rates and extents in simulated AS treatment. Mineralization rates, as determined by {sup 14}CO{sub 2} trapping and measurement, were consistent during continuous operation, and total radiolabel recoveries ranged from 95--102% indicating excellent ability to follow the catabolic fate of test chemicals.

  12. Removal of fluoride in aqueous solution by adsorption on acid activated water treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinitnantharat, Soydoa; Kositchaiyong, Sriwilai; Chiarakorn, Siriluk

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the use of a pellet of adsorbent made from water treatment sludge (S) and acid activated water treatment sludge (SH) for removal of fluoride in the batch equilibration technique. The influence of pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and effect of other ions were employed to find out the feasibility of acid activated adsorbent to remove fluoride to the permissible concentration of 0.7 mg/L. The results from the adsorption isotherm followed both Langmuir and Freundlich models and the highest fluoride removal was found for adsorbent activated with acetic acid at 2.0 mol/L. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found at 40 g/L, 0.01 mol/L acid activated adsorbent which was able to adsorb fluoride from 10 down to 0.11 mg/L. The adsorption capacity was decreased when the temperature increased. This revealed that the adsorption of fluoride on SH was exothermic. In the presence of nitrate and carbonate ions in the aqueous solution, fluoride removal efficiency of SH decreased from 94.4% to 86.6% and 90.8%, respectively. However, there is no significant effect in the presence of sulfate and chloride ions.

  13. Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Li Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-07-01

    Impact of ultrasonication (ULS) and ultrasonication-ozonation (ULS-Ozone) pre-treatment on the anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge was investigated with semi-continuous anaerobic reactors at solid retention time (SRT) of 10 and 20 days. The control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors produced 256, 309 and 348 mL biogas/g CODfed and the volatile solid (VS) removals were 35.6%, 38.3% and 42.1%, respectively at SRT of 10 days. At SRT of 20 days, the biogas yields reached 313, 337 and 393 mL biogas/g CODfed and the VS removal rates were 37.3%, 40.9% and 45.3% in the control, ULS and ULS-Ozone reactors, respectively. ULS-Ozone pre-treatment increased the residual organic amount in the digested sludge. These soluble residual organics were found to contain macromolecules with molecular weights (MW) larger than 500 kDa and smaller polymeric products with MW around 19.4 and 7.7 kDa. These compounds were further characterized to be humic acid-like substances with fluorescent spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Full-scale sludge liquor treatment for ammonium reduction with low carbon dosage.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, D J I; Nyberg, U; Jansen, J la Cour

    2011-01-01

    The separate treatment of sludge liquor, produced by dewatering anaerobic digested sludge at wastewater treatment plants, gives rise to extreme environments for nitrogen removal. A full-scale sequencing batch reactor was operated with the aim of introducing and studying denitritation as a supplement to nitritation in order to reduce operating costs. Since the main plant only has problems with ammonium reduction capacity, the initial strategy was to have sufficient ammonium reduction with optimal alkalinity production by denitrifiers, i.e. low carbon dosage and minimum alkalinity and residual oxidized ammonium in the effluent. This strategy led to an unbalanced and sensitive process because the denitrifiers were often inhibited. High dissolved oxygen (DO) readings and no decrease in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) during anoxic phases with simultaneous ethanol dosage indicated inhibition of denitrifiers, probably by the intermediate product NO, which may have interfered with the DO sensor. Nitric oxide production was believed to be favoured in the beginning of the anoxic phase as a result of low pH and high nitrite concentration. A stable nitritation-denitritation process could be achieved when the aerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) was decreased to the same length as the anoxic HRT, which resulted in increased unused alkalinity. PMID:21879560

  15. Bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic diversity associated with swine sludge from an anaerobic treatment lagoon.

    PubMed

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Pereira, Zelina L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2012-11-01

    Over the last decades, the demand for pork products has increased significantly, along with concern about suitable waste management. Anaerobic-lagoon fermentation for swine-sludge stabilization is a good strategy, although little is known about the microbial communities in the lagoons. Here, we employed a cloning- and sequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize and quantify the prokaryotic community composition in a swine-waste-sludge anaerobic lagoon (SAL). DNA sequence analysis revealed that the SAL library harbored 15 bacterial phyla: Bacteroidetes, Cloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Synergystetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Verrucomicrobia and candidates division OP5, OP8, WWE1, KSB1, WS6. The SAL library was generally dominated by carbohydrate-oxidizing bacteria. The archaeal sequences were related to the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla. Crenarchaeota predominated in the library, demonstrating that it is not restricted to high-temperature environments, being also responsible for ammonium oxidation in the anaerobic lagoon. Euryarchaeota sequences were associated with the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacterial cells was at least three orders of magnitude higher than the number of archaeal cells in the SAL. The identified prokaryotic diversity was ecologically significant, particularly the archaeal community of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which was responsible for methane production in the anaerobic lagoon. This study provided insight into the archaeal involvement in the overall oxidation of organic matter and the production of methane. Therefore, the treatment of swine waste in the sludge anaerobic lagoon could represent a potential inoculum for the start-up of municipal solid-waste digesters. PMID:22828793

  16. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  17. Comparison of methods for the isolation of mycobacteria from water treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Makovcova, Jitka; Babak, Vladimir; Slany, Michal; Slana, Iva

    2015-05-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms in all natural ecosystems, including water environments. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. NTM most commonly cause pulmonary, skin or soft tissue infections. Primary sludge obtained from the water treatment plants of four drinking water reservoirs were subjected to analysis for mycobacteria. Five decontamination methods (5% oxalic acid, modified Petroff, HCl-NaOH, N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride), three growth media (Herrold's egg yolk medium with and without the antibiotic cocktail PANTA and Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate) and three incubation temperatures (25, 30 and 37 °C) for isolation of mycobacteria were compared in the analysis of 18 sludge samples. To evaluate examined methods, the overall positive, negative, and contamination rate, and these rates in respect to localities are taken into account. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the best combination for the recovery of mycobacteria with the minimum number of contaminating microorganisms is 5% oxalic acid decontamination cultured on Herrold's egg yolk medium with the antibiotic cocktail PANTA at 25 °C. The least suitable is N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide decontamination cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium with sodium pyruvate at 25 °C. From 18 sludge samples we isolated 27 mycobacterial species or groups; Mycobacterium algericum, M. arabiense, M. heraklionense, M. minnesotense, M. moriokaense, M. salmoniphilum and M. vulneris were isolated from the natural water environment for the first time. Because the natural water environment is the main source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria for humans, it is important to direct particular focus to newly described mycobacterial species.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10667 Slimes and sludges, aluminum and... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as slimes and sludges,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10667 Slimes and sludges, aluminum and... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as slimes and sludges,...

  20. [Multidisciplinary treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Faes, Seraina; Gié, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2016-06-15

    Treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer remains challenging. Preoperative imaging with pelvic MRI allows to identify patients for multimodal treatment including induction chemothe- rapy or neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy and an extended surgical resection. With multidisciplinary approach and an experienced team, excellent oncologic results may be achieved, as well as a good function and quality of life, even with preservation of the anus in the majority of patients. PMID:27487624

  1. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, G; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Negral, L; Rodríguez-Iglesias, J; Ormaechea, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of applying ultrasound pre-treatment in the production of methane when co-digesting mixtures of cattle manure with food waste and sludge. A series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in continuously stirred-tank reactors containing 70% cattle manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge. Ultrasound pre-treatment allows operating at lower HRT, achieving higher volumetric methane yields: 0.85 L CH4/L day at 36°C and 0.82 CH4/L day at 55°C, when cattle manure and sewage sludge were sonicated. With respect to the non-sonicated waste, these values represent increases of up to 31% and 67% for mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, respectively.

  2. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, G; Castrillón, L; Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Negral, L; Rodríguez-Iglesias, J; Ormaechea, P

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of applying ultrasound pre-treatment in the production of methane when co-digesting mixtures of cattle manure with food waste and sludge. A series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in continuously stirred-tank reactors containing 70% cattle manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge. Ultrasound pre-treatment allows operating at lower HRT, achieving higher volumetric methane yields: 0.85 L CH4/L day at 36°C and 0.82 CH4/L day at 55°C, when cattle manure and sewage sludge were sonicated. With respect to the non-sonicated waste, these values represent increases of up to 31% and 67% for mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, respectively. PMID:24384312

  3. Integral approaches to wastewater treatment plant upgrading for odor prevention: Activated Sludge and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muñoz, R

    2015-11-01

    Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26316402

  4. Enhanced nitrogen removal in a wastewater treatment process characterized by carbon source manipulation with biological adsorption and sludge hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhao, Fang; Mao, Boyang; Wen, Xianghua

    2012-06-01

    An innovative adsorption/nitrification/denitrification/sludge-hydrolysis wastewater treatment process (ENRS) characterized by carbon source manipulation with a biological adsorption unit and a sludge hydrolysis unit was developed to enhance nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production for municipal wastewater treatment. The system presented good performance in pollutants removal, yielding the effluent with average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP of 48.5, 0.6, 13.2 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. Sixty percent of the total carbon source in the influent was concentrated and separated by the quick adsorption of activated sludge, providing the possibilities of reusing waste carbon source in the denitrification tank and accumulating nitrobacteria in the nitrification tank. Low temperature of 6-15 °C and high hydraulic loading rate of 3.0-15.0 m(3)/d did not affect NH(4)(+)-N removal performance, yielding the NH(4)(+)-N of lower 1.0 mg/L in the effluent. Furthermore, 50% of the residual sludge in the ENRS system could be transformed into soluble COD (SCOD) by alkaline thermal hydrolysis with temperature of 60 °C and pH of 11, and the hydrolyzed carbon could completely substitute methanol as a good quality carbon to support high efficient denitrification.

  5. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  6. Investigation into the use of cement kiln dust in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine water.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential to replace lime with cement kiln dust (CKD) in high density sludge (HDS) treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The bench-scale study used two water samples: AMD sampled from a lead-zinc mine with high concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) (Fe/Zn-AMD) and a synthetic AMD solution (Syn-AMD) spiked with ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3). Arsenic was found to be significantly reduced with CKD-HDS treatment of Fe/Zn-AMD compared to lime-HDS treatment, to concentrations below the stringent mine effluent discharge regulation of 0.10 mg As/L (i.e., 0.04 ± 0.02 mg/L). Both CKD- and lime-HDS treatment of the two AMD samples resulted in settled water Fe concentrations above the stringent discharge guideline of 0.3 mg Fe/L. CKD addition in the HDS process also resulted in high settled water turbidity, above typical discharge guidelines of 15 mg TSS/L. CKD-HDS treatment was found to result in significantly improved settled solids (i.e., sludge) quality compared to that generated in the lime-HDS process. HDS treatment with CKD resulted in 25-88% lower sludge volume indices, 2 to 9 times higher % wet solids, and 10 to 20 times higher % dry solids compared to lime addition. XRD and XPS testing indicated that CKD-HDS sludge consisted of mainly CaCO3 and SiO2 with Fe(3+) precipitates attached at particle surfaces. XRD and XPS testing of the lime-HDS generated sludge showed that it consisted of non-crystalline Fe oxides typical of sludge formed from precipitates with a high water concentration. Increased sedimentation rates were also found for CKD (1.3 cm/s) compared to lime (0.3 cm/s). The increased solids loading with CKD addition compared to lime addition in the HDS process was suggested to both promote surface complexation of metal precipitates with insoluble CKD particles and increase compression effects during Type IV sedimentation. These mechanisms collectively contributed to the reduced water content of

  7. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  8. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers. PMID:26145184

  9. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC. PMID:26877044

  10. Influence of wastewater treatment plants' operational conditions on activated sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Tzelios, Dimitrios; Michailidis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    The effect of wastewater composition and operating conditions in activated sludge (AS) microbiological and morphological characteristics was studied in three AS wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): (a) a high organic load slaughterhouse AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and for 425 days; (b) a seasonally operational, low nitrogen load fruit canning industry AS WWTP, operating at complete solids retention, monitored from its start-up and until the end of the season (87 days); (c) a municipal AS WWTP, treating wastewater from a semi-combined sewer system, monitored during the transitions from dry to rainy and again to dry periods of operation. The sludge microbiological and morphological characteristics were correlated to nutrients' availability, solids retention time, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLVSS), organic load (F/M) and substrate utilization rate. The AS WWTPs' operation was distinguished in periods based on biomass growth phase, characterized by different biological and morphological characteristics and on operational conditions. An anoxic/aerobic selector minimizes the readily biodegradable compounds in influent, inhibiting filamentous growth. Plant performance controlling is presented in a logic flowchart in which operational parameters are linked to microbial manipulation, resulting in a useful tool for researchers and engineers.

  11. Wastewater treatment--adsorption of organic micropollutants on activated HTC-carbon derived from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kirschhöfer, Frank; Sahin, Olga; Becker, Gero C; Meffert, Florian; Nusser, Michael; Anderer, Gilbert; Kusche, Stepan; Klaeusli, Thomas; Kruse, Andrea; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants (MPs), in particular xenobiotics and their transformation products, have been detected in the aquatic environment and the main sources of these MPs are wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an additional cleaning step is necessary. The use of activated carbon (AC) is one approach to providing this additional cleaning. Industrial AC derived from different carbonaceous materials is predominantly produced in low-income countries by polluting processes. In contrast, AC derived from sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a regional and sustainable alternative, based on waste material. Our experiments demonstrate that the HTC-AC from sewage sludge was able to remove most of the applied MPs. In fact more than 50% of sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac and bezafibrate were removed from artificial water samples. With the same approach carbamazepine was eliminated to nearly 70% and atrazine more than 80%. In addition a pre-treated (phosphorus-reduced) HTC-AC was able to eliminate 80% of carbamazepine and diclofenac. Atrazine, sulfamethoxazole and bezafibrate were removed to more than 90%. Experiments using real wastewater samples with high organic content (11.1 g m(-3)) succeeded in proving the adsorption capability of phosphorus-reduced HTC-AC.

  12. Metaproteomics of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Püttker, Sebastian; Kohrs, Fabian; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the impact of protein fractionation techniques prior to LC/MS analysis was investigated on activated sludge samples derived at winter and summer condition from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For reduction of the sample complexity, different fractionation techniques including RP-LC (1D-approach), SDS-PAGE and RP-LC (2D-approach) as well as RP-LC, SDS-PAGE and liquid IEF (3D-approach) were carried out before subsequent ion trap MS analysis. The derived spectra were identified by MASCOT search using a combination of the public UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot protein database and metagenome data from a WWTP. The results showed a significant increase of identified spectra, enabled by applying IEF and SDS-PAGE to the proteomic workflow. Based on meta-proteins, a core metaproteome and a corresponding taxonomic profile of the wastewater activated sludge were described. Functional aspects were analyzed using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway library by plotting KEGG Orthology identifiers (KO numbers) of protein hits into pathway maps of the central carbon (map01200) and nitrogen metabolism (map00910). Using the 3D-approach, most proteins involved in glycolysis and citrate cycle and nearly all proteins of the nitrogen removal were identified, qualifying this approach as most promising for future studies. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001547 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001547).

  13. Advances in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Yuguan; Huang, Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is pain that arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or diseases affecting the somatosensory system. Treatments for neuropathic pain include pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and interventional therapies. Currently recommended first-line pharmacological treatments include antidepressants and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and pregabalin). However, in some cases, pharmacological therapy alone fails to give adequate control of the chronic pain. New techniques have been invented and have been proved effective on neuropathic pain, such as behavioral, cognitive, integrative, and physical therapies. In this review, we focused on the advances in the treatment of central neuropathic pain, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and cancer pain. PMID:26900067

  14. Occurrence, distribution, and potential influencing factors of sewage sludge components derived from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Li, Meiyan; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-07-01

    Millions of tons of waste activated sludge (WAS) produced from biological wastewater treatment processes cause severe adverse environmental consequences. A better understanding of WAS composition is thus very critical for sustainable sludge management. In this work, the occurrence and distribution of several fundamental sludge constituents were explored in WAS samples from nine full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Beijing, China. Among all the components investigated, active heterotrophic biomass was dominant in the samples (up to 9478mg/L), followed by endogenous residues (6736mg/L), extracellular polymeric substances (2088mg/L), and intracellular storage products (464mg/L) among others. Moreover, significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in composition profiles of sludge samples among the studied WWTPs. To identify the potential parameters affecting the variable fractions of sludge components, wastewater source as well as design and operational parameters of WWTPs were studied using statistical methods. The findings indicated that the component fraction of sewage sludge depends more on wastewater treatment alternatives than on wastewater characteristics among other parameters. A principal component analysis was conducted, which further indicated that there was a greater proportion of residual inert biomass in the sludge produced by the combined system of the conventional anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process and a membrane bioreactor. Additionally, a much longer solids retention time was also found to influence the sludge composition and induce an increase in both endogenous inert residues and extracellular polymeric substances in the sludge.

  15. A nationwide survey and emission estimates of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Song, Geum-Ju; Ra, Kongtae; Lee, Won-Chan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-11-01

    Siloxanes are widely used in various industrial applications as well as in personal care products. Despite their widespread use and potential toxic effects, few studies have reported on the occurrence of siloxanes in the environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 5 cyclic and 15 linear siloxanes in sludge collected from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of 20 siloxanes (Σsiloxane) in sludge ranged from 0.05 to 142 (mean: 45.7) μg/g dry weight, similar to the concentrations reported in European countries but higher than those reported in China. The concentrations of siloxanes in sludge from domestic WWTPs were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those from industrial WWTPs, indicating higher consumption of siloxanes in various personal care products (e.g. shampoos and conditioners). The major siloxane compounds found in sludge were decamethylcyclopentasilane (D5), docosamethyldecasiloxane (L10) and dodecamethylcyclohexasilane (D6), which collectively accounted for, on average, 62% of the Σsiloxane concentrations. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination of the profiles of siloxanes indicated the existence of different usage patterns of siloxanes between industrial and household activities. Multiple linear regression analysis of siloxane concentrations and WWTP characteristics suggested that D5, D6 and linear siloxane concentrations in sludge were positively correlated with population served by a WWTP. Environmental emission fluxes of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge disposal in Korea were 14,800 and 18,500 kg/year, respectively. This is the first report describing occurrence and environmental emission of siloxanes through sludge in Korea.

  16. Distributions of polycyclic musk fragrance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and sludges in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Casteel, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjian; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; Kiel, Brian; Federle, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    The polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB are fragrance ingredients widely used in consumer products. A monitoring campaign was conducted and collected grab effluent and sludge samples at 40 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) across the United States to understand their occurrence and statistical distribution in these matrices. AHTN concentration in effluent ranged from <0.05 μg/L (LOQ) to 0.44 μg/L with a mean and standard deviation of 0.18 ± 0.11 μg/L. HHCB concentrations in effluent ranged from 0.45 to 4.79 μg/L with a mean of 1.86 ± 1.01 μg/L. AHTN concentrations in sludge ranged from 0.65 to 15.0mg/kg dw (dry weight) with a mean and standard deviation being 3.69 ± 2.57 mg/kg dw, while HHCB sludge concentrations were between 4.1 and 91 mg/kg with a mean of 34.0 ± 23.1mg/kg dw. Measured concentrations of AHTN and HHCB were significantly correlated with each other in both effluent and sludge. The concentrations of HHCB in both effluent and sludge were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for AHTN, consistent with 2011 usage levels. The highest measured effluent concentrations for both AHTN and HHCB were below their respective freshwater PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations), indicating a negligible risk to biological communities below WWTPs, even in the absence of upstream dilution. Moreover, the large number of effluents and sludges sampled provides a statistical distribution of loadings that can be used to develop more extensive probabilistic exposure assessments for WWTP mixing zones and sludge amended soils.

  17. Distributions of polycyclic musk fragrance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and sludges in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Casteel, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjian; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; Kiel, Brian; Federle, Thomas

    2014-09-15

    The polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB are fragrance ingredients widely used in consumer products. A monitoring campaign was conducted and collected grab effluent and sludge samples at 40 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) across the United States to understand their occurrence and statistical distribution in these matrices. AHTN concentration in effluent ranged from <0.05 μg/L (LOQ) to 0.44 μg/L with a mean and standard deviation of 0.18 ± 0.11 μg/L. HHCB concentrations in effluent ranged from 0.45 to 4.79 μg/L with a mean of 1.86 ± 1.01 μg/L. AHTN concentrations in sludge ranged from 0.65 to 15.0mg/kg dw (dry weight) with a mean and standard deviation being 3.69 ± 2.57 mg/kg dw, while HHCB sludge concentrations were between 4.1 and 91 mg/kg with a mean of 34.0 ± 23.1mg/kg dw. Measured concentrations of AHTN and HHCB were significantly correlated with each other in both effluent and sludge. The concentrations of HHCB in both effluent and sludge were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those for AHTN, consistent with 2011 usage levels. The highest measured effluent concentrations for both AHTN and HHCB were below their respective freshwater PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations), indicating a negligible risk to biological communities below WWTPs, even in the absence of upstream dilution. Moreover, the large number of effluents and sludges sampled provides a statistical distribution of loadings that can be used to develop more extensive probabilistic exposure assessments for WWTP mixing zones and sludge amended soils. PMID:24792690

  18. A nationwide survey and emission estimates of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Song, Geum-Ju; Ra, Kongtae; Lee, Won-Chan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-11-01

    Siloxanes are widely used in various industrial applications as well as in personal care products. Despite their widespread use and potential toxic effects, few studies have reported on the occurrence of siloxanes in the environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 5 cyclic and 15 linear siloxanes in sludge collected from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of 20 siloxanes (Σsiloxane) in sludge ranged from 0.05 to 142 (mean: 45.7) μg/g dry weight, similar to the concentrations reported in European countries but higher than those reported in China. The concentrations of siloxanes in sludge from domestic WWTPs were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those from industrial WWTPs, indicating higher consumption of siloxanes in various personal care products (e.g. shampoos and conditioners). The major siloxane compounds found in sludge were decamethylcyclopentasilane (D5), docosamethyldecasiloxane (L10) and dodecamethylcyclohexasilane (D6), which collectively accounted for, on average, 62% of the Σsiloxane concentrations. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling ordination of the profiles of siloxanes indicated the existence of different usage patterns of siloxanes between industrial and household activities. Multiple linear regression analysis of siloxane concentrations and WWTP characteristics suggested that D5, D6 and linear siloxane concentrations in sludge were positively correlated with population served by a WWTP. Environmental emission fluxes of cyclic and linear siloxanes through sludge disposal in Korea were 14,800 and 18,500 kg/year, respectively. This is the first report describing occurrence and environmental emission of siloxanes through sludge in Korea. PMID:25127445

  19. A novel approach to the anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in temperate climates through primary sludge fortification.

    PubMed

    Lester, J N; Soares, A; San Martin, D; Harper, P; Jefferson, B; Brigg, J; Wood, E; Cartmell, E

    2009-09-01

    It is proposed that anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in temperate climates is attainable through the fortification of wastewater with primary sewage sludge to enhance the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Three bench-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactors (0.5 L) were operated to provide a preliminary verification of this approach. Mass and energy balances were modelled using the GPS-X (COST model, population equivalent of 118,500) to determine the energy balance of the primary sludge wastewater fortification process flowsheet in comparison with conventional aerobic secondary treatment with activated sludge. The addition of 5% primary sludge by volume to crude wastewater pretreated with ultrasound resulted in an increase in total COD from 536 mg L(-1) to 2300 mg L(-1). A COD removal of 86% +/- 8% and methane production of 400 mL L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in the reactor that was supplied with this primary sludge fortified wastewater. In comparison a COD reduction of 77% +/- 8% and 40 mL L(-1) d(-1) of methane were observed in the reactor which was supplied with crude wastewater only, and a 79% +/- 8% COD removal and 156 mL L(-1) d(-1) of methane were observed in UASB2, which was supplied with crude wastewater pretreated with ultrasound. The modelled energy balance for the fortified wastewater treatment process flowsheet was -305 kWh d(-1) compared with -937 kWh d(-1) in the aerobic flowsheet, corresponding to an energy saving of 67%.

  20. Monitoring Precursor 16S rRNAs of Acinetobacter spp. in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oerther, Daniel B.; Pernthaler, Jakob; Schramm, Andreas; Amann, Rudolf; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2000-01-01

    Recently, Cangelosi and Brabant used oligonucleotide probes targeting the precursor 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli to demonstrate that the levels of precursor rRNA were more sensitive to changes in growth phase than the levels of total rRNA (G. A. Cangelosi and W. H. Brabant, J. Bacteriol. 179:4457–4463, 1997). In order to measure changes in the levels of precursor rRNA in activated sludge systems, we designed oligonucleotide probes targeting the 3′ region of the precursor 16S rRNA of Acinetobacter spp. We used these probes to monitor changes in the level of precursor 16S rRNA during batch growth of Acinetobacter spp. in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, filtered wastewater, and in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. Consistent with the previous reports for E. coli, results obtained with membrane hybridizations and fluorescence in situ hybridizations with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown in LB medium showed a more substantial and faster increase in precursor 16S rRNA levels compared to the increase in total 16S rRNA levels during exponential growth. Diluting an overnight culture of A. calcoaceticus grown in LB medium with filtered wastewater resulted in a pattern of precursor 16S rRNA levels that appeared to follow diauxic growth. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridizations with oligonucleotide probes targeting total 16S rRNA and precursor 16S rRNA showed that individual cells of A. calcoaceticus expressed highly variable levels of precursor 16S rRNA when adapting from LB medium to filtered sewage. Precursor 16S rRNA levels of Acinetobacter spp. transiently increased when activated sludge was mixed with influent wastewater in lab- and full-scale wastewater treatment systems. These results suggest that Acinetobacter spp. experience a change in growth activity within wastewater treatment systems. PMID:10788395

  1. The performance enhancements of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for domestic sludge treatment--a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siewhui; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Kayaalp, Ahmet; Ang, Ha Ming

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, carbon emission and therefore carbon footprint of water utilities is an important issue. In this respect, we should consider the opportunities to reduce carbon footprint for small and large wastewater treatment plants. The use of anaerobic rather than aerobic treatment processes would achieve this aim because no aeration is required and the generation of methane can be used within the plant. High-rate anaerobic digesters receive great interests due to their high loading capacity and low sludge production. Among them, the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors have been most widely used. However, there are still unresolved issues inhibiting the widespread of this technology in developing countries or countries with climate temperature fluctuations (such as subtropical regions). A large number of studies have been carried out in order to enhance the performance of UASB reactors but there is a lack of updated documentation. In face of the existing limitations and the increasing importance of this technology, the authors present an up-to-date review on the performance enhancements of UASB reactors over the last decade. The important aspects of this article are: (i) enhancing the start-up and granulation in UASB reactors, (ii) coupling with post-treatment unit to overcome the temperature constraint, and (iii) improving the removal efficiencies of the organic matter, nutrients and pathogens in the final effluent. Finally the authors have highlighted future research direction based on their critical analysis.

  2. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. REVISING/UPDATING EPA 625/1-79-011, PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) wishes to revise/update its very large and comprehensive 1979 Process Design Manual for Sludge Treatment and Disposal, EPA 625/1-79-011. As you might imagine the task is not trivial, as already in 1979 the original manual cost more tha...

  4. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  5. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation. PMID:22452812

  6. Co-digestion of organic solid waste and sludge from sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Engeli, H; Gradenecker, M

    2000-01-01

    Solid organic wastes were codigested together with sludge of a sewage treatment plant (STP). In the practical part of the study, a plant to pretreat the organic solid wastes provided by local super markets was constructed at the STP of Frutigen, Switzerland. Up to more than 1 cubic metre of wastes was added to the fermenter of the STP every day. Data collected during 14 months of practical works, showed that for raw fruit and vegetable wastes a two step pretreatment is necessary: First the wastes were chopped and afterwards reduced to a size of 1-2 millimetres, in order to get a homogeneous suspension together with the primary sludge. The vegetable wastes showed excellent digestibility: They seemed to accelerate the digestion process as well as to increase the degree of the anaerobic degradation of the sludge. The energy demand for both, pretreatment and digestion, was 85 kWh/ton of fresh wastes. 20% of the energy was used for the hygienization, a step which does not seem to be necessary for this kind of waste in most of the cases, however. After using the gas for energy conversion, a net yield of 65 kWh/ton of electricity and 166 kWh/ton of heat was measured. Treating cooked kitchen wastes, the net energy production will be higher, because in this case a one step pretreatment will be sufficient. The pretreatment and treatment costs for codigestion on STP's were calculated to be in the range of 55 US$/ton treating half a ton per day and 39 US$/ton treating one ton, respectively. A theoretical feasibility study showed that in Switzerland there is a short term potential on STP's for the codigestion of about 120,000 tons of biogenic wastes per year without big investments. Economic studies about codigestion on agricultural biogas plants showed that the codigestion is a must at the current energy prices, which are far too low for agricultural AD without an additional income by treating solid wastes for third parties.

  7. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas.

  8. Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    van Hullenbusch, Eric; Farges, Francois; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  9. Analysis of toxicity of leachates from coal liquefaction wastewater treatment sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, M.D.; Ruppel, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    The disposal requirements for wastewater treatment sludge from coal liquefaction plants will be determined by toxicity tests established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Concentrations of eight elements in samples from a noncommercial plant were well below the standards used in the EP (extraction procedure) test of the EPA. Toxicity bioassays with Daphnia magna supported the results of the EP tests. Leachates generated according to the American Society for Testing and Materials extraction procedure (ASTM D-3987) were also tested. Concentrations of RCRA elements were frequently below the minimum detectable concentrations, and no differences in toxicity of the EP and ASTM extracts were evident. 17 references, 3 tables.

  10. Integrated nanofiltration and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treatment of textile wastewater for in-plant reuse.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arlindo Canigo; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; de Pinho, Maria Norberta; Porter, John Jefferson

    2007-05-01

    The filtration characteristics of simulated dyeing effluents containing Acid Orange 7, sodium sulfate, and a pH buffer made of acetic acid and sodium acetate is described using a commercially available nanofiltration membrane. The original membrane filtration properties were characterized with deionized water to provide a baseline of membrane performance. At high volumetric concentration of the test solutions, greater than 98% rejection of dye and sodium sulfate were obtained. Rejection of buffering chemicals was approximately 50% in all experiments, giving a permeate water not suitable for reuse in most dyeing operations. The final composite concentrate had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value > 2000 mg/L. No problems were encountered with anaerobic treatment of the concentrate obtained from the dyeing wastewater. Adjusting the sulfate concentration to give COD-to-sulfate ratios to 2.9, 5.4, and 18.2 in the reactor feed had no significant alterations in the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

  11. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  12. Demonstration of vitrification of surrogate F006 waste-water treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cicero, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    A demonstration program with the focus on vitrification of surrogate formulations of Savannah River Site M-Area wastewater treatment sludges has been completed. The program utilized commercially available melting equipment, supplied by EnVitCo, Inc., and Stir Melter, Inc., located at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratories. Over 2000 kg of glass was manufactured in a series of five separate tests with four formulations. Glasses were characterized by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT), with all glasses showing leach characteristics better than Land Disposal Requirements (LDR) for corresponding F006 waste (TCLP) and benchmark environmental assessment glasses (PCT). Offgas sampling by EPA Method 5 was conducted, including chemical analysis of filter residue and impinger solution. Data is presented on glass leaching, offgas sampling, phase separation, and melter performance.

  13. R and D needs -- Drying of sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakura, T.; Hasatani, M.

    1996-10-01

    Sludge management is a very important environmental issue in many industrialized countries, because its generated volume is the largest in all generated wastes. In the sludge management field, the role of drying is becoming more important as sludge disposal becomes more difficult. In this paper, the present status of drying of construction sludge, food industry sludge and municipal sludge are mentioned as concrete examples. To respond to these needs, it is necessary to advance further R and D.

  14. Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y

    2011-01-01

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined. PMID:22170839

  15. Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y

    2011-01-01

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined.

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of seminatural wetlands and activated sludge wastewater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  17. The porphyrias: advances in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Balwani, Manisha; Desnick, Robert J

    2012-11-29

    The inborn errors of heme biosynthesis, the porphyrias, are 8 genetically distinct metabolic disorders that can be classified as "acute hepatic," "hepatic cutaneous," and "erythropoietic cutaneous" diseases. Recent advances in understanding their pathogenesis and molecular genetic heterogeneity have led to improved diagnosis and treatment. These advances include DNA-based diagnoses for all the porphyrias, new understanding of the pathogenesis of the acute hepatic porphyrias, identification of the iron overload-induced inhibitor of hepatic uroporphyrin decarboxylase activity that causes the most common porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda, the identification of an X-linked form of erythropoietic protoporphyria due to gain-of-function mutations in erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2), and new and experimental treatments for the erythropoietic porphyrias. Knowledge of these advances is relevant for hematologists because they administer the hematin infusions to treat the acute attacks in patients with the acute hepatic porphyrias, perform the chronic phlebotomies to reduce the iron overload and clear the dermatologic lesions in porphyria cutanea tarda, and diagnose and treat the erythropoietic porphyrias, including chronic erythrocyte transfusions, bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and experimental pharmacologic chaperone and stem cell gene therapies for congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria. These developments are reviewed to update hematologists on the latest advances in these diverse disorders.

  18. The porphyrias: advances in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Balwani, Manisha; Desnick, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The inborn errors of heme biosynthesis, the porphyrias, are 8 genetically distinct metabolic disorders that can be classified as "acute hepatic," "hepatic cutaneous," and "erythropoietic cutaneous" diseases. Recent advances in understanding their pathogenesis and molecular genetic heterogeneity have led to improved diagnosis and treatment. These advances include DNA-based diagnoses for all the porphyrias, new understanding of the pathogenesis of the acute hepatic porphyrias, identification of the iron overload-induced inhibitor of hepatic uroporphyrin decarboxylase activity that causes the most common porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda, the identification of an X-linked form of erythropoietic protoporphyria due to gain-of-function mutations in erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2), and new and experimental treatments for the erythropoietic prophyrias. Knowledge of these advances is relevant for hematologists because they administer the hematin infusions to treat the acute attacks in patients with the acute hepatic porphyrias, perform the chronic phlebotomies to reduce the iron overload and clear the dermatologic lesions in porphyria cutanea tarda, and diagnose and treat the erythropoietic porphyrias, including chronic erythrocyte transfusions, bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and experimental pharmacologic chaperone and stem cell gene therapies for congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria. These developments are reviewed to update hematologists on the latest advances in these diverse disorders.

  19. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  20. Grey water treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of grey water in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and temperatures, was investigated. The first reactor (UASB-A) was operated at ambient temperature (14-25 degrees C) and HRT of 20, 12 and 8 h, while the second reactor (UASB-30) was operated at controlled temperature of 30 degrees C and HRT of 16, 10 and 6 h. The two reactors were fed with grey water from 'Flintenbreite' settlement in Luebeck, Germany. When the grey water was treated in the UASB reactor at 30 degrees C, total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) removal of 52-64% was achieved at HRT between 6 and 16 h, while at lower temperature lower removal (31-41%) was obtained at HRT between 8 and 20 h. Total nitrogen and phosphorous removal in the UASB reactors were limited (22-36 and 10-24%, respectively) at all operational conditions. The results showed that at increasing temperature or decreasing HRT of the reactors, maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge in the reactors improved. As the UASB reactor showed a significantly higher COD removal (31-64%) than the septic tank (11-14%) even at low temperature, it is recommended to use UASB reactor instead of septic tank (the most common system) for grey water pre-treatment. Based on the achieved results and due to high peak flow factor, a HRT between 8 and 12 h can be considered the suitable HRT for the UASB reactor treating grey water at temperature 20-30 degrees C, while a HRT of 12-24 h can be applied at temperature lower than 20 degrees C.

  1. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  2. Development of effluent removal prediction model efficiency in septic sludge treatment plant through clonal selection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ting, Sie Chun; Ismail, A R; Malek, M A

    2013-11-15

    This study aims at developing a novel effluent removal management tool for septic sludge treatment plants (SSTP) using a clonal selection algorithm (CSA). The proposed CSA articulates the idea of utilizing an artificial immune system (AIS) to identify the behaviour of the SSTP, that is, using a sequence batch reactor (SBR) technology for treatment processes. The novelty of this study is the development of a predictive SSTP model for effluent discharge adopting the human immune system. Septic sludge from the individual septic tanks and package plants will be desuldged and treated in SSTP before discharging the wastewater into a waterway. The Borneo Island of Sarawak is selected as the case study. Currently, there are only two SSTPs in Sarawak, namely the Matang SSTP and the Sibu SSTP, and they are both using SBR technology. Monthly effluent discharges from 2007 to 2011 in the Matang SSTP are used in this study. Cross-validation is performed using data from the Sibu SSTP from April 2011 to July 2012. Both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent were analysed in this study. The model was validated and tested before forecasting the future effluent performance. The CSA-based SSTP model was simulated using MATLAB 7.10. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and correction coefficient (R) were used as performance indexes. In this study, it was found that the proposed prediction model was successful up to 84 months for the COD and 109 months for the TSS. In conclusion, the proposed CSA-based SSTP prediction model is indeed beneficial as an engineering tool to forecast the long-run performance of the SSTP and in turn, prevents infringement of future environmental balance in other towns in Sarawak.

  3. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    PubMed

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable.

  4. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, S; Luste, S; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35 degrees C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918 m(3)/tVS(added)), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the two materials was found feasible up to grease trap sludge addition of 46% of feed volatile solids (hydraulic retention time 16d; maximum organic loading rate 3.46 kgVS/m(3)d). Methane production was significantly higher and no effect on the characteristics of the digested material was noticed as compared to digesting sewage sludge alone. At higher grease trap sludge additions (55% and 71% of feed volatile solids), degradation was not complete and methane production either remained the same or decreased. PMID:18707877

  5. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  6. Optimized matching modes of bioelectrochemical module and anaerobic sludge in the integrated system for azo dye treatment.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanying; Wang, Aijie; Ren, Hong-Yu

    2015-09-01

    In this work, three matching modes (relative positions, catholyte flow sequences, and flow regimes) of bioelectrochemical module and anaerobic sludge were evaluated and optimized for azo dye treatment in the integrated system with embedding modular bioelectrochemical system into anaerobic sludge reactor. Results showed that it was favorable to operate this integrated system under the condition of 1/4 cathode soaking into sludge with spiral distributor in down-flow direction. Current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and pH clearly demonstrated the important role of 1/4 soaking in electron/proton transfer. The down-flow direction flowed through electrode zone and then sludge zone could benefit to the efficient use of cathode and improve AO7 treatment. Furthermore, the positive effect of spiral catholyte distributor might be due to its promoting role in mixing and creating a spiral flow channel around the cathode electrode-microbes-solution interface. These results exhibited great potential for matching modular bioelectrochemical system with anaerobic treatment process.

  7. Reduction by sonication of excess sludge production in a conventional activated sludge system: continuous flow and lab-scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Vaxelaire, S; Gonze, E; Merlin, G; Gonthier, Y

    2008-12-01

    Conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants currently produce a large quantity of excess sludge. To reduce this sludge production and to improve sludge characteristics in view of their subsequent elimination, an ultrasonic cell disintegration process was studied. In a lab-scale continuous flow pilot plant, part of the return sludge was sonicated by low-frequency and high-powered ultrasound and then recycled to the aeration tank. Two parallel lines were used: one as a control and the other as an assay with ultrasonic treatment. The reactors were continuously fed with synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD (chemical oxygen demand) of approximately 0.5 g l(-) corresponding to a daily load of 0.35-0.50 kg COD kg(-1) TS d(-1). Removal efficiencies (carbon, particles), excess sludge production and sludge characteristics (particle size distribution, mineralization, respiration rate, biological component) were measured every day during the 56-day experiment. This study showed that whilst organic removal efficiency did not deteriorate, excess sludge production was decreased by about 25-30% by an ultrasonic treatment. Several hypotheses are advanced: (i) the treatment made a part of the organic matter soluble as a consequence of the floc disintegration, and optimised the conversion of the carbonaceous pollutants into carbon dioxide and (ii) the treatment modified the physical characteristics of sludge by a mechanical effect: floc size was reduced, increasing the exchange surface and sludge activity. The originality of this study is that experiments were conducted in a continuous-flow activated sludge reactor rather than in a batch reactor. PMID:19149352

  8. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  9. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy.

  10. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  11. Spatial changes in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of sludge and associated organisms in a biological sewage treatment system.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Kanaya, Gen; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Miyaoka, Yuma; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N) have been utilized as powerful tools for tracing energy or material flows within food webs in a range of environmental studies. However, the techniques have rarely been applied to the study of biological wastewater treatment technologies. We report on the spatial changes in δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in sludge and its associated biotic community in a wastewater treatment system. This system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) which is a novel type of trickling filter. The results showed clear spatial changes in the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N of suspended solids (SS), retained sludge, and macrofauna (oligochaetes and fly larvae) in the system. The δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N was used as a natural tracer to determine the SS dynamic throughout the system. The results imply that SS in the DHS effluent was mainly eluted from the retained sludge in the lower section of the DHS reactor. The δ¹⁵N of the retained sludge in the DHS reactor increased drastically from the inlet towards to the outlet, from -0.7‰ to 10.3‰. This phenomenon may be attributed to nitrogen conversion processes (i.e. nitrification and denitrification). The δ¹⁵N of oligochaetes also increased from the inlet to the outlet, which corresponded well to that of the retained sludge. Thus, the δ¹⁵N of the oligochaetes might simply mirror the δ¹⁵N of the retained sludge. On the other hand, the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N of sympatric fly larvae differed from those of the oligochaetes sampled, indicating dietary differences between the taxa. Therefore δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N reflected both treatment and dietary characteristics. We concluded that δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values are potentially useful as alternative indicators for investigating microbial ecosystems and treatment characteristics of biological wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25462745

  12. Dairy wastewater treatment using an activated sludge-microalgae system at different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Tricolici, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, V; Postolache, C

    2014-01-01

    A microalgae-bacteria system was used for dairy industry wastewater treatment in sequenced batch mode in a photobioreactor. The research investigated the influence of two light intensities: 360 and 820 μmol m(-2)s(-1) on treatment performances, microalgal cell recovery and dynamics of the protozoan community. Results showed that the light intensity of 360 μmol m(-2)s(-1) was found to be insufficient to support photosynthetic activity after the increase of bacterial biomass leading to the decrease of organic matter and ammonium removal efficiencies from 95 to 78% and 95 to 41%, respectively. Maximum microalgal cells recovery was about 63%. Continuous modification in the protozoan community was also noticed during this test. Increasing the light intensity to 820 μmol m(-2)s(-1) led to better microalgal cells recovery (up to 88%) and improved treatment performances. However, the decrease of protozoan richness to small flagellates and free-swimming ciliates was noticed. Moreover, the developed protozoan trophic network was found to be different from that identified in the conventional activated sludge system. The study emphasized that high increase of bacterial biomass promoted in nutrient- and organic matter-rich wastewater can strongly affect the treatment performances as a result of the shadow effect produced on the photoautotrophic microalgae aggregates. PMID:24759517

  13. Occurrence of ultrasonic cavitation in sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielewicz-Madej, E.; Sorys, P.

    2006-11-01

    The study revealed considerable differences in the susceptibility of the sludge to preliminary treatment by two kind of mixing and expressed as changes in the initial properties of the sludge and thus conditions for the occurrence of ultrasonic disintegration in particular sludge from wastewater treatment plants G, K andZ. The susceptibility of sludge to ultrasounds which depends on the sludge properties was explained by the higher COD of dissolved matter after ultrasonic disintegration of sludge.

  14. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  15. Fenton peroxidation improves the drying performance of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Neyens, Elisabeth

    2005-01-31

    Advanced sludge treatment processes (AST) reduce the amount of sludge produced and improve the dewaterability, thus probably also affecting the heat transfer properties and the drying characteristics of the sludge. This paper studies the influence of the Fenton peroxidation on the thermal conductivity of the sludge. Results demonstrate that the Fenton's peroxidation positively influences the sludge cake consistency and hence enhances the mechanical dewaterability and the drying characteristics of the dewatered sludge. For the two sludges used in this study, i.e. obtained from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of Tienen and Sint-Niklaas--the dry solids content of the mechanically dewatered sludge increased from 22.5% to 40.3% and from 18.7% to 35.2%, respectively. The effective thermal conductivity k(e) of the untreated and the peroxidized sludges is measured and used to determine the heat transfer coefficient h(s). An average improvement for k(e) of 16.7% (Tienen) and 5.8% (Sint-Niklaas) was observed. Consequently the value of h(s) increased with 15.6% (Tienen) and 5.0% (Sint-Niklaas). This increased heat transfer coefficient in combination with the increased dewaterability has direct implications on the design of sludge dryers. A plate-to-plate calculation of a multiple hearth dryer illustrates that the number of plates required to dry the peroxidized sludge to 90% DS is less than half the number of plates needed to dry untreated sludge. This results in reduced dryer dimensions or a higher capacity for an existing dryer of given dimensions.

  16. Molecular characterization of activated sludge from a seawater‐processing wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Olga; Garrido, Laura; Forn, Irene; Massana, Ramon; Maldonado, Manuel Ignacio; Mas, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The prokaryotic community composition of activated sludge from a seawater‐processing wastewater treatment plant (Almeria, Spain) was investigated by using the rRNA approach, combining different molecular techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clone libraries and in situ hybridization (FISH and CARD‐FISH). Most of the sequences retrieved in the DGGE and the clone libraries were similar to uncultured members of different phyla. The most abundant sequence recovered from Bacteria in the clone library corresponded to a bacterium from the Deinococcus–Thermus cluster (almost 77% of the clones), and the library included members from other groups such as the Alpha, Gamma and Delta subclasses of Proteobacteria, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Concerning the archaeal clone library, we basically found sequences related to different orders of methanogenic Archaea, in correspondence with the recovered DGGE bands. Enumeration of DAPI (4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole) stained cells from two different activated sludge samples after a mechanical flocculation disruption revealed a mean cell count of 1.6 × 109 ml−1. Around 94% of DAPI counts (mean value from both samples) hybridized with a Bacteria specific probe. Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial group (36% of DAPI counts), while Beta‐, Delta‐ and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes contributed to lower proportions (between 0.5–5.7% of DAPI counts). Archaea accounted only for 6% of DAPI counts. In addition, specific primers for amplification of the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) gene were used to detect the presence of Beta, Gamma and archaeal nitrifiers, yielding positive amplifications only for Betaproteobacteria. This, together with negative in situ hybridizations with probes for well‐known nitrifiying bacteria, suggests that nitrification is performed by still undetected microorganisms. In summary, the combination of the

  17. The impact of sea water flushing on biological nitrification-denitrification activated sludge sewage treatment process.

    PubMed

    Yu, S M; Leung, W Y; Ho, K M; Greenfield, P F; Eckenfelder, W W

    2002-01-01

    The process performance of the two largest activated sludge processes in Hong Kong, the Sha Tin and the Tai Po Sewage Treatment Works (STW), deteriorated in the initial period after the introduction of seawater flushing in 1995 and 1996, respectively. High effluent ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total suspended solids (TSS) in excess of the discharge standards resulted from incomplete nitrification and changes in floc characteristics. A desktop study on the inhibitory effects of salinity, particularly on nitrification, was subsequently conducted using the Tai Po STW operating data. To assist the upgrade of the Sha Tin STW a five-month extensive bench-scale investigation on a simple but flexible modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration with bio-selector was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects due to the saline concentration. The Sha Tin STW upgrade consists of restoration of its original design capacity (conventional process) of 205,000 m3/day from its currently much reduced capacity as a Bardenpho process. Only the volume of the existing biological process and clarifier is to be utilized. The saline concentration ranges from 3,500 up to 6,500 mg Cl-/L, both daily and seasonally. High and greatly fluctuating saline concentrations have been known to inhibit nitrification. Design consideration should also be given to the peak daily and seasonal TKN loading of up to three times the average. Although the nitrifiers maximum specific growth rate was significantly reduced to a low 0.25 day(-1), the inhibition was considered to be tolerable with effluent NH4-N and NO3-N consistently at < 1 and < 6 mg/L. The bio-selector was demonstrated to be efficient in control of sludge foaming and bulking with SVI consistently < or = 125 mL/g. Results from the IAWO Model No. 1 and the hydraulic model of the secondary clarifiers allowed overall process capacity maximization. With an anoxic mass fraction of 25-30%, operating sludge age of 9-14 days and SVI < or = 125 mL/g, both the

  18. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  19. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater.

  20. Liquid products from oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air.

    PubMed

    Shie, J L; Chang, C Y; Lin, J P; Le, D J; Wu, C H

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air by using a dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) reaction system is investigated. The experimental conditions employed are: gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min (value at 298 K) for 300 mg dry waste, a constant heating rate of 5.2 K/min, the oxygen concentrations in air of 1.09, 8.62 and 20.95 vol. % O2, and the temperature (T) range of 378-873 K. From the experimental results, the residual mass fractions (M) are about 78.95, 28.49, 8.77 and 4.13 wt. % at the oxidative T of 563, 713, 763 and 873 K for the case with 20.95 vol. % O2, respectively. The values of M with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 873 K are 4.87 and 9.44 wt. %, respectively. The distillation characteristics of the oil portion of liquid products (condensates of gas at 298 K) from the oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with 20.95 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K is close to those of commercial gasoline. Nevertheless, the liquid product contains a large amount of water. The distillation characteristics of the oil portions of liquid products with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K are close to those of diesel and fuel oils, respectively. The oil quality with 8.62 vol. % O2 is better than that with 1.09 vol. % O2. However, the liquid product with 8.62 vol. % O2 still contains a large amount of water; nonetheless, that with 1.09 vol. % O2 is with negligible water. Compared with the oil product of nitrogen pyrolysis, the oil quality with 1.09 vol. % O2 is better. Certainly, low oxygen conditions (i.e. 1.09 vol. % O2) not only accelerate the thermal reaction of oil sludge, but also at the same time avoid or reduce the production of water. Further, from the analysis of benzene (B), ethylbenzene (E), toluene (T) and iso-xylene (X) concentrations of the oil portion of liquid products, the BETX concentrations of oil with 20.95 vol. % O2 are higher than those with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2. The yields of liquid products with 20.95, 8

  1. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-08-14

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  2. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  3. Additional treatment of wastewater reduces endocrine disruption in wild fish--a comparative study of tertiary and advanced treatments.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Alice; Green, Christopher; Nicol, Elizabeth; Beresford, Nicola; Kanda, Rakesh; Henshaw, Alan; Churchley, John; Jobling, Susan

    2012-05-15

    Steroid estrogens are thought to be the major cause of feminization (intersex) in wild fish. Widely used wastewater treatment technologies are not effective at removing these contaminants to concentrations thought to be required to protect aquatic wildlife. A number of advanced treatment processes have been proposed to reduce the concentrations of estrogens entering the environment. Before investment is made in such processes, it is imperative that we compare their efficacy in terms of removal of steroid estrogens and their feminizing effects with other treatment options. This study assessed both steroid removal and intersex induction in adult and early life stage fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus). Roach were exposed directly to either secondary (activated sludge process (ASP)), tertiary (sand filtrated (SF)), or advanced (chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), granular activated charcoal (GAC)) treated effluents for six months. Surprisingly, both the advanced GAC and tertiary SF treatments (but not the ClO(2) treatment) significantly removed the intersex induction associated with the ASP effluent; this was not predicted by the steroid estrogen measurements, which were higher in the tertiary SF than either the GAC or the ClO(2). Therefore our study highlights the importance of using both biological and chemical analysis when assessing new treatment technologies.

  4. Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds with Mesoporous Materials Prepared from Calcium Fluoride Sludge.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sv-Yuan; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Chang, Chang-Tang; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-02-01

    Large amount of calcium fluoride sludge was generated by semiconductor industry every year. It also needs high requirement of fuel consumption using rotor concentrator and thermal oxidizer to treat VOCs. The mesoporous catalyst prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment in this study. Acetone is a kind of solvent and used in a large number of laboratories and factories. The serious problems will be caused when it exposed to the environmental. Economic and practical technology is needed to eliminate this kind of hazardous air pollutant. In this research, the adsorption of acetone was tested with CF-MCM (mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride). The raw material was mixed with cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants, firstly. The prepared mesoporous silica materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the surface area, large pore volume and pore diameter could be up to 862 m2 g(-1), 0.57 cm3 g(-1) and 2.9 nm, respectively. The crystal patterns of CF-MCM were similar with MCM-41 from TEM image. The adsorption capacity of acetone with CF-MCM was 118, 190, 194 and 201 mg g(-1), respectively, under 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of MCM-41 and CF-MCM was almost the same. The effects of operation parameters, such as contact time and mixture concentration, on the performance of CF-MCM were also discussed in this study. PMID:27433709

  5. 454 Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Shao, Ming-Fei; Ye, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Activated sludge (AS) contains highly complex microbial communities. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS samples from 14 sewage treatment plants of Asia (mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore), and North America (Canada and the United States). A total of 259 K effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V4 region were obtained from these AS samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in AS, that is, 1183–3567 OTUs in a sludge sample, at 3% cutoff level and sequencing depth of 16 489 sequences. Clear geographical differences among the AS samples from Asia and North America were revealed by (1) cluster analyses based on abundances of OTUs or the genus/family/order assigned by Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and (2) the principal coordinate analyses based on OTUs abundances, RDP taxa abundances and UniFrac of OTUs and their distances. In addition to certain unique bacterial populations in each AS sample, some genera were dominant, and core populations shared by multiple samples, including two commonly reported genera of Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, three genera not frequently reported (i.e., Prosthecobacter, Caldilinea and Tricoccus) and three genera not well described so far (i.e., Gp4 and Gp6 in Acidobacteria and Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of Verrucomicrobia). Pyrosequencing analyses of multiple AS samples in this study also revealed the minority populations that are hard to be explored by traditional molecular methods and showed that a large proportion of sequences could not be assigned to taxonomic affiliations even at the phylum/class levels. PMID:22170428

  6. Fossil energy environmental research including innovative concepts for wastewater, sludge, and product treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the components of the waste stream, including hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and phenol, may be present in sufficiently high concentrations to be recoverable by stripping processes or solvent extraction. However, the dephenolated liquors may require further treatment before the aqueous stream can be released or recycled. Biooxidation processes are under development for this application. At first, activated sludge systems with large, stirred-tank reactors were used. However, this method required many hours of residence time, and thus large tanks, to achieve the very low phenol levels that were required. More efficient fluidized-bed bioreactor systems, using microorganisms immobilized as a fixed film on suspended particles, seem to be much more appropriate for this application. Typically, microorganisms such as the commercial preparation PHENOBAC (Polybac Corporation, Berlin, NJ), are used to initiate the active bioreactor system. This immobilized biocatalyst is effectively retained in the bioreactor at high microbial concentration, and when oxygen or air is also introduced in sufficient quantities, the bioreactor system is much more efficient than the conventional stirred tank. For example, phenol degradation in the fluidized bed generally ranged from 10 to 50 kg/(m/sup 3/ . d) with inlet phenol concentrations of 20 to 200 g/m/sup 3/. This rate is 10 to 50 times higher than conventional activated sludge systems in stirred-tank bioreactors. Effluent phenol levels as low as 25 mg/m/sup 3/ were observed and other hazardous organic chemicals were also oxidized, including thiocyanates which were removed at a rate about 0.1 that of phenol. This type of bioreactor has exhibited stable biological activity for periods of several months with few operating problems. 9 refs.

  7. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  8. Probabilistic assessment of environmental exposure to the polycyclic musk, HHCB and associated risks in wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and sludge amended soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas; Sun, Ping; Dyer, Scott; Kiel, Brian

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this work was to conduct an environmental risk assessment for the consumer use of the polycyclic musk, HHCB (CAS No. 1222-05-5) in the U.S. focusing on mixing zones downstream from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sludge amended soils. A probabilistic exposure approach was utilized combining statistical distributions of effluent and sludge concentrations for the U.S. WWTPs with distributions of mixing zone dilution factors and sludge loading rates to soil to estimate HHCB concentrations in surface waters and sediments below WWTPs and sludge amended soils. These concentrations were then compared to various toxicity values. Measured concentrations of HHCB in effluent and sludge from a monitoring program of 40 WWTPs across the U.S. formed the basis for estimating environmental loadings. Based upon a Monte Carlo analysis, the probability of HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for pelagic freshwater organisms was greater than or equal to 99.87% under both mean and low flow regimes. Similarly, the probability of HHCB concentrations being less than the PNEC for freshwater sediment organisms was greater than or equal to 99.98%. Concentrations of HHCB in sludge amended soils were estimated for single and repeated annual sludge applications with tilling of the sludge into the soil, surface application without tilling and a combination reflecting current practice. The probability of soil HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC for soil organisms after repeated sludge applications was 94.35% with current sludge practice. Probabilistic estimates of HHCB exposures in surface waters, sediments and sludge amended soils are consistent with the published values for the U.S. In addition, the results of these analyses indicate that HHCB entering the environment in WWTP effluent and sludge poses negligible risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in nearly all exposure scenarios.

  9. Temporal evolution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Villar, M; Callejón, M; Villar, P; Fernández-Torres, R; Bello, M A; Guiraúm, A

    2011-05-01

    Five homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)-LAS C-10, LAS C-11, LAS C-12, and LAS C-13 and total LAS-were monitored during a one-year period in primary, secondary, and digested sludge to evaluate their presence and temporal evolution. Extraction of LAS was carried out using microwaves energy, and determination was performed using high-performance liquid chromatographic- fluorescence (HPLC-FL). The results showed that concentrations of total LAS were between 9 337 mg/kg(-1) dry matter for primary sludge and 33.3 mg/kg(-1)(DM) for secondary sludge. Concentrations of total LAS were greater than 2 113 mg/kg(-1) in primary and digested sludge and were less than 260 mg/kg(-) in secondary sludge. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of LAS in primary sludge were found in summer, probably because of lack of rain during those months. Concentrations tend to be constant throughout the year in digested sludge. In addition heavy metals also were analyzed. Heavy metals, including zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and chromium are persistent environmental contaminants that cannot be destroyed. Biomagnification through the food-chain and potential accumulation in human tissues can cause both human health and environmental concerns. Concern regarding total heavy metal content of sludge limits sludge recycling for use on agricultural lands. This paper presents a comparative study of wastewater sludge that are going to be used as fertilizer based on the requirements of legislation proposed in the European Union. This research found that concentrations of total LAS in digested sludge are higher than the limits established in the proposed new draft.

  10. Temporal evolution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Villar, M; Callejón, M; Villar, P; Fernández-Torres, R; Bello, M A; Guiraúm, A

    2011-05-01

    Five homologues of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)-LAS C-10, LAS C-11, LAS C-12, and LAS C-13 and total LAS-were monitored during a one-year period in primary, secondary, and digested sludge to evaluate their presence and temporal evolution. Extraction of LAS was carried out using microwaves energy, and determination was performed using high-performance liquid chromatographic- fluorescence (HPLC-FL). The results showed that concentrations of total LAS were between 9 337 mg/kg(-1) dry matter for primary sludge and 33.3 mg/kg(-1)(DM) for secondary sludge. Concentrations of total LAS were greater than 2 113 mg/kg(-1) in primary and digested sludge and were less than 260 mg/kg(-) in secondary sludge. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of LAS in primary sludge were found in summer, probably because of lack of rain during those months. Concentrations tend to be constant throughout the year in digested sludge. In addition heavy metals also were analyzed. Heavy metals, including zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and chromium are persistent environmental contaminants that cannot be destroyed. Biomagnification through the food-chain and potential accumulation in human tissues can cause both human health and environmental concerns. Concern regarding total heavy metal content of sludge limits sludge recycling for use on agricultural lands. This paper presents a comparative study of wastewater sludge that are going to be used as fertilizer based on the requirements of legislation proposed in the European Union. This research found that concentrations of total LAS in digested sludge are higher than the limits established in the proposed new draft. PMID:21657192

  11. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  12. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Claudia Johanna Sandoval; Mendoza, Marisol Vergara; de Arango, Mariela Carreño; Monroy, Edgar Fernando Castillo

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH(4) and CO(2)) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Río Frío Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L(-1) and a concentration of CO(2) of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10(5)-10(6)MPN mL(-1)). The acetogenic population was (10(5)MPN mL(-1)) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10(4)-10(5)MPN mL(-1)). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH(4) (70%) were higher than CO(2) (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L(-1). Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10(4)-10(5)MPN mL(-1)) and methanogenic bacteria (10(5)MPN mL(-1)) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH(4)g(-1)VSS(-1)day(-1)) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH(4)g(-1)VSS(-1)day(-1)) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified. PMID:18707861

  13. Anaerobic mesophilic treatment of cattle manure in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with prior pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Elena; Castrillón, Leonor; Fernández, Juan José; Fernández, Yolanda; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Different autonomous communities located in northern Spain have large populations of dairy cattle. In the case of Asturias, the greatest concentration of dairy farms is found in the areas near the coast, where the elimination of cattle manure by means of its use as a fertilizer may lead to environmental problems. The aim of the present research work was to study the anaerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure at mesophilic temperature using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor combined with a settler after a pasteurization process at 70 degrees C for 2 hr. The manure used in this study came from two different farms, with 40 and 200 cows, respectively. The manure from the smaller farm was pretreated in the laboratory by filtration through a 1-mm mesh, and the manure from the other farm was pretreated on the farm by filtration through a separator screw press (0.5-mm mesh). The pasteurization process removed the pathogenic microorganisms lacking spores, such as Enterococcus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and coliforms, but bacterial spores are only reduced by this treatment, not removed. The combination of a UASB reactor and a settler proved to be effective for the treatment of cattle manure. In spite of the variation in the organic loading rate and total solids in the influent during the experiment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the settler remained relatively constant, obtaining reductions in the COD of approximately 85%.

  14. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate.

  15. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T. Herk, P.; Hermann, L.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ruiz, Antonio; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-04-01

    Pesticides have been responsible for strong environmental impacts, mainly due to their persistence in the environment. Removal technologies are usually combined, because degradation of organic matter is needed prior to a tertiary treatment to guarantee pesticides elimination to levels below legal limits (normally 0.1 microg L(-1)). Pine bark was studied as an alternative to activated carbon, for organochlorine pesticides removal. A combination of technologies based on biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters. Pesticides were quantified throughout the process by GC-ECD preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). An experimental set-up was maintained for 4 months, by feeding a standard solution with pesticides concentration of 1 microg L(-1) each and known organic matter (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, -563 mg O2 L(-1)) on a daily basis. COD suffered a reduction of about 81% in the biological step and no increase was detected in the subsequent adsorption treatment. Overall removal efficiency was 76.6% and above 77.7% for LIN and HEP, respectively.

  17. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge.

  19. Sanitary Landfill. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson is an introduction to disposal of sludge by landfill. A brief explanation of the complete process is provided, including discussions of sludge suitability, site selection, method selection and operation, site closure, and ultimate reuse. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a…

  20. Effect of ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatments on pharmaceutical waste activated sludge's solubilisation, reduction, anaerobic biodegradability and acute biological toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Shan, Dan; Jiang, Yichen; Ma, Lanqianya; Yu, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic and ozone pre-treatment technologies were employed in this study to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of pharmaceutical waste activated sludge. The sludge solubilisation achieved 30.01% (150,000 kJ/kg TS) and 28.10% (0.1g O3/g TS) after ultrasonic treatment and ozone treatment. The anaerobic biodegradability after ultrasonic treatment was higher compared to ozonation due to the higher cumulative methane volume observed after 6 days (249 ml vs 190 ml). The ozonated sludge released the highest concentration of Cu(2+) into the liquid phase (6.640 mg L(-1)) compared to 0.530 mg/L for untreated sludge and 0.991 mg/L for sonicated sludge. The acute toxicity test measured by luminescent bacteria showed that anaerobic digestion could degrade toxic compounds and result in a reduction in toxicity. The main mechanism of action led to some differences in the treated sludge exhibiting higher potential for methane production from pharmaceutical waste sludge with ultrasonic treatment.

  1. Recent advances in Essential Tremor: Surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Picillo, Marina; Fasano, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    While no real breakthrough in the medical treatment of Essential Tremor (ET) has recently emerged, surgical field is expanding exponentially. Purpose of this review is to examine the recent and future developments of the surgical treatments for ET. Technological advances are shaping the present and the future application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in ET. New electrode configurations as well as new implantable pulse generators are now available. Application of closed-loop or adaptive stimulation in clinical practice will allow DBS to deliver stimulation in a truly physiological way to restore aberrant neurological circuits on demand, thus avoiding side effects, tolerance and also saving the battery life. Besides DBS and standard thalamotomy, novel surgical approaches for ET are on the horizon. The development of MRI-guided focused ultrasound technique has been the new frontier of deep brain lesional therapies. Although the benefit of motor cortex stimulation is yet to be defined, this minimally invasive approach remains intriguing. Although the advances of surgical treatments along the clinical and technological directions described in this review will certainly contribute to a successful management of ET patients, future studies need to consider critical issues such as the heterogeneity of ET and the development of tolerance. PMID:26382842

  2. Recent advances in Essential Tremor: Surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Picillo, Marina; Fasano, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    While no real breakthrough in the medical treatment of Essential Tremor (ET) has recently emerged, surgical field is expanding exponentially. Purpose of this review is to examine the recent and future developments of the surgical treatments for ET. Technological advances are shaping the present and the future application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in ET. New electrode configurations as well as new implantable pulse generators are now available. Application of closed-loop or adaptive stimulation in clinical practice will allow DBS to deliver stimulation in a truly physiological way to restore aberrant neurological circuits on demand, thus avoiding side effects, tolerance and also saving the battery life. Besides DBS and standard thalamotomy, novel surgical approaches for ET are on the horizon. The development of MRI-guided focused ultrasound technique has been the new frontier of deep brain lesional therapies. Although the benefit of motor cortex stimulation is yet to be defined, this minimally invasive approach remains intriguing. Although the advances of surgical treatments along the clinical and technological directions described in this review will certainly contribute to a successful management of ET patients, future studies need to consider critical issues such as the heterogeneity of ET and the development of tolerance.

  3. Sewage sludge management for phosphorus recovery as struvite in EBPR wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pastor, L; Marti, N; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2008-07-01

    The influence of separate and mixed thickening of primary and secondary sludge on struvite recovery was studied. Phosphorus precipitation in the digester was reduced from 13.7 g of phosphorus per kg of treated sludge in the separate thickening experiment to 5.9 in the mixed thickening experiment. This lessening of the uncontrolled precipitation means a reduction of the operational problems and enhances the phosphorus availability for its later crystallization. High phosphorus precipitation and recovery efficiencies were achieved in both crystallization experiments. However, mixed thickening configuration showed a lower percentage of phosphorus precipitated as struvite due to the presence of high calcium concentrations. In spite of this low percentage, the global phosphorus mass balance showed that mixed thickening experiment produces a higher phosphorus recovery as struvite per kg of treated sludge (i.e., 3.6 gP/kg sludge vs. 2.5 gP/kg sludge in separate thickening).

  4. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions.

  5. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions. PMID:25863511

  6. Fates of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in aerobic biological treatment processes: the effects of aeration and sludge addition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Wen-Ben; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Zhao, Qing-Liang

    2014-05-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an environmental issue of increasing concern. As biological treatment has been considered as one important approach for VOC removal, lab-scale batch experiments were conducted in this study to investigate the fates of four chlorinated hydrocarbons, including chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC), in the biological treatment processes with respect to the effects of aeration and sludge addition. The VOC concentrations in the phases of air, water, and sludge under four simulated treatment stages (the first sedimentation, the forepart and rear part of aerobic biological treatment, and the second sedimentation) were analyzed. The results were used to understand the three-phase partitioning of these compounds and to estimate their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption and degradation in these technologies with the concept of fugacity. It was observed that the VOCs were mainly present in the water phase through the experiments. The effects of aeration or sludge addition on the fates of these VOCs occurred but appeared to be relatively limited. The concentration distributions of the VOCs were well below the reported partitioning coefficients. It was suggested that these compounds were unsaturated in the air and sludge phases, enhancing their potentials for volatilization and biological sorption/degradation through the processes. However, the properties of these chlorinated VOCs such as the volatility, polarity, or even biodegradability caused by their structural characteristics (e.g., the number of chlorine, saturated or unsaturated) may represent more significant factors for their fates in the aerobic biological treatment processes. These findings prove the complication behind the current knowledge of VOC pollutions in WWTPs and are of help to manage the adverse impacts on the environment and public

  7. Effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on the activated sludge treatment of calcium-containing chemical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Salanitro, J.P.; Sun, P.T.; Thornton, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    Laboratory-scale biotreaters were used to study the effects of NH/sub 3/-N and PO/sub 4/-P nutrients on the activated sludge treatment of a chemical waste containing soluble calcium (1300 mg/L). Units receiving high or low levels of NH/sub 3/-N and PO/sub 4/-P were similar in their ability to remove organic compounds from the waste. Adaptation of sludges to low PO/sub 4/-P levels (<0.1 mg/L effluent) resulted in a marked accumulation of CaCO/sub 3/ in the biosolids, whereas those receiving high PO/sub 4/-P (2-4 mg/L effluent) had little CaCO/sub 3/. Microscopic observations of CaCO/sub 3/ containing sludges showed substantial amounts of CaCO/sub 3/ crystals imbedded in the biomass. These floes also appeared to be enriched with nonfilamentous bacterial species in contrast to floes devoid of CaCO/sub 3/ which had a floe structure of filamentous and nonfilamentous organisms. Scanning electron micrographs of floes grown under low NH/sub 3/-N showed a microbial fibrillar network of exocellular material interconnecting cells in the floe matrix. The sludges adapted to low NH/sub 3/-N also produced higher amounts of extractable polysaccharide. CaCO/sub 3/ containing biosolids were more dense, larger, and settled better (low SVI, high ISV) than floes devoid of the precipitates. It is not known from these experiments whether PO/sub 4/-P or some inorganic or organic polymer produced by the floe bacteria are involved in inhibiting CaCO/sub 3/ precipitation in the activated sludge treatment of calcium-containing wastes.

  8. Performance evaluation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process for dairy wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, C; Sekar, A S S

    2015-11-01

    Investigation on dairy wastewater treatment was undertaken at ambient temperature in 11 l effective volume of laboratory--scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor receiving an average influent chemical oxygen demand of 2100 mg 1(-1) for 3 months of 24 hours, hydraulic retention time. The feeds of the synthetic dairy wastewater operated with HRT of 12 hrs, 16 hrs, 20 hrs and 24 hrs was equivalent to organic loading rates of 1.20 kg COD m(-3) d-7.20 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.9 kg COD m(-3) d-5.40 kg COD m(-3) d, 0.72 kg COD m(-3) d--4.32 kg COD m(-3) d and 0.60 kg COD m(-3) d-3.60 kg COD m(-3) d respectively. After steady state condition was reached, which took about 2 months, the effluent quality parameter were sampled and analysed to quantify treatment efficiencies. The following removal efficiency observed were 73-94.33% COD; 50.04- 56.66% total solids; 45.55-70.63% total dissolved solids; 66-86.67% total nitrogen and 72-94% total phosphorous. Maximum biogas production rate was 383 l kg(-1) COD removed with 260 l of methane gas. Estimation of biogas production was analysed using artificial neural network software model, and the results predicted coincided well with the experimental results. PMID:26688965

  9. Fate of surfactants in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants: A model verification study

    SciTech Connect

    Feijtel, T.; Vits, H.; Murray-Smith, R.; Wijk, R. van; Koch, V.; Schroeder, R.; Birch, R.; Ten Berge, W.

    1995-12-31

    The European Chemical Industry has commissioned a joint industry Task Force of the Association International de la Savonnerie et la Detergence (AIS) and the Comite Europeen de Agents de Surface et Intermediares Organiques (CESIO) to develop and apply specific methodology for the environmental monitoring of surfactants. The objectives of the TF was (1) to establish the fate, distribution and concentrations of major surfactants in relevant environmental compartments and (2) to provide the necessary data for checking the applicability of mathematical models to predict their fate and concentrations in these environmental compartments. This presentation will focus on the results of this AIS/CESIO surfactant, monitoring program and how the measured removals, effluent concentrations, and sludge concentrations compare to predicted levels for different wastewater treatment plants across Europe. Mathematical models that predict the fate of chemicals in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPS) are used as an integral part of risk assessment process in many countries. In this paper, the predictive power of two mathematical models, SIMPLETREAT and WWTREAT, is checked against linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) fate data collected at five WWTPs located across Europe. Magnitudes and time-scales of the variability in WWTP streams were identified using statistical methods. In addition, the performance of these models is also checked against measured removal and effluent data for alcohol ethoxylates and alcohol ethoxysulfates.

  10. The survival of Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and enterobacteriaceae in general in soil treated with sludge from wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Estrada, I B; Aller, A; Aller, F; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2004-06-01

    We monitored the effect of the application of treated sludge on the behaviour of enterobacteriaceae (mainly faecal coliforms and especially Escherichia coli) in the soil, and studied their evolution over time after application. Three different sludges were used: two from a municipal sewage plant, one of them had been subjected to anaerobic digestion and heat drying, and the other to anaerobic digestion and mechanical dehydration, and one from a dairy waste treatment to aerobic digestion and gravity thickening. Two types of tests were carried out: type O, in the open air, with no possibility of controlling humidity or temperature; and type L, under laboratory conditions, with controlled temperature and humidity. Sludge tests were also run on unscreened soil previously treated with chemical fertilizer. After 80 days of experimentation the populations of faecal coliforms and E. coli had decreased considerably or were undetectable in assays carried out on the soil/sludge mixtures, under both open-air and laboratory conditions, but that, over the same period, in the mixtures containing chemical fertilizer (calcium ammonium nitrate) there had been a considerable increase in the micro-organism populations studied. PMID:15051081

  11. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings.

    PubMed

    Drzewicki, Adam; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between activated sludge microfauna, the sludge biotic index (SBI) and the effluent quality of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) working with shock organic and ammonium loadings caused by periodic wastewater delivery from septic tanks. Irrespective of high/low effluent quality in terms of COD, BOD5, ammonium and suspended solids, high SBI values (8-10), which correspond to the first quality class of sludge, were observed. High SBI values were connected with abundant taxonomic composition and the domination of crawling ciliates with shelled amoebae and attached ciliates. High SBI values, even at a low effluent quality, limit the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status of an activated sludge system and the effluent quality in municipal WWTP-treated wastewater from septic tanks. It was shown that a more sensitive indicator of effluent quality was a change in the abundance of attached ciliates with a narrow peristome (Vorticella infusionum and Opercularia coarctata), small flagellates and crawling ciliates (Acineria uncinata) feeding on flagellates. PMID:21802913

  12. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2014-02-01

    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  13. Performance analysis of a combined system of membrane bioreactor and worm reactor: wastewater treatment, sludge reduction and membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Lu, Yaobin; Li, Zhipeng

    2012-10-01

    A new process that combined a membrane bioreactor (S-MBR) and a novel worm reactor was proposed in this study. The combined system indicated excellent sludge reduction efficiency, wastewater treatment performance and membrane permeability. The sludge reduction percentage of the combined system was about 1.9 times higher than that of the conventional MBR. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge rate in the combined system was only one fourth of that in the conventional MBR, indicating that the COD was removed more thoroughly. Low extracellular polymeric substances level (60-75 μg/mg), low filamentous bacteria level, narrow floc size distribution (distribution spread index of 0.91) and high roundness (0.80 ± 0.10) were observed in the S-MBR sludge. Deposited by this modified sludge, a fouling layer with smaller thickness, larger porosity and less proteins and polysaccharides accumulation was formed in the S-MBR, demonstrating that the combined system was able to alleviate membrane fouling. PMID:22858483

  14. Delisting petition for 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) from the 300-M liquid effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-04

    This petition seeks exclusion for stabilized and solidified sludge material generated by treatment of wastewater from the 300-M aluminum forming and metal finishing processes. The waste contains both hazardous and radioactive components and is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of this petition is to demonstrate that the stabilized sludge material (saltstone), when properly disposed, will not exceed the health-based standards for the hazardous constituents. This petition contains sampling and analytical data which justify the request for exclusion. The results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread (VHS) Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of the stabilized sludge material in concrete vaults will meet the requirements pertaining to Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, S.C. Documents set forth performance objectives and disposal options for low-level radioactive waste disposal. Concrete vaults specified for disposal of 300-M saltstone (treated F006 sludge) assure that these performance objectives will be met.

  15. Scientific basis of dissolved organic carbon limitation for landfilling of municipal treatment sludge--is it attainable and justifiable?

    PubMed

    Sözen, S; Cokgor, E Ubay; Insel, G; Tas, D Okutman; Dulkadiroglu, H; Karaca, C; Filibeli, A; Meric, S; Orhon, D

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the scientific and technical basis of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limitation imposed on municipal sludge for landfilling, mainly for assessing the attainability of the implemented numerical level. For this purpose, related conceptual framework was analyzed, covering related sewage characteristics, soluble microbial products generation, and substrate solubilization and leakage due to hydrolysis. Soluble COD footprint was experimentally established for a selected treatment plant, including all the key steps in the sequence of wastewater treatment and sludge handling. Observed results were compared with reported DOCs in other treatment configurations. None of the leakage tests performed or considered in the study could even come close to the prescribed limitation. All observed results reflected 10-20 fold higher DOC levels than the numerical limit of 800 mg/kg (80 mg/L), providing conclusive evidence that the DOC limitation imposed on municipal treatment sludge for landfilling is not attainable, and therefore not justifiable on the basis of currently available technology. PMID:24973302

  16. Wastes from water-treatment plants: literature review, results of an Illinois survey, and effects of alum-sludge application to cropland

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Green, C.D.

    1987-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to update information on the characteristics and management of wastes from water-treatment plants and to assess the benefits and risks of alum-sludge application to cropland. The report has three major sections: a literature review; a summary of results of a survey of Illinois water-plant wastes; and a discussion of findings from a study of alum sludge for agricultural uses. The literature survey addresses characteristics and management of sludge. The literature review section discusses laws and regulations (PL 92-500, PL 94-580, PL 93-523) regarding waste disposal from water-treatment plants.

  17. Performance of an overland flow system for advanced treatment of wastewater plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2008-09-01

    Overland flow (OF) systems were evaluated and compared for advanced treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, including nutrients and nondegradable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Three pilot plants were constructed at the Shahin Shahr Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Isfahan, Iran. Each pilot was assigned a specific wastewater and all were simultaneously operated for 8 months. Treatment of primary effluent, activated sludge secondary effluent, and lagoon effluent of textile wastewater was investigated at application rates (ARs) of 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 m(3)m(-1)h(-1). During 5 months of stable operation after a 3-month acclimation period, mean removals of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (TBOD(5)), total COD (TCOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and turbidity were 74.5%, 54.8%, 66.2%, 39.4%, 35.8%, and 67.7% for primary effluent; 52.9%, 52.9%, 66.5%, 44.4%, 39.8%, and 50.1% for activated sludge effluent; 65.7%, 58.7%, 70.3%, 41.7%, 41.3%, and 54.9% for textile wastewater lagoon effluent, respectively. The model of Smith and Schroeder, 1985. Field studies of the overland flow process for the treatment of raw and primary treated municipal wastewater. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 57, 785-794] was satisfactory for TBOD(5). For all treatment parameters a standard first-order removal model was inadequate to represent the data but a modified first-order model provided a satisfactory fit to the data. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that an OF system as advanced treatment had the ability to meet effluent discharge permit limits and was an economical replacement for stabilization ponds and mechanical treatment options. PMID:17499907

  18. Aggregation behavior of engineered nanoparticles and their impact on activated sludge in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-hong; Huang, Bao-cheng; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Yan-chen; Shi, Han-chang

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing daily use of engineered nanoparticles will lead to heightened levels of these materials in the environment. These nanomaterials will eventually go into the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), therefore, resulting into a pressing need for information on their aggregation behavior and kinetics in the wastewater aqueous matrix. In this work, we dispersed two different metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO and TiO2) into the influent of two different WWTPs. Through the time-resolved dynamic light scattering analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were quite stably existed in the wastewater matrix with aggregates of diameter 300-400 nm after 4.5h or more suspension. We confirmed that the dissolved organic matters (DOMs) attributed to the stability of nanoparticles. No propensity of NPs to aggregate were observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent electrolytes even at high concentrations up to 0.15 M in NaCl or 0.025 M in CaCl2, indicating that the destabilization of nanoparticles in the complicated wastewater matrix was not achieved by the compression of electrical double layer, therefore, their aggregation kinetics cannot be simply predicted by the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloidal stability. However, obvious aggregation of nanoparticles in the Al2(SO4)3 solution system was observed with the likely mechanism of bridging of the metal oxide nanoparticles and aggregates due to the formation of hydrous alumina (Al(OH)3·H2O) in the Al2(SO4)3 solution. In the wastewater matrix, we used the noninvasive measurement technology to detect the O2 flux of activated sludge before and after treatment with 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1) NPs. The results confirmed that both ZnO and TiO2 NPs showed an adverse impact on the O2 uptake of activated sludge when the exposure time extended to 4.5 h. PMID:25127355

  19. Agricultural recycling of treatment-plant sludge: a case study for a vegetable-processing factory.

    PubMed

    Dolgen, Deniz; Alpaslan, M Necdet; Delen, Nafiz

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the possibility of using the sludge produced by a vegetable-processing factory in agriculture. The sludge was amended with a soil mixture (i.e., a mixture of sand, soil, and manure) and was applied at 0, 165, 330, 495 and 660 t/ha to promote the growth of cucumbers. The effects of various sludge loadings on plant growth were assessed by counting plants and leaves, measuring stem lengths, and weighing the green parts and roots of the plants. We also compared heavy metal uptake by the plants for sludge loadings of 330, 495, and 660 t/ha with various recommended standards for vegetables. Our results showed that plant growth patterns were influenced to some extent by the sludge loadings. In general, the number of leaves, stem length, and dry weight of green parts exhibited a pronounced positive growth response compared with an unfertilized control, and root growth showed a lesser but still significant response at sludge loadings of 165 and 330 t/ha. The sludge application caused no significant increase in heavy metal concentrations in the leaves, though zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) were found at elevated concentrations. However, despite the Zn and Fe accumulation, we observed no toxicity symptoms in the plants. This may be a result of cucumber's tolerance of high metal levels. PMID:16934389

  20. Agricultural recycling of treatment-plant sludge: a case study for a vegetable-processing factory.

    PubMed

    Dolgen, Deniz; Alpaslan, M Necdet; Delen, Nafiz

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the possibility of using the sludge produced by a vegetable-processing factory in agriculture. The sludge was amended with a soil mixture (i.e., a mixture of sand, soil, and manure) and was applied at 0, 165, 330, 495 and 660 t/ha to promote the growth of cucumbers. The effects of various sludge loadings on plant growth were assessed by counting plants and leaves, measuring stem lengths, and weighing the green parts and roots of the plants. We also compared heavy metal uptake by the plants for sludge loadings of 330, 495, and 660 t/ha with various recommended standards for vegetables. Our results showed that plant growth patterns were influenced to some extent by the sludge loadings. In general, the number of leaves, stem length, and dry weight of green parts exhibited a pronounced positive growth response compared with an unfertilized control, and root growth showed a lesser but still significant response at sludge loadings of 165 and 330 t/ha. The sludge application caused no significant increase in heavy metal concentrations in the leaves, though zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) were found at elevated concentrations. However, despite the Zn and Fe accumulation, we observed no toxicity symptoms in the plants. This may be a result of cucumber's tolerance of high metal levels.

  1. Development of an ATP measurement method suitable for xenobiotic treatment activated sludge biomass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan Huong; Chong, Nyuk-Min

    2015-09-01

    Activated sludge consumes a large amount of energy to degrade a xenobiotic organic compound. By tracking the energy inventory of activated sludge biomass during the sludge's degradation of a xenobiotic, any disadvantageous effect on the sludge's performance caused by energy deficiency can be observed. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and accurate method for measuring the ATP contents of activated sludge cells that were to degrade a xenobiotic organic. Cell disruption and cellular ATP extraction were performed by a protocol with which xenobiotic degrading activated sludge biomass was washed with SDS, treated by Tris and TCA, and followed by bead blasting. The suspension of disrupted cells was filtered before the filtrate was injected into HPLC that was set at optimal conditions to measure the ATP concentration therein. This extraction protocol and HPLC measurement of ATP was evaluated for its linearity, limits of detection, and reproducibility. Evaluation test results reported a R(2) of 0.999 of linear fit of ATP concentration versus activated sludge concentration, a LOD=0.00045mg/L, a LOQ=0.0015mg/L for HPLC measurement of ATP, a MDL=0.46mg/g SS for ATP extraction protocol, and a recovery efficiency of 96.4±2%. This method of ATP measurement was simple, rapid, reliable, and was unburdened of some limitations other methods may have.

  2. Treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Johnson, Peter W M

    2016-07-01

    There is now good evidence that the escalated BEACOPP regimen (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) is more effective in controlling advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) than the widely used ABVD regimen (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine), but the extra efficacy comes at the expense of both short- and long-term toxicity, and there is debate as to whether overall survival is affected. Baseline prognostic factors have proven of limited utility for determining which patients require more intensive therapy and recent studies have sought to use interim fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) evaluation as a means to guide the modulation of treatment, both upwards and downwards in intensity. These suggest that if treatment starts with ABVD then patients remaining PET-positive after 2 months can be salvaged with escalated BEACOPP in around 65% of cases, but those becoming PET-negative may still experience recurrences in 15%-20%, an event that is more common in those with more advanced disease at presentation. There are early data to suggest that starting with escalated BEACOPP may reduce the rate of recurrence after a negative interim PET to less than 10%. This may be an attractive approach for those with very high-risk features at presentation, but risks overtreating many patients if applied nonselectively. New regimens incorporating antibody-drug conjugates may shift the balance of efficacy and toxicity once again, and further studies are underway to evaluate this. PMID:27496308

  3. GC/MS analysis of triclosan and its degradation by-products in wastewater and sludge samples from different treatments.

    PubMed

    Tohidi, Fatemeh; Cai, Zongwei

    2015-08-01

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7)%, 82(±3)-87(±4)%, 86(±6)-87(±8)%, and 88(±4)-105(±3)% in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8)%, 84(±2)-87(±3)%, 84(±7)-89(±4)%, and 88(±3)-97(±5)% in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7 ± 3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw).

  4. Recent advances in treatment of aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA) made most of patients to expect to achieve a long-term survival. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD-SCT) is a preferred first-line treatment option for younger patients with severe or very severe AA, whereas immunosuppressive treatment (IST) is an alternative option for others. Horse anti-thymocyte globuline (ATG) with cyclosporin A (CsA) had been a standard IST regimen with acceptable response rate. Recently, horse ATG had been not available and replaced with rabbit ATG in most countries. Subsequently, recent comparative studies showed that the outcomes of patients who received rabbit ATG/CsA were similar or inferior compared to those who received horse ATG/CsA. Therefore, further studies to improve the outcomes of IST, including additional eltrombopag, are necessary. On the other hand, the upper age limit of patients who are able to receive MSD-SCT as first-line treatment is a current issue because of favorable outcomes of MSD-SCT of older patients using fludarabine-based conditioning. In addition, further studies to improve the outcomes of patients who receive allogeneic SCT from alternative donors are needed. In this review, current issues and the newly emerging trends that may improve their outcomes in near futures will be discussed focusing the management of patients with AA. PMID:25378968

  5. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in an advanced wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-30

    In the present study, parabens, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and chlorinated derivatives, were simultaneously determined in wastewater and sludge samples along the whole process in an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Nine target compounds were detected in this WWTP, and methylparaben and PHBA were the dominant compounds in these samples. It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in this work. Mass balance results showed that 91.8% of the initial parabens mass loading was lost mainly due to degradation, while the contribution of sorption and output of primary and excess sludge was much less (7.5%), indicating that biodegradation played a significant role in the removal of parabens during the conventional treatment process. Specifically, parabens were mainly degraded in the anaerobic tank, and PHBA could be effectively removed at high rates after the advanced treatment. However, both biodegradation and adsorption accounted for minor contribution to the removal of chlorinated parabens during conventional treatment process, and they were only scantly removed by conventional treatment (33.9-40.7%) and partially removed by advanced treatment (59.2-82.8%). Risk assessment indicated that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in second and tertiary effluent are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  7. Investigation of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge samples from a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ömeroğlu, Seçil; Murdoch, Fadime Kara; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) have drawn significant attention within the last decade for both scientific and legislative reasons. In Turkey, the Regulation Regarding the Use of Domestic and Urban Sludges on Land states a limit value for the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as NPE (NPE=NP+NP1EO+NP2EO). Unfortunately a standard method for the determination of these chemicals has not been yet set by the authorities and no data exists about the concentrations of NP and NPEOs in sewage sludge in Turkey. The aim of this study is to propose simple and easily applicable extraction and measurement techniques for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in sewage sludge samples and investigate the year round concentrations in a Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Turkey. Different extraction techniques and GC/MS methods for sewage sludge were tested. The best extraction method for these compounds was found to be ultrasonication (5 min) using acetone as the solvent with acceptable recovery of analytes suggested by USEPA and other studies. The optimized extraction method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%. The recovery of analytes were within acceptable limits suggested by USEPA and other studies. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 µg kg(-1) for NP and NP1EO, 12 µg kg(-1) for NP2EO and 0.03 µg kg(-1) for 4-n-NP. The developed method was applied to sewage sludge samples obtained from the Central WWTP in Ankara, Turkey. The sum NPE (NP+NP1EO+NP2EO) was found to be in between 5.5 µg kg(-1) and 19.5 µg kg(-1), values which are in compliance with Turkish and European regulations. PMID:25281154

  8. Investigation of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge samples from a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ömeroğlu, Seçil; Murdoch, Fadime Kara; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) have drawn significant attention within the last decade for both scientific and legislative reasons. In Turkey, the Regulation Regarding the Use of Domestic and Urban Sludges on Land states a limit value for the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as NPE (NPE=NP+NP1EO+NP2EO). Unfortunately a standard method for the determination of these chemicals has not been yet set by the authorities and no data exists about the concentrations of NP and NPEOs in sewage sludge in Turkey. The aim of this study is to propose simple and easily applicable extraction and measurement techniques for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in sewage sludge samples and investigate the year round concentrations in a Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Turkey. Different extraction techniques and GC/MS methods for sewage sludge were tested. The best extraction method for these compounds was found to be ultrasonication (5 min) using acetone as the solvent with acceptable recovery of analytes suggested by USEPA and other studies. The optimized extraction method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%. The recovery